WorldWideScience

Sample records for targeting pregnant women

  1. Development and validation of exercise target heart rate zones for overweight and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Margie H; Charlesworth, Sarah; Vanderspank, Dana; Sopper, Maggie M; Mottola, Michelle F

    2008-10-01

    Validated target heart rate (THR) zones for exercise prescription for overweight and obese pregnant women have not been developed. The purposes of this study were to determine if heart rate reserve (HRreserve) is best described by aerobic capacity at peak exercise or by aerobic capacity reserve (VO2 reserve) and to develop and validate THR zones for light-intensity exercise (20%-39%VO2 reserve) in sedentary overweight and obese pregnant women. One hundred six women between 16 and 20 weeks gestation with medical clearance performed a progressive treadmill test to volitional fatigue (peak). Data from every 4th subject were used for cross-validation. Two linear regression equations were performed for each subject, then pooled to obtain mean group values (+/- SD): %HRreserve vs. %VO2 peak and %HRreserve vs. %VO2 reserve. THR zones equivalent to 20%-39%VO2 reserve were developed and validated based on the strongest relationship. %HRreserve had a stronger linear relationship with %VO2 reserve (y = 1.046x -7.561; R2 = 0.741) than %VO2 peak (y = 1.259x -28.795; R2 = 0.604). Validated THR ranges for sedentary overweight and obese pregnant women are 102-124 beats.min-1 (20-29 years of age) and 101-120 beats.min-1 (30-39 years of age), representing an exercise intensity of 20%-39%VO2 reserve as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine for previously sedentary pregnant women. Overweight and obese women who are medically prescreened can exercise during pregnancy within our validated THR zones. The relationship between HR and VO2 remains strong, but the two are not equivalent in this population group. PMID:18923574

  2. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Planning a Pregnancy Vaccines Before Pregnancy Rubella (German measles) : Rubella infection in pregnant women can cause ... recommend the meningococcal vaccine. Top of Page Related Pages Letter to Providers: Tdap and Influenza Vaccination of ...

  3. Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

  4. Online Medicine for Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David; Peleg, Roni

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) h...

  5. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  6. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. was used to measure the difference between the initial and the final angle. The median repositioning error in the pregnant group was 11.6 (7.6, 12.4 degrees and the median repositioning error in the non-pregnant group was 4.2 (2.1, 6.3 degrees. There was a statistically significant difference in ankle joint proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women.

  7. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Panel Survey) 2014-15 Flu Season, Pregnant Women (Internet Panel Survey) 2013-14 Flu Season Flu Vaccination Coverage, United States, 2013-14 Influenza Season 2010-2011 through 2013-2014 Season Trend Report 2013-14 Flu Season, Interactive Map (Report I) ...

  8. Preoperative preparation of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liki?-La?evi? Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated with the highest risks since it may lead to a life-threatening complication - eclampsia. As for other coexisting diseases, urinary tract infections and gestational diabetes are the most common as well as hyperthyroidism and other diseases that may also develop. The type and severity of the acute surgical disease, extensiveness of the planned surgery as well as the type of planned anesthesia to be applied, occasionally necessitate, depending on the gestational age, termination of pregnancy to be considered. Gynecological-obstetric consultations are mandatory in all surgical interventions planned in pregnant women.

  9. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety while breastfeeding For More Information Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Food Safety Food safety is especially important for pregnant women. ... careful about food safety while you are pregnant. Food safety advice for everyone Keep food safe to eat ...

  10. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Stu...

  11. [HIV infection in pregnant women in Chelyabinsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, O A; Karazhas, N V; Rusakova, E V

    2005-01-01

    Data on HIV infection in pregnant women in Chelyabinsk are presented. Starting from 1999, a considerable rise in the number of HIV-infected persons was registered in this city. The social and epidemiological characteristics of HIV-infected pregnant women, as well as the main routes and factors of the infective agent transmission, are given. Relationship between the spread of HIV-infection and drug addiction is revealed. The occurrence of different opportunistic infections in HIV-infected pregnant women is determined. PMID:15773407

  12. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  13. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Office of Director Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an ... receive the nasal spray flu vaccine. Influenza (the flu) is a serious illness, especially when you are ...

  14. Multivitamin supplements for pregnant women. New insights.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn E; Nava-Ocampo AA; Koren G

    2004-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my patients is planning pregnancy and has started taking multivitamin supplements. She is experiencing gastric discomfort. What are the alternatives? ANSWER: Gastric discomfort is usually related to iron intake; pregnant women could use supplements with less iron. Pregnant women need 0.4 to 1.0 mg of folic acid daily. If they have a family history of neural tube defects (NTDs), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy, or are currently taking valproic acid, carbamazep...

