WorldWideScience
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Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Pregnant Women On this Page When should I be concerned ... Printable Resources Additional Resources Information for Immunocompromised Persons Pregnant Women Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites ...

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Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

van Teijlingen Edwin R

2010-02-01

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Vaccinations for pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

2015-01-01

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Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women.  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

Preetha R; John Solomon M

2011-01-01

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Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Adults NIVW Families and General Audience Pregnant Women Heart Disease Flu-Related Hospitalizations Take 3 The Flu I.Q. Widget Widgets Buttons and Badges eCards Video/Audio Tools Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements ( ...

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Lymph Drainage in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displace...

Sylvia Cataldo Oportus; Lilian de Paiva Rodrigues; José Maria Pereira de Godoy; Amp Xe Tima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria F.

2013-01-01

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HIV screening in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. The following recommendations are made for prenatal screening for HIV infection 1) Routine voluntary screening for HIV infection in all pregnant women is feasible and worthwhile. 2) Every seropositive result should be repeated for confirmation before coming to a definititve conclusion to avoid a misdiagnosis. 3) Fetal blood sampling in the mid-trimester for PCR and p24 antigen assay seems inappropriate as a diagnostic tool for in utero HIV infection of the HIV seropositive pregnant women as the infection mostly occurs after this time. 4) Routine screening of seronegative pregnant women should be repeated during the third trimester to detect seroconversion since this offers a chance for antiretroviral administration to the seroconverted pregnant women for reduction of perinatal transmission. 5) There should be available the appropriate back up services for seropositive pregnant women. There is sufficient evidence indicating a higher vertical HIV-1 transmission rate in the last trimester and during labour compared with the first and second trimesters. Antiretroviral therapy either single or in combination given to the mother during the last trimester and delivery can reduce the viral load in the maternal circulation. Vertical HIV-1 transmission during delivery can be minimized by appropriate timing and route of delivery. Elective Cesarean section before the onset of labour with an intact bag of forewaters provides the least mother-to-fetus microtransfusion compared to other modes of delivery. Since an effective combination of HIV-1 immunoglobulin and HIV-1 vaccine given to the HIV-1 exposed newborns to prevent HIV-1 transmission similar to the viral hepatitis B model is not firmly established at present, postexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis and nonbreast-feeding are advocated for infants born from the HIV-1 infected mothers. In cases of advanced stage of maternal HIV-1 infection, and in developing areas where malnutrition prevails, an adequate supply of essential micronutrients is proposed as an adjunctive measure to reduce HIV-1 perinatal transmission. PMID:11400767

Phuapradit, W

1999-01-01

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Pregnant women´s thoughts about breastfeeding  

OpenAIRE

Internationally, the frequency of breastfeeding in today`s Sweden is high, but has declined somewhat in recent years. Studies showed that attitudes to breastfeeding were positive, but the difficulties associated with breastfeeding and lack of information and support also emerged. The aim of this master essay was to examine pregnant women`s thoughts about breastfeeding, breastfeeding information and support. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach and, data was collected through fo...

Ha?llsten, Lisa; Svensson, Ida

2013-01-01

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Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria in pregnant women referred to the medical centers of Tabriz, Iran, for prenatal care. Materials and Methods: A total of 1100 healthy pregnant women who were referred to 50 medical centers in Tabriz for a regular prenatal care were evaluated for bacteriuria. Results: The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.1%. Maternal age was lower in the women with a positive urine culture (P = .02. Asymptomatic bacteriuria had no relationship with gestational age, parity, level of education, and body mass index. Conclusion: We found a relatively high rate of bacteriuria in our cohort of asymptomatic pregnant subjects, especially the younger ones. For prevention from the complications of the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, such as pyelonephritis, hypertension, preeclampsia, low birth weight, prematurity, septicemia, and even maternal and neonatal death, it is recommended to perform urine culture as a routine evaluation during the pregnancy.

Samad Hazhir

2007-02-01

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Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

Fahimeh Rezazadeh

2014-12-01

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Preoperative preparation of pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated with the highest risks since it may lead to a life-threatening complication - eclampsia. As for other coexisting diseases, urinary tract infections and gestational diabetes are the most common as well as hyperthyroidism and other diseases that may also develop. The type and severity of the acute surgical disease, extensiveness of the planned surgery as well as the type of planned anesthesia to be applied, occasionally necessitate, depending on the gestational age, termination of pregnancy to be considered. Gynecological-obstetric consultations are mandatory in all surgical interventions planned in pregnant women.

Liki?-La?evi? Ivana

2011-01-01

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Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of seropositive pregnant women, i.e. of pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii in order to provide an insight into the risk of developing congenital toxoplasmosis in our community. Material and Methods. In the period of two years, 662 pregnant women from Vojvodina were examined serologically. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests were performed to determine IgM and IgG antibod...

Jerant-Pati? Vera; Miloševi? Vesna; Hrnjakovi?-Cvjetkovi? Ivana; Pati? Aleksandra; Stefan-Miki? Sandra; Risti? Marina

2013-01-01

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Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

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Pregnant women's attitudes towards alcohol consumption  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is uncertainty as to whether there is a safe threshold for drinking alcohol during pregnancy. We explored pregnant women's attitudes towards drinking alcohol in pregnancy and their attitudes towards sources of information about drinking in pregnancy following recent changes in UK government guidance. Methods A qualitative study involving individual, semi-structured interviews with 20 pregnant women recruited from community organisations...

Raymond Neil; Beer Charlotte; Glazebrook Cristine; Sayal Kapil

2009-01-01

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45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131...131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required...this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who seeks...

2010-10-01

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Perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women who had impaired 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) results, but normal 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Our study group included 70 pregnant women who had increased 50 g OGCT results, but normal 100 g OGTT results, and a control group of 122 pregnant women with normal 50 g OGCT results. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia and neonatal birth weight were significantly higher in the study group. After adjusting the results for possibly affecting variables, the risk of polyhydramnios remained significant, while the risk of macrosomia and neonatal birth weight was not significant between the groups. The results from the study group were similar to the control group, when adjusted for other risk factors. Increased 50 g OGCT results in pregnant women can be accepted as a benign state if the 100 g OGTT results are normal. PMID:24911521

Yesildager, E; Koken, G; Gungor, A N C; Demirel, R; Arioz, D; Celik, F; Yilmazer, M

2014-11-01

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Dietary intake in immigrant Arabian pregnant women.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Our findings suggest that apart from iron and folic acid supplementation, no further changes would be necessary in the dietary patterns of immigrant Arabian pregnant women, since their traditional nutritional habits seem to provide all micronutrients in sufficient quantities.

Alevizos G. Alevizos

2006-07-01

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Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Adults NIVW Families and General Audience Pregnant Women Heart Disease Flu-Related Hospitalizations Take 3 The Flu I.Q. Widget Widgets Buttons and Badges eCards Video/Audio Tools Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements ( ...

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Clinical malaria in African pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was ...

Aponte John; Mandomando Inacio; Mabunda Samuel; Sanz Sergi; Romagosa Cleofé; Bruni Laia; Sigauque Betuel; Bardají Azucena; Sevene Esperança; Alonso Pedro L.; Menéndez Clara

2008-01-01

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Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of seropositive pregnant women, i.e. of pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii in order to provide an insight into the risk of developing congenital toxoplasmosis in our community. Material and Methods. In the period of two years, 662 pregnant women from Vojvodina were examined serologically. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests were performed to determine IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and the complement fixation test was done to detect total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Results and Discussion. Seropositivity was determined in 180 pregnant women (27.19%. Of 135 pregnant women examined in the routine control in pregnancy, 16.30% were seropositive and out of five proven, completely new Toxoplasma gondii infections, three were detected in pregnant women who had undergone the routine check-up for no specific symptoms. A detailed analysis of the frequency of seropositive findings in relation to clinical diagnoses and the place of residence of pregnant women (urban and rural areas was performed. At the same time, the results from the serological reactions were presented, commented and interpreted, and recommendations were given for the implementation of additional examinations (eg, IgG antibody avidity test in order to make the accurate diagnosis. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis is still a problem in our community and that the best prevention is the prompt and adequate examination of pregnant women for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

Jerant-Pati? Vera

2013-01-01

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Study of Zinc Deficiency in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Zinc is one of the elements necessary for growth and health in human. Some evidences indicate that the zinc deficiency is one of real difficulties for the public health in developed and developing countries. Since the pregnant women are more at risk by the zinc deficiency, and this can cause many problems, in this study we tried to find out the rate of zinc deficiency in pregnant women within the region. This research project was analytical-descriptive study which was done on the 400 pregnant...

Salimi, S.; Yaghmaei, M.; Hr, Joshaghani; Ar, Mansourian

2004-01-01

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Iodine deficiency in pregnant women of Lahore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To know extent of iodine deficiency (ID), role of thyroid enlargement (goiter) as marker of ID and current status of iodized salt intake in pregnant women of Lahore. A cross sectional study was carried out at Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, during March 2002 to September 2005. Pregnant women (n = 254) during first trimester attending antenatal clinic participated voluntarily. Iodine intake status was determined by urinary iodine (UI) excretion. UI excretion ranged from 34 to 142 >g/L and median value was 67>g/L. According to international criteria, 202 (79.5%) pregnant women were iodine deficient (UI <100 mu g/L) mostly (68.8%) of mild (UI: 50-99 mu g/L) degree. Moderate iodine deficiency (MID; UI <50 mu g/L) was found in 63 (24.8%) pregnant women. Among all pregnant women 80 (31.5%) had slightly visible goiter and only 87(34.2%) were currently taking iodized salt. The difference in UI excretion between goitrous and non-goitrous pregnant women was not significant. Among iodized salt users percentage of women with MID was less, though not significant, as compared to non-users (20.7% Vs 26.9%). About one-fourth of pregnant women screened in this study are moderately iodine deficient in Lahore. These women and their neonates are at increased risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Goiter is not a good indicator of low iodine intake while iodized salt consumption is beneficial in this regard (JPMA 59:741; 2009). (author)thor)

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Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease.

Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G

1991-01-01

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High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ?104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (?² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U. urealyticum ? 104 is more frequent in pregnant women with risk pregnancy than in pregnant women with normal term delivery. High-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization should be observed as a possible etiological factor for PROM.

Ran?elovi? Gordana

2006-01-01

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Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: What You Need to Know If You Are Pregnant  

Science.gov (United States)

... Special Groups Share Compartir Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: What You Need to Know if you are ... much as possible are very important for all pregnant women, especially when they are sick. For more information ...

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Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Korean pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

This study was performed in order to evaluate the sero-epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant Korean women. Among 5,175 sera and 750 amniotic fluid samples obtained from pregnant women, 41 serum samples (0.79%) and 10 (1.33%) amniotic fluid samples tested positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA. Fifty one cases showing a score more than 0.25 on ELISA were tested for PCR reaction against the SAG1 gene. Only one case of the 51 ELISA positive cases exhibited a positive reaction on all ...

Song, Kyoung-ju; Shin, Jong-chul; Shin, Ho-joon; Nam, Ho-woo

2005-01-01

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Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: Environmental Exposures  

Science.gov (United States)

... Special Groups Share Compartir Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: Environmental Exposures Carbon Monoxide Chemicals in Flood Waters ... illness to a health care provider right away. Pregnant women should also listen to and follow public announcements ...

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Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&A > Pregnancy and Infants > Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins? Print ...

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Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS...

Elham Ebrahimi; Mina Soleymani; Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh; Fatemeh Hosseini

2013-01-01

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Study of Zinc Deficiency in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zinc is one of the elements necessary for growth and health in human. Some evidences indicate that the zinc deficiency is one of real difficulties for the public health in developed and developing countries. Since the pregnant women are more at risk by the zinc deficiency, and this can cause many problems, in this study we tried to find out the rate of zinc deficiency in pregnant women within the region. This research project was analytical-descriptive study which was done on the 400 pregnant women whom referred to Zahedan Ghods hospital. A questionnaire was set up for each case which contained the following items, mother age, pregnancy age, numbers of deliveries, education, and consumption of iron tablet during pregnancy. The serum zinc level in each mother in this project was determined by atomic absorption technique. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among the pregnant women was 49%. Statistical analysis indicated that zinc deficiency had correlation with mother age, term of pregnancy and iron consumption. But zinc deficiency showed no correlation with numbers of deliveries and education.

S Salimi

2004-08-01

31

Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age.

Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

2010-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics of Saquinavir plus Low-Dose Ritonavir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

The physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy make it difficult to predict antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PKs), but few data exist on the PKs of protease inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. The objective of the present study was to determine the PKs of ritonavir (RTV)-enhanced saquinavir (SQV) in HIV-infected pregnant women by an area under the curve (AUC)-targeted approach. A phase I, formal PK evaluation was conducted with HIV-infected pregnant ...

Acosta, Edward P.; Bardeguez, Arlene; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Dyke, Russell; Hughes, Michael D.; Huang, Sharon; Pompeo, Lisa; Stek, Alice M.; Pitt, Jane; Watts, D. Heather; Smith, Elizabeth; Jime?nez, Eleanor; Mofenson, Lynne

2004-01-01

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THE COMPARISON OF MEDICAL AND OBSTETRICAL COMPLICATIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN OVER AGE 35 WITH YOUNGER PREGNANT WOMEN  

OpenAIRE

In an analytical, cohort type study, medical and obstetrical complications of 500 pregnant women over age 35 were compared with 500 younger pregnant women during 3 past years (1994-1997). 7he incidence of complications were significantly increased in pregnant women over age 35 (P<0.01).

Eslamian, L.

1997-01-01

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Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ?26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

Safieh Jamali

2013-06-01

35

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved...46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant...

2010-10-01

36

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.Results: A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.Conclusion: It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

Elham Ebrahimi

2013-03-01

37

Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-11-17

38

Iron deficiency anaemia in Nigerian pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-four Nigerian pregnant women, many of who had mild to moderate anaemia, were investigated for the presence of iron deficiency. Using the bone marrow as the diagnostic index, 90% of these patients were found to be iron deficient. Iron deficiency is thus common among our expectant mothers. They should, therefore, be given iron supplement in addition to the present practice of folic acid and antimalarials, throughout pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:15899

Ogunbode, O; Oluboyede, O A

1976-01-01

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Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrea...

Hotelling, Barbara A.

2008-01-01

40

Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Austria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Objectives:In Austria, iodine deficiency has been considered to be eliminated owing to table salt fortification with iodine, but whether this also applies to pregnant women is unclear. Even mild iodine deficiency during gestation may lead to neurocognitive sequelae in the offspring.Subjects/Methods:This is a cross-sectional investigation of urinary iodine excretion in 246 pregnant women (first trimester n=2, second trimester n=53, third trimester n=191, gestational diabetes mellitus n=115, no gestational diabetes mellitus n=131). The iodine content of morning spot urine samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.Results:Pregnant women in the Vienna area had a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 87??g/l. Only 13.8% of the cohort were in the recommended range of 150-249??g/l, whereas 21.5% had a UIC of 0-49??g/l, 40.2% had a UIC of 50-99??g/l and 19.5% had a UIC of 100-149??g/l. In all, 4.9% had a UIC over 250??g/l. A total of 137 women of foreign origin had a significantly higher iodine excretion compared with Austrian-born women. Maternal or gestational age had no influence on UIC. Although 79 women on iodine supplementation had a significantly higher iodine concentration compared with women without iodine supplementation (97.3 vs 80.1??g/l, P=0,006), their UIC was below the recommended range, indicating that doses of 100-150??g per day are not sufficient to normalize iodine excretion. Sodium and iodine concentrations in the urine were tightly correlated (R=0.539, n=61), suggesting that low intake of iodized salt might contribute to insufficient iodine supply.Conclusions:This study shows that pregnant women in the Vienna area have a potentially clinically significant iodine deficiency and that currently recommended doses of iodine supplementation may not be sufficient.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.253. PMID:25491497

Lindorfer, H; Krebs, M; Kautzky-Willer, A; Bancher-Todesca, D; Sager, M; Gessl, A

2014-12-10

41

Nutritional Status of Rural Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnancy is a crucial period of woman’s life where socio-demographic factors affect her health as well asdetermine the health of future generation. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in pregnant women inthe field practice area of RCHTC, Hebbal. Variables considered for the study were: Age, religion, Socio-economics status,type of family & house, parity, spacing methods, utilization of health services, height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI.Majority of pregnant woman had inadequate protien & calorie consumption during pregnancy; 23.93%, woman werehaving BMI<18.5; 66.67%, were anemic (Hb<11 gm%. The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be high amongilliterate (98.2%, Hindu (92.31% and moderately working woman (83.34% . Anemia was found to be more common whoseage at first pregnancy was <20 years (57.28%, age at marriage <20 years (87.17%, in IInd trimester of pregnancy(62.83% and in age group of 20-24 years (39.14%. Government hospital services were utilized by 78.63% but only 58.97%received iron & folic acid tablets and 70.94% had taken injection Tetanus Toxoid (TT.Hence, effective intervention should be directed towards young pregnant women <20 years of age to improvematernal nutritional status, literacy level, and health education for utilization of health services.

L.H. Madhavi,

2011-07-01

42

[Diagnoses among sick-listed pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

51% of 710 women in paid employment and resident in the municipality of Baerum were certified as sick during their gestationel period. In 1/3 of the cases the medical certificate referred to musculoskeletal/connective tissue diseases, a problem which increased with duration of pregnancy. 208 women (29%) were incapacitated from work for more than two weeks and in 36% of these women, the sickness certificate was obtained on grounds of threatened well-being of the foetus. According to the current Norwegian legislation, morbidity of the mother is the only indication for granting certification of illness to a pregnant woman. The paper indicates that the law should be updated to include morbidity of the foetus as a justifiable reason for certifying the mother as sick. In addition, the perinatal audit should be expanded to include cases of foetal morbidity as well as cases of foetal mortality. PMID:1948878

Lundby, I H; Stray-Pedersen, B; Tellnes, G

1991-09-30

43

The importance of HIV antenatal screening programs for pregnant women.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This relatively high prevalence of HIV-1 among pregnant women attending SQUH, highlights the need for screening all pregnant women attending different hospitals and antenatal clinics in Oman. This is essential for preventing the transmission of HIV-1 and 2 to the infants and to the community, and for the appropriate medical treatment and counseling of affected women.

Ali A. Al-Jabri

2010-01-01

44

Chlamydia trachomatis antigen prevalence among pregnant women in West Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1990, more than 2,100 women who received prenatal care at one of four clinics which serve 11 West Virginia counties, were screened for chlamydial antigen. Overall, 5.6 percent of the women screened had positive antigen tests and 90 percent of these individuals were under the age of 25. The prevalence of chlamydia was different at three geographic sites with the highest rate of positive antigen test being 9.4 percent at one site. These findings led to a careful analysis of the prevalence of this disease among women who lived in rural areas versus those who lived in urban areas. This detailed analysis involved only patients seen in the Grafton and Morgantown clinics, and revealed a tendency for most positive antigen tests to occur among women with urban addresses. Our study indicates that a substantial chlamydial problem exists among pregnant women of young age. Although screening all pregnant women for chlamydia may not be cost effective, knowing which individuals are at highest risk may help target limited screening for these patients. PMID:1492405

Glover, D D; Gordon, H; Moore, G; Larsen, B

1992-12-01

45

Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10) were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation) and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks), together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before...

Glover Vivette; Castelberg Brida von; Kammerer Martin; Adams Diana

2002-01-01

46

Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

Marnoch Gordon J

2011-10-01

47

Suicide Attempts with Drug Intoxication in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Insufficient data are available comparing medical costs, hospitalization or admission rate, and drugs used for the treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant women admited to the emergency department (ED due to suicide attempts following drug intoxication. We sought to evaluate these differences in our ED. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study; hence we attempted to follow all pregnant and non-pregnant women who were admitted in our ED at Ataturk University, Erzurum-Turkey, due to suicide attempt with drug intoxication. We have obtained records of management plans, estimated costs and hospital admission rate in the ED from 2008 to 2011 and compared in both groups. Results: A total of 309 women were registered as suicide attempts with drug intoxication. Out of these, 23 (7.4% were pregnant and 286 (92.6% were non-pregnant. The pregnant women had lower rate of past history of psychiatric illness as compared to non-pregnant women (4.3% vs. 26.2%; p=0.019. Comparison of drug intoxication revealed a higher rate of intake of organophosphate (39.1%; vs. 34.8% p<0.001 and paracetamol (39.1% vs. 19.9%; p=0.031, but a lower rate of multidrug ingestion (39.1% vs. 67.8%; p=0.005 in pregnant women. Furthermore, pregnant women have a lower rate of hospitalization in ED (56.5% vs. 77.6%, but higher rates of hospitalization in internal services (13% vs. 6.3%, and intensive care units (13% vs. 3.1%; p=0.039 compared to non-pregnant women. Consequently, the cost of therapy was also higher in pregnant (2553.5±6206.7 TL vs. 581.3±490.3 TL; p<0.001. Conclusions: Though pregnant women were admitted less frequently compared to non-pregnant women, suicide attempts with drug intoxication among pregnant women have increased consequences in terms of hospitalization rate and cost. Thus there is an urgent need to incorporate a special screening program to measure suicide risk followed by counseling for pregnant women during post-conceptual care.

Mustafa UZKESER

2012-01-01

48

Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

2015-02-01

49

Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

50

Comparison of real-time PCR and microscopy for malaria parasite detection in Malawian pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background New diagnostic tools for malaria are required owing to the changing epidemiology of malaria, particularly among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Real-time PCR assays targeting Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfldh) gene may facilitate the identification of a high proportion of pregnant women with a P. falciparum parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy. These molecular methods will enable further studies o...

Maleta Kenneth; Mbewe Bernard; Luntamo Mari; Trottman Paul A; Taylor Steve M; Rantala Anne-Maria; Kulmala Teija; Ashorn Per; Meshnick Steven R

2010-01-01

51

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...within this extended period. These pregnant women are eligible for the...

2010-10-01

52

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were...

2010-10-01

53

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

2010-07-01

54

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not...

2010-10-01

55

The importance of HIV antenatal screening programs for pregnant women.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To investigate retrospectively the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2 among pregnant women during a 10-year period. METHODS The total number of pregnant women attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman between January 1995 and December 2005 was 11553 women. Their age range was 16-45 years (average of 28.67.6 years). The women were tested for HIV-1 and 2 using the standard enzyme...

Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.

2010-01-01

56

Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social), as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members). The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against preg...

Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh; Hana Husni Al Nabulsi

2013-01-01

57

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant w...

Siziya Seter; Dusabeyezu Fidens; Masaisa Florence; Muula Adamson S; Ntaganira Joseph; Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2008-01-01

58

The observation of serum CG levels in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors determined the levels of the CG contained in serum by RIA in 83 normal pregnant women and in 53 pregnant patients with ICP. The result showed that CG levels of ICP patients increased significantly as compared with that of normal middle and late pregnancy (P < 0.01). The routine examination of the serum CG levels in pregnant women is of great value of the earlier diagnosis to ICP and treatment as well as health care of perinatal period

59

Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

Feijen-de Jong Esther I

2013-01-01

60

CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSES OF PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN DURING RESISTANCE EXERCISE.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine cardiorespiratory responses in pregnant and non-pregnant women during the execution of resistance exercises for upper and lower body. Twenty healthy women (ten pregnant: 22-24 weeks, 25.20±4.44 years, 69.80±9.52 kg, 161.60±5.21 cm and ten non-pregnant: 25.20±3.73 years, 62.36±8.60 kg, 162.40±3.97 cm) performed five experimental sessions. Session 1: familiarization with the equipments and the determination of one estimated maximum repetition. Sessions 2, 3, 4 and 5: determination of the cardiorespiratory responses during the execution of resistance exercise on the bilateral leg extension and pec-deck fly, with 1 and 3 sets of 15 repetitions, 50% of one estimated maximum repetition. Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure responses were lower (p = 0.029, 0.018, 0.009, respectively) in the pregnant group. When the exercises were performed with a single set, heart rate showed increased values for bilateral leg extension (pregnant: 109.40±10.75 bpm, non-pregnant: 108.51±19.05 bpm) compared to pec-deck (pregnant: 101.59±14.83 bpm, non-pregnant: 100.37±12.36 bpm), however, when the exercises were performed with 3 sets, bilateral leg extension showed increased values for the heart rate (pregnant: 114.70±13.58 bpm, non-pregnant: 121.29±10.86bpm), systolic (pregnant: 124.50±17.32 mmHg, non-pregnant: 136.00±17.79 mmHg), diastolic (pregnant: 68.10±8.23 mmHg, non-pregnant: 77.89±15.25 mmHg) and mean blood pressure (pregnant: 86.90±10.38 mmHg, non-pregnant: 97.73±12.64 mmHg), ventilation (pregnant: 12.88±4.05 l.min, non-pregnant: 15.02±4.19 l.min) and oxygen consumption (pregnant: 0.41±0.08 l.min, non-pregnant: 0.42±0.09 l.min) compared to pec-deck fly exercise. We concluded that the pressure response was unaffected by pregnancy and showed to be safe during the performance of resistance exercises. PMID:25226315

Bgeginski, Roberta; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Martins Kruel, Luiz Fernando

2014-09-15

61

Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

62

Study on macular retinal thickness in healthy pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the physiologic change of retinal thickness during pregnancy.METHODS:Forty cases(80 eyeswere included two groups: 40 eyes(20 casesin healthy pregnant women group(including in the second and last trimester, and 40 eyes(20 casesin healthy nonpregnant women group(control group. The macular volume, average thickness, central subfield thickness and retinal thickness of other parafoveal areas were measured by optical coherence tomography scan.RESULTS: The macular volume was 10.06±0.41mm3 and 9.87±0.30mm3 in healthy pregnant women group and control group respectively. The average thickness was 279.43±10.86?m and 274.25±8.07?m in healthy pregnant women group and control group respectively. The central subfield thickness was 235.15±15.05?m and 233.00±15.81?m in healthy pregnant women group and control group espectively. Statistically significant difference was found in macular volume and average thickness(P0.05. The retinal thickness of 8 parafoveal areas in healthy pregnant women group increased comparing with control group, but statistical significance was only found in superior-outer area and inferior-outer area(P0.05. OCT images of all cases were normal. CONCLUSION: The macular retinal thickness increases during pregnancy in the second and last trimester. The physiologic change of retinal thickness should be considered when evaluating pathologic retinal disease of pregnant women.

Guo-Ying Liu

2014-10-01

63

[Therapeutic approach in pregnant women with an autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura].  