  15. Assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, S. M.; Cade, J. E.; Kirk, S. F.; Greenwood, D. C.; White, K.L.; Shires, S; Simpson, N. A.; Wild, C. P.; Hay, A W

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the effects of caffeine on health, while numerous, have produced inconsistent results. One of the most uncertain and controversial effects is on pregnancy outcome. Studies have produced conflicting results due to a number of methodological variations. The major challenge is the accurate assessment of caffeine intake. The aim of the present study was to explore different methods of assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women. Twenty-four healthy pregnant women from the UK city of ...

  16. Pregnant women's attitudes towards alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Neil; Beer Charlotte; Glazebrook Cristine; Sayal Kapil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is uncertainty as to whether there is a safe threshold for drinking alcohol during pregnancy. We explored pregnant women's attitudes towards drinking alcohol in pregnancy and their attitudes towards sources of information about drinking in pregnancy following recent changes in UK government guidance. Methods A qualitative study involving individual, semi-structured interviews with 20 pregnant women recruited from community organisations in the UK. Interview transcrip...

  17. [Some nutritional habits of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project was to evaluate diets of pregnant women. The research, whose tool was a voluntary questionnaire, was undertaken in 2005, among a group of a hundred randomly chosen pregnant women ranging in age from 23 to 32. A great degree of inappropriateness of their diets was revealed: too low intake of vegetables, fruit, dairy produce, proteins. Of all the women surveyed, a low percentage introduced folic acid (27%) and products rich in iron (17%) into their diets. The women stated that they both had limited coffee intake and started drinking milk. PMID:17713202

  18. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran?elovi? Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ?104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (?² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U. urealyticum ? 104 is more frequent in pregnant women with risk pregnancy than in pregnant women with normal term delivery. High-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization should be observed as a possible etiological factor for PROM.

  19. Adverse fetomaternal outcome among pregnant overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shazia; Bibi, Seema; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Farooq, Sumaiya; SM, Tahir; Qazi, Roshan Ara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the adverse fetometernal out come in overweight and normal weight pregnant women. Methods: This comparative cohort study was conducted from 1st October 2010 to 30 September 2012. Total 200 gravid women 100 were overweight and 100 normal weight pregnant women with gestational age for 08-40 weeks were included. Women having BMI (25 – 29.9 Kg/m2) were measured overweight and included in group A and 100 women having normal BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 as controls were in-group B. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion of maternal and fetal outcomes. Significant P – value of obesity exerts deleterious effect, both on fetal and maternal outcome.

  20. Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151567.html Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women Finding ... 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that yoga may help ease depression in pregnant women. "This ...

  1. Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Ebrahimi; Mina Soleymani; Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh; Fatemeh Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS...

  2. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Panel Survey) 2014-15 Flu Season, Pregnant Women (Internet Panel Survey) 2013-14 Flu Season Flu Vaccination Coverage, United States, 2013-14 Influenza Season 2010-2011 through 2013-2014 Season Trend Report 2013-14 Flu Season, Interactive Map (Report I) ...

  3. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the availability to such women of services from the facilities...the fact that pregnant women receive such preference...health care providers, and social service agencies. ...services to any such pregnant woman who seeks the services...that pregnant women in need of such services...

  4. Gentamicin serum half-life: a comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazebnik, N.; Noy, S.; Lazebnik, R.; Hezroni, Y.; Amoday, I.; Aviram, A.

    1985-01-01

    The serum half-life of gentamicin following an intravenous dose was compared between 19 pregnant women (28-34 weeks of pregnancy) with premature rupture of the membranes and 17 non-pregnant women with pelvic inflammatory disease, the groups being age and weight matched. A significant reduction of gentamicin half-life was found in the pregnant group.

  5. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Tyagi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The safety and tolerability of CART in pregnant and non-pregnant women did not differ by class of ARV, but there were differences among individual drugs. Zidovudine, efavirenz and nevirapine were substituted more commonly in pregnant women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 730-734

  6. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Ben Nasr; T. S., Hammami; Z., Sahnoun; T., Rebai; M., Bouaziz; M., Kassis; K. M., Zeghal.

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitt [...] ed to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  7. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  9. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrea...

  10. Breast disorders in pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The breast undergoes extensive changes during pregnancy and lactation that can create diagnostic challenges. This article reviews the anatomy of the breast, breast changes associated with pregnancy and lactation, and breast imaging techniques for pregnant and lactating women. Various benign breast conditions in this patient population also are discussed, such as lactating adenomas, galactoceles, and granulomatous mastitis. Finally, pregnancy-associated breast cancer is presented, including its epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:25835417

  11. Nutritional Status of Rural Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Madhavi,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a crucial period of woman’s life where socio-demographic factors affect her health as well asdetermine the health of future generation. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in pregnant women inthe field practice area of RCHTC, Hebbal. Variables considered for the study were: Age, religion, Socio-economics status,type of family & house, parity, spacing methods, utilization of health services, height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI.Majority of pregnant woman had inadequate protien & calorie consumption during pregnancy; 23.93%, woman werehaving BMI<18.5; 66.67%, were anemic (Hb<11 gm%. The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be high amongilliterate (98.2%, Hindu (92.31% and moderately working woman (83.34% . Anemia was found to be more common whoseage at first pregnancy was <20 years (57.28%, age at marriage <20 years (87.17%, in IInd trimester of pregnancy(62.83% and in age group of 20-24 years (39.14%. Government hospital services were utilized by 78.63% but only 58.97%received iron & folic acid tablets and 70.94% had taken injection Tetanus Toxoid (TT.Hence, effective intervention should be directed towards young pregnant women <20 years of age to improvematernal nutritional status, literacy level, and health education for utilization of health services.