Science.gov (United States)

The case presented herein aim to update the existing information about the common diagnostic problems and therapeutic approach in pregnant women that have autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP). PMID:20225499

Christova, R; Lisichkov, T; Chernev, T

2009-01-01

64

Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures  

OpenAIRE

Blood lead among pregnant women, even at modest levels, may impair offspring cognitive development. We examine whether blood lead levels (BLLs) result from current versus historic exposures, among a cohort of pregnant women. Cumulative logit models were used to characterize the relationship between maternal risk factors and higher BLLs. Maternal blood lead levels more likely result from lead remobilization from historic versus contemporaneous exposures. Even if all lead sources were abated im...

Marie Lynn Miranda; Edwards, Sharon E.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Paul, Christopher J.; Brian Neelon

2010-01-01

65

Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008) pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008) were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV ...

Nana Philip N; Tonye Rebecca N; Fx, Mbopi-keou; Kongnyuy Eugene J; Mbu Enow R; Ji, Leke Robert

2008-01-01

66

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separ...

Keshavarz, H.; Shojaee, S.; Mirzaee, A.; Abdi, J.

2008-01-01

67

Effects of opioid agonist treatment for pregnant opioid dependent women  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The Norwegian Directorate of Health commissioned the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC) to do a review about the effects of opioid agonist treatment for pregnant opioid dependent women. The review would help answer the question of whether and how opioid dependence in pregnant women should be managed with the opioid agonists methadone and buprenorphine. The issue to be addressed was what kind of treatment effects methadone and buprenorphine medication caused ...

Berg, Rigmor C.; Winsvold, Aina; Kornør, Hege; Øverland, Simon Nygaard; Smedslund, Geir; Hammerstrøm, Karianne Thune; Storetvedt, Kari; Johnsen, Jon; Hansen, Heidi; Tømmervik, Kristin

2008-01-01

68

Daily versus intermittent iron supplementation in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women. Method The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n =...

Cherati Shahla; Zeinal Zadeh Mahtab; Basirat Zahra; Bouzari Zinatossadat; Ardebil Maryam; Mohammadnetaj Maedeh; Barat Shahnaz

2011-01-01

69

The Quality of Pregnant Women Life with Nausea and Vomiting  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objectives: About 50-90% of pregnant women at the first trimester of the pregnancy experience nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting has deep impact on well being and daily living activities. The aim of this study has been to explore the quality of pregnant women life with nausea and vomiting.

 

Methods: This cross-sectional descrip...

Jouybari, L.

2012-01-01

70

NUTRITION INTAKE BY PREGNANT WOMEN THROUGH DIFFERENT PERIODS  

OpenAIRE

With a balanced nutrition pregnant women prevent eventual complications during pregnancy and childbirth. An additional intake of vitamin and mineral preparations reduces the risk for different kinds of innate defects. The purpose of this specialist work is to state the avarage energy intake and the average intake of albumin, carbon hydrates, lipids, nutrition fibrins, vitamins and minerals by pregnant women during the first, second and third three months as well as to define the nutritious st...

Bandalo, Urs?ka

2012-01-01

71

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Ch...

Helle Margrete Meltzer; Marianne Hope Abel; Margaretha Haugen; Anne Lise Brantsæter

2013-01-01

72

Estimating coverage of a women’s group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobi...

Younes Layla; Aj, Houweling Tanja; Azad Kishwar; Costello Anthony; Fottrell Edward

2012-01-01

73

Prevalence of Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts Among Pregnant Pakistani Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts and to identify demographic variables and mental health correlates such as anxiety/depression and domestic violence among pregnant women in an urban community in Pakistan. Design Cross sectional data from a prospective cohort study are presented. Setting Women enrolled in an antenatal care clinic and followed to delivery in an urban area of Pakistan Population Cohort of pregnant women in Pakistan. Methods 1,369 pregnant women were enrolled and interviewed regarding various maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes, and were asked specific questions about suicidal thoughts and attempts and administered the Aga Khan University Anxiety Depression Scale at 20–26 weeks of gestation. Main outcome measures Suicidal thoughts and attempts, verbal, sexual or physical abuse. Results Overall, 148 of the 1369 (11%) women studied had considered suicide. Of these, 148 women, 67 (45%) had attempted suicide. Eighteen percent of the women were classified as having depression/anxiety, almost half (48%) reported experiencing verbal abuse and 20% reported physical/sexual abuse. Women who had anxiety/depression or had experienced verbal or physical/sexual abuse were significantly more likely to have had suicidal thoughts and attempts. Conclusions Women at greatest risk for having suicidal thoughts or a suicide attempt were those who were depressed/anxious and had experienced some form of domestic abuse. With the high prevalence of these conditions, attention should be given to the establishment of effective mental health treatment programs for pregnant women. PMID:21050149

Asad, Nargis; Karmaliani, Rozina; Sullaiman, Nasreen; Bann, Carla M.; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Pasha, Omrana; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

74

Awareness and attitudes about HIV among pregnant women in Aksu, northwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region has a firmly established HIV epidemic among its intravenous drug user (IDU) population. Local sex workers were also found to be positive in 1998. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and attitudes among consecutively selected pregnant women was conducted November 2005 in Aksu Prefecture, north-western China, with a population on 2 million with about 25 000 pregnancies per year. A total of 291 pregnant women participated. We found a limited knowledge on mother-to child transmission with several misconceptions. The AIDS campaigns have been successful in making all the women aware of HIV as a sexually transmitted disease. However, the common belief that social contact causes transmission gives a high risk that patients are stigmatized. Obviously, it is important to design HIV information strategies that target pregnant women in north-western China. PMID:19274068

Maimaiti, Rena; Andersson, Rune

2008-01-01

75

Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p3Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no s and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

76

Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

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Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37%). Speaking was equally prevalent among the 3 groups (12%-19%). Behaviors were associated with nightmares, dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, and altered hormone levels. Citation: Nielsen T; Paquette T. Dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum women. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1162-1169. PMID:17910388

Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

2007-01-01

77

Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social, as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members. The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against pregnant women, a study in which consisted of 250 women from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Salt in Jordan, was used package Statistical Social Sciences (SPSS.The study was applied at statistical methods and simple statistics advanced test, to analysis of variance T-test and F-test, to show the differences and implications of statistical variables, the results revealed that the actions stressful work, being forced to have sex, and beating, is one of the most prevalent forms of physical violence.  A Study also demonstrated that questioning the sex of the baby, neglecting, and the carelessness of the husband to towards the health status, was one of the most common forms of psychological violence known. The exposure of pregnant women to smoke, and the neglect of her husband because of being pregnant with a female and not allowing seeing the doctor was one of the forms of social violence. Also showed that stress, the anxiety and depression is the psychological effects of violence, also the slackness to perform house duties, and isolation forms other social impacts. The results also showed the presence of statistically significant relationships between forms of violence against a pregnant woman due to the variable places of residence, and monthly income. And there are no statistically significant differences to forms of violence attributed to the educational level.

Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh

2013-01-01

78

Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 no...

Hilda Razzaghi; Tinker, Sarah C.

2014-01-01

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Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH), a nati...

Feijen-de Jong Esther I; Baarveld Frank; Emc, Jansen Danielle; Ursum Jennie; Reijneveld Sijmen A; Schellevis François G

2013-01-01

80

Habitual Snoring and Asthma Comorbidity Among Pregnant Women  

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Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or habitual snoring and asthma are known comorbid conditions in men and non-pregnant women. This comorbidity has not been evaluated among pregnant women. We assessed the habitual snoring-asthma relationship among pregnant women. Methods A cohort of women (N=1,335) were interviewed during pregnancy, and we ascertained participants’ asthma status and collected information about habitual snoring, before and during pregnancy. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Compared with non-asthmatics, the adjusted OR among asthmatics for snoring before pregnancy was 2.13 (95%CI 1.10–4.12). The odds of snoring during early pregnancy was 1.79-fold (OR=1.79; 95%CI 1.07–3.01). Associations were more pronounced among overweight (?25 kg/m2) asthmatics (OR=5.39; 95%CI 2.27–12.75). Conclusions We report a cross-sectional association of habitual snoring and asthma among pregnant women. If confirmed, pregnant asthmatics may benefit from more vigilant screening and management of OSA or habitual snoring during pregnancy. PMID:21091394

Williams, Michelle A.; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Fida, Neway; Cripe, Swee May

2011-01-01

81

Health-promoting lifestyle behaviours in pregnant women in Turkey.  

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This study aims to describe the health-promoting lifestyle behaviours of pregnant women. The study was carried out with pregnant women who applied to the polyclinics in different maternity and children hospitals located in Adana, Turkey, between 1 March and 30 May 2009. The data collection tools used in the study were (i) a questionnaire that was used to collect sociodemographic data from the participants and (ii) the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II). The results obtained from the study showed that total HPLP II scores were moderate; the highest scores were obtained on the spiritual growth dimension and the lowest scores on the physical activity dimension. Pregnant women with older age, those with a higher educational level, those with a better socioeconomic status and those living in a nuclear family were found to be more likely to have health-promoting lifestyles. Health promotion and healthy lifestyle need to be an integral part of health services provided for pregnant women. Midwives and nurses have prominent roles in encouraging pregnant women to engage in health-promoting behaviours. PMID:24118372

Gokyildiz, Sule; Alan, Sultan; Elmas, Elif; Bostanci, Aysegul; Kucuk, Emine

2014-08-01

82

Vitamin D status and thyroid autoimmunity in Korean pregnant women.  

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Abstract Objective: There is increasing interest in the role of vitamin D (vitD) during pregnancy. We prospectively evaluated the vitD status in Korean pregnant women and evaluated the levels of vitD according to thyroid-specific autoimmunity during pregnancy. Methods: We included pregnant 531 women who visited for prenatal care and 238 age-matched, non-pregnant women as a control population. The levels of thyrotropin, FT4, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg) antibody (Ab) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Results: The mean levels of 25(OH)D at trimester 1, 2 and 3 were 13.6, 15.6 and 19.3?ng/mL, respectively; and the prevalence of vitD insufficiency was 83.6%, 75.1% and 55.9%, respectively. The mean 25(OH)D levels were not significantly different between Tg and TPO Ab-positive and negative pregnant women (14.9 versus 16.1, and 14.9 versus 16.1?ng/mL, respectively). Conclusions: vitD insufficiency was exceptionally high, especially in the first trimester, in Korean pregnant women. The mean 25(OH)D levels were not significantly different according to autoimmunity. Further studies on this relationship could provide important information to assess the vitD status in patients with thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy. PMID:25373429

Moon, Hee-Won; Chung, Hee-Jung; Hur, Mina; Yun, Yeo-Min

2014-11-28

83

Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.  

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While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n?=?207) and non-pregnant women (n?=?370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p?=?0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p?=?0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r?=?0.731, p?hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

2014-10-01

84

Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

2014-04-01

85

Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

86

Mechanisms of diminished natural killer cell activity in pregnant women and neonates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because alterations in natural killer (NK) activity in the perinatal period may be important in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, the mechanisms by which these alterations are mediated in neonates and in pregnant and postpartum women was examined. NK activity, as measured in a 4-hr 51Cr-release assay and compared with adult controls, is significantly diminished in all three trimesters of pregnancy and in immediately postpartum women. In postpartum women, NK activity appears to be higher than in pregnant women, although this does not reach statistical significance. Pregnant and postpartum women have normal numbers of large granular lymphocytes and normal target cell binding in an agarose single cell assay but decreased lysis of the bound target cells. NK activity of mononuclear cells from postpartum women, in addition, demonstrate a shift in distribution to higher levels of resistance to gamma-irradiation. Further, sera from postpartum women cause a similar shift to increased radioresistance in mononuclear cells from adult controls. Because radioresistance is a property of interleukin 2-stimulated NK, the shift to radioresistance may represent lymphokine-mediated stimulation occurring during parturition. In contrast, cord blood cells have a more profound decrease in NK activity as determined by 51Cr-release assay and decreases in both binding and lysis of bound target cells in the single cell assay. The resistance of NK activity in cord cellThe resistance of NK activity in cord cells to gamma-irradiation is also increased, as seen in postpartum women. Cord blood serum, however, did not alter radioresistance or inhibit NK activity. The results suggest that the observed diminished NK activity in pregnant women and neonates arise by different mechanisms: an absence of mature NK cells in the neonate and an alteration of the NK cell in pregnancy leading to decreased killing

87

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe. PMID:22937114

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

88

Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Table 2.4 presents summary data from several epidemiologic surveys collecting food and supplement intake data from pregnant or lactating women. More details on the specific surveys are included in Table 2.5. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess diet and supplement intake. Neither survey included a sizable number of pregnant or lactating women.

89

Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 ?Sv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units

90

Radiation hazards to pregnant women from diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accidental exposure of pregnant women during r ado-diagnostic examination, is an area of special concern. Mothers are usually conscious of risks to which their fetuses are exposed and often seek medical advice relative to such exposure. In this study, cases of accidental radiation exposure of sixteen pregnant women are presented. Different methods of absorbed dose calculations are applied to estimate fetal dose and to account for any hazards that might be exposed to. The results have shown that fetal doses, for the investigated cases, were consistently low and no single diagnostic x-ray examination need be a cause any concern. (authors). 32 refs., 3 tabs

91

A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN  

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Full Text Available Anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disorder in the world. WHO has estimated the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women in developed and developing countries, and that is 14% in developed and 51% in developing countries.1 Anaemia in pregnancy remains one of the most intractable public health problems in the developing countries.2,3 The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that more than half of the pregnant women in the world have a haemoglobin level (<11.0 g/dl which is indicative of anaemia.

Mitisha Jain

2014-12-01

92

34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...  

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...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? A State shall...

2010-07-01

93

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The...

2010-07-01

94

45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates....

2010-10-01

95

34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered?...

2010-07-01

96

Lack of efficacy of pyrimethamine prophylaxis in pregnant Nigerian women.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine on the blood stage (suppressive prophylaxis) and liver stage (causal prophylaxis) of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women, in vivo and in vitro field studies were conducted in Ilorin, Nigeria, from Jan 1 to June 30, 1988. For pregnant women with P falciparum infections who received 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly for suppressive prophylaxis, 67% (59/88) of in vivo and 60% (6/10) of in vitro tests showed pyrimethamine resistance. A second group of parasitaemic and parasite-free pregnant women was enrolled to evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine as a primary tissue schizonticide; after receiving a curative dose of chloroquine (25 mg/kg), half the women were given 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly and half received no prophylaxis. Parasitologic failure rates did not differ between the pyrimethamine-treated (8/34) and the control (11/37) groups during the 16-week follow-up. Thus, pyrimethamine is not effective for suppressive or causal prophylaxis in pregnant women in Ilorin. PMID:2571759

Nahlen, B L; Akintunde, A; Alakija, T; Nguyen-Dinh, P; Ogunbode, O; Edungbola, L D; Adetoro, O; Breman, J G

1989-10-01

97

Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

Nana Philip N

2008-07-01

98

Is pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychoses ethically permissible?  

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Abstract There is a consistent view in the literature that research on pregnant woman with psychoses is ethically questionable or impermissible. This paper provides a critical appraisal of these views by asking whether pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychosis for maternal, fetal, and newborn benefit is ethically permissible. We examine separately the documented clinical benefits and risks to the pregnant patient, the fetal patient, and the neonatal and pediatric patient. The outcomes reported in the pertinent literature do not support the conclusion that pharmacologic management of psychosis during pregnancy results in documented, unacceptable risk to the pregnant, fetal, or neonatal patient and is therefore ethically ruled out. Claims that research on the pharmacologic management of psychosis during pregnancy is ethically impermissible because of unacceptable risk of harm to pregnant, fetal, neonatal, or pediatric patients cannot therefore be supported. Having shown that such research is permissible, we then ask what ethical considerations should guide study design. We show that Phase I studies are appropriate and can meet the requirements of the Common Rule, which are more specific than international guidance. As a matter of professionally responsible obstetric practice, pregnant women with psychoses should be included, and not be neglected, in research for both maternal and fetal benefit. PMID:25389981

McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A

2014-11-11

99

Characteristics of Jordanian depressed pregnant women: a comparison study.  

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The objective of this study is to investigate the differences between Jordanian depressed women and non-depressed women in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics during their pregnancy. A convenience sample of 218 Jordanian pregnant women in their third trimester was selected for this study from three major Governorates in Jordan (Amman, Irbid and Zarqa), and the antenatal clinics of teaching hospitals (Jordan University Hospital and King Abdullah University Hospital) were accessed to collect the data. A demographical sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used to collect data. There was a significant difference in EPDS scores between smokers and non-smokers, primiparous and multiparous women, and also between women with secondary or lower education and those with diploma or higher education. Higher EPDS scores were classified as a ?13 and lower EPDS scores as EPDS scores compared with those with lower EPDS scores. This study showed that there are differences between pregnant women who had depression symptoms and pregnant women who did not have depression symptoms in relation to some sociodemographic variables (smoking status, education level and parity). PMID:24299168

Abuidhail, J; Abujilban, S

2014-09-01

100

Guidelines for Pregnant Women Who Have Been Exposed to Anthrax but Do Not Have Symptoms  

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... Response for Special Groups Share Compartir Guidelines for Pregnant Women Who Have Been Exposed to Anthrax But Do ... and answers discuss medicine to prevent anthrax in pregnant women who have been exposed to anthrax, but who ...

101

Information on neonatal hearing screening from pregnant women of different social classes  

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Full Text Available Objective: To verify how well pregnant women and mothers users of public and private healthcare know about neonatal hearing screening (NHS, and also to verify behaviors related to such knowledge. Methods: Eighty-seven pregnant women were interviewed during prenatal medical care at a Primary Healthcare Unit (Group A and 83 pregnant women under prenatal medical care at a private practice. A questionnaire was applied to investigate whether the studied sample was aware of NHS and, in case of a positive answer, they were asked about its purposes. They were also questioned on how they found out about the test, which children should be tested and, in case they already had children, it was asked if those children had also been tested (if not, for what reason. Moreover, they were asked about where NHS can be performed in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Rresults: It was verified that none of the 87 pregnant women from Group A knew about NHS. Of the 83 pregnant women of Group B, only 13.25% (n = 11 had previous information on NHS; ten of them knew the purpose of the test; eight were able to tell its target-population; four knew where NHS could be performed in Santa Maria and nine said none of their children had been tested. Cconclusions: It is concluded that, regardless of social class, the pregnant women studied did not have enough information about NHS, which could compromise communication of their children. We suggest a systematic NHS campaign within both public and private healthcare networks.

Luciane da Costa Pacheco

2009-03-01

102

Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that higher AS doses would be required to maintain similar DHA levels in pregnant women as achieved in non-pregnant controls.

Bose Carl

2011-05-01

103

Seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Khartoum state, Sudan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rubella vaccine is not included in the Sudanese national immunization programme, and data on prevalence of rubella among women of childbearing age are inadequate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Khartoum state, Sudan. A total of 500 pregnant women who visited 7 antenatal clinics from November 2008 to March 2009 were examined for the presence of rubella IgG antibodies using ELISA. Rubella IgG antibodies were detected in 95.1% (95% Cl: 93.2%-97.0%) of women. This seroprevalence was significantly associated with education level, but not with age, residence area, occupation or parity. We presume this high seroprevalence indicates a high circulation of wild rubella virus in Khartoum state. Similar studies in other Sudanese states would be important for informing a decision to introduce rubella vaccine to Sudan. PMID:24313044

Adam, O; Makkawi, T; Kannan, A; Osman, M E

2013-09-01

104

[Serological study on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women from Franceville, Gabon].  

Science.gov (United States)

The serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was studied among 839 pregnant women in two hospitals from Franceville (Gabon), between May 2007 and December 2007. Specific T gondii IgG and IgM were measured by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA). Datation of the infection was carried out by avidity test. Fifty-six percent of women in this study were immunised compare to the 71% who were found as immunised in a previous study carried out fifteen years ago. 2.6% were found to be IgM positive. However, from the avidity test it was found that these infections occurred before pregnancy contact with cats and age increase this prevalence. The lack of information for pregnant women, the lack of continuous training for health personnel and lack of awareness about interpretation of laboratory diagnostic tests like avidity test in these hospitals reduce the level of counselling for women about T gondii. PMID:20084487

Mpiga Mickoto, R; Akue, J-P; Bisvigou, U; Mayi Tsonga, S; Nkoghe, D

2010-02-01

105

Dietary iron intake of pregnant Nigerian women with anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The daily dietary iron intake of nine pregnant Nigerian women with confirmed iron deficiency anemia was determined. The daily dietary iron intake from hospital meals served to ten other pregnant women was also assessed to serve as a control. The mean daily iron intake of the group of anemic patients on home diet was 14.6 mg (range of individual means = 8.37-25.28 mg), whereas the group of patients served hospital meals had a mean daily dietary iron intake of 36.92 mg (range of individual means = 25.09-46.47 mg). It is, therefore, clear that the etiology of iron deficiency in the patients studied was mainly dietary. Thus, our pregnant patients, many of whom are on diets similar to those of the group studied, should receive iron supplements during pregnancy. PMID:42589

Ogunbode, O; Akinyele, I O; Hussain, M A

1979-01-01

106

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32 and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE, resting (REE, and physical activity (PAEE energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007 and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002. Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity.

Wright Antony

2011-06-01

107

Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). Gener...

Bae, Hyun Sook

2011-01-01

108

Comparison of methods for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women.  

OpenAIRE

The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually based on clinical criteria including homogeneous vaginal discharge, an elevated vaginal pH, the presence of clue cells, and an amine odor. We have evaluated the vaginal flora and clinical signs for 593 pregnant women. Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides spp., and Mycoplasma hominis were isolated more frequently among women with clinical signs than among those without clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis in multivariable analyses that controlled ...

Krohn, M. A.; Hillier, S. L.; Eschenbach, D. A.

1989-01-01

109

Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA  

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Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

Ruth Lynfield

2005-01-01

110

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

2003-01-01

111

Health of pregnant women and infants in Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic parameters characterising the state of health of pregnant women and infants living in the post-Chernobyl Belarus have been analysed. The data presented evidence that worsening of these parameters not necessarily correlate with the radionuclides contamination of the territory

112

Manifestations of falciparum malaria in pregnant women of Eastern Sudan.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to investigate the morbidity pattern of malaria during pregnancy in New Halfa Teaching Hospital, Eastern Sudan, where malaria transmission is unstable. METHODS Pregnant (or in the puerperium) women presented with symptoms of falciparum malaria to the hospital during the period of November 2002 to March 2003 were enrolled to the study. Their socio-demographic characters, physical examinations, especial...

Ishag Adam; Ali, Daw M.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.

2004-01-01

113

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, PToxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

Peter F Nde

2011-09-01

114

Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 imm...

Stek Alice; Gipps Theresa; Decker William D; Orin Melanie J; Fraga Linda; Walter Jan; Aldrovandi Grace M

2011-01-01

115

Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.

Gross Karin

2012-03-01

116

First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge. Both participants and non-participants in the screening programme were included. The results are based on 4,095 responders (64%). Differences between sub-groups were examined by chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis. Estimates are stated with 95% CI. RESULTS: The majority of the participants (87.6% (86.6-88.6) to 92.6% (91.7-93.3)) correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. Fewer participants (16.4% (15.3-17.6) to 43.3% (41.8-44.8)) correctly recognised test accuracy and the potential risk of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session was weakly associated with more knowledge. CONCLUSION: The majority of the pregnant women correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. The pregnant women were found less knowledgeable on test accuracy and drawbacks. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone

2010-01-01

117

Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Epidemiological Determinants in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia in pregnant women is one of the India’s major public health problems, despite the fact that this problem is largely preventable & easily treatable. Objectives: 1.To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women. 2. To assess the epidemiological determinants of anaemia in pregnancy. Methodology: A descriptive case series study was conducted among the pregnant women from second trimester onwards from urban field practice area from 1st March 2010 to 31st July 2010 by using pre-designed, pre-tested, structured schedule. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method & anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analyses were done by percentages and proportions, Mean and Standard Deviation (S.D, Chi-square test. Results: A high prevalence (82.9% of anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 11.0gm/dl was observed among 228 pregnant women. Majority (50.4% had moderate degree of anaemia (Haemoglobin - 7.0 to 10.0 gm/dl and 7.0% had severe anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 7.0 gm/dl. Severity of anaemia was more in 26 years of age, from nuclear families, educated upto secondary level, having vegetarian diet, parity two or more & those in third trimester with two or more abortions, although statistically not significant. However, anaemia prevalence was significantly higher among those subjects from below Class IV socio-economic status, those with less than two years of spacing between previous and index pregnancies & with less than two months IFA tablet consumption. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women from 4th month onwards till 3-6 months post-partum along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.

R.G.Viveki

2012-07-01

118

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K; Perveen Khan, Darakhshan; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M

2014-01-01

119

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K.; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.

2014-01-01

120

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

H Keshavarz

2008-04-01

121

Technical Quality of Maternity Care: the Pregnant Women’s Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Background: Improving adherence to care standards is one way to im¬prove quality of delivered care. This study aimed to determine the degree of provid¬ers' adherence to maternity care standards from the perspective of pregnant women.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 185 pregnant women in their ninth month of pregnancy who received maternity care from health centres in Tabriz, Iran. Participants were selected randomly from 40 health centres. Data collection used a research...

Mostafa Farahbakhsh; Kamal Gholipour; Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi; Andrew Wilson

2013-01-01

122

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available.

Siziya Seter

2008-10-01

123

HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... and only 29% received some antiretroviral medication during pregnancy. HIV testing . Because approximately 18% of all people with ... pregnancy. If women are tested and diagnosed with HIV infection before or early in their pregnancy, they can be given medication to improve their ...

124

The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n?=?32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n?=?22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S

2014-01-01

125

Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

126

Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab, and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab. Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (36 weeks; for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (36 weeks; and for TSH, values were (?IU/mL: 1.12 ± 0.69 (36 weeks. Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain.

Bocanegra-García Virgilio

2009-11-01

127

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

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Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

Helle Margrete Meltzer

2013-02-01

128

Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP) at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa) for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa) for those at term. In theearly pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05) whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho) was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84), between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81), and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85). CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.

Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua

2014-01-01

129

Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11)t significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women. (author)

130

Immunisation Status Of Pregnant Women In Bihar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research Question: What is the coverage level of immunization and other maternal services by a modified technique developed by IRMS (ICMR Delhi in comparison to standard WHO technique. Objectives: To study the â€"Coverage level for immunization, antenatal care and IFA tablets â€"Relationship of caste and education with the coverage levels. â€"Place and persons conducting deliveries. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Both in rural and urban areas of Bihar. Participants: 375 mothers having children up to one year of age selected by a stratified random sampling technique developed by IRMS Delhi. Study variables: Immunisation status, antenatal care, Use of IFA tabs, Education of the female, Education of husband, place and person conducting the delivery. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: Overall immunization coverage was 42% for pregnant females. Coverage was high (60% in urban areas compared to rural areas (40%. Coverage was low among females from SC/ST category, also when females and their husbands were illiterates. Similar trend was observed for antenatal care and IFA tabs. 90% deliveries took place at home and were mainly attended by village dais. Majority of mothers received immunization from some. Govt. agency lack of, awareness and lack of motivation were more commonly found as reasons for non-immunisation among SC/ST as compared to others. Lack of awareness was also found as a common reason for non-immunisation among illiterate females.

Yadav R. J

1998-01-01

131

Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1??g\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

McGowan, C A

2011-09-01

132

Predictors of prenatal multivitamin adherence in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no study available that has investigated determinants of prenatal multivitamin adherence among pregnant women, based on gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. The objective of this study was to identify determinants predicting adherence to prenatal multivitamins in pregnant women who were randomized to take 2 different supplements. The authors recruited and interviewed 70 women on the importance of various factors that may have affected adherence to previous and assigned multivitamins. The different factors included GI symptoms and swallowing difficulty. The authors used a 5-point scale to measure degree of importance. The highest scoring factors for not taking or discontinuing any previous multivitamins were fear of or experience of nausea, vomiting, and gagging. For women who never took the assigned prenatal multivitamins, the highest scoring factors contributing to that decision were fear of nausea, fear of vomiting, and health care provider advice. For women who started taking the assigned supplements, the most important factors affecting adherence were dosing regimen, health care provider advice, and mode of product distribution. Adherence to assigned prenatal multivitamins significantly correlated only with the importance of constipation in deciding to discontinue any previous multivitamins. It is concluded that predictors of adherence to recommended prenatal multivitamins during pregnancy are rooted in women's prior experiences with multivitamin use. PMID:19386624

Nguyen, Patricia; Thomas, Martin; Koren, Gideon

2009-06-01

133

Effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose The study aimed to investigate the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women. Methods In a case-control study, nine pregnant and eight non-pregnant Sudanese women infected with P. falciparum were treated with intramuscular artemether. Before being given artemether, they received a single dos...

2010-01-01

134

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to supp...

Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

2007-01-01

135

Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, eng...

Shipton Debbie; Eadie Douglas; Bauld Linda; MacAskill Susan; Tappin David M; Galbraith Linsey

2010-01-01

136

Positive life events predict salivary cortisol in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal stress during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with problematic child development. According to the fetal programming hypothesis adverse experiences during pregnancy increase maternal cortisol, which is then assumed to exert a negative effect on fetal development. Recent studies in non-pregnant women report significant associations between positive emotionality and low cortisol levels. We tested in a sample of 60 pregnant women whether both negative and positive life events independently predicted third-trimester baseline awakening cortisol levels. While the effect of negative life events proved unrelated positive life events significantly predicted lower cortisol levels. These findings suggest that positive experiences are of relevance regarding maternal morning cortisol levels in pregnancy reflecting a resource with potentially beneficial effects for the mother and the developing fetus. It might be promising for psychological intervention programs to focus on increasing positive experiences of the expecting mother rather than exclusively trying to reduce maternal stress during pregnancy. PMID:22309824

Pluess, Michael; Wurmser, Harald; Buske-Kirschbaum, Angelika; Papousek, Mechthild; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk; Bolten, Margarete

2012-08-01

137

Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand  

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Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.

Anne M. Riederer

2012-09-01

138

Hookworm-Related Anaemia among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review  

OpenAIRE

Anaemia affects large numbers of pregnant women in developing countries and increases their risk of dying during pregnancy and delivering low birth weight babies, who in turn are at increased risk of dying. Human hookworm infection has long been recognized among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but understanding of the benefits of the management of hookworm infection in pregnancy has lagged behind the other major causes of maternal anaemia. Low coverage of anthelmintic treatme...

Brooker, Simon; Hotez, Peter J.; Bundy, Donald A. P.

2008-01-01

139

Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics.  

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Full Text Available Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files of 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38% was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13% and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43% of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42% were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8% of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17% were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5% in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

Eze UI

2007-09-01

140

Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed wit...

Fong, Choi-ching; ???

2013-01-01

141

Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences  

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Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSmoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS.There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion,reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten yearsago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. Duringthe last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around 20%.

Kjell Haug

2009-10-01

142

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending th...

Nde, Peter F.; Yugah, Vucha C.; Nsagha, Dickson S.; Kamga, Henri L. F.; Assob, Jules C. N.; Njunda, Anna L.

2011-01-01

143

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been...

2010-10-01

144

Prevention of changes in thyroid endocrine function in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The circadian biocycles of the thyrotropic hormone (TTH), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxinbinding globulin (TBG) were studied in 178 practically healthy pregnant women, including 76 ones who received potassium iodide for preventing iodide deficit and 102 women no preventive therapy was prescribed to. The necessity in thyroid hormones was determined to increase during the gestation period. The preventive therapy consisting of 200 ?kg of potassium iodide a day favoured the gestation physiologic run, the thyroid function normalization, the duration of the gestation period and the newborns' mass optimization

145

A Pilot Study of the Nutritional Status of Opiate Abusing Pregnant Women on Methadone Maintenance Therapy  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women ha...

Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

146

Pregnant women at work: a study of ethnic minority risk in Leicestershire.  

OpenAIRE

Possible reasons for the excess risk of perinatal mortality experienced by Asian women living in Leicestershire who work during pregnancy were investigated. This entailed a detailed examination of the work undertaken locally by a group of pregnant Asian women and comparison with the work undertaken by an occupationally matched group of pregnant non-Asian women. A total of 306 pregnant women were interviewed. The results suggest that the two ethnic groups experienced similar working conditions...

Peel, A.; Clarke, M.

1990-01-01

147

Malaria and anemia prevention in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Pregnant women are a major risk group for malaria in endemic areas. Only little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women with malaria and anaemia preventive drug regimens in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this study, we collected information on malaria and anaemia prevention behaviour in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso. Methods Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative survey among 225 women of eight vil...

Jahn Albrecht; Kouyate Bocar; Some Florent; Miaffo Caroline; Mueller Olaf

2004-01-01

148

Iodine nutrition of pregnant and lactating women in Hong Kong, where intake is of borderline sufficiency  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To describe the iodine nutrition of pregnant and lactating women in Hong Kong, where intake is of borderline sufficiency.DESIGN: Review of cross-sectional and prospective studies.SETTING: China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).SUBJECTS: Pregnant and lactating women.RESULTS: Studies of pregnant women in Hong Kong SAR have revealed an increase in the urinary iodine (UI) concentration as pregnancy advances. A significant percentage of women had a sub-normal serum thyroid...

Kung, Awc

2007-01-01

149

Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

2012-08-01

150

A comparative study of Zinc deficiency prevalence in pregnant and non pregnant women  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Zinc is one of the elements necessary for growth and health in human. Some evidences indicate that zinc deficiency is one of real difficulties for the public health in both developed and developing countries. Since the pregnant women are more at risk of zinc deficiency, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of zinc deficiency in pregnant women in the 3 trimesters and to compare these data with that of the healthy controls."n"nMethods: This research was an analytic- descriptive study which was done on 677 pregnant women in 3 Trimesters and 140 non pregnant groups who referred to clinic of Tehran University. Blood sample were taken And serum zinc was assessed By Enzymatic technique."n"nResults: The prevalence of zinc deficiency is 16% in pregnancy and 0% in non pregnant women with a significant difference between two groups (p<0.001. Zinc deficiency had no relation to mother's age, gestational age, Iron supplementation, Parity and mothers BMI. Hemoglobin level showed a direct relation to zinc deficiency and was grossly found to be more prevalent in Hb levels less than 12 (CI: 1/36-4/26, OR=2/4."n"nConclusion: Acording to the finding of presented study, zinc deficiency is more prevalent in Hb<12 inspite of iron supplementation. Iron and zinc supplements in pregnancy period seem to be more effective for Hb repair in each case.

Borna S

2009-08-01

151

Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women. PMID:25332259

de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

2014-01-01

152

Induction of labour in postdates pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To differentiate the effect of gestation on the mode of delivery by analysing the difference in the mode of induction, length of labour and the difference in parity or Bishop score and their effect on the mode of delivery of postdates women. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad, from July 2006 to July 2008. Methodology:Patients were induced at 41 weeks (Group B) and > 40 weeks (Group A) of gestation. Tab misoprostol and PGE2 tablets were administered according to amniotic fluid index (AFI) and parity . Study variables included duration of gestation, mode of induction, length of labour, difference in parity and Bishop score assessed before induction in each group. The outcome was assessed by applying Chi-square test by comparing mode of delivery with the study variables in both groups. Results: A total of 78 patients were inducted in the study. They were divided in group B (n = 39) induced 41 weeks and group A (n = 39) induced at 40 weeks. Eighty four percent (n = 35) patients in group B delivered vaginally as compared to 71% (n = 28) in the 40 weeks group (p < 0.0001). The higher number of vaginal deliveries in 41 weeks group was independent of association between the induction agent, parity and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The mean length of gestation was the single most important factor among the studied variables in predicting a vaginal delivery. (author)l delivery. (author)

153

Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions. The role of CCL22 on HIV transmission should now be investigated in prospective studies.

Stek Alice

2011-09-01

154

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

OpenAIRE

Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sampl...

Akrami, M. Nojomi Z.

2006-01-01

155

Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from the Clinical Microbiology Database. Maternal data were obtained from a local database at the RH. RESULTS: In our cohort, a total of 638 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with GBS, 517 (81%) from urine, 92 (14%) from vaginal swabs and 29 (5%) from both. The overall rate of women colonised with GBS rose from 3.3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p <0.0001). A total of 48 infants had early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS), 1.4 per 1,000neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: We found a low GBS colonisation rate in our pregnant cohort, but the rate followed an increasing trend over the study period. GBS during pregnancy was associated with a low birth weight and preterm delivery. More research on preventive measures is needed, but updated guidelines, screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of EOGBS disease prevention.

Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh

2014-01-01

156

Toxoplasmosis in Primiparus Pregnant Women and Their Neonates  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of primary infection with T. gondii in pregnant women and risk of congenital infection in their neonates in various parts of Tehran are unknown. The prevalence rate of antibodies to T. gondii ranges from 24% in Tehran to 62.7% in Babol. This study describes the epidemiology of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Tehran and risk factors of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn among preterm infants and full- term infants born from these mothers. A cross sectional study was carried out in 140 primiparus women living in various part of Tehran. Initially from each case a questionnaire was completed by the authorized physician, followed by clinical exams in newborns. The birth certificate was the data source used for such as gestational age, birthweigt, etc. The centrifuged blood specimens from all pregnant women are screened using an assay for Toxoplasma- specific IgM and IgG based on preliminary evidence in Iran. Specific toxo- IgM was positive in 7.1% (90% of them were also IgG positive , toxo – IgG was positive in 34.3% of mothers. Mean age of IgG positive mothers (22.49±4.22, mean age of IgM positive mothers (19.90± 3.48. There were significantly differences between living place of mothers and IgG positive (p=0.007 . There were significantly differences between living place of mothers (East and central and IgM positive (Fisher test = 0.023. Elaborating an epidemiological profile and risk correlates might help focus prenatal education and newborn screening strategies. Prenatal screening could be more easily justified in central part of Tehran because low incidence populations detected and probably treatment of mothers infected during pregnancy led to lower rates of transmission to the newborn. In contrast, in eastern part of Tehran due to high seroprevalence rate detected, newborn screening is relatively inexpensive and efficient.

S Noorbakhsh

2002-08-01

157

Occurrence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Young Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Although acute leukaemia is rare in pregnancy its importance lies in its life-threatening potential, both to the child and the mother. The possibility of vertical transmission of leukemic cells increases the attention devoted to these patients and their offspring. Three cases of pregnant young women (15–17 years of age with AML are presented. This series of cases is the first report where gene abnormalities such as ITD mutations of the FLT3 gene and AML1/ETO fusion genes were screened in pregnant AML patients and their babies, so far. Unfortunately, very poor outcomes have been associated to similar cases described in literature, and the same was true to the patients described herein. Although very speculative, we think that the timing and possible similar exposures would be involved in all cases.

Juliane Menezes

2008-01-01

158

Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

2007-01-01

159

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values

160

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

2013-10-15

161

Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes  

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Full Text Available Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n=189 and control group (n=178 during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. Results. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR=6.76; 95% CI=1.28-7.72, upper respiratory symptoms (OR=9.53; 95% CI=1.32-3.8 and bleeding (OR=20.5; 95% CI=2.03-6.97 was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=40.42; 95% CI=2.96-8.91 and bleeding (OR=53.21; 95% CI=4.3-15.73 was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=34.58; 95% CI=3.05-11.66.

Stankovi? Aleksandra

2011-01-01

162

Sex ratio of newborn infants born to pregnant women with severe chronic constipation  

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Full Text Available Andrew E Czeizel1, Erzsébet H Puhó1, Ferenc Bánhidy21Foundation for the Community Control of Hereditary Diseases, 2Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, School of Medicine, Budapest, HungaryAbstract: There was a significant male excess in the newborns of pregnant women with severe chronic constipation during pregnancy compared to pregnant women without constipation and pregnant women with new onset severe constipation, during pregnancy.Keywords: constipation, pregnancy, birth outcomes, sex ratio, male excess

Andrew E Czeizel

2010-09-01

163

A fatal case of acute hepatitis E among pregnant women, Central African Republic.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health problem in developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and more often fatal in the third trimester. The mortality rate due to HEV-induced hepatitis is as high as 15-20 per cent. The present study was designed to determine the potential factors responsible for high mortality rate among pregnant women. Findings Twenty one pregnant women attended the Maternity Center of Be...

Goumba Charles M; Yandoko-Nakouné Emmanuel R; Komas Narcisse P

2010-01-01

164

Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947) were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. ...

Mahé Antoine; Brun-Vézinet Francoise; Branger Michel; Njouom Richard; Makuwa Maria; Ndong-Atome Guy-Roger; Rousset Dominique; Kazanji Mirdad

2008-01-01

165

Information on neonatal hearing screening from pregnant women of different social classes  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To verify how well pregnant women and mothers users of public and private healthcare know about neonatal hearing screening (NHS), and also to verify behaviors related to such knowledge. Methods: Eighty-seven pregnant women were interviewed during prenatal medical care at a Primary Healthcare Unit (Group A) and 83 pregnant women under prenatal medical care at a private practice. A questionnaire was applied to investigate whether the studied sample was aware of NHS and, in case of a ...

Luciane da Costa Pacheco; Tania Maria Tochetto; Mardônia Alves Checalin; Cláudia Dutra de Moraes Carvalho

2009-01-01

166

Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

Toher, C

2013-08-24

167

Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. ...

Marnoch Gordon J; Dolk Helen; Luteijn Johannes M

2011-01-01

168

Comparison of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in the Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women  

OpenAIRE

- To Compare colonization of group B streptococcus (GBS) in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. In this prospective study 50 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (both pregestational and gestational) and 43 pregnant women without diabetes between 33 and 37 weeks' gestation were evaluated. Three samples for Group B streptococcal culture detection were obtained from each subject in the following order: perinea sample, vaginal sample, and an anorectic sample. All had singleton gestat...

Akhlaghi Farideh; Hamedi Abdolkarim; Naderi Nasab Mahbobeh

2009-01-01

169

Management of pregnant women infected with Ebola virus in a treatment centre in Guinea, June 2014  

OpenAIRE

We report two cases of confirmed Ebola virus disease in pregnant women, who presented at the Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola treatment centre in Guéckédou. Despite the very high risk of death, both pregnant women survived. In both cases the critical decision was made to induce vaginal delivery. We raise a number of considerations regarding the management of Ebola virus-infected pregnant women, including the place of amniocentesis and induced delivery, and whether certain invasive medical a...

Baggi, F. M.; Taybi, A.; Kurth, Andreas; Herp, M.; Di Caro, A.; Wo?lfel, Roman; Gu?nther, Stephan; Decroo, T.; Declerck, H.; Jonckheere, S.

2014-01-01

170

Glycemic Control among Pregnant Diabetic Women on Insulin Who Fasted During Ramadan  

OpenAIRE

Background: Ramadan fasting for pregnant women with diabetes remains controversial and underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the glycemic control in pregnant diabetic women on insulin who fasted during Ramadan.Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of three years including pregnant diabetic women, who were on short-acting, intermediate-acting, or a combination of them, and opted to carry out Ramadan fasting. Glycemic control was assessed before...

Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail; Hadijat Olaide Raji; Norashikin Abd Wahab; Norlaila Mustafa; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Muhammad Abdul Jamil

2011-01-01

171

"KETONURIA AND SERUM GLUCOSE OF FASTING PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE END OF A DAY IN RAMADAN"  

OpenAIRE

Moslem pregnant women are inclined to fast during the month of Ramadan. Ketonuria and hypoglycemia are harmful in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to find out whether clinical symptoms and/ or calorie deficiency of fasting pregnant women before Eftar (ending of the daily fast) can accurately predict ketonuria and hypoglycemia. In a descriptive study, 185 volunteer fasting pregnant women in Ramadan of 1999 were tested just before Eftar taking into account their clinical symptoms, intake of...

Arab, M.

2004-01-01

172

Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking at maternity booking or provide false information. Carbon monoxide breath testing can bypass this difficulty. Identified smokers may not be referred but an opt-out referral policy can remove this barrier. Engagement at home allowed a greater proportion to set a quit date and quit, but costs were higher.

Shipton Debbie

2010-01-01

173

Elevated concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-12 and elastin degradation products in the sera of pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii  

OpenAIRE

Although the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) appears to be increased in most inflammatory diseases, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, if any, is unknown. In a recent study in Taiwan, the serum concentrations of MMP-12 and its substrate elastin were evaluated in pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii infection. Compared with the healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women used as controls, the pregnant women with toxoplasmosis had sig...

Chou, P-h; Lai, S-c

2011-01-01

174

Comparison of antiphospholipid antibodies in hypertensive with normotensive pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess the association between the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) in pregnancy and antiphospholipid antibodies. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 pregnant women with their first pregnancy induced HTN and no history of thrombosis, renal disease or systemic autoimmune diseases. HTN was defined as blood pressure (BP) of 140/90 mmHg or higher on two measurements with 6 hours apart. Control group comprised of pregnant women without hypertension or proteinuria and without history of thrombosis or systemic autoimmune disease. Antiphospholipid Antibodies (Antiphospholipid IgG and IgM and anticardiolipin IgG and IgM) levels were measured in both groups. There were significantly higher titer of Antiphospholipid IgG and anticardiolipin IgG and IgM in case group (p<0.05). Antiphospholipid IgM had no difference between two groups (p=0.14). There were moderate but statistically significant correlation between blood pressure and parity (r=0.3; p=0.0001), gestational age and antiphospholipid IgM antibody level (r=0.3; p=0.02), and between gestational age and anticardiolipin IgM antibody level (r=0.28; p=0.002). We found elevated levels of IgG and IgM anticardiolipin and IgG antiphospholipid antibodies in pregnancy induced HTN, but level of antiphospholipid IgM antibody was not different in hypertensive and normotensive women. (author)

175

Daily versus intermittent iron supplementation in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women. Method The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n = 50 received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet daily, second group (n = 50 received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet three times a week, and the third group (n = 50 received two 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablets (100 mg weekly, respectively for 12 consecutive weeks. Serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron were measured before and after the supplementation. Paired t and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated. Results There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment hemoglobin levels with iron supplementation in the three group (P = 0.518, P = 0.276, respectively. The mean serum iron level before and after treatment with iron supplementation in the three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.962, P = 0.970, respectively. Although the mean serum ferritin level before and after treatment with iron supplementation was statistically significant in the three groups, no significant differences were found comparing the three groups (P = 0.827, P = 0.635 respectively. Conclusions This results suggested, three times a week or weekly iron supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation for healthy pregnant women without anemia. Trial Registration ISRCTN: IRCT201101093820N1

Cherati Shahla

2011-10-01

176

[Seroprevalence of treponematosis among pregnant women in Cotonou (Benin)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of frequency of treponematosis among pregnant women in Mother Hood of Zogbo (Cotonou) shows 5.1 +/- 2.8% of positivity with risk of 5% by TPHA and VDRL. The low level of endemicity, associated with the absence of cutaneous lesions of treponematosis in Cotonou may correspond to a syphilis infection. This study points out the necessity to strengthen the struggle against the all other sexually transmitted diseases (MST) in the same way that the HIV infection in Benin. PMID:8124101

Anagonou, S Y; Chabi Tamou, C; Josse, R; Helynck, B; Gninafon, M

1993-01-01

177

Control of anaemia among pregnant women by iron supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of iron supplementation among 171 pregnant women registered at the maternal and child health (MCH) clinic of the Urban Health Training Center of Preventive and Social Medicine, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, are reported. The registration of pregnant women was done at home visits. Initial hemoglobin level was estimated with Sahli's hemoglobinometer and 2 tablets of iron folic acid, each containing 60 mg of elemental iron and 0.5 mg folic acid were given each day for 90 days. Hemoglobin estimation was repeated every month. The regularity of intake was ensured by the MCH staff and women who consumed up to 75% of the period were considered as regular. Most of the women receiving iron supplementation were between 21-30 years of age, accounting for 62.6%. 29.2% of the women were under age 20. 51.5% were registered in their 2nd trimester and 1/3 in the 1st trimester. 14.6% were registered as late as the 3rd trimester. Only 9.4% had normal hemoglobin levels; the remaining 90.6% were anemic, 83% mild to moderate anemia and 7.6% severe anemia. The prevalence was highest in the 2nd trimester, in which 95.8% of the women were anemic. The prevalence was marginally lower in 1st and 3rd trimester, being 86.2% and 88.9%. Severity of anemia increased with increasing gestational age. The proportion of severely anemic women was as much as 25.9% in women in the 3rd trimester as compared to women in the 2nd trimester (8%) and none in the 1st trimester. The mean hemoglobin levels were almost similar in various trimesters, but the lowest mean levels were recorded in the 3rd trimester. The maximum changes were recorded in the 1st trimester, when the mean hemoglobin level increased but not significantly. Practically no change in mean hemoglobin was observed in the 2nd trimester, and there was a slight increase in the 3rd trimester after completion of iron supplementation. Trials are now on to fortify the common food commodity, particularly in wheat flour and common salt for continued iron supplementation. PMID:6654471

Gupta, S D; Gupta, R; Zafar, A; Mangal, D K; Sharma, R

1983-01-01

178

Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:21989677

Rahman, Mosfequr

2012-08-01

179

Prevalence and clinical symptoms of geographic tongue in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Introduction: “Geographic tongue” or benign migratory glossitis is a tongue disorder which causes pain and dysfunction and its persistence leads to cancer phobia. Based on some reports, hormones (especially female sex hormones are associated with geographic tongue development or exacerbation. Geographic tongue might be confused with lichen planus and candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the lesion with pregnancy and its changes during each trimester. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, 451 eligible cases were selected. After clinical examination and completion of questionnaires, if geographic tongue was diagnosed, photographs were taken and compared between the three trimesters. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: The prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was 36.8%. There were no significant relationships between the number of pregnancies, age and the frequency of the lesions. However, there was a significant relationship between the ectopic lesions and the fissured tongue (p value = 0.001 and also between the gestational age and geographic tongue lesions (p value = 0.043. The lesions were most prevalent in the second trimester, but in third trimester, prevalence of severs lesions decreased. Conclusions: Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was higher than previous reports in other communities. Severe lesions were more prevalent in the second trimester. Key words: Benign migratory glossitis, Hormones, Pregnancy.

Parichehr Ghalyani

2012-01-01

180

Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab, Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg, Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-Aand antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in Yenagoa city, the heart of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies were detected by using "Determine" HIV-1/2 test strip (Abbott Laboratories, Japan; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and antibodies to T. pallidum were carried out using ACON rapid test strips (ACON Laboratories, USA. All positive samples for HIV, HBV and HCV were confirmed using the Clinotech diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kits (Clinotech Laboratories, USA, while all reactive samples to Treponema pallidum antibodies were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA test (Lorne Laboratories Ltd., UK. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers? instructions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data generated were coded, entered, validated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 12.0, and Epi info. The seroprevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV and HIV was expressed for the entire study group by age, sex and other demographic features using Pearson chi-square analysis. Values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,000 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 15 and 44 years with a mean of 27.34?5.43 years were screened. In terms of percentage, 89.4% of the subjects were married, and 10.6% were without formal husbands. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis was found to be 4.1%, 5.3%, 0.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Conclusions: High prevalence of some infectious diseases was observed in the present study, which may pose serious health risk to women of reproductive age in this region. It is important to point out that there is need to improve antenatal care of pregnant women by mandatory screening for these infectious diseases.

Buseri F

2010-01-01

181

Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 ?g m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability in PM2.5 could be explained.

Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

2013-01-01

182

Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease y during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

183

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending a Hospital in Iran  

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Full Text Available Domestic violence is an important risk factor for pregnancy complications. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related factors in a population of pregnant women. A cross sectional study was done on 426 women who were attended to an obstetrics ward of a hospital in Iran. A 35 item questionnaire was completed by the respondents. The life time prevalence of domestic violence was 42% and it was 19.3% during pregnancy. There was no relation between socioeconomic status, women`s education and employment and age of marriage with domestic violence. Unemployment, addiction and alcohol use among husbands were related to domestic violence. Slapping and punching were the most common kinds of violent behavior. The prevalence of domestic violence even during pregnancy is high in Iran, so there is a need to increase the awareness of the community and empower the health workers and professionals in order to prevent and control this problem.

2008-01-01

184

Violence against woman from the perspective of pregnants women  

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Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the kinds of violence suffered in gestational period based on Ecological Model of Violence from Pan American Health Organization and to discuss the violence concept under point of view from pregnant women. Methods: descriptive study from qualitative approach conducted in a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro city. One hundred interviews were conducted with mothers in the Rooming-in Care. Results: among women who have suffered some kind of violence there is a greater proportion of physical aggression (67%, and the aggressor is, in most cases (33%, a person close to the woman. The victims did not seek a specialized help service (79%. The socio-demographic profile showed that the predominant age range was 20-29 years (56%, with a low level of schooling, less than six years of study, with a predominant family income of more than two minimum salaries and residents, most of them (27% from A.P.3.1 Méier. Conclusions: it’s important to ensure human rights and enhance the full care to women victims of violence. The existance of a regular training is essential to take care of these women, facing this violence phenomenon, offering then a careful, ethical and humane nursing.

Gabriela Fernandes e Silva, Maíra Domingues Bernardes Silva, Leila Rangel da Silva, Inês Maria Meneses dos Santos

2009-07-01

185

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City  

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Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ? 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

M. Fallah

2006-04-01

186

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal c...

Sunita Bamanikar; Liew Kok Kee

2013-01-01

187

Prevalence and etiological classification of thrombocytopenia among a group of pregnant women in Erbil City, Iraq  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To determine the prevalence and define the causes of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 850 pregnant women at different ages of gestation were screened for thrombocytopenia. A control group of 150 age-matched non-pregnant women were tested for platelet count. Newborns of thrombocytopenic women were tested within 24 hours of delivery and reassessment of the women's platelets was done within 7-10 days post-delivery. Results: The mean platelet co...

Rawand Pouls Shamoon; Nawsherwan Sadiq Muhammed; Muhammed Salih Jaff

2009-01-01

188

Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported diet...

Huybregts, L. F.; Roberfroid, D. A.; Kolsteren, P. W.; Camp, J. H.

2009-01-01

189

Altered vascular function in healthy normotensive pregnant women with bilateral uterine artery notches.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To assess endothelial function and vascular mechanical properties in normotensive pregnant women with high resistance in the uteroplacental circulation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prospective study. SETTING: Doppler ultrasound laboratory at university department of obstetrics and gynaecology referral centre for high risk pregnancies. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two caucasian normotensive pregnant women: 23 with uncomplicated pregnancies and 19 with bilateral uterine artery notches. METHODS: ...

Brodszki, Jana; La?nne, T.; Stale, Ha?kan; Batra, Satish; Marsal, Karel

2002-01-01

190

The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District  

OpenAIRE

This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

Fn, Dube

2008-01-01

191

The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District  

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Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

FN Dube

2008-09-01

192

Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection. PMID:25533327

Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

2015-01-29

193

Cardiorespiratory responses during and after water exercise in pregnant and non-pregnant women Respostas cardiorrespiratórias durante e após exercício aquático em gestantes e não gestantes  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: to compare the blood pressure and oxygen consumption (VO2) responses between pregnant and non-pregnant women, during cycle ergometer exercise on land and in water. METHODS: ten pregnant (27 to 29 weeks of gestation) and ten non-pregnant women were enrolled. Two cardiopulmonary tests were performed on a cycle ergometer (water and land) at the heart rate corresponding to VO2, over a period of 30 minutes each. Exercise measurements consisted of recording blood pressure every five minute...

Ilana Finkelstein; Paulo André Poli de Figueiredo; Cristine Lima Alberton; Roberta Bgeginski; Ricardo Stein; Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

2011-01-01

194

Comparison of chloroquine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, and chlorproguanil and dapsone as treatment for falciparum malaria in pregnant and non-pregnant women, Kakamega District, Kenya.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To compare treatment and protection against falciparum malaria in pregnant and non-pregnant women with three drug regimens. DESIGN--Prospective intervention study with six weeks' follow up. Patients received one of three drug regimens in order of entry. SETTING--Primary care hospital and secondary girls' school in rural western Kenya. PATIENTS--158 of 988 pregnant women (89 primigravid and 69 multigravid) in the third trimester and 105 of 1488 non-pregnant schoolgirls of reproducti...

Keuter, M.; Eijk, A.; Hoogstrate, M.; Raasveld, M.; Ree, M.; Ngwawe, W. A.; Watkins, W. M.; Were, J. B.; Brandling-bennett, A. D.

1990-01-01

195

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Fernanda Campos Machado

2012-10-01

196

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:23018230

Machado, Fernanda Campos; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Assis, Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida

2012-01-01

197

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimeste [...] r of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Fernanda Campos, Machado; Dionéia Evangelista, Cesar; Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho, Assis; Cláudio Galuppo, Diniz; Rosangela Almeida, Ribeiro.

2012-10-01

198

Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women  

OpenAIRE

African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women w...

Winona Poulton; Browne, Felicia A.; Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson; Kline, Tracy L.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Jones, Hendr Amp E. E.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

2011-01-01

199

Plasma Melatonin Circadian Rhythms: Low in Pregnant, Elevated in Postpartum, Depressed Women, and Phase-Advanced in Pregnant Women with Personal or Family Histories of Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To test the hypothesis that disturbances in plasma melatonin distinguish pregnant and postpartum patients with major depression (DP) from matched healthy comparison (HC) women. Method In 25 pregnant (15 HC, 10 DP) and 24 postpartum (11 HC, 13 DP) women, we measured plasma melatonin every 30 minutes from 18:00 -11:00 hours (h) in dim (< 30 lux) light. The values were log-transformed and calculations made for baseline and synthesis onset and offset times, duration, peak concentration and area under the curve (AUC). Groups were compared by analyses of covariance using age, weeks pregnant or postpartum, breastfeeding status and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. Results Morning melatonin levels were significantly lower in pregnant DP from 02:00 – 11:00 h, but were significantly higher in postpartum DP across time intervals, relative to matched HC women. Pregnant (but not postpartum) women with a personal or family history of depression, regardless of current diagnosis, had significantly earlier melatonin synthesis and baseline offsets than those without such a history. In pregnant HC, but not in DP, melatonin levels increased during the course of pregnancy. No such relationship existed for postpartum HC or DP. Conclusions Plasma nocturnal melatonin concentrations, especially in the morning hours, were lower in depressed pregnant, but elevated in depressed postpartum women, compared with HC women. Melatonin timing measures were advanced in pregnant women with a personal or family history of depression. These findings implicate disturbances in the regulation of the melatonin generating system in pregnancy and postpartum depression. PMID:18829869

Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Lopez, Ana M.; Martinez, Luis F.; Nowakowski, Sara; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Hauger, Richard L.; Kripke, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

200

A population pharmacokinetic model of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing a malaria infection and a higher risk of developing severe malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarials are also altered during pregnancy, often resulting in a decreased drug exposure. Piperaquine is a promising anti-malarial partner drug used in a fixed-dose combination with dihydroartemisinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Method Symptomatic patients received a standard dose regimen of the fixed dose oral piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin combination treatment. Densely sampled plasma aliquots were collected and analysed using a previously described LC-MS/MS method. Data from 12 pregnant and 12 non-pregnant women were analysed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. A Monte Carlo Mapped Power (MCMP analysis was conducted based on a previously published study to evaluate the power of detecting covariates in this relatively small study. Results A three-compartment disposition model with a transit-absorption model described the observed data well. Body weight was added as an allometric function on all clearance and volume parameters. A statistically significant decrease in estimated terminal piperaquine half-life in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women was found, but there were no differences in post-hoc estimates of total piperaquine exposure. The MCMP analysis indicated a minimum of 13 pregnant and 13 non-pregnant women were required to identify pregnancy as a covariate on relevant pharmacokinetic parameters (80% power and p=0.05. Pregnancy was, therefore, evaluated as a categorical and continuous covariate (i.e. estimate gestational age in a full covariate approach. Using this approach pregnancy was not associated with any major change in piperaquine elimination clearance. However, a trend of increasing elimination clearance with increasing gestational age could be seen. Conclusions The population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine were well described by a three-compartment disposition model in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. The modelling approach showed no major difference in piperaquine exposure between the two groups and data presented here do not warrant a dose adjustment in pregnancy in this vulnerable population.

Hoglund Richard M

2012-11-01

201

Treatment of sexual contacts of syphilitic pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between August 1984 and May 1985, 197 syphilitic pregnant women were diagnosed at the antenatal clinic, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University. One hundred and sixty-nine male sexual contacts were serologically tested for syphilis and seventy-eight cases were found positive. Twenty-eight cases refused to be tested. Thirty-two syphilitic male contacts had cerebrospinal fluid tests and four were found to be abnormal. Fifty-three cases or 67.9 per cent of 78 syphilitic male consorts did not complete a full diagnostic and treatment protocol. They preferred to be treated with benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units intramuscularly for 3 consecutive weeks. After this treatment no patient agreed to a repeat spinal tap. This behavioral attitude concurred with their socioeconomic background. All were from a low socioeconomic group and lacked health knowledge. This made it difficult to work with them and contributed to inadequate management of their disease. PMID:2738493

Phaosavasdi, S; Snidvongs, W; Tasanapradit, P; Ungthavon, P; Bhongsvej, S; Jongpiputvanich, S; Vejjajiva, S; Udomsantisuk, P; Chitwarakorn, A; Panikabutra, K

1989-03-01

202

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods<...

Díaz-García Juan; Estrada-Martínez Sergio; Narro-Duarte Sergio; Sifuentes-Álvarez Antonio; Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme; Liesenfeld Oliver; Martínez-García Sergio; Canales-Molina Arturo

2006-01-01

203

Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

2009-01-01

204

Calorie Intake of Pregnant Women and Related Factors in Health Centers of Urban Areas Qom, 2007  

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Full Text Available

Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a critical period during which good maternal nutrition plays a key role influencing the health of both mother and child. The present study aimed at determining the intakes of energy and related factors in pregnant women.

 

Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1036 pregnant women were selected from health centers of urban areas in Qom. Personal interviews using the questionnaire of 24 -hour dietary recall were carried out to elicit information. Calorie intake efficacy was calculated based on nutrient substance intake. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software program. X2 test was used to determine the significance of differences (p<0/05.

 

Results: Calorie intake of 50% of subjects was adequate. The majority of pregnant women who had reported higher intake of energy were illiterate (%56.4 and house holders (%51/1? and in the third trimester (%58.8 There was a significant difference between calorie intake, occupation, level of education and stage of pregnancy. The mean of energy from oil and fat was higher than that of other food groups.

 

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the nutritional education is a component of programs targeted at working women and low income families.

Z Abedini

2012-05-01

205

Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women ' s perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross–sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6, and 11.5 (5.5, respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women’s stress.

Ilnaz Iranzad

2014-12-01

206

Domestic violence on pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified perpetrator class. PMID:17654190

Efetie, E R; Salami, H A

2007-05-01

207

Compliance to Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Low compliance has been linked to the ineffectiveness of supplementation programme among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the compliance of vitamin and mineral supplementation among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in urban and rural areas. A total of 118 pregnant women aged 28±4 years (urban areas = 62; rural areas = 56 were recruited. Socio demographic data and compliance to supplementation were obtained through self-reported questionnaire. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was obtained from the antenatal records. More than two-thirds of the subjects (79.7% were in third trimester and less than a third (20.3% was in second trimester. Overall, 49.2% of subjects complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation. The mean of weight and haemoglobin concentration were 63.7±15.1 kg and 11.3±1.1 g d/L, respectively. The overall percentage of subjects who complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation was 49.2%. There was no significant difference in percentage of subjects who complied with the supplements in urban (46.8% and rural areas (51.8% (p = 0.587. The prevalence of anaemia among the subjects (Hb <11 g d/L was 42.3% (n = 50. Prevalence of anaemia was lower in the compliant group compared with the non-compliant group (34.5% vs 50%, p = 0.01. Pregnant mothers who did not comply to the supplementation had significantly lower haemoglobin concentration (11.0±1.0 g d/L compared with those who complied (11.5±1.2 g d/L (p = 0.01. Percentage of compliance in anaemic and non-anaemic subjects were 34.5 and 65.5%, respectively (p = 0.088. The main reasons for non-compliance reported by subjects in both areas were forgetfulness (33.9%, side effects (nausea and vomiting (11.9% and worry regarding big size of babies (5.1%. In summary, the incidence of anemia is still high while compliance to supplementation is still low. Comprehensive nutrition education and health promotion programme should be carried out targeting pregnant women in urban and rural to educate the importance of compliance with the vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy.

A.M. Zahara

2010-01-01

208

Trauma abdominal em grávidas Abdominal trauma in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores indicativos (parâmetros clínicos e índices de gravidade fisiológicos e anatômicos da evolução materna e fetal entre gestantes vítimas de trauma abdominal submetidas à laparotomia e discutir as particularidades do atendimento nesta situação. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 245 mulheres com trauma abdominal e tratamento operatório, atendidas entre 1990 e 2002. Foram identificadas 13 gestantes com lesão abdominal submetidas à laparotomia. Para registro e análise estatística dos dados foram utilizados o protocolo Epi-Info 6.04 e o teste exato de Fisher, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foram relacionados com a mortalidade fetal: escore na escala de coma de Glasgow, pressão arterial sistólica, índices de trauma (RTS, ATI, ISS e lesão uterina. RESULTADOS: a idade variou de 13 a 34 anos (média de 22,5. Seis mulheres (46,2% estavam no terceiro trimestre de gestação. O trauma penetrante correspondeu a 53,8% das lesões e em seis dessas pacientes o mecanismo de trauma foi ferimento por projétil de arma de fogo. Três pacientes tiveram lesões uterinas, associadas com óbito fetal. Não houve óbito materno e a mortalidade fetal foi de 30,7%. Não houve associação entre os índices de trauma e a mortalidade materna e fetal. A lesão uterina foi o único fator preditivo de risco para perda fetal (p=0,014. CONCLUSÕES: apesar da casuística pequena e de se tratar de estudo retrospectivo de gestantes com trauma grave, os achados deste estudo mostram que não há indicadores com boa acurácia para indicação da evolução materna e fetal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the predictors (clinical findings and physiological and anatomical scores of the maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women victims of abdominal trauma who were submitted to laparotomy and to discuss particularities of assessment in this situation. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the medical records of 245 women with abdominal trauma and surgical treatment, from 1990 to 2002. Thirteen pregnant women with abdominal injury were identified. All cases were registered in the Epi-Info 6.04 protocol and data were analyzed statistically by the Fisher exact test, with confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: ages ranged from 13 to 34 years (mean of 22.5. Six women (46.2% were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Penetrating trauma accounted for 53.8% of injuries and in six of these patients the mechanism of trauma was gunshot wounds. Three patients had uterine injuries associated with fetal death. There were no maternal deaths and fetal mortality was 30.7%. The use of trauma scores was not associated with maternal and fetal mortality. Uterine injury was the only predictive risk factor for fetal loss (p=0.014. CONCLUSIONS: this is a retrospective study analyzing a small number of pregnant women victims of severe trauma. However, the results show that there are no predictive accuracy scores to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes.

Gustavo Pereira Fraga

2005-09-01

209

Demographic Characteristics and Reproductive Profile of Pregnant Women in Jamnagar District  

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Material and Methods: It was a community based cross-sectional study conducted among 300 pregnant women using pretested questionnaire. Sample size was calculated using the proportion of pregnant women having one or more living children. Results: Out of total 300 pregnant women studied, 6.00% of the total studied women were adolescents. Study revealed that 34.67% of the pregnant women were illiterate. More than three fourth i.e. 78.33% of the studied women got married by the age of 21 years and 16 % got married before legal age of marriage. Considering the age at first conception, 59 % women of the study group had their first pregnancy by 21 years of age and 5.00% of the study women conceived for the first time before 18 years of age. For 27.33% of the studied women, it was their third or more conception, while 17.33% of the studied pregnant women had two or more live children. Conclusion: Study revealed significant impact of area of resi-dence, literacy of the women and socio-economic class of the fam-ily over reproductive profile of women including interpregnancy interval and high parity.

Sumit V Unadkat, Sudha Yadav, J P Mehta, Dipesh V Parmar, Kishor M Dhaduk

2013-01-01

210

Depressed Pregnant Black Women Have a Greater Incidence of Prematurity and Low Birthweight Outcomes  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant black depressed women were compared to pregnant black non-depressed women on self-report stress measures and cortisol levels at mid and late pregnancy and on neonatal outcomes. The depressed women had higher anxiety, anger, daily hassles, sleep disturbance scores and cortisol levels at both prenatal visits. These higher stress levels may have contributed to the greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight neonatal outcomes noted in the depressed group, and they may partially ...

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Holder, Vitillius; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

2008-01-01

211

Stress-buffering effects of psychosocial resources on physiological and psychological stress response in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Sixty healthy pregnant women (aged 21-35 years), including 30 pregnant women at the beginning of second trimester and 30 women at the beginning of third trimester underwent a psychosocial stress test. Physiological (salivary free cortisol levels, salivary alpha-amylase levels) and psychological (perceived stress, mood, anxiety) responses to standardized psychosocial stress have been brought in association with psychosocial resources (self-efficacy and daily uplifts). Predictions revealed that...

Nierop, A.; Wirtz, P. H.; Bratsikas, A.; Zimmermann, R.; Ehlert, U.

2008-01-01

212

Assessments of maternal psychosocial adaptation for pre-labor hospitalized pregnant women in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Maternal psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy is significant task for women during pregnancy. Antepartum hospitalization is often characterized by maternal anxiety, boredom, feelings of imprisonment, and loneliness. The purpose of this study was to explore maternal psychosocial adaptation during pregnancy for hospitalized pregnant women compared with such adaptation in low-risk pregnant women from a reference population. This was a cross-sectional study with convenience samples of high-risk h...

Fumi Atogami; Toyoko Yoshizawa; Yasuka Nakamura

2011-01-01

213

Trends in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Anovaginal Colonization in Pregnant Women in 2005 versus 2009?  

OpenAIRE

In 2005, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) anovaginal colonization in pregnant women at our center (Columbia University Medical Center) was 0.5%, and MRSA-colonized women were less likely to carry group B streptococcus (GBS). In this study, our objectives were to identify changing trends in the prevalence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) anovaginal colonization in pregnant women, to assess the association between MRSA and GBS colonization...

Top, Karina A.; Huard, Richard C.; Fox, Zachary; Wu, Fann; Whittier, Susan; Della-latta, Phyllis; Saiman, Lisa; Ratner, Adam J.

2010-01-01

214

Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in K...

Diab Tayseer E; Salih Yasir; Abbaker Ameer O; Rayis Duria A; Adam Ishag

2010-01-01

215

Detection of Syphilis by Serologic Tests in Pregnant Iranian Women, Shiraz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background:Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum and transmitted via sexual contact, infected discharge and blood as well as vertical transmission. It causes various impacts on women during pregnancy and their newborns which results in various complications. Thus, screening of syphilis is routinely performed during pregnancy. Choosing to perform a specific screening test is based on the prevalence of the disease in the target population which needs adequate information in this regard. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women in Shiraz, South-west of Iran. Materials and Methods: in this 15 month prospective study, 1100 pregnant women aged between 15 – 42 years, referred to University affiliated hospital in shiraz, Iran were included Blood samples were obtained from all of our study population for performing RPR test. FTA-ABS serologic test was carried out on positive cases of RPR test. Results:15 suspicious cases with weakly positive RPR test were detected but in all of them FTA-ABS tests were negative.Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of syphilis was low in our area which may be due to variable reasons, such as reduction in the rate of unsafe and unprotected sex, improving knowledge, and adequate health care services. More studies are still needed to decide whether syphilis screening is beneficial in our area and should be considered as a routine test in pregnancy

Mohammad Motamedifar

2013-09-01

216

Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin F in plasma of pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this dissertation was to determine quantitatively prostaglandin-F in the plasma of pregnant women in order to obtain further knowledge on changes in PG-F during pregnancy, in particular during the last three months. The plasma of women with clinically normal pregnancies was taken. Prior to radioimmunoassay the plasma was extracted (separation of PG from other plasma components) and chromatography carried out (group separation of PG). The efficiency of this process, as measured by the recovery rate of 3H-PGF, lies between 60.99% and 93.01% for extraction and between 80.58% and 92.16% for chromatography. The plasma was extracted and analysed chromatographically for the assay. The radioimmunoassay was carried out according to the procedure recommended by the manufacturer. A calibration curve was produced without difficulty. The results of the examination of plasma samples were unsatisfactory because of the low sensitivity of the assay; PG-F values of the same order were obtained for all weeks of pregnancy. (orig./MG)

217

Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life.

Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

2013-01-01

218

Serum cytokine levels and T lymphocyte subsets in pregnant women with eclampsia  

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Full Text Available Background: Eclampsia, defined as the occurrence during pregnancy of hypertension, oedema, proteinuria and/or other neurologic abnormalities, causes substantial morbidity and mortality for both mother and foetus. However, its aetiology is largely unknown. Genetic and immune factors may play a role including a reduced maternal response to paternal antigen and an altered adaptation of the maternal immune system to the foetus. Methods: Participants consisted of pregnant women with and without a diagnosis of eclampsia (N = 20, each group, and normal healthy nonpregnant controls (N = 18. Women with smear positive malaria or clinical infections were excluded. Serum levels of TNF? and IL-10 were assayed by ELISA. T lymphocyte subsets of pregnant patients with and without eclampsia were also studied by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies and compared with the control group of 18 normal healthy nonpregnant women (NHC. Results: Eclampsia was associated with significantly lower mean serum IL-10 levels compared to normal pregnant and nonpregnant controls. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? were higher in pregnant women with and without eclampsia, compared to control nonpregnant women. Further differences on serum cytokine levels were observed in the significantly increasing ratio of IL-10 to TNF? from nonpregnant controls to normal pregnant women and to pregnant women with eclampsia. The mean values of CD3+ and CD4+ positive lymphocytes was significantly decreased in patients with eclampsia (p < 0.05 in this study compared to pregnant controls. Similarly, CD3+ and CD4+ T cells were further decreased in eclampsia and pregnant controls compared to nonpregnant controls (p < 0.05. A decreasing CD4/CD8 ratio was observed from non-pregnant to pregnant controls and to patients with eclampsia buttressing an increase in CD8+ cells in eclampsia and pregnancy compared to controls. Conclusions: While a pro-inflammatory immune milieu during pregnancy complicated with eclampsia was demonstrated, the presence of eclampsia was not associated with further cytokine differences.

Bolanle O. P. Musa

2012-09-01

219

Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban®) in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman,...

Bc, Chan; Koren G

2003-01-01

220

HIV testing of pregnant women: an ethical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent global advances in available technology to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission necessitate a rethinking of contemporary and previous ethical debates on HIV testing as a means to preventing vertical transmission. In this paper, we will provide an ethical analysis of HIV-testing strategies of pregnant women. First, we argue that provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing seems to be the most effective HIV test strategy. The flip-side of an opt-out strategy is that it may end up as involuntary testing in a clinical setting. We analyse this ethical puzzle from a novel perspective, taking into account the moral importance of certain hypothetical preferences of the child, as well as the moral importance of certain actual preferences of the mother. Finally, we balance the conflicting concerns and try to arrive at an ethically sound solution to this dilemma. Our aim is to introduce a novel perspective from which to analyse testing strategies, and to explore the implications and possible benefits of our proposal. The conclusion from our analysis is that policies that recommend provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing of pregnant mothers, with a risk of becoming involuntary testing in a clinical setting, are acceptable. The rationale behind this is that the increased availability of very effective and inexpensive life-saving drugs makes the ethical problems raised by the possible intrusiveness of HIV testing less important than the child's hypothetical preferences to be born healthy. Health care providers, therefore, have a duty to offer both opt-out HIV testing and available PMTCT (preventing mother-to-child transmission) interventions. PMID:21790963

Johansson, Kjell Arne; Pedersen, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Andersson, Anna-Karin

2011-12-01

221

[Characteristics of pregnant women, labor, and the newborn at the Skopje Clinic from 1978 to 1979].  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis was made of the first computer data received from the IFRP (International Fertility Research Program) within the framework of the International Study "Maternity Record" -- "Maternity Monitoring Care'. The main findings are the following: The women who were confined at the Skopje University Hospital during 1978--1979 were young, in their twenties. Women over thirty were confined very rarely. Most of the women surveyed had about 12 years of education. Pregnant women had artificial abortions very rarely (1:5.7 in favor of terminating pregnancy). Preventive work on contraception should include women at the time of delivery. Pregnant women in Skopje come to the Consulting Centers for a check-up mostly five times. The higher the parity, the less frequent the visits. More than half of pregnant women during the antenatal period had no complaints. Younger pregnant women had fewer difficulties and complications. The values of haemoglobin under 10 g% were very often in primiparas and over 12 g% in multiparas. The birthweight of women smoker's babies proved lower than that of women non-smokers' babies. In two thirds of women the delivery was induced by drugs and amniotomy. The delivery mostly lasted between 7--12 h, regardless of parity. Prolonged deliveries were the more frequent the younger the women. Primiparas gave birth to babies with a lower birthweight than multiparas. Almost all women (92.4%) were previously using no contraceptive devices. The main method of protection was coitus interruptus. PMID:553211

Antonovski, L; Curciev, K

1979-01-01

222

Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circulating IGF1, IGF2 or methylation of the INS-IGF2-H19 locus in men (n=134), non-pregnant women (n=74) and women at 15 weeks of gestation (n=98). Plasma IGF1 concentrations decreased with age (P<0.001) and plasma IGF1 and IGF2 concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or men (each P<0.001). SNP genotypes in the INS-IGF2-H19 locus were associated with plasma IGF1 (IGF2 rs680, IGF2 rs1004446 and IGF2 rs3741204) and IGF2 (IGF2 rs1004446, IGF2 rs3741204 and H19 rs217727). In single SNP models, effects of IGF2 rs680 were similar between groups, with higher plasma IGF1 concentrations in individuals with the GG genotype when compared with GA (P=0.016), or combined GA and AA genotypes (P=0.003). SNPs in the IGF2 gene associated with IGF1 or IGF2 were in linkage disequilibrium, hence these associations could reflect other genotype variations within this region or be due to changes in INS-IGF2-H19 methylation previously associated with some of these variants. As IGF1 in early pregnancy promotes placental differentiation and function, lower IGF1 concentrations in pregnant women carrying IGF2 rs680 A alleles may affect placental development and/or risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:25117571

Gatford, K L; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J A; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T

2014-09-01

223

Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

Ali Salah K

2011-01-01

224

Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

2012-06-01

225

Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ?900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

McIntyre H

2011-01-01

226

Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of ...

Lindemann Laura; Veeck Elaine B; Marinho Sandra A; Rockenbach Maria I; Shinkai Rosemary S

2006-01-01

227

Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for femalekes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential dose to their conceptus or children. The calculations are based on the data from ICRP Publications 88and 95.

228

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1% of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5% were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR?=?5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p? Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was high among the pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women.

Zemene Endalew

2012-12-01

229

Diet and weight gain characteristics of pregnant women with gestational diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objectives: To determine if women with gestational diabetes (GD) modify their diet and nutrient intake in late pregnancy and gain more weight during pregnancy compared to women without GD. Subjects and methods: Food and nutrient intake of 3 613 pregnant women was studied using food frequency questionnaires from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study. Results: GD was reported in 4.8% of the participating women (n=174). Women with GD gained less ...

Salmenhaara, Maija; Uusitalo, Liisa; Uusitalo, Ulla; Kronberg-kippila?, Carina; Sinkko, Harri; Ahonen, Suvi; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Kaila, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M.

2010-01-01

230

Serum HSV-1 and -2 IgM in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken for the purpose of finding IgM antibodies against HSV-1 and 2 infections among pregnant women and also to evaluate correlation of Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in these pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria were consecutively recruited, after they had given consents to participate in the study. Serum of each sample was assayed for HSV-1&2 IgM antibody using a commercial ELISA. Five (2.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for IgM antibody against HSV-1&2. Marital status mainly correlated (?(2) = 221.5, P 0.05) with HSV-1/HSV-2 infection and co-infection. We also observed a high overall anti-HSV-1&2 IgM seronegativity of 97.2% among these pregnant women. Group-specific seronegativity was also high ranging from 93.3-100%. Although the age-groups significantly differed, none of their variables showed statistical association with the seronegativity. This represents the first analysis of HSV IgM antibody reported in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and has important public health implications, particularly for pregnant women. Consideration of this information would benefit physicians providing primary gynecological and obstetric care to this population of women. PMID:25188909

Okonko, I O; Cookey, T I; Okerentugba, P O; Frank-Peterside, N

2015-01-01

231

Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-preg...

Tognazzo Federica; Forza Giovanni; Guarnieri Emanuela; Buja Alessandra; Sandonà Paolo; Zampieron Alessandra

2011-01-01

232

A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method [...] targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ?36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively). The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

F.M., Munari; F., De-Paris; G.D., Salton; P.S, Lora; P, Giovanella; A.B.M.P, Machado; L.S., Laybauer; K.R.P., Oliveira; C, Ferri; J.L.S., Silveira; C.C.F.C, Laurino; R.M., Xavier; A.L, Barth; S, Echeverrigaray; J.P., Laurino.

2012-03-01

233

A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ?36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

F.M. Munari

2012-03-01

234

High mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of obesity in pregnant women?  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Obesity is associated with an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in obese pregnant women, to assess the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of this disease and to evaluate its possible function as a diagnostic marker for obesity-related complications in obese women. Study participants were randomly selected, from a cohort of pregnant women afferent to our department. A total of 120 women were enrolled in this study: 60 pregnant women had normal body mass index (BMI) and 60 women resulted obese. Pre-pregnancy BMI, weight increase and HMGB1 levels were evaluated for each pregnant woman enrolled. Matching serum HMGB1 levels in two groups, our data evidenced higher levels in the obese women, with a statistically significant difference (p?=?0.0023). A significant positive univariate correlation was observed between serum HMGB1 levels and BMI in obese women. HMGB1 serum levels may therefore represent a predictive marker of disease in pregnant women (r?=?20.9 and p?=?0.0001). Further studies are needed in order to validate the role of this cytokine, with the aim of making it possible to use in clinical practice not only for diagnostic purposes, but especially for the early recognition of complications related to it. PMID:25356847

Giacobbe, A; Grasso, R; Imbesi, G; Salpietro, C D; Grasso, L; Laganà, A S; Triolo, O; Di Benedetto, A

2015-02-01

235

Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women.

Sklar, Peter A.; Bathgate, Susanne L.; Young, Heather A.; Parenti, David M.

2001-01-01

236

Definition of sistemic inflamatory response syndrome (SIRS in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: the Consensus Conference of the American College ofChestSurgeons and the American Society of Critical Care Medicine in 1992, definesthe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. In pregnantwomen, a seriesof physiological and anatomical changes. These changes SIRS denote by definition,being only physiological parameters in a pregnant woman with variation accordingto gestational age. The aim of this study is to perform a diagnostic evaluation of thedefinition of SIRS in critically ill obstetric patient, taking into account the parametersfound in two cohorts of patients.Methodology: we performed a multicenter comparative diagnostic study of twocohorts: a retrospective cohort of patients admitted to two intensive care units inthe city of Cartagena, Colombia, with a diagnosis ofsepsis of any origin, which werecompared with healthy pregnantpatients without septic focus in prenatal care in order toestimateappropriate cutoff for the definition of SIRS in pregnant women.Results: in developing this study we found that the cut-off points at 12400 cell/mm3 for leukocyte count, heart rate greater than 105 per minute and respiratory rate of20 per minute showed the best statistical behavior. With regard to the definition ofSIRS ConsensusConference of the American College of Chest Surgeons and the AmericanSociety of Critical Care Medicine in 1992, the only variation was found within thecutoff for heart rate, where 105 beats per minute, was show the best sensitivity andspecificity.Conclusión: the current criteria to define SIRS in pregnant women do not seem to beadequate according to the results of this study.RESUMEN:Introducción: en la Conferencia de Consenso del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos delTórax y de la Sociedad Americana de Medicina Crítica en 1992, se define el Síndromede Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica (SRIS. En la mujer gestante ocurren una seriede cambios fisiológicos y anatómicos. Estos cambios denotarían por su definición SRIS,siendo solamente parámetros fisiológicos en una mujer gestante con variación según suedad gestacional. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una evaluación diagnósticade la definición de SRIS en la paciente obstétrica críticamente enferma, teniendo encuenta, los parámetros encontrados en dos cohortes de pacientes.Metodología: se realiza un estudio diagnóstico comparativo multicéntrico, de doscohortes; una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes, ingresadas a dos unidades decuidados intensivos, en la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, con el diagnóstico de sepsisde cualquier origen, que se compararon con pacientes embarazadas sanas sin focoséptico en control prenatal, con el fin de estimar puntos de corte adecuados para ladefinición de SRIS en la embarazada.Resultados: al desarrollar este estudio encontramos que los puntos de corteestablecidos en 12400 cell/mm3 para el conteo leucocitario, frecuencia cardiaca mayorde 105 por minuto y frecuencia respiratoria mayor de 20 por minuto mostraron el mejorcomportamiento estadístico. Con respecto a la definición de SRIS de la conferencia deConsenso del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos del Tórax y de la Sociedad Americanade Medicina Crítica en 1992, la única variación encontrada corresponde al punto decorte para frecuencia cardiaca, donde 105 latidos por minuto, resultó mostrar la mejorsensibilidad y especificidad.Conclusión: los criterios actuales para definir SRIS, en la mujer gestante, no parecenser los más adecuados de acuerdo a los resultados de este estudio.

Polo-Mendoza Eduy

2011-12-01

237

Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

2010-07-01

238

Seroprevalance of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella and cytomegalovirus among pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we purposed to investigate seroprevalences of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella and cytomegalovirus for three different age groups and compare these results to other studies determined in our country and in literature. Methods: We determined retrospectively seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella and cytomegalovirus among all of 16-49 aged pregnant women admitted to our hospital between January 2012 and December 2013 Results: Seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG for toxoplasma, rubella and cytomegalovirus were found as 2,26% and 17.5%, 93,2% and 0,2%, also 99,3% and 3,2%, respectively. While seropositivite of IgG for Toxoplasma was detected to correlate with increasing patient age positively, seropositivity of IgM for Toxoplasma was negatively. Seropositivities of IgM and IgG for rubella decreased with increasing patient age were found. The seropositive rates of cytomegalovirus in age of 36-49 patients group were detected the lowest rate. Conclusion: We think that while screening of three infections were decided or not, current seropositive rates investigated screening in that places should know acoording to ages and need to assessment of socioeconomic status and meal practices. We recommend screening for these infections because of Toxoplasma and Cytomegalovirus infections are seen often in our region more that other region in our country.

Murat Bakacak

2014-06-01

239

Adherence to antiretroviral treatment for hiv positive pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Objective: to adherence to antiretroviral therapy by pregnant women living with HIV / AIDS and its determinants advantages and constraints. Method: this is about an exploratory descriptive study, from qualitative approach, using socioeconomic data collection questionnaire and open interviews in depth, content analysis to establish the themes. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research of the Mother and Child Hospital (protocol number 023/07. Results: the material was sorted and grouped into two themes: “HIV/AIDS: infection dramatically worldwide and “Pregnancy and Seropositivity: a challenge that is solvable”, each divided into subcategories for better understanding and analysis of data. Conclusions: the study presents results consistent with the profile of HIV/AIDS in the country with regard to internalization, pauperization and discovery of the diagnosis, confirming the pregnancy period as appropriate to the knowledge of their HIV status. Adherence to treatment in pregnancy is justified by the desire not to transmit the infection to their child. Descriptors: HIV seropositivity; psychology social; pregnancy; medication adherence.

Paula Saraiva Duailibe Barbosa, Loise Dantas Fonseca Ribeiro, Maria Eliane Liégio Matão, Pedro Humberto Faria Campos, Denismar Borges Miranda

2010-10-01

240

The Comparison of the Anemia in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in the Villages of the South-East of Caspian Sea-Gorgan-Iran  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is the comparison due to Iron deficiency in the villages of Gorgan city. Forty eight and 361 non-pregnant women were be classified in two groups for comparing among 415 women of 18-35 years old were chosen by compound sampling. After sampling, hematological examination was done by using Coulter counter in 9000 model and measuring of the serum iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC were performed by using spectrophotometery. In the pregnant women, serum Iron less than 30 mic g dL-1, Hemoglobin less than 11 g dL-1, Transferrin Saturation (TS less than 16% were be consider as anemia point and in non-pregnant women, this point is the serum iron less than 40 mic g dL-1, hemoglobin less than 12 g dL-1 and TS less than 16%. In pregnant women, the prevalence of the anemia on the basis of serum iron index, TS and Hb in seen 24.2, 42.4, 18.2%, respectively and in non-pregnant women is 21.2, 34.55 and 20.98%. In pregnant and non-pregnant women, the Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV is 83.48 and 85.34 Flit. There is a significant statistical differences on base of mean of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH and MCV among non-pregnant and pregnant women in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester (p<0.005. On the time of the sampling, 33% of pregnant and 8.4% of non-pregnant women have used Iron compounds. The results of this study shows in pregnancy period, supplement of the iron is necessary and person`s need must be evaluated before prescribing drug.

G.R. Veghari

2007-01-01

241

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

OpenAIRE

Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT) with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria.Results: The prevalence of GDM and impa...

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian; Nahid Shahbazian; Mehdi Yarahmadi; Saied Saiedi

2012-01-01

242

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya  

OpenAIRE

To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of...

Makayoto, Lyndah A.; Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

2013-01-01

243

High protein and iron-folate crackers supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies have revealed that several factors influenced the relatively low success of iron supplementation for pregnant women. The factors included poor distribution, low coverage and compliance, as well as low absorption. The aim of this study is to measure the iron status of pregnant women after consuming crackers containing fish powder and iron-folate. This study was carried out in the Purworejo district (Central Java) from February through October 2002. Using a randomized contro...

Faisal Anwar; Mudjajanto, Eddy S.; Drajat Martianto1); Hakimi Hakimi

2003-01-01

244

Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Six large European cities. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM were compared with pregnant women seronegative for toxoplasma (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios for acute infection adjusted f...

Cook, A. C.; Gilbert, R.; Buffolano, W.; Zufferey, J.; Petersen, E.; Jenum, P. A.; Foulon, W.; Semprini, A. E.; Dunn, D. T.

2000-01-01

245

Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly selected from the six divisions of Bangladesh. Socio demographic information and iodine nutrition knowledge, weight and height were collected. Salt samples were collected from the household and spot urine samples were collected from the respondents. The median urinary iodine concentration of adolescent girls and pregnant women were 135 and 133 ?g L-1, respectively. Among adolescent girls, 37% had UIC <100 ?g L-1 and among pregnant women, 56% had UIC < 150 ?g L-1. A significant correlation existed between the iodine concentration of the salt sample and UIC in both adolescent girls and pregnant women. Half of the households of both adolescent girls and pregnant women used inadequately iodized salt (<15 mg kg-1. Adolescent girls had better knowledge on cause and prevention of goitre than pregnant women. The odds ratio of adolescent girls and pregnant women to be iodine deficient were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.39 to 0.95 and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.98 when they used adequately iodized salt.The results show that sub-clinical iodine deficiency is still present in Bangladesh, specifically in the divisions of Dhaka and Rajshahi. Salt iodization, use of packed salt and nutrition education should consistently be stimulated, monitored and improved in order to establish adequate access to dietary iodine for all people in Bangladesh.

G. Ara

2010-01-01

246

Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in pl...

Santacruz, Arlette; Collado, Mari?a Del Carmen; Garci?a Valde?s, L.; Segura, M. T.; Marti?n Lagos, J. A.; Anjos, T.; Marti? Romero, M.; Lo?pez, R. M.; Florido, J.; Campoy, Cristina; Sanz, Yolanda

2010-01-01

247

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors...

Hussein Aqeely; El-gayar, Eman K.; Darakhshan Perveen Khan; Abdullah Najmi; Ayesha Alvi; Ibrahim Bani; Mohamed Salih Mahfouz; Saif Elden Abdalla; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.

2014-01-01

248

Stereological analysis of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of placentas of young and older pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Aim To determine quantitative parameters of volume density and absolute volume of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of control and experimental group, compare the results and search for correlation between structural parameters of resorption villi and pregnancy age. Metods The research was performed on 60 human placentas of term pregnancy: 30 placentas of pregnant women of age 20 - 34 (control group), and 30 placentas of pregnant women of age 35 and older (experimental group). Stereolog...

Sergije Markovi?; Zlata Žigi?; Suada Rami?; Jasminka Hadžihalilovi?

2010-01-01

249

Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. Methods A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted in three interventio...

Mäkelä Sari; Smeds Annika I; Saarinen Niina M; Kharazmi Elham; Luoto Riitta; Fallah Mahdi; Raitanen Jani; Hilakivi-Clarke Leena

2010-01-01

250

Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology: During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria. Geohelminth infections were identified using the concentration and Kato-Katz method. Results: Among 390 participants who provided a stool sam...

Eijk, A. M.; Lindblade, K. A.; Odhiambo, F.; Peterson, E.; Rosen, D. H.; Karanja, D.; Ayisi, J. G.; Shi, Y. P.; Adazu, K.; Slutsker, L.

2009-01-01

251

Drug information in pregnancy. Attitudes and needs among pregnant women and physicians  

OpenAIRE

Background: Drug use in pregnancy is common and both pregnant women and their physicians are in need of appropriate information for decision-making regarding drug therapy. However, uncertainty about the risks of drug use in pregnancy could result in restrictive attitudes to prescribing medicines and to their use.

Purpose: To examine attitudes of and needs for medicines information among pregnant women and physicians.

Materials and methods: Four studies based on t...

Widnes, Sofia Frost

2013-01-01

252

The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment  

OpenAIRE

This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interv...

Brown, Qiana L.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Penniman, Typhanye V.; Latimer, William W.

2012-01-01

253

Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA) in large scale trials. This study compared the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement between these measures. Methods Pregnant women (n = 58) with body mass index ?25 kg/m2 at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer and a Yamax Digi-Walker CW-7...

McParlin Catherine; Wg, Tennant Peter; Kinnunen Tarja I; Poston Lucilla; Robson Stephen C; Bell Ruth

2011-01-01

254

Dental Care Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States Reported in 1999 and 2002  

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Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine national and state-specific estimates of dental care use among adult pregnant women in the United States using data from two 12-month periods. The study also determined person-level characteristics that may predict a lack of dental care use within this subgroup. Methods Responses were analyzed from 4619 pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years who participated in the 1999 and 2002 state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Dental care use was defined as having a dental visit or a dental cleaning in the 12 months preceding the interview. State-specific estimates were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. population distribution. Multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate person-level characteristics that may predict not obtaining dental care during this period. Results Overall, 70% of pregnant women in 1999 and 2002 had received dental care in the previous 12 months. Age-adjusted estimates ranged from 36% (Nevada to 89% (Vermont to 91% (Puerto Rico. In 19 states, 75% or more of pregnant women had obtained dental care in the previous 12 months (age-adjusted figure. Most pregnant women with dental care were non-Hispanic white and married, and they had a greater than high school education. Income and smoking status were significant predictors for not using dental care. Conclusion In several states, more than 70% of pregnant women reported a dental visit or dental cleaning during the previous 12 months. Relative to the general population, pregnant women are as likely to receive dental care, but certain subgroups need to do much better. However, these estimates may be biased toward a population with a higher socioeconomic status and may not represent dental care use among pregnant women in the general U.S. population.

Peggy Timothé, DDS, MPH

2005-01-01

255

Awareness and Attitudes About HIV Among Pregnant Women in Aksu, Northwest China  

OpenAIRE

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region has a firmly established HIV epidemic among its intravenous drug user (IDU) population. Local sex workers were also found to be positive in 1998. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and attitudes among consecutively selected pregnant women was conducted November 2005 in Aksu Prefecture, north-western China, with a population on 2 million with about 25 000 pregnancies per year. A total of 291 pregnant women participated. We f...

Maimaiti, Rena; Andersson, Rune

2008-01-01

256

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between Se...

Adisa Rasaq; Fakeye Titilayo O; Musa Ismail E

2009-01-01

257

Serum Copper, Zinc and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia in Gorgan  

OpenAIRE

The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe pre...

Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J.

2014-01-01

258

Suspected acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women Suspeita de toxoplasmose aguda em gestantes  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reagent serology for suspected acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and to describe clinical, laboratory and therapeutic profiles of mothers and their children. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with IgM-anti-Toxoplasma gondii-reagent pregnant women and their children who attended the public health system in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, from January 2001 to December 2003. Information were obtained from clinical, laboratory (ELISA...

Marcela Peres Castilho-Pelloso; Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna; Ana Lúcia Falavigna-Guilherme

2007-01-01

259

Health-service utilization by pregnant women in the greater Mafikeng- Mmabatho district  

OpenAIRE

Since the implementation of free maternity services in South Africa from 1994, more maternity services were provided (SA, 1994: 73). These services are however inaccessible to many pregnant women in the rural areas, leading to sub-optimal antenatal health service utilization. Another problem that emerged, is deterioration in antenatal health service rendering throughout the country, as well as a lack of guidelines for the mobilization of pregnant women in order to promote optimal antenatal he...

Pretorius, C. F.; Greeff, M.

2004-01-01

260

Phthalates Biomarker Identification and Exposure Estimates in a Population of Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Phthalates are known reproductive and developmental toxicants in experimental animals. However, in humans, there are few data on the exposure of pregnant women that can be used to assess the potential developmental exposure experienced by the fetus. We measured several phthalate metabolites in maternal urine, maternal serum, and cord serum samples collected at the time of delivery from 150 pregnant women from central New Jersey. The urinary concentrations of most metabolites were comparable t...

Yan, Xiaoyong; Calafat, Antonia; Lashley, Susan; Smulian, John; Ananth, Cande; Barr, Dana; Silva, Manori; Ledoux, Thomas; Hore, Paromita; Robson, Mark G.

2009-01-01

261

HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 577 pregnant women seeking routine obstetric care were evaluated for HPV infection in their cervix during gestation and immediately before delivery, and in the oral cavity during gestation. Male partners present during the gestational clinic visit also provided a specime...

Haugen, T. H.; Turek, L. P.; Wang, D.; Yankowitz, J.; Ritchie, J. M.; Smith, E. M.

2004-01-01

262

Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly selected from the six divisions of Bangladesh. Socio demographic information and iodine nutrition knowledge, weight and height were collected. Salt samples were collected from the household and spo...

Ara, G.; Melse-boonstra, A.; Roy, S. K.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh F.; Ahmed, T.

2010-01-01

263

Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32...

Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.

2013-01-01

264

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P?contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. J. Med. Virol. 87:446-450, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25164987

Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2015-03-01

265

Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

2014-01-01

266

High protein and iron-folate crackers supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that several factors influenced the relatively low success of iron supplementation for pregnant women. The factors included poor distribution, low coverage and compliance, as well as low absorption. The aim of this study is to measure the iron status of pregnant women after consuming crackers containing fish powder and iron-folate. This study was carried out in the Purworejo district (Central Java from February through October 2002. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT design, 70 pregnant women in their second-third month of pregnancy were recruited, and divided into two groups. Ten women dropped out during the study. The first group consisted of 28 women were given protein – iron enriched crackers (PIEC group, while the second group of 32 women were given iron–enriched crackers (IEC group for a total of 12 weeks. The results showed that the hemoglobin (Hb levels and serum transferrin receptors (sTfR of both groups were increased. Serum ferritins (SF of both groups were decreased. At the end of the study, the increase in Hb and sTfR levels between the two groups were significantly different, while the decrease in SF was not significantly different. Animal protein from fish powder tended to improve absorption of non-heme iron among pregnant women, resulting in improved Hb and sTfR levels. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 243-6Keywords: pregnant women, anemia, iron deficiency, high protein crackers

Faisal Anwar

2003-11-01

267

Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/?L was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/?L were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt antimalarial treatment resulted in normalization of platelet counts within a week.

Moo Yoe

2008-10-01

268

Understanding Pregnant Women's Attitudes and Behavior Toward Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Internationally, pregnant and postpartum women have been the focus of influenza and pertussis immunization campaigns, with differing levels of vaccine acceptance. We used semistructured interviews to explore pregnant women's perspectives on influenza vaccination during pregnancy and postpartum pertussis vaccination. Many women saw pregnancy as a busy time filled with advice on what they "should" and "should not" do to ensure the health of their fetus, and vaccinating themselves was regarded as just one of these tasks needing consideration. Women were more concerned about potential risks to their infants' health before their own. They saw influenza as a disease affecting the mother, whereas they viewed pertussis as a threat to the baby and therefore comparatively more risky. They were thus more likely to intend to vaccinate against pertussis to protect their infant. Framing of vaccination information toward protection of the baby might help increase vaccine uptake among pregnant women. PMID:25246330

Wiley, Kerrie E; Cooper, Spring C; Wood, Nicholas; Leask, Julie

2015-03-01

269

Influenza and pregnant women: hospitalization burden, United States, 1998-2002.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women in later stages of pregnancy are at increased risk for serious influenza-related morbidity; thus, universal influenza vaccination of pregnant women is recommended. However, vaccine uptake in the United States has been suboptimal. We previously described the burden of severe influenza-related morbidity during pregnancy in the United States by examining hospitalizations of pregnant women with respiratory illness during influenza season. Nondelivery hospitalizations with respiratory illness had significantly longer lengths of stay than those without respiratory illness. Hospitalization characteristics associated with greater likelihood of respiratory illness were the presence of a high-risk condition for which influenza vaccination is recommended, Medicaid/Medicare as primary expected payer, and hospitalization in a rural area. These findings may be explained by these women being at higher risk of influenza-related morbidity or reflect disparities in receipt of influenza immunization. Universal vaccination of pregnant women to decrease influenza-related morbidity should be encouraged. PMID:17087611

Cox, Shanna; Posner, Samuel F; McPheeters, Melissa; Jamieson, Denise J; Kourtis, Athena P; Meikle, Susan

2006-10-01

270

Oral and dental health care practices in pregnant women in Australia: a postnatal survey  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess women's knowledge and experiences of dental health in pregnancy and to examine the self-care practices of pregnant women in relation to their oral health. Methods Women in the postnatal ward at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, completed a questionnaire to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices to periodontal health. Pregnancy outcomes were collected from their medical records. Resul...

Middleton Philippa F; Thomas Natalie J; Crowther Caroline A

2008-01-01

271

Nevirapine-induced side effects in pregnant women: experience of a brazilian university hospital  

OpenAIRE

Nevirapine-based therapy is associated with increased frequency of adverse events among HIV-infected pregnant women. The aim of this article was to evaluate the incidence of adverse effects in HIV-infected women who started nevirapine during pregnancy. A retrospective study was performed in our center between January 2003 and December 2006 analyzing all women prescribed nevirapine during pregnancy. Women presenting any risk factor for hepatotoxicity were excluded from the analysis. Patients w...

William Kondo; Elaine Aparecida Carraro; Elaine Prandel; Josiane Mourão Dias; Juliane Perini; Rodolfo Lara de Macedo; Taynah Cristina Cornelsen; Renato Sbalquiero; Maria das Graças Sasaki

2007-01-01

272

HIV Awareness and Risk Behavior among Pregnant Women in Mateete, Uganda (2010)  

OpenAIRE

Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate current knowledge, risk behavior, and attitudes among pregnant women in Mateete, Uganda. Methods. We collected 100 questionnaires and performed 20 interviews among women who attended antenatal care. Findings. All the women had heard about HIV/AIDS, and 92% were aware of mother-to-child transmission. The women overestimated the risk of achieving the virus since 45% believed in transmission by mosquitoes and 44% by kissing. Many pointed out that ...

Rune Andersson; Elly Muhumuza; Johanna Wahlberg; Josefin Sandqvist

2011-01-01

273

Sociodemographic profile and habits of life of pregnant women for conducting the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman  

OpenAIRE

The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP). The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM) of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory qua...

Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas; Ana Karoline Duarte Assunção; Roberta Mayara de Moura Rocha

2014-01-01

274

Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the coficantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

275

Increased awareness and health care provider endorsement is required to encourage pregnant women to be vaccinated.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal immunization is an important strategy recommended to protect both mothers and infants from serious infectious diseases; however uptake of maternal immunization is poor in Australia. This study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the decision making process and factors influencing a pregnant woman's decisions about recommended immunizations. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions to interview pregnant women. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques and drew on the Health Belief Model. Pregnant women (n = 17) were asked about their attitudes toward immunization during pregnancy and their perceptions about risk during pregnancy. Women were also asked to detail their decision making process and factors influencing their decisions about immunizations in relation to pregnancy. Most of the participants were not aware of the immunizations recommended during pregnancy, in pregnancy planning or after delivery. In addition to endorsement by their health care provider (HCP), perception of risk and benefit, including risk of infection, previous vaccination experiences and assessing cost benefit play a vital role in women's decisions whether to be immunized while pregnant. Although the role of the healthcare provider in advising pregnant women about immunizations was identified as vitally important, the majority of women had not been advised of recommended vaccines by their healthcare provider. Healthcare providers are key to ensuring pregnant mothers are informed about recommended vaccines and these need to be more proactively supported and encouraged by healthcare providers. This is likely to have a positive effect on acceptance and uptake of immunization by pregnant women. PMID:25483464

Collins, J; Alona, I; Tooher, R; Marshall, H

2014-10-01

276

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

Rosvold Elin

2007-11-01

277

The cytological diagnosis and prognosis of malignization of cervical epithelium of uterus in pregnant women.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation is dedicated to the study of the pathological alterations of cervical epithelium of uterus, proliferative activity in the lesion focuses and the improvement of cytological diagnosis of the state of cervical epithelium of uterus. The correlation between the proliferative processes in abnormal epithelium of uterine cervix and some pathological factors of the pregnant women organism was studied. The criteria for prognosis of the cervical epithelial dysplasia in pregnant women were elaborated on this basis of our data. The pathological processes in cervical epithelium were revealed in 309 pregnant women in the first trimester (mean age of women was 26,17±0,83 years. The hormonal state of pregnant women was studied on the basis of colpocytological picture and the colpocytological types which indicate the unfavorable prognosis with a certain degree of validity were determined. The mathematic model for all cytological groups of pregnant women for prognosis of inflammatory processes, epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was created. The simple and comprehensible prognostic scheme for diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was developed.

Sumenko V.V.

2007-01-01

278

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2% and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2% showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8% pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

FMR Lopes

2009-03-01

279

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiologic [...] al questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2%) and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2%) showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8%) pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

FMR, Lopes; R, Mitsuka-Breganó; DD, Gonçalves; RL, Freire; CJT, Karigyo; GF, Wedy; T, Matsuo; EMV, Reiche; HK, Morimoto; JD, Capobiango; IT, Inoue; JL, Garcia; IT, Navarro.

2009-03-01

280

Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ?70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

Roth Daniel E

2012-12-01

281

[The rates of seropositivity and seroconversion of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections caused by Toxoplasma gondii are frequently asymptomatic in healthy adults, however they may be serious in pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of seropositivity and seroconversion in pregnant women and newborn cord blood samples, and to evaluate those data in the view of relation to lifestyle and nutrition. A total of 312 pregnant women (mean age: 28.1 ± 5.2 years) who were admitted to and followed by gynecology clinics of Inonu University Medical School Hospital, Malatya, Turkey were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. Anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in pregnants and newborn cord sera were screened by commercial ELISA and immunofluorescence antibody (BioTek; USA) methods. A total of 312 sera from pregnant women and 312 cord blood samples during delivery were collected. IgG seropositivity rate in pregnants was found as 37.5% (117/312), seroconversion was not determined in restrained pregnants and T.gondii IgM was found negative in all pregnants. Also in all newborns IgM was negative and IgG seropositivity was determined as 33.3% (104/312) in cord blood. There was a statistically significant relationship between IgG seropositivity and raw meat consumption (ptoxoplasma antibodies should routinely be searched on the first visit of the pregnants and the seronegative cases should be trained about the preventive measures related to toxoplasmosis. The follow-up of toxoplasma seronegative cases during pregnancy can be achieved by only detecting the IgM class antibodies and this will also reduce the cost of screen test. PMID:22639318

Do?an, Keziban; Kafkasl?, Ay?e; Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Karao?lu, Leyla; Colak, Cemil

2012-04-01

282

Oxytocin mRNA content in the endometrium of non-pregnant women.  

OpenAIRE

Objective To study oxytocin mRNA in the human endometrium at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Design An exploratory study in non-pregnant women. Setting The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University Hospital, Sweden. Participants Thirty-three women of fertile age undergoing hysterectomy or endometrial curettage on routine benign gynaecologic indications. Methods Endometrial tissue was obtained throughout t...

Steinwall, Margareta; Hansson, Stefan; Bossmar, Thomas; Larsson, Irene; Pilka, Radovan; A?kerlund, Mats

2004-01-01

283

Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

2011-01-01

284

Modern practice in preparation of pregnant women to maternity (from interview with gynecologists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article issue is the formation of maternity readiness as one of the main aims in the work of a gynecologist. The results of introduction of birth certificates and dynamics in the field of quality of medical aid have been analyzed. The necessity evaluation of pregnant women in professional social and psychological assistance has been revealed. Types of women who are ready for maternity have been obtained. The complete representation of the importance, the maintenance and the ways of realization of social and psychological help to pregnant women has been clearly identified by gynecologists

Novokreschenova I.G.

2011-03-01

285

The consequences of malaria infection in pregnant women and their infants  

OpenAIRE

Preliminary results are presented from this study which indicate that 84.8 of pregnant women present at first antenatal visit with anemia (Hb 11g/dl) an 8.7 of their infants (n = 230) have a hemoglobin at birth below 14g/dl. There is an association between pregnancy anemia and malaria. A case control study in pregnant women and an infant cohort study to 18 months of age, are employed to study the cause and effects of anemia and malaria on women and their infants health.

Chimsuku, L.; Verhoeff, F. H.; Maxvell, S. M.; Broadhead, R. L.; Thomas, A.; Kaay, H. J.; Russell, W.; Brabin, B.

1994-01-01

286

Assessment of anxiety and depression levels of pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum in a case-control study  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the depression and anxiety levels of pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum by using the Beck depression and anxiety inventory scoring system in a Turkish population. Material and Methods: To ascertain this relationship, a case-control study was conducted involving 86 pregnant women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Forty-one subjects had hyperemesis gravidarum, and 45 were healthy pregnant women who served as control subjects. The gr...

Yavuz ?im?ek; Önder Çelik; Ercan Y?lmaz; Abdullah Karaer; Engin Y?ld?r?m; Saim Yolo?lu

2012-01-01

287

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women Admitted to the Health Centers of Khorram-Abad City, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in humans that can cause abortion in pregnant women or serious damage to their fetuses. To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women of Khorram-Abad,a city in the west of Iran, a cross sectional study was performed by random cluster sampling of pregnant women admitted to rural and urban health centers of Khorram-Abad during 2006 to 2007. Materials & Methods: After recording 390 vol...

Cheraghipour, K.; Taherkhani, H.; Fallah, M.; Sheikhian, A.; Kh. Sardarian; Rostami Nejad, M.; Maghsood, A. H.

2010-01-01

288

Frequency and Associated Factors for Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

OpenAIRE

Antepartum anxiety and/or depression is a major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of antepartum anxiety and/or depression among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital among pregnant women. A total of 165 pregnant women were interviewed by a clinical psychologist using HADS for assessing anxiety and/or depression and also collected information regarding sociodemographic, obstetric, family relation...

Ali, Niloufer S.; Azam, Iqbal S.; Ali, Badar S.; Tabbusum, Ghurnata; Moin, Sana S.

2012-01-01

289

Risk factors of development of inflammatory diseases of parodentium in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affect inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. Material and methods: The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 240 women with physiological pregnancy and 360 with pregnancy complicadet by gestosis. Re-sults: Freguency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnancy were defined. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Conclusion: Violations of immune homeostasis at the pregnancy, complicated gestosis, authentically are more expressed that contributes to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease. The imbalance of cytokines can serve in oral liquid as additional diagnostic and predictive marker of severity of a course of inflammatory periodontal disease.

Dubrovskaya M.V.

2013-09-01

290

End of life decisions and pregnant women: do pregnant women have the right to refuse life preserving medical treatment? A comparative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the practice of end of life decisions is applied to pregnant women. This is not an easy task as shown by the extensive case law and literature on the subject. The main conclusion of the article is that the pregnant woman's wishes should always be respected whatever the consequences for the foetus may be. Another position would unjustly sacrifice the woman's fundamental rights to bodily integrity and self-determination for the benefit of a non-person. The result is repeated in the situation where the woman is found to be incompetent or brain dead. PMID:21133244

Lemmens, Christophe

2010-12-01

291

Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88 200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression. About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. Multiparity, a normal or less good self-rated health, smoking, and a less health conscious diet were the strongest predictors of not doing exercise. Women of 25 years or older, with metabolic or psychiatric disorders, or who had received subfecundity treatment were more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups.In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target activities that may fit their needs, and, for research purposes, to identify adjustment variables or guide sensitivity analyses when data on confounders are lacking.

Juhl, Mette; Madsen, Mia

2012-01-01

292

Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions  

OpenAIRE

Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical act...

Sui Z; Jm, Dodd

2013-01-01

293

Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus status of pregnant women and their newborns in west iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women and in cord blood of their newborns. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH) Vit D, were measured in 193 pregnant subjects between 16-45 years of age in third trimester admitted in Be'sat hospital. Same were measured in the cord blood of 193 newborns belonging to them. Mean maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D was 16.5+-14.2 ng/mL, and cord blood was 12+-0.2 ng/mL. Fifty-seven percent of pregnant women had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Seventy six percent of newborns had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D correlated positively with cord 25(OH) Vit D (r=0.77, P<0.05). Mean maternal serum calcium was 8.89+-0.73 mg/ml and mean newborn serum calcium was 9.46+-0.93. Mean maternal serum calcium correlated with mean newborn serum calcium (r= 0.38, P<0.05). Twenty six percent of women and 37.8% of newborns had hypocalcemia. There was a high prevalence of significant hypovitaminosis D among pregnant women and their newborns. Our study emphasize the need of majority of pregnant women and their newborns to supplemental vitamin D and has significant public health implications. (author)

294

The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

2014-10-01

295

Prevalence and etiological classification of thrombocytopenia among a group of pregnant women in Erbil City, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and define the causes of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 850 pregnant women at different ages of gestation were screened for thrombocytopenia. A control group of 150 age-matched non-pregnant women were tested for platelet count. Newborns of thrombocytopenic women were tested within 24 hours of delivery and reassessment of the women's platelets was done within 7-10 days post-delivery. Results: The mean platelet count in pregnant women was significantly lower than in non-pregnant women (221±59.9/mm3 vs. 273±66.9/mm3. Thrombocytopenia affected 8% of cases, with peak incidence during the third trimester. Gestational thrombocytopenia was found to be the principal cause (73.8%; hypertensive disorders caused thrombocytopenia in 23% of cases and two cases (4% were due to immune thrombocytopenic purpura. No maternal or fetal complications were noted. The mean platelet count of 51 newborns of thrombocytopenic women was 240±7.1. Two newborns (4% had low platelet counts. Conclusion: The majority of thrombocytopenias were mild gestational and occurred in late pregnancy. No maternal or neonatal bleeding complications were observed.

Rawand Pouls Shamoon

2009-09-01

296

Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated-Herpes Virus (KSHV) Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Methods We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant ...

Malope-Kgokong Babatyi I; MacPhail Patrick; Mbisa Georgina; Ratshikhopha Edith; Maskew Mhairi; Stein Lara; Sitas Freddy; Whitby Denise

2010-01-01

297

Intimate Partner Violence and Community Service Needs among Pregnant and Post-partum Latina Women  

OpenAIRE

Healthcare providers are advised to refer abused women to needed community services. However, little is known about abused women's perceived need for services, particularly among Latina women. We examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and perceived needs for legal, social, and job services among a prospective cohort of 210 pregnant Latinas. At the pre-natal interview 27.2% of recent IPV(+) Latinas reported needing legal services compared to 27.1% of ever IPV(+) and ...

Eisenman, David P.; Richardson, Erin; Sumner, Lekeisha A.; Ahmed, Sawssan R.; Liu, Honghu; Valentine, Jeannette; Rodriguez, Michael A.

2009-01-01

298

Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: A longitudinal study  

OpenAIRE

Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC inc...

Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-a?ke; Kippler, Maria

2013-01-01

299

Study of Molecular Epidemiologic of Group B Streptococcus Colonization in Pregnant Women by PCR Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Group B streptococcus(GBS(Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of the newborn infant and accounted as a factor leading septicemia after birth in mothers. Infections in infants are usually acquired by contact with the genital tract of the mother during labor and delivery. So a rapid screening test for group B streptococcus that could accurately identify pregnant women who are carrying the bacteria at the time of delivery would obviate the need for prenatal screening.The goal of this study was molecular epidemiology of group B beta Hemolytic Streptococcal(GBS colonization in the vaginal flora of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from mucus of anal and vaginal of 250 pregnant women during 35-37 weeks ingestion by swap. Samples were tested by standard culture using Todd Hewitt Broth and Blood Agar and also by PCR using cfb gene.Results: Culture identified 21(8.4% women as carriage of GBS from 250 women but PCR assay could identify 24(9/6% women. In comparison to culture results, sensitivity, NPV Specificity PPV of PCR Were(100%, 100% and 97%, 82% respectively. The times that used for PCR assay and culture were 2h and 36h respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that group B streptococci can be detected rapidly and reliably by a PCR assay of combined vaginal and anal secretions from pregnant women at the time of delivery. Also this study shows that incidence of GBS is at high rate in Iranian pregnant woman, so we recommend screening of pregnant woman for detecting of GBS emphatically.

MB Khalili

2011-12-01

300

Iodine insufficiency in pregnant women from the State of São Paulo / Insuficiência iódica em gestantes paulistas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo : O consumo de quantidade adequada de iodo durante a gestação é de fundamental importância para o desenvolvimento neurológico do feto. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional iódico em gestantes do estado de São Paulo, Brasil.Material e métodos : Analisamos a concentração u [...] rinária de iodo (UIC) em 191 gestantes e em 58 mulheres não gestantes de mesma faixa etária. Foram utilizados os critérios da OMS para definir suficiência iódica (mediana de UIC: 150-249 µg/L entre as gestantes e 100-199 µg/L para as não gestantes).Resultados : A mediana de UIC das gestantes estudadas esteve abaixo da recomendada (mediana = 137,7 ?g/L; 95% IC = 132,9 – 155,9) enquanto a das mulheres não grávidas se mostrou na faixa adequada (mediana = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159,3 – 200,1). Entre as gestantes, 57% apresentaram UIC Abstract in english Objective : The intake of adequate amounts of iodine during pregnancy is essential for the neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in pregnant women from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Material and methods : We analyzed urinary iodine concen [...] tration (UIC) in 191 pregnant and 58 non-pregnant women matched by age. We used the World Health Organization criteria to define sufficient iodine supply (median UIC: 150-249 µg/L among pregnant women, and 100-199 µg/L for non-pregnant women).Results : Median UIC of the pregnant women studied was lower than the recommended value (median = 137.7 µg/L, 95% CI = 132.9 – 155.9), while non-pregnant women had UIC levels within the appropriate range (median = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159.3-200.1). UIC was below 150 µg/L in 57% of the pregnant women.Conclusions : Although a larger sample is needed to consolidate these findings, these results raise concerns about the adequacy of the iodine supply of pregnant women in Brazil, especially considering the new determinations of the Brazilian government, which have recently reduced the concentrations of iodine in table salt to 15-45 mg/kg of salt. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):282-7

Sabrina Maria Saueia, Ferreira; Anderson Marliere, Navarro; Patrícia Künzle Ribeiro, Magalhães; Léa Maria Zanini, Maciel.

2014-04-01

301

Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Akinsegun A Akinbami,1 Sarah O Ajibola,2 Kabiru A Rabiu,3 Adeniyi A Adewunmi,3 Adedoyin O Dosunmu,1 Adewumi Adediran,4 Vincent O Osunkalu,4 Bodunrin I Osikomaiya,5 Kamal A Ismail,51Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 2Department of Haematology and Blood, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 4Department of Haematology and Blood, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 5Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy.Subjects and methods: This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed.Results: Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 109, 7.88 ± 2.33 × 109, and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 109, respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 109, 227.57 ± 63 × 109, and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 109, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296.Conclusion: These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria.Keywords: anemia, thrombocytopenia, hematology, normal pregnancy, trimester

Akinbami AA

2013-05-01

302

Comparison of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in the Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women  

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Full Text Available - To Compare colonization of group B streptococcus (GBS in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. In this prospective study 50 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (both pregestational and gestational and 43 pregnant women without diabetes between 33 and 37 weeks' gestation were evaluated. Three samples for Group B streptococcal culture detection were obtained from each subject in the following order: perinea sample, vaginal sample, and an anorectic sample. All had singleton gestations, negative tests for human immunodeficiency virus, and intact membranes at enrollment. Pearson chi-square and fisher, Exact test were used when appropriate. Most common site of GBS colonization in all women was vagina (11.8%. Colonization of group B streptococcus in control group included vagina (7% perineum (0.3% and rectum 0.3% and in diabetic group included vagina (16% perineum (16% and rectum (16%. Although comparison was shown higher vaginal colonization rate in diabetic group (16% versus 7% but difference was not significant (P=0.154.The prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization in gestational diabetes was 20% and higher than pregestational diabetic women. Among women with pregestational diabetes, the prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization was 15% in non-insulin dependent diabetic women and 10% in insulin dependent diabetic women (P> 0.05. Comparison between two groups showed high rectal colonization in diabetic group and difference was significant (P= 0.027. Pregnant diabetic patients have higher carriage rates of group B streptococcus (GBS in rectum than non-diabetic pregnant women and diabetes is a risk factor for group B streptococcus colonization during pregnancy.

Akhlaghi Farideh

2009-05-01

303

Nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women  

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Full Text Available introduction and objective. Teaching pregnant women behaviours connected with care for one’s health condition and a healthy lifestyle is crucial in perinatal care. Desired health behaviours, including nutritional habits, play an important role in the health of the mother, as well as the proper development of the foetus. The aim of the presented study was to analyse the subjective assessment of nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women. materials and method. Research was conducted on a sample of 81 women in Szczecin. The methodological basis for investigation was Juczy?ski’s Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI. General index of intensity of health behaviours (GIIHB was calculated by adding the results for all the 24 statements included in the HBI. Four categories of health behaviours were analysed separately: proper nutritional habits, preventive behaviours, positive thinking and health practices. The study presents the analysis of proper nutritional habits (PNH in the light of GIIHB of women attending antenatal classes. results. Results indicate that the PNH of pregnant women displays a positive correlation with their GIIHB (r=0.654; p<0.05. It is also shown that the PNH (r=0.26, p<0.05 and GIIHB (r=0.35; p<0.05 are related to the age of pregnant women participating in antenatal classes. conclusions. Research indicates the need for education of pregnant women, initiatives and campaigns aimed at propagating and promoting proper health behaviours, including nutritional behaviours. There is a positive relationship between the PNH of women participating in antenatal classes and their GIIHB. Such measures should be addressed to women regardless of whether they participate in antenatal classes or not, and regardless of their age or level of education.

Justyna Krzepota

2014-06-01

304

Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban® in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for smoking cessation for pregnant patients. There are currently four studies that have investigated the use of nicotine patch, three for nicotine gum, and registry and preliminary reports for bupropion. These studies did not show any adverse pregnancy outcomes with the use of pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. All the nicotine replacement therapy studies, with the exception of one randomized-controlled nicotine patch trial had small sample sizes and looked at short-term use of drug in the third trimester. Two studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman. The results from these studies reveal greater nicotine metabolism in pregnant individuals who continue to smoke during pregnancy. Current guidelines from several organizations uniformly recommend that Nicotine Replacement Therapy should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have been unsuccessful. Bupropion is recommended in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. There is a need for further studies on the safety and effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement therapy and bupropion in pregnancy. However, considering the current research and guidelines, pharmacological cessation aids should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have not been effective.

Koren G

2003-09-01

305

Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women and its relationship with socio-demographic variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain conditions may have an affect on gingival status and may aggravate pre-existing disease, especially in persons with poor oral hygiene. Pregnancy is one of these conditions. In addition, there is evidence in the literature suggesting an association between periodontal diseases in pregnant women and giving birth to premature, low-birth infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of periodontal health knowledge, and awareness, among pregnant women in Jordan. This was carried out by cross-sectional survey using self-administered, structured questionnaires distributed at six maternity care centres in Irbid City. Questionnaire items addressed personal and socio-demographic variables and periodontal health awareness and knowledge of pregnant women. Women (n = 300) were randomly chosen from attendants to these centres. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed, only 275 pregnant women ages 16-45 years with a mean of 29 year responded and were included in the study. Data were analysed by chi-squared test with the level of significance set at (P < 0.05). About one-third of the participants had secondary level of education; it appeared that a minority of the pregnant women had knowledge or ability to identify dental plaque (16.4%) and its harmful effects (22.5%), while most of them (88%) were aware that bleeding gums indicated the presence of periodontal disease. The differences in the responses to knowledge questions were only significant for question number one (What is plaque?) among different educational levels and groups. This study revealed that (71.6%) of the pregnant women knew the main cause of gum disease; however 56% of them do not believe that frequency of teeth brushing should be increased during pregnancy and only 5.1% believed there might be a relationship between gum diseases and premature labour. Knowledge and awareness for pregnant women about their teeth and gingival condition is generally poor. Pregnant women need accurate information about their teeth and oral health. Simple educational preventive programmes on oral self-care and disease prevention before and during pregnancy should be provided to improve oral health. PMID:16451386

Alwaeli, H A; Al-Jundi, S H

2005-05-01

306

Epidemiological and Clinical Reasons for Vaccination Against Pertussis and Influenza in Pregnant Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccinations in pregnancy are an important aspect of prenatal care for improving both maternal health and neonatal outcomes. Despite the fact that protection against some infectious diseases for pregnant women can be easily provided through immunizations, current coverage rates are low. Two vaccines are notably recommended during pregnancy: influenza and the combined tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. In this review the authors discuss current recommendations for vaccination against pertussis and influenza in pregnant women in terms of epidemiological, clinical, and immunological reasons, taking into account safety and effectiveness. Promoting patients' awareness about pertussis and influenza and encouraging general practitioners, nurses and obstetricians to recommend the pertussis booster and influenza vaccine will hopefully increase the number of pregnant women who choose to become vaccinated. PMID:25398316

Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gawlak, Maciej; Zyci?ska, Katarzyna; Wardyn, Kazimierz; Kuchar, Ernest

2014-11-15

307

The perception of pregnant women dealing with HIV infection - an exploratory study  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to learn about the feelings experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women. This was a qualitative study carried out at a Maternity in Fortaleza, Brazil, from April to May 2005. Nine pregnant women who were aware of being infected with HIV were interviewed using guided questions. Data analysis was performed by reading and ordering the data, culminating in speech categorization. The data indicated that, when the pregnant women received a diagnosis of HIV infection they experienced episodes of sadness, anger and depression, but, with the passing of time, they looked for different strategies in order to cope with the disease. Pregnancy, even when unplanned, became something indispensable in their lives and represented not only encouragement and hope not to develop more advanced stages of the disease, but also a reason to overcome the social problems due to the infection.

Simone Gonçalves Vasconcelos

2006-04-01

308

Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokineti...

Roth Daniel E; Al Mahmud Abdullah; Raqib Rubhana; Black Robert E; Baqui Abdullah H

2012-01-01

309

[A seroepidemic survey on the infection of toxoplasma in pregnant women and its significance to better child-bearing].  

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In order to find out the perniciousness of Toxo infection in pregnant women and to adopt proper intervention measures, we carried out a seroepidemiologic survey of Anti-Toxo-IgM with Capture-EIA in pregnant women who were given perintal medical care in Henan province. The positive rate of Anti Toxo-IgM was 3.38% among 4,126 pregnant women. A follow-up survey showed that abnormal birth rate was 8.20% in those infected women. We tried intervention at birth in six infected women including four on an initiative termination of pregnancy. Among the two who insisted in heeping pregnant, one neonate died of unusual delivery. Based on the study findings, sero-epidemiologic survey in pregnant women shows an important significance in better child-bearing. PMID:9387574

Zhang, A M; Zhang, T; Hao, Z Y

1996-10-01

310

Exploring posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile among pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in perinatal than general samples of women (6–8% versus 4–5%). To explore potential causes, we examined the symptom profiles of women belonging to two separate samples: a perinatal clinic sample (n = 1,581) and a subsample of women in a similar age range from the U. S. National Women’s Study (n = 2,000). Within the perinatal sample, risk ratios were higher for all 17 PTSD symptoms among women with current PTSD compared with unaffect...

Seng, Julia S.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Resnick, Heidi; Reed, Caroline D.; King, Anthony; Low, Lisa Kane; Mcpherson, Melnee; Muzik, Maria; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel

2010-01-01

311

Antibodies Frequency Against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella Virus and Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available      Aim: Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus (CMV infections can be seen in all age groups and they are usually asymptomatic infection diseases, but it is important seeing them in pregnant women especially in first trimester because they compose congenital malformations in fetus.In this study, I aimed at the seroprevelance of IgM and IgG type antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV infections according to the age groups 14-24, 25-34 and 35-44 of pregnant women who applied for routine examination in Usak region. Material and Method: 1465 pregnant women who applied for examination in Usak State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between the dates of July 1st 2010 - June 30th 2011 during 1 year period were seperated in to 3 age groups of 14-24, 25-34 and 35- 44. These patient’s laboratory results of IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV were analysed retrospectively. Results: 588 pregnant women (40.1% between the ages 14-24, 758 (51.8% between 25-34, 119 (8.1% between 35-44, total 1465 pregnant women examined. The results are Toxoplasmosis IgM positivity 3.0%, Toxoplasmosis IgG positivity 18.3%, Rubella virusIgM positivity 1.0%, Rubella virus IgG positivity 92.2%, CMV IgM positivity 1.0%, CMV IgG positivity 99.4% according to the all age groups. Discussion: In this study, Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus, and CMV seroprevalence were determined in pregnant women who admitted to Usak State Hospital. As there is no similar datas of Usak City in the past, I believe this study provide constributes to the literature.

Güliz Doðan Toklu

2013-01-01

312

Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI) among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecut [...] ive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9%) had bacteriuria. The mean age of the all the pregnant women included in the study was 28.40 years with a standard deviation of 6.16. Age ranged from 15 to 45 years of age. The urine culture of the asymptomatic pregnant women (1505 cases) showed growth in only 134 cases (8.9%). Escherichia coli was the commonest organism 79 (58.96%) followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%) and S aureus 18 (13.43%). Escherichia coli, which comprised 58.96% (79) of the isolates, were 88.62%, 87.35%, and 83.55% sensitive to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and cefotizoxime respectively. Similarly, E. coli were 89%, 70%, and 20% resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin respectively (OR 1.57 95% CI 1.01, 2.44). After analyzing, four variables, hemoglobin levels seem to be independently associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (OR = 9.41 (1.65-50.38). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women was 8.9%. The predominant organisms were Escherichia coli 79 (58.96%), followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%). Most strains of Escherichia coli showed that they were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin.

Kalantar, Enayat; Farhadifar, Fariba; Nikkho, Bahram.

2008-12-01

313

HIV testing of male partners of pregnant women in Porto Alegre, Brazil: a potential strategy for reduction of HIV seroconversion during pregnancy.  

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Pregnant women have a significantly higher risk of HIV acquisition during gestation than their non-pregnant counterparts due to behavioral and biological factors. Acute seroconversion during gestation results in increased HIV mother-to-child transmission rates and has been identified as a major public health challenge. In order to address potential HIV seroconversion in our pregnant patients, we conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate the acceptability of offering HIV testing to sexual partners of HIV-negative pregnant women receiving antenatal care at two hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Over a 14-month study period, HIV-negative pregnant women at two hospital-based clinic sites were encouraged to bring their stable sexual partner for HIV voluntary counseling and testing during prenatal care. Women were re-interviewed following delivery to measure success of the intervention. Of the 1223 HIV-negative pregnant women enrolled in the study, 663 (54%) of their male sexual partners received HIV testing during antenatal care and 4 (0.6%) were diagnosed with HIV infection. A total of 645 women were interviewed at the time of delivery, with 620 (97%) confirming that HIV testing was suggested to their partner. The most common reason provided by women as to why partners did not come for testing was work (69%) and lack of perceived risk (14%). Independent predictors of successful partner testing included being white (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.12), married (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.08-2.94), having an older age of sexual debut (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98), and being recruited at Hospital Conceiçao (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.52-2.88). We conclude that HIV partner testing during prenatal care is acceptable, rendering this intervention attractive to public health programs targeting prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24200084

Yeganeh, Nava; Simon, Mariana; Dillavou, Claire; Varella, Ivana; Santos, Breno Riegel; Melo, Marineide; Fonseca, Rosana; Lira, Rita; Gorbach, Pamina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

2014-01-01

314

Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

Cully, G

2010-09-01

315

Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt. PMID:25343469

Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

2014-09-01

316

Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women  

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Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

Roshan T. Ramlal

2015-01-01

317

Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; The Ban Study Team

2015-01-01

318

Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ? 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

Caron Mélanie

2012-10-01

319

Toxoplasmosis-Serological Evidence and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in Southern Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and none were positive for IgM antibody. Multivariate analysis ...

Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ling, Lau Yee; Chandeying, Verapol

2011-01-01

320

Population Pharmacokinetics of Nevirapine in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Their Neonates ?  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to describe the nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics (PK) in pregnant women and their neonates and to evaluate the transplacental drug transfer and administration scheme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Thirty-eight HIV-1-infected pregnant women were administered one tablet of NVP (200 mg) and two tablets of tenofovir-emtricitabine (Truvada) at the initiation of labor. Children were given NVP syrup (2 mg/kg of body weight) as a single dose (sdN...

Benaboud, Sihem; Ekoue?vi, Didier K.; Urien, Saik; Rey, Elisabeth; Arrive?, Elise; Blanche, Ste?phane; Gray, Glenda; Sim, Kruy Leang; Avit, Divine; Mcintyre, James; Nerrienet, Eric; Dabis, Franc?ois; Tre?luyer, Jean-marc; Hirt, De?borah

2011-01-01

321

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity ...

Fmr, Lopes; Mitsuka-bregano?, R.; Dd, Gonc?alves; Rl, Freire; Cjt, Karigyo; Gf, Wedy; Matsuo, T.; Emv, Reiche; Hk, Morimoto; Jd, Capobiango; It, Inoue; Jl, Garcia; It, Navarro

2009-01-01

322

Health-service utilization by pregnant women in the greater Mafikeng- Mmabatho district  

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Full Text Available Since the implementation of free maternity services in South Africa from 1994, more maternity services were provided (SA, 1994: 73. These services are however inaccessible to many pregnant women in the rural areas, leading to sub-optimal antenatal health service utilization. Another problem that emerged, is deterioration in antenatal health service rendering throughout the country, as well as a lack of guidelines for the mobilization of pregnant women in order to promote optimal antenatal health service utilization (ANHSU in the North West Province. The mentioned problems were the reasons for undertaking this research.

C.F. Pretorius

2004-09-01

323

Misoprostol as a family planning drug : use in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Background: Availability of comprehensive family planning services is fundamental in improving and ensuring women’s right to life and health. An estimated 222 million women have an unmet need for contraception, and 43.8 million pregnancies are terminated each year, of which 21.6 million are considered to be unsafe and one of the main contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity. Medical abortion using misoprostol alone, or preferably the combined regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol,...

Sa?a?v, Ingrid

2014-01-01

324

Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa: Drug Use, Sexual Behavior, and the Need for Comprehensive Services  

OpenAIRE

The multiple risks associated with methamphetamine use are of serious concern for women. These risks and consequences are magnified during pregnancy. This secondary analysis of a parent study compared 26 pregnant to 356 nonpregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, on selected demographic, psychosocial, and HIV-risk domains to identify their treatment service needs. Proportionally, more pregnant than nonpregnant women are using methamphetamine, P = .01, although a very high rate of women us...

Jones, Hendr Amp E. E.; Browne, Felicia A.; Myers, Bronwyn J.; Tara Carney; Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson; Kline, Tracy L.; Winona Poulton; Zule, William A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

2011-01-01

325

Musculoskeletal problems among pregnant women: a facility based survey in Odisha  

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Full Text Available Background: Chronic medical conditions are in focus for the development of strategies aimed at improving population health worldwide. This is also true for chronic pain conditions leading to impaired or non-existent ability to exercise, as physical inactivity is associated with the development of chronic diseases. Musculoskeletal disorders constitute an estimated 90% of all chronic pain, of which back pain contributes to a high extent. During the time of pregnancy many hormonal and anatomical changes that affect the musculoskeletal system in the female body, which may cause various musculoskeletal complaints, predispose to injury, or alter the course of pre-existing conditions. Though Obstetric physiotherapy is an essential part of maternal health care and promotion; still it is not well known in developing countries like India. So this current study aimed to address common musculoskeletal complaints arising among the women during prenatal period in Odisha. Methodology: A cross sectional study was designed in rural & urban area health facilities targeting the pregnant women of Odisha. Total of 410 pregnant women from selected facilities of two different regions of Odisha- Eastern (Urban and Western (Rural were interviewed with a structured validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis compared the independent variables of participants with Musculoskeletal Pain using independent sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square for ordinal/nominal variables has been reported considering null hypothesis to be significant if p-value is <0.05 which is level of significance. Results: About half (50.7% of the participants reported symptoms at least in one part of their bodies, over the pregnancy period. Among these, acute Low back pain was the highest of 55.6% and 35.4% of chronic, followed by acute ankle pain (25.9% and knee pain (16.6%. Neck pain (4.9%, Shoulder pain (4.4% were the least reported among all participants. The MSDs pain is more among the urban population (54.4%, compared to rural community (45.6%, which shows statistically significant with p-value of 0.003.Conclusion:Low back pain is the commonest of all, prevailing around more than half of subjects from our sample. A mixed research method strongly recommended to conduct, including both pre and post-natal period women, for generalizability and other facilities from all over the globe should be focused.

Yasobant S, Nibedita S, Saswata S, Arnansu M, Kirti S

2014-04-01

326

Social risk factors that influence the spread of HIV among pregnant women in Ukraine  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND. HIV infection in Ukraine is gaining large scale, affecting various population groups including those which are not considered risk groups for HIV infection. Injection drug users (IDUs remain the main source of HIV infection. The potential penetration of the virus into the general population is determined by the chain of transmission of HIV through unprotected sexual contacts of individuals who do not inject drugs with IDUs. The level of HIV infection among women attending prenatal clinics quite accurately reflects the level of HIV prevalence and trends of the epidemic among the general population.METHODS. The project is developed by the Ukrainian National AIDS Centre. Project timeframe is January–August 2011. Expected number of participants is 1041. Target group includes HIV-positive women who were pregnant and first registered as HIV-positive in 2009-2010 and gave birth to their babies in 2010-2011. Preliminary data analysis anticipates identification of traditional risk groups (IDUs, sexual workers’ clients, prisoners, HIV-positives among sexual partners of women from the study group. Social, demographic, and behavioral risk factors are to be estimated among the target group, and the probable transmission routes among the study participants are to be elucidated. As the study is in progress, we report here the results of the analysis of a pilot group of 21 filled-in questionnaires.RESULTS. The majority of the study population are young women aged 15-30 with university (28.6% or college (23.8% education. Most of them are city-dwellers and are married. Nine in ten respondents were tested as HIV-positive during pregnancy. Two thirds of respondents indicated the heterosexual way of transmission as the most probable. Nine in ten denied having injected drugs; however, 15% of them had hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus antibodies.CONCLUSION. According to preliminary results, HIV-positive women are young married city-dwelling women who do not belong to HIV high-risk groups.

Slobodianyk, Liudmyla

2011-05-01

327

Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

2013-01-01

328

Seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in North India: a tertiary care hospital based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry outthis study at a tertiary care hospital in north India Methods Blood samples from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were collected after informed consent and pre-test counseling. The samples were tested for HIV antibodies as per the WHO guidelines, over a period of four years from January 2003 to December 2006. Results Of the 3529 pregnant women tested in four years, 0.88% (CI 0.5 – 1.24 women were found to be HIV seroreactive. Majority of the seroreactive pregnant women (41.9% were in the age group of 20–24 years followed by the 30–34 yrs (25.8% and 25–29 years (22.6% age group. The mean age of the HIV positive women was 24.9 years (SD ± 1.49 yrs. The HIV seroprevalence rates showed an increasing trend from 0.7% (CI 0.14 – 2.04 in 2003–2004 to 0.9% (CI 0.49 – 1.5 in 2005–2006. This prevalence rate indicates concern, as Delhi and its adjoining states are otherwise considered as 'low prevalence states'. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be increasing in the last four years amongst pregnant women of North India. These findings are in contrast to the national projections.

Singh Sarman

2007-11-01

329

Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre-eclampsia in Dakahlia, Egypt  

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Full Text Available Background: Lead toxicity is a prevalent health problem in both developed and developing countries. One of the proposed mechanisms for lead-induced organ damage is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is well-associated with the pregnancy disorder, pre-eclampsia. Exposure to lead may be one of the sources of the oxidative stress that leads to development of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.Objective: To test if blood lead level of pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia is higher than the normal limit. Methods: Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood lead level was measured in 115 pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia and compared to its level in a comparison group of 25 healthy pregnant women in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.Results: The mean±SD blood lead level was 37.68±9.17 ?g/dL in women with pre-eclampsia; the value in the comparison group was 14.5±3.18 ?g/dL (p<0.001.Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia is significantly associated with a high blood lead level.

AM El-Mansoury

2013-01-01

330

Investigation of serum leptin levels in pregnant women during various trimesters and their neonates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the variations of serum leptin levels in pregnant women of various trimesters and their neonates as well as the correlativity in-between. Methods: Serum leptin levels in 300 women at pregestation during the three trimesters and the umbilical blood leptin levels in their neonates were measured with RIA. Results: Serum leptin levels in pregnant women rose significantly only from midgestation with a peak at partum (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 vs pregestation). The leptin levels in neonates were almost the same as those of women of pregestation. The maternal leptin levels were positively correlated to body weight, body weight-index, abdominal perimeter, height of fundus of uterus, diastolic and systolic pressure. The leptin levels in neonates were positively correlated to the birth weight, but not correlated to maternal leptin levels. Conclusion: Leptin in neonates comes from neonates themselves, and its concentrations are determined by the degree of accumulation of body adipose tissue. Measurement of blood leptin concentrations in pregnant women during pregnancy has little meaning for accessing the body weight of fetus, but it can show the degree of maternal weight-gaining and may have some value for clinical observation of the syndrome of pregnant hypertension

331

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (pdeltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

332

Clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the change of serum TRAb and changeable regularity of thyroid function and clinical significance of pregnant women with Graves' diease treated by propylthiouracil. Methods: Detecting the serum TRAb, FT3, FT4, TSH levels of pregnant women with Graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil using radioreceptor assay and electro chemiluminescence. Results: The serum TRAb level of the pregnant women with Graves' disease in early gestation treated by propylthiouracil descended much more than that in the initial diagnosis (P<0.01). The positive rates of TRAb in the women before treated by propylthiouracil and treated 3 months, 6 months, 8 months were 90.2%, 82.9%, 68.2% and 21.9% separately. The activity of TRAb descended slightly 3 months latter after treated. The activity of TRAb descend obviously and the positive rates changed largely 8 months after treated. Conclusion: There is very important clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with Graves' disease in diagnosis and differential diagnosis and observation of therapeutic effects. Also, a favourable prognosis judgement. Meanwhile, provides significant reference index of pathogenetic condition judgement and drug discontinuance whether or not for the clinician. (authors)

333

Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community  

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Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

Okwu GN

2008-01-01

334

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending the Hospital for Women & Children in Koutiala, Mali  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To establish the rate of seroprevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women in south-eastern Mali, and to decrease mother-to-child transmission. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional comparison study, 3 659 pregnant women attending a non-governmental hospital in Kout [...] iala, Mali, during 2008 and 2009 were screened for the hepatitis B surface antigen during antenatal clinic attendance or when admitted for delivery. A chart review compared the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive women to HBV-negative women used as controls to identify potential risk factors for HBsAg positivity. The variables compared were age, parity, type of genital excision, birthweight of baby and HIV status. RESULTS: A total of 293 (8.0%) pregnant women tested positive for HBsAg. Their average age was 27.6 years, average parity of 2.8 births, 90% had Type 2 genital excision, 21% had low-birthweight infants, and 14 (0.4%) women also tested positive for HIV. Infants born to HbsAg-positive women were immunised with the hepatitis B vaccine in the delivery room. Two hundred and eighty-four HBVnegative women were compared with the HBV-positive women. None of the differences of means or relationships was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: In view of the high endemicity and lack of easily identifiable risk factors, free maternal HBV screening should be provided to all women in Mali, and the infants born to HBsAgpositive women should be immunised within 12 hours of birth.

Brett, MacLean; Rosanna F, Hess; Edward, Bonvillain; Joseph, Kamate; Daoda, Dao; Amy, Cosimano; Shannon, Hoy.

2012-01-01

335

Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use. PMID:25205417

Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

2014-09-10

336

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

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Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT. Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

2012-04-01

337

Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between ...

Cristiana Berti; Katalin Fekete; Carla Dullemeijer; Monica Trovato; Souverein, Olga W.; Adriënne Cavelaars; Rosalie Dhonukshe-Rutten; Maddalena Massari; Decsi, Tam Amp Xe S.; Veer, Pieter T.; Irene Cetin

2012-01-01

338

Incidence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in 35,940 Pregnant Women in Norway and Pregnancy Outcome for Infected Women  

OpenAIRE

From 1992 to 1994 a screening program for detection of specific Toxoplasma gondii antibodies involving 35,940 pregnant women was conducted in Norway. For women with serological evidence of primary T. gondii infection, amniocentesis and antiparasitic treatment were offered. The amniotic fluid was examined for T. gondii by PCR and mouse inoculation to detect fetal infection. Infants of infected mothers had clinical and serological follow-up for at least 1 year to detect congenital infection. Of...

Jenum, Pa?l A.; Stray-pedersen, Babill; Melby, Kjetil K.; Kapperud, Georg; Whitelaw, Andrew; Eskild, Anne; Eng, Jan

1998-01-01

339

Evaluation of Sexual Function Quality of Life and Mental and Physical Health in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate sexual function and its relationship with quality of life, and mental and physical health in pregnant women.Materials and methods: Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7 % women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3 % women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05.The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Results: Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7 % women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3 % women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05.The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Conclusion: Depression as same as environment heath had an important effect on sexual satisfaction in pregnant women and so assessment of depression and environment health in medical program for pregnant women is necessary. Also considering decrease in sexual satisfaction in aging training new methods for sexuality can be useful.

Mozhgan Rabani Bavojdan

2013-12-01

340

Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract There is now considerable evidence for the involvement of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO induced relaxation of smooth muscles including the myometrium. In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO – induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of specific blockers of these channels on the relaxation of myometrium from non-pregnant women. In vitro isometric contractions were recorded in uterine tissues from non-pregnant premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy. Apamin (10 nM and scyllatoxin (10 nM did not alter spontaneous myometrial contractions. However, 15-min pretreatment of the myometrium strips with apamin completely inhibited relaxation caused by diethylamine-nitric oxide (DEA/NO. The pretreatment with scyllatoxin significantly reduced (about 2.6 times maximum relaxation of the strips induced by DEA/NO (p 2+ and voltage dependent charybdotoxin-sensitive (CTX-sensitive K+ channels, apamin-sensitive K+ channels are also present in the human non-pregnant myometrium. These channels offer an additional target in the development of new tocolytic agents.

Kleszczewski Tomasz

2003-02-01

341

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

342

Sociodemographic profile and habits of life of pregnant women for conducting the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman  

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Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care

Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

2014-01-01

343

Health behaviours of pregnant women in Fort McMurray, Alberta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baby. Vision was a survey of lifestyle behaviours of pregnant women in the Fort McMurray area, conducted between April and June 1989. The survey goal was to establish baseline data for coordinated health promotion programs for expectant parents. Questionnaires were completed by 173 pregnant women. Overall the women were well educated and in high-income households. Approximately one third of the women (36.6%) reported smoking during pregnancy. Most (90%) were exposed to second-hand smoke. Almost half (48.8%) stated they had consumed alcoholic beverages since learning of their pregnancy. Thirty percent were unaware of their immunization status. Most (98%) reported doing something to improve their health during this pregnancy, improved eating habits being most often mentioned. The results indicate that health promotion activities might improve the birth outcomes in Fort McMurray and outlying areas. The data may be relevant to other relatively remote areas in Canada. PMID:8180921

Dow-Clarke, R A; MacCalder, L; Hessel, P A

1994-01-01

344

Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in HIV and non-HIV infected Thai pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serological evidence for Toxoplasma gondii infection in Thai pregnant women was investigated. One thousand six hundred and sixty-nine blood specimens were collected from 838 HIV-seropositive and 831 HIV-seronegative pregnant women attending the antenatal-care clinic at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, during a two-year period. Toxoplasma IgG antibody was detected, using a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in which the membrane protein p-30 was the predominant antigen. IgG positive sera were subsequently examined for IgM antibody by the capture antibody enzyme immunoassay. The IgG antibody was found in 450 (53.7%) HIV seropositive women and 44 (5.3%) non-HIV infected women, with a statistically significant difference (p Toxoplasma infection with increase exposure to their offspring. PMID:12009080

Wanachiwanawin, D; Sutthent, R; Chokephaibulkit, K; Mahakittikun, V; Ongrotchanakun, J; Monkong, N

2001-12-01

345

Prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnant women of Luanda, Angola.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, but in Angola, epidemiologic data from this group is almost inexistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in 567 pregnant Angolan women living in Luanda province. One in five women had P. falciparum at delivery, diagnosed by PCR assay. Age, residence and history of malaria during pregnancy were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, but gravidity and use of anti-malarial drugs were not. Placental infections were significantly more common in women ?18?years old and in primigravidae, but we could not correlate placental infections with poor pregnancy outcomes. These findings are relevant to malaria control policies in Luanda, Angola. PMID:21729222

Valente, Bianor; Campos, Paulo A; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Varandas, Luis; Silveira, Henrique

2011-10-01

346

Low pertussis toxin antibody levels in two regional cohorts of Canadian pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants under 6 months of age are at greatest risk of mortality and severe morbidity from pertussis disease. Interventions that increase pertussis protection in newborns are therefore a clear public health imperative. The objective of this study was to assess maternal pertussis toxin antibody (anti-PT) level as a potential source of mother-to-child transfer of pertussis-associated antibodies that may reduce neonatal risk of pertussis disease. Anti-PT level was assessed in a 2013 cohort of pregnant women from two regions in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Basic demographics, health, and pertussis immunization history were collected, along with blood specimens. Anti-PT levels were compared for self-reported vaccination status and prior pertussis disease. To assess secular trend, a parallel analysis was also undertaken, using anonymized residual sera from a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia. A total of 169 pregnant women participated in the study - 50 from Nova Scotia and 119 from British Columbia. The mean and median age of participants from both sites was 31 years of age (range 16-42 years). The lower limit of quantification of the anti-PT assay was 10 ELISA units per milliliter (EU/ml). Overall, 59% of women had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml and anti-PT level did not differ with time since last self-reported pertussis vaccination (?(2)(2)=3.166, p=0.205). Among a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia, 101 of 200 (51%) had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml. Our study found that most pregnant women in two geographically disparate health regions in Canada have low residual anti-PT levels, may be vulnerable to pertussis infection themselves, and would unlikely be a source of passive ante- or postnatal transfer of anti-PT to their newborn. PMID:25269092

Bigham, Mark; Konrad, Stephanie; Van Buynder, Paul; Van Buynder, Jan; Isaac-Renton, Judy; ElSherif, May; Halperin, Scott A

2014-11-12

347

Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital ...

Aboud, S.; Msamanga, G.; Read, J. S.; Mwatha, A.; Chen, Y. Q.; Potter, D.; Valentine, M.; Sharma, U.; Hoffmann, I.; Taha, T. E.; Goldenberg, R. L.; Fawzi, W. W.

2008-01-01

348

Modern practice in preparation of pregnant women to maternity (from interview with gynecologists)  

OpenAIRE

The article issue is the formation of maternity readiness as one of the main aims in the work of a gynecologist. The results of introduction of birth certificates and dynamics in the field of quality of medical aid have been analyzed. The necessity evaluation of pregnant women in professional social and psychological assistance has been revealed. Types of women who are ready for maternity have been obtained. The complete representation of the importance, the maintenance and the ways of realiz...

Novokreschenova I.G.; Andriyanova ?.?.; Yu, Aranovich I.

2011-01-01

349

Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures.

Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Kloster, Stine

2012-01-01

350

Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ? secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ? 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ? 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

Rayis, Duria A

2010-12-06

351

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA, respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1% women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84, residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49, and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44. Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection.

Díaz-García Juan

2006-07-01

352

Correlates of unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant married women in Nepal  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Women living in every country, irrespective of its development status, have been facing the problem of unintended pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue in both developing and developed countries because of its negative association with the social and health outcomes for both mothers and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence and the factors influencing unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant married women ...

Soonthorndhada Kusol; Adhikari Ramesh; Prasartkul Pramote

2009-01-01

353

Does Rubella Immunity Predict Measles Immunity? A Serosurvey of Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Background. This study was undertaken to determine whether rubella immunity infers measles immunity in pregnant women. Methods. Stored serum samples were obtained from the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory for evaluation of rubella and measles immunities with IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Nine hundred serum samples were obtained for testing. The average age of the women at the time of antepartum serum collection was 28 (range, 14 to 44) years. Measles and ...

Ault, Kevin A.; Burns, Barbara A.; Kennedy, Colleen M.

2006-01-01

354

Risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes in imprisoned pregnant women: a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Imprisoned pregnant women constitute an important obstetric group about whom relatively little is known. This systematic review was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcome present in this group of women. Methods The review was conducted according to a prespecified protocol. Studies of any design were included if they described information on any of the pre-specified risk factors. We calculated the resu...

Plugge Emma; Knight Marian

2005-01-01

355

Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

Hamdela, Belayneh; G Mariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Tizta

2012-01-01

356

Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Paraná State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV in Brazil increases from South to North but moderate to elevated prevalence has been detected in the Southwest of Paraná State. The prevalence of serological markers of HBV was evaluated in 3188 pregnant women from different counties in Paraná State and relevant epidemiological features were described. The prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women for the state as a whole was 18.5% (95% CI = 17.2-19.9, ranging from 7.2% in Curitiba to 38.5% in Francisco Beltrão. The endemicity of HBV marker prevalence in pregnant women was intermediate in Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu, and Francisco Beltrão, and low in Curitiba, Londrina, Maringá, and Paranaguá. Multiple logistic regression showed that HBV marker prevalence increased with age, was higher among black women, among women of Italian and German descent, and among women who had family members in neighboring Rio Grande do Sul State. Univariate analysis showed that HBV marker prevalence was also higher among women with no education or only primary education, with a lower family income and whose families originated from the South Region of Brazil. Pregnant women not having positive HBV markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg or anti-HBs detected by ELISA corresponded to 73.7% of the population studied, implying that HBV vaccination needs to be reinforced in Paraná State. The highest prevalence was found in three counties that received the largest number of families from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, where most immigrants were of German or Italian ascendance. This finding probably indicates that immigrants that came to this area brought HBV infection to Southwestern Paraná State.

D.A. Bertolini

2006-08-01

357

Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Paraná State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Brazil increases from South to North but moderate to elevated prevalence has been detected in the Southwest of Paraná State. The prevalence of serological markers of HBV was evaluated in 3188 pregnant women from different counties in Paraná State and rele [...] vant epidemiological features were described. The prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women for the state as a whole was 18.5% (95% CI = 17.2-19.9), ranging from 7.2% in Curitiba to 38.5% in Francisco Beltrão. The endemicity of HBV marker prevalence in pregnant women was intermediate in Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu, and Francisco Beltrão, and low in Curitiba, Londrina, Maringá, and Paranaguá. Multiple logistic regression showed that HBV marker prevalence increased with age, was higher among black women, among women of Italian and German descent, and among women who had family members in neighboring Rio Grande do Sul State. Univariate analysis showed that HBV marker prevalence was also higher among women with no education or only primary education, with a lower family income and whose families originated from the South Region of Brazil. Pregnant women not having positive HBV markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg or anti-HBs detected by ELISA) corresponded to 73.7% of the population studied, implying that HBV vaccination needs to be reinforced in Paraná State. The highest prevalence was found in three counties that received the largest number of families from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, where most immigrants were of German or Italian ascendance. This finding probably indicates that immigrants that came to this area brought HBV infection to Southwestern Paraná State.

D.A., Bertolini; J.R.R., Pinho; C.P., Saraceni; R.C., Moreira; C.F.H., Granato; F.J., Carrilho.

1083-10-01

358

Monitoring Pregnant Women’s Illicit Opiate and Cocaine Use With Sweat Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Dependence on illicit drugs during pregnancy is a major public health concern as there may be associated adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal consequences. Sweat patches (n = 389) were collected from 39 pregnant volunteers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved protocol and wore patches, replaced approximately weekly, from study entry until delivery. Patches were analyzed for opiates (heroin, 6-acetylmor-phine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine and codeine) and cocaine (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, anhydroecgonine methyl ester) by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Seventy-one percent (276) of collected sweat patches were ?5 ng per patch (limit of quantification) for one or more analytes. Cocaine was present in 254 (65.3%) patches in concentrations ranging from 5.2 to 11,835 ng per patch with 154 of these high enough to satisfy the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines for a confirmatory drug test (25 ng per patch). Interestingly, 6-acetylmorphine was the most prominent opiate analyte documented in 134 patches (34.4%) with 11.3% exceeding the proposed opiate Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off (25 ng per patch). Heroin was identified in fewer patches (77), but in a similar concentration range (5.3–345.4 ng per patch). Polydrug use was evident by the presence of both cocaine and opiate metabolites in 136 (35.0%) patches. Sweat testing is an effective method for monitoring abstinence or illicit drug use relapse in this high-risk population of pregnant opiate- and/or cocaine-dependent women. PMID:19927046

Brunet, Bertrand R.; Barnes, Allan J.; Choo, Robin E.; Mura, Patrick; Jones, Hendrée E.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2011-01-01

359

Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

2008-01-01

360

Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy.

Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens

2012-01-01

361

Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

Ziadat, Ayed H.

2010-01-01

362

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Northeast Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

We report Toxoplasma IgG seroprevalence of 34.4% among 419 pregnant women in Mashhad, northeast Iran. Soil contact, living in rural environment, and level of education were associated with infection. The prevalence did not increase with age, suggesting high infection rate during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24006138

Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Hassan, Nayereh; Lotfi, Peyman; Esmaeili Rastaghi, Ahmad Reza

2013-01-01

363

Methadone and Metabolites in Hair of Methadone-Assisted Pregnant Women and Their Infants  

OpenAIRE

Methadone is the recommended pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. The primary aims of this study were to determine whether a dose-concentration relationship exists between cumulative maternal methadone dose, methadone and metabolite concentrations in maternal hair during pregnancy and whether maternal hair methadone and metabolite concentrations predict neonatal outcomes.

Himes, Sarah K.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Rock, Colleen M.; Jones, Hendre?e E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

364

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire interview was carried out to ask about some risk factors of infection. Among the 487 studied pregnant women, 38.8 % were seropositive for anti T. gondii IgG while 6.2 % were positive for anti T. gondii IgM and 3.3 % were positive for both anti T. gondii IgG & IgM. The only risk factor associated with seropositive anti T. gondii IgM was the history of the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Regarding anti T. gondii IgG seropositivity, it was found to increase significantly with increased age, number of gravida and parities, and previous history of toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG & IgM by ELISA among pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia is considerable with few identifiable significant risk factors reported. PMID:24505169

Almushait, Mona A; Dajem, Saad M Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M; Eskandar, Mamdoh A; Al Azraqi, Tarik A; Makhlouf, Laila M

2014-03-01

365

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

366

Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

2012-01-01

367

A psychiatric medication decision support guide for social work practice with pregnant and postpartum women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In their work in human services organizations and community agencies across service sectors, social workers encounter pregnant and postpartum women experiencing mental health challenges. This article offers an evidence-informed Decision Support Guide designed for use by social workers working with pregnant and postpartum women who are struggling with complicated decisions about psychiatric medication use. The guide is built on contemporary notions of health literacy and shared decision making and is informed by three areas: (1) research into the lived experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and health care providers around psychiatric medication decision making, (2) a critical review of existing decision aids, and (3) feedback on the strategy from social work practitioners who work with pregnant and postpartum women. Emphasizing the relational nature of social work in supporting effective health-related decision making, the guide relies on maintaining a collaborative practice milieu and using a decision aid that engages clients in discussions about mental health during and around the time of pregnancy. The guide offers social workers a practice tool to support responsive and compassionate care by embracing their roles in problem solving and decision making, providing emotional and psychosocial support, and making appropriate referrals to prescribers. PMID:25365831

Bentley, Kia J; Price, Sarah Kye; Cummings, Cory R

2014-10-01

368

Pica Practices among Pregnant Women Are Associated with Lower Hemoglobin Levels and Pregnancy Outcome  

OpenAIRE

Pica is an eating disorder in which non-nutritional objects are frequently eaten, and may have serious side effects for both the mother and neonate. The aim of this study was to determine the pica and its association with biochemical profiles of pregnant women and its relation to pregnancy outcome. A prospective c...

Fahimeh Khoushabi; Parvin Ahmadi; Mohammad Reza Shadan; Azadeh Heydari; Ali Miri; Maryam Jamnejad

2014-01-01

369

PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

Giuseppina Messina

2010-01-01

370

Immunity indexes at the system and local levels of pregnant women with mycoplasma infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examination of immunity disorders at the system and local levels in pregnant women with persistent mycoplasma infection has been carried out. The analysis has revealed depression of circulating in blood CD3+ and CD4+, increase of CD16+ and CD19+, decrease of activated CD25+ and ready to adaptation CD95+ lymphocytes. Studies of the concentration of cytokines at the local level (cervical mucus in pregnant women with mycoplasma infection showed a significant increase in concentrations of both proinflammatory (TNF-?, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 in 4.5 times cytokines compared with controls group (P <0.05 and P <0.01, which confirms the presence of an inflammatory process not only at the system level, but locally.That means that pregnant women with mycoplasma infection in comparison with healthy pregnant women were indicated with violations of the regulation system of cytokines in peripheral blood and locally in the cervical mucus. It is characterized by increased TH-1 cell response to the increasing fusion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-?, and pointed to the imbalance of their products, which may be a factor in this pregnancy complication.

Saule Issenova

2011-03-01

371

Experiences of Low Gestational Weight Gain: A Phenomenological Study with Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low maternal, gestational weight gain is associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age infants, neural tube defects, infant death, failure to initiate breastfeeding, and childhood asthma. The advantage of qualitative research is it can provide valuable insights for health care professionals into the experience and perceptions of low gestational weight gain from the vantage point of women with first-hand lived experience. In this Heideggarian interpretive phenomenological study, the meaning and experiences of weight gain for pregnant women with low gestational weight gain were explored. Data were collected through interviews with 10 pregnant women from Atlantic Canada. Conroy’s pathway for interpretive phenomenology was utilized. A hermeneutical spiral of interpretation identified six patterns or major themes: confronting one’s mortality; defending oneself against a permanent metamorphosis into a stranger; playing with fire and brimstone; slipping under the radar; trying to find peace; and riding an emotional roller coaster. The findings point to a war that is being waged over pregnant bodies with respect to weight that leaves pregnant women fending for themselves, apparently with little help from their health care providers. Implications of the findings for health practice, education, and research are discussed.

Cynthia L. Murray

2014-11-01

372

Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants. : Complex physiology with a risk of misinterpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and Young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Design: Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Setting: Population Surveys and research studies. Subjects: Pregnant women and young infants. Results. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (mu g l(-1)) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (mu g per 24 h); 2) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cordblood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine deficiency than in the mother. Conclusions: if the iodine status Of pregnant women and small children is not to be Misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account.

Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.

2007-01-01

373

Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964

Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; García-Valdés, L; Segura, M T; Martín-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Martí-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y

2010-07-01

374

Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Birth preparedness and complication preparedness (BPACR) is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs, which helps ensure women to reach professional delivery care when labor begins and to reduce delays that occur when mothers in labor experience obstetric complications. Objective This study was conducted to assess practice and factors associated with BPACR among pregnant women in Aleta Wondo district in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in 2007, on a sample of 812 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 12.0.1. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least two steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 743 pregnant women only a quarter (20.5%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 8.1% identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. Preparedness for transportation was found to be very low (7.7%). Considerable (34.5%) number of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. Only few (2.3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Majority (87.9%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and only 60(8%) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall only 17% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (OR?=?1.91 95% CI; 1.21–3.01) and being pregnant for the first time (OR?=?6.82, 95% CI; 1.27–36.55). Conclusion BPACR practice in the study area was found to be low. Effort to increase BPACR should focus on availing antenatal care services. PMID:21731747

Hailu, Mesay; Gebremariam, Abebe; Alemseged, Fissehaye; Deribe, Kebede

2011-01-01

375

Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in the United States, 1999-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Undiagnosed diabetes has particularly harmful consequences among women of reproductive age. We assessed the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes among non-pregnant women of reproductive age. In our data 30 women had A1C?6.5 and 28 had FPG?126mg/dl values suggesting approximately 300,000 women of reproductive age nationwide may have undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:24216319

Razzaghi, Hilda; Marcinkevage, Jessica; Peterson, Cora

2015-02-01

376

Health Risk Factors and Mental Health Among US Women with and without Chronic Physical Disabilities by Whether Women are Currently Pregnant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ? 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:25421328

Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

2014-11-25

377

Study on the relationship between the levels of serum cholylglycine (CG) and blood lipids in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis during pregnancy and the relationship between levels of serum CG and blood lipids. Methods: Serum CG, blood lipid and liver function profile were examined in 2040 women with pregnancy during the second or third trimester. Among these pregnant women, 57 were diagnosed as with intrahepatic cholestasis. Blood lipids (TG, cholesterol, HDL, LDL) and ALP levels in 50 of the 57 pregnant women were studied and compared with those in 50 otherwise normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Serum CG levels were above normal range in 372 of the 2040 pregnant women (18.5%). Fifty seven of these 372 pregnant women were confirmed to be with intrahepatic cholestasis (2.8% of the 2040 pregnancies). The TG, cholesterol, LDL contents and ALP levels in the pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis were significantly higher (P0.05) than those in controls. Conclusion: Intrahepatic cholestasis developed in a substantial proportion of pregnant women (2.8% in this study) and should be carefully monitored due to possible damage to the fetus. Serum CG was shown to be an early and sensitive marker for the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis. Changes of blood lipid and ALP levels were related to disease status. (authors)

378

Influence of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending their antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the influence of the level of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis. The study group comprised 885 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were screened for HIV and other parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the level of education attained by the pregnant women and their HIV statuses. The data showed that 9.83% (87/885) of the pregnant women were HIV seropositive while 90.17% (798/885) were HIV seronegative. There were significant differences in mean age (years) between the HIV seropositive women (27.45 ± 5.5) and their HIV seronegative (26.02 ± 5.6) counterparts (p = .026) but the inference disappeared after adjustment (p = .22). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women with secondary/tertiary education were less likely to have HIV infection compared with those with none/primary education (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = .022). Our data showed an association with higher level of education and HIV statuses of the pregnant women. It is imperative to encourage formal education among pregnant women in this region. PMID:25130219

Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Afoakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Acquah, Samuel; Orish, Esther O; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

2014-08-01

379

The Use of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale in a Population of Teenager Pregnant Women in Mexico: A Validation Study  

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Background :Depression may occur in teenager pregnant women. The use of a validated tool for screening depression is highly recommended. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) is a screening tool for depression used in women during the postnatal period and pregnancy. However, the EPDS has not been validated in teenager pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to validate a Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS in a population of teenager pregnant women. Methods: One hundred and twenty teenager pregnant women attending routine prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico participated in the study. All participants submitted a revised Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS and were examined by a psychiatrist to evaluate the presence of depression by using DSM-IV criteria. Results: Of the 120 teenager pregnant women studied, 2 had major depression and 25 had minor depression according to the DSM-IV criteria. The optimal EPDS cut-off for screening combined major and minor depression in teenager pregnant women was 8/9. At this threshold, we found a sensitivity of 70.4%, a specificity of 84.9%, a positive predictive value of 47.6%, a negative predictive value of 91.0%, and an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07). Conclusion: The EPDS can be used for screening depression in Mexican teenager pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. PMID:25493092

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

2014-01-01

380

RIGHTS OF PREGNANT WOMEN AND THE UNBORN CHILD  

OpenAIRE

In the diploma work the rights of a pregnant woman and her unborn child in the field of the Civil, Labour, Inheritance, Criminal, Humanitarian and Medical Law are presented. At first, the family in general, the differences in a family in the past and today and motherhood in the postmodern era are presented. From the field of the civil law, the position of a man before his birth, the legal presumption of paternity and the recognition of paternity, and representing the fetus are discussed...

C?eligoj, Vanja

2011-01-01

381

Correlates of vaginal colonization with group B streptococci among pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Background: A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. Setting and Design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Three high vaginal swabs were obtained from all the pregnant women admitted at term and in preterm labor. Two swabs were used for aerobic culture and the third one for gram staining. The first set of swabs was cultured on 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The second set of swabs were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth and then subcultured in 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The main outcome measures were the presence of GBS infection in comparison to the age group, gravida, gestational age, premature rupture of membrane (PROM, preterm labor and association with febrile spells of the present pregnancy. Results: The culture positivity rate of GBS was 4.77% and coexistent organisms isolated were Candida species (36%, Staphylococcus aureus (8% and Enterococcus species (8%. Culture positivity in the age group of 18-25 years was 5.71%, of which 5.74% were in their first pregnancy. The correlation between age group and gravida with GBS culture positivity was statistically insignificant. The culture positivity in <36 weeks of gestational age was 6.93%. This relation was statistically significant. Twenty-eight percent developed PROM. Sixty-four percent of culture positives had preterm labor. Conclusion: GBS infection among pregnant women was significantly correlated with the gestational age, PROM and preterm labor. In pregnancy GBS colonization causes asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI. It is a well known cause of puerperal infections with amnionitis,endometritis and sepsis being the most commonly reported infections. [5

Dechen Tsering

2010-01-01

382

Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women in Comparison to the Reference Intake  

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Full Text Available Pregnant women with poor nutritional status have an increased risk of birth outcomes. Nutritional assessment is an effective method of preventing potential complications in pregnant women. To assess and compare the dietary intake of nutrients and energy in pregnant women from antenatal care units of Peshawar. A Cross sectional study was carried out in Lady Reading hospital (Govt and Alkhidmat (Private hospital Peshawar for a period of three months. A total of 198 Pregnant Women (PW, 66 from each trimester were selected. The sub groups of PW in each trimester were 18 (n = 12, 19-30 (n = 151 and >31 (n = 35 years. Data about the socioeconomic status, educational status and food intake were collected by structured questionnaire. Nutrients were calculated using food composition tables. Percent adequacy for each nutrient was calculated. The nutrients were calculated from actual ingredients used for dish preparation and the quantity of food consumed by the pregnant women. The energy and protein intake of all PW were higher than RDA except belonging to 1st trimester. Intake level of Fe, Ca, Zn were below except age group >31 yrs (2nd trimester in which Fe intake was 5.1%, The Mg and P intakes were higher except age group 18 (1st trimester which was -11%. Intake of vitamin B12 and folate were below while intake of vitamin C was above the RDA except for age group 18 years (2nd and 3rd trimesters which were -12.7 and -28.4%, respectively. Micronutrients were deficient in the diet of PW from both low and high income groups when compared with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA.

Ruqayya Sajjad

2012-01-01

383

Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. Method The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. Results The mean age of 389 (92.9% of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001 and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042. No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. Conclusion One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

Turkmen Munevver

2005-06-01

384

Poor Dietary Intake of Energy and Retinol among Pregnant Women: Implications for Pregnancy Outcome in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of adequate intake energy and retinol on pregnancy outcome among selected pregnant women in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. Eight hundred and forty (840 pregnant and 250 non-pregnant women were involved in the survey conducted in 2006 which used a 24-hour diet recall to assess their dietary intake. Food models were used to assist memory and portion size of foods taken. The results indicate that dietary energy intake in this study was inadequate in about 75% of the pregnant women and 65% of the non-pregnant women. With the exception of protein intakes in Ife North, inadequate intake was less than 15% in all LGA. The structure of the menu, however, point to a preponderance of protein of plant origin. Compared with protein intake, the dietary intake of Vitamin A (Retinol was inadequate in all the LGA and among pregnant and non-pregnant women. The paucity of animal protein in the diet may be responsible for this. Almost 70% of the pregnant women also had inadequate Vitamin C intakes. The study therefore, reiterates that emphasis on dietary sources of energy, iron, vitamin A and folic acid during pregnancy should be the key discussion during antenatal visits. Food demonstration during the antenatal visits offers the best strategies.

E.O. Ojofeitimi

2008-01-01

385

Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels. - Highlights: • We assessed exposure of heavy metals to pregnant mothers who consume geophagic soil. • We analyzed 100 samples of soil originated in Tanzania. • The technique used was energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent. • Essential and toxic elements were detected in concentrations above WHO limits. • Hence, geophagy is exposing pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity

386

Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants  

Science.gov (United States)

... What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Unintended Pregnancy Contraception Contraceptive Guidance for Providers Medical ... Services Training for Providers US MEC US SPR Teen Pregnancy Prevention Women's Reproductive Health Common Reproductive Health Concerns ...

387

Homocysteine concentration, related B vitamins, and betaine in pregnant women recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Study.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Both folate and betaine are important predictors of total homocysteine (tHcy) during pregnancy. However, studies to date have only been undertaken in populations with Western dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictors of tHcy in pregnant women recruited in the Seychelles, a population where access to fortified foods is limited and where women habitually consume diets rich in fish, eggs, rice, and fruit. DESIGN: Pregnant women (n = 226) provided blood samples at en...

Molloy, Anne Marie; Scott, John Martin

2008-01-01

388

A qualitative interview study exploring pregnant women’s and health professionals’ attitudes to external cephalic version  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11 and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11 recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs. To address these challenges a number of approaches will be required.

Say Rebecca

2013-01-01

389

Placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b antibodies in malnourished pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the vaccination response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in malnourished pregnant women (MN), cord blood (CB) and in infants at two and six months of age for comparison with a control group (C). Twenty-eight malnourished pregnant women and 29 pregnant controls were immuni [...] zed with conjugated Act-HIB® in the third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all before the immunization, during labor (post immunization), and from CB. All infants were immunized with Hib vaccine according to normal vaccine schedule and sera were collected at two and six months of age. Antibody levels to polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were similar for both groups. Preimmunization: MN 1.94 µg/mL, C 1.68 µg/mL; post-vaccination: MN 18.53 µg/mL and C 17.55 µg/mL; in CB from MN 14.46 µg/mL and from C 17.04 µg/mL. Infants from MN and C mothers presented respectively at two months: 5.18 µg/mL and 8.60 µg/mL and at six months: MN 3.42 µg/mL and C 2.18 µg/mL. Antibody levels were similar in both groups studied (p = 0.485), however the vertical transmission rate was 14% lower in the MN pregnant group. Levels of antibodies > 0.15 µg/mL were found in all newborns from the MN pregnant group. Pregnant MN presented an immunological response to Hib vaccine similar to group C, however, vertical transmission rate of antibodies to PRP in the MN pregnant group was 14% lower than that in C, suggesting a less efficient passage of antibodies within this group.

Rejane S., Cavalcante; Benjamin I., Kopelman; Beatriz T., Costa-Carvalho.

2008-02-01

390

Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. Methods 151 obese pregnant women in an intervention group and 188 obese pregnant women in a control group answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Group differences between the two groups were estimated by using the ?2 - test on categorical variables. The Student's t-test on continuous, normally distributed variables measuring changes in mean score on BAI and EPDS over time was used. To make a more comprehensive assessment of group differences, between as well as within the two groups, logistic regressions were performed with the BAI and EPDS as dependent variables, measured at gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks postnatal. The grouping variable has been adjusted for socio-demographic variables and complications. Results The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy varied between 24% and 25% in the intervention group and 22% and 23% in the control group. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety postnatally was 9% in the intervention group and 11% in the control group. Five percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% of the women in the control group showed symptoms of anxiety during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. The prevalence of symptoms of depression during pregnancy varied between 19% and 22% in the intervention group but was constant at 18% in the control group. Postnatal prevalence was 11% in both groups. Six percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% in the control group showed symptoms of depression during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. We found no differences between the two groups as concerns demographic characteristics, weight gain in kg, or the distribution of scores on anxiety and depressive symptoms nor did we find differences in the fluctuation of anxiety and depressive symptoms over time between the women in the intervention group and in the control group. Conclusion Obese pregnant women attending an intervention program seem to have the same risk of experiencing anxiety and/or depressive symptoms as do obese pregnant and postnatal women in general.

Sydsjö Gunilla

2010-12-01

391

A Survey of Relationship Between Neonate and Mother Prognosis and Plasma Level of Blood Uric Acid in Preeclampsia Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was investigated that whether the measure of the uric acid in pregnant women has cause-effect relationship with severity of preeclampsia, biochemical and urine parameters. This study was targeted the preeclampsia women with uric acid levels = 6 mg dL-1 and -1 for comparing with healthy pregnant women. In order to survey of serum Hb, platelet, liver enzymes and renal function test findings, blood and urine samples of preeclampsia and healthy groups were taken before delivery and analyzed. There was significant differences in the gestational age and mean serum AST, ALT, BUN and urine albumin between preeclampsia groups and healthy women. Also the gestational age variable in preeclampsia women with uric acid levels = 6 mg dL-1 were lower than preeclamptic patients who have lower than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the both preeclampsia cases compared with control group. There was significant differences in Apgar scores in the first and fifth minutes of life between the preeclampsia groups and healthy women. Also Apgar score in the fifth minutes of life has a significant effect on the risk of preeclampsia with more than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid compared with preeclampsia with less than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid. Neonatal weight in the preeclampsia groups were lower than its levels in the control group. In conclusion our results declared that a cause-effect relationship between the secretion of serum uric acid and severity of preeclampsia, biochemical and urine parameters may in fact exist.

Afshan Amirshaghaghi

2013-01-01

392

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 28.89 ± 5.76 years (range 13–42 years. Of the 157 women tested, HEV seroprevelance was 28.66% (45/157. Among the seropositive women, 64.40% (29/45 tested positive for anti-HEV IgM while 35.60% (16/45 tested positive to HEV IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was highest (46.15% among women 21–25 years of age, followed by 42.82% in = 20 year group, then 36.84% in = 36 year group. Of the 157 women, 75.79% and 22.92% were in their third and second trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Anti-HEV antibodies detected in women in their third trimester of pregnancy (30.25% was significantly higher, P Conclusion Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in pregnant women.

Mingle Julius AA

2009-07-01

393

Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day. In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day. 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy.

Christian Mølgaard

2012-04-01

394

Malaria associated symptoms in pregnant women followed-up in Benin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally agreed that in high transmission areas, pregnant women have acquired a partial immunity to malaria and when infected they present few or no symptoms. However, longitudinal cohort studies investigating the clinical presentation of malaria infection in pregnant women in stable endemic areas are lacking, and the few studies exploring this issue are unconclusive. Methods A prospective cohort of women followed monthly during pregnancy was conducted in three rural dispensaries in Benin from August 2008 to September 2010. The presence of symptoms suggestive of malaria infection in 982 women during antenatal visits (ANV, unscheduled visits and delivery were analysed. A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between symptoms and a positive thick blood smear (TBS. Results During routine ANVs, headache was the only symptom associated with a higher risk of positive TBS (aOR = 1.9; p Conclusion The majority of pregnant women were symptomless during routine visits when infected with malaria in an endemic stable area. The only suggestive sign of malaria (fever was associated with malaria only on the occasion of unscheduled visits. The prevention of malaria in pregnancy could be improved by reassessing the design of IPTp, i.e. by determining an optimal number of doses and time of administration of anti-malarial drugs.

Massougbodji Achille

2011-03-01

395

Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

396

Is ACOG guideline helpful for encouraging pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy?  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate physical activity of pregnant women before and after ACOG guideline study. Four hundred and eighty-five pregnant women enrolled in this before-after study. They were asked to study ACOG guideline. A structured questionnaire filled by women at first visit and the last visit in the prenatal clinic.Type, frequency, duration and anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy period. Before education, 411 did exercises before pregnancy onset, among them, 346 were walking out and 65 did light exercises such as aerobics. After studying the protocol, 434 (89.4%) did walking during pregnancy period in comparison to 71% who did walking before pregnancy (P<0.001). Forty two (56.7%) out of 74 who had not done sport before, went for walking after the protocol reading, and nine continued not doing exercise. Among 74 participants who had not done exercise before the protocol reading, 16 (21%) were doing exercise three times a week and 11 (14%) changed their habit to daily exercise practice (P<0.001). Forty percent (195 women) were anxious about doing exercise during pregnancy before guideline study, while 116 reported that after the protocol reading, they had no anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy (P<0.001). Guidelines providing information about physical activity during pregnancy will help pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy with convenience and less anxiety. PMID:25130154

Davari Tanha, Fatemeh; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohseni, Mona; Shariat, Mamak; Ranjbar, Maryam

2014-01-01

397

Does Rubella Immunity Predict Measles Immunity? A Serosurvey of Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to determine whether rubella immunity infers measles immunity in pregnant women. Methods. Stored serum samples were obtained from the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory for evaluation of rubella and measles immunities with IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Nine hundred serum samples were obtained for testing. The average age of the women at the time of antepartum serum collection was 28 (range, 14 to 44 years. Measles and rubella immunity were 88% and 98%, respectively; there was no effect of immunity status by age identified. Eighty eight percent of those with rubella immunity were also measles immune. There was no association between paired rubella and measles immunity identified, P<.0001. Discussion. Known rubella immunity did not infer measles immunity in our population. Thus, we recommend that pregnant women exposed to measles be tested and appropriately treated if they are found to be nonimmune.

Kevin A. Ault

2006-07-01

398

A prospective study of Toxoplasma-positive pregnant women in southern Brazil: a health alert.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM-reactive pregnant women seen at a high-risk pregnancy outpatient clinic. From March 2005 to January 2008 in Paraná, Brazil, pregnant women seen by the Brazilian Public Health System, in any gestational period, who were anti-T. gondii IgM-positive, were followed. Clinical symptoms were noted, and tests performed including IgA, IgG avidity, ultrasonogram, and amniocentesis (PCR/inoculation in mice). Of 75 patients, 8 showed low, 3 intermediate and 31 high IgG avidity. Of those who underwent the avidity test, 31 (70.5%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. Thirty-two (42.7%) pregnant women received specific treatment. Six received triple combination treatment; in three, tachyzoites were isolated, although only one was PCR-positive, showing changes in the cerebral sonogram, borderline IgA, and the Sabin tetrad. One fetus died, and one non-reactive IgM pregnant woman showed ocular recurrence. The municipality of residence, contact with cats during adulthood, and ingestion of unpasteurized milk were shown to be important risk factors. Congenital toxoplasmosis was observed in a pregnancy referred late for treatment. Follow-up of children born to mothers with diagnosed or suspected acute toxoplasmosis is crucial in the management of the changes that toxoplasmosis may cause. PMID:20138322

Higa, Lourenço T; Araújo, Silvana M; Tsuneto, Luiza; Castilho-Pelloso, Marcela; Garcia, João L; Santana, Rosangela G; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

2010-06-01

399

Escherichia coli bacteraemia in pregnant women is life-threatening for foetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve knowledge on Escherichia coli bacteraemia during pregnancy, we studied clinical data and performed molecular characterization of strains for 29 E. coli bacteraemia occurring in pregnant women. Bacteraemia mostly occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy (45%) and was community-acquired (79%). Portals of entry were urinary (55%) and genital (45%). E. coli strains belonged mainly to phylogroups B2 (72%) and D (17%). Four clonal lineages (i.e. sequence type complex (STc) 73, STc95, STc12 and STc69) represented 65% of the strains. The strains exhibited a high number of virulence factor coding genes (10 (3-16)). Six foetuses died (27%), five of them due to bacteraemia of genital origin (83%). Foetal deaths occurred despite adequate antibiotic regimens. Strains associated with foetal mortality had fewer virulence factors (8 (6-10)) than strains involved in no foetal mortality (11 (4-12)) (p 0.02). When comparing E. coli strains involved in bacteraemia with a urinary portal of entry in non-immunocompromised pregnant vs. non-immunocompromised non-pregnant women from the COLIBAFI study, there was no significant difference of phylogroups and virulence factor coding genes. These results show that E. coli bacteraemia in pregnant women involve few highly virulent clones but that severity, represented by foetal death, is mainly related to bacteraemia of genital origin. PMID:24979689

Surgers, L; Bleibtreu, A; Burdet, C; Clermont, O; Laouénan, C; Lefort, A; Mentré, F; Carbonne, B; Bingen, E; Meynard, J-L; Denamur, E

2014-12-01

400

[Nutritional consistency of rations of pregnant and breast feeding women with anemia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrient density has been studied in healthy and anemic women's rations. The examinees were either pregnant or breast-feeding. The diets were found out from questionnaires and check-weighing. Chemical composition of the nutrients was calculated using tables. The findings were computer processed. The nutrient density appeared different in healthy and anemic females by content of protein, calcium, vitamins A and C. Food of anemic pregnant and breast-feeding females should be rich in proteins, mineral substances and vitamins. PMID:8042291

Salpynov, L N; Zhumabaeva, G G; Musabekov, S M

1993-01-01