  12. Preferences and related factors for postpartum contraception in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmazel, Gu?lay; Balci, Elc?in

    2013-01-01

    Background: The postpartum period is a time of transition for a pregnant woman and her new family. In this period many pregnant women are in search about the family planning methods. But contraceptive options differ depending on women’s desires such as cultural and religious believes, partner attitudes, previous contraceptive experiences.

  13. Estimating coverage of a women's group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Younes Layla; Houweling Tanja AJ; Azad Kishwar; Costello Anthony; Fottrell Edward

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’...

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen prevalence among pregnant women in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, D D; Gordon, H; Moore, G; Larsen, B

    1992-12-01

    During 1990, more than 2,100 women who received prenatal care at one of four clinics which serve 11 West Virginia counties, were screened for chlamydial antigen. Overall, 5.6 percent of the women screened had positive antigen tests and 90 percent of these individuals were under the age of 25. The prevalence of chlamydia was different at three geographic sites with the highest rate of positive antigen test being 9.4 percent at one site. These findings led to a careful analysis of the prevalence of this disease among women who lived in rural areas versus those who lived in urban areas. This detailed analysis involved only patients seen in the Grafton and Morgantown clinics, and revealed a tendency for most positive antigen tests to occur among women with urban addresses. Our study indicates that a substantial chlamydial problem exists among pregnant women of young age. Although screening all pregnant women for chlamydia may not be cost effective, knowing which individuals are at highest risk may help target limited screening for these patients. PMID:1492405

  15. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi; Schmidt Maria Inês; Duncan Bruce Bartholow; Fuchs Sandra Costa; Fleck Eni Teresinha; Britto Maria Margarida Santos

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, see...

  16. Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnoch Gordon J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

  17. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137Cs intake. For the first woman 137Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  18. Suicide Attempts with Drug Intoxication in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa UZKESER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Insufficient data are available comparing medical costs, hospitalization or admission rate, and drugs used for the treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant women admited to the emergency department (ED due to suicide attempts following drug intoxication. We sought to evaluate these differences in our ED. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study; hence we attempted to follow all pregnant and non-pregnant women who were admitted in our ED at Ataturk University, Erzurum-Turkey, due to suicide attempt with drug intoxication. We have obtained records of management plans, estimated costs and hospital admission rate in the ED from 2008 to 2011 and compared in both groups. Results: A total of 309 women were registered as suicide attempts with drug intoxication. Out of these, 23 (7.4% were pregnant and 286 (92.6% were non-pregnant. The pregnant women had lower rate of past history of psychiatric illness as compared to non-pregnant women (4.3% vs. 26.2%; p=0.019. Comparison of drug intoxication revealed a higher rate of intake of organophosphate (39.1%; vs. 34.8% p<0.001 and paracetamol (39.1% vs. 19.9%; p=0.031, but a lower rate of multidrug ingestion (39.1% vs. 67.8%; p=0.005 in pregnant women. Furthermore, pregnant women have a lower rate of hospitalization in ED (56.5% vs. 77.6%, but higher rates of hospitalization in internal services (13% vs. 6.3%, and intensive care units (13% vs. 3.1%; p=0.039 compared to non-pregnant women. Consequently, the cost of therapy was also higher in pregnant (2553.5±6206.7 TL vs. 581.3±490.3 TL; p<0.001. Conclusions: Though pregnant women were admitted less frequently compared to non-pregnant women, suicide attempts with drug intoxication among pregnant women have increased consequences in terms of hospitalization rate and cost. Thus there is an urgent need to incorporate a special screening program to measure suicide risk followed by counseling for pregnant women during post-conceptual care.

  19. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  20. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  1. Pregnant and lactating women’s knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pessoa Maciel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify what pregnant and lactating women say about what is exclusivevbreastfeeding, its duration and benefits for moms and babies. Methods: This is a quantitative,descriptive study that took place in 2011 at a Family Health Center in Fortaleza-CE. The following variables were analyzed: socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge and attitude regarding breastfeeding and its benefits for the mom and baby. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire and consisted of a non-probability sample of 45 women with simple descriptive statistical analysis using proportion. Results: In all, 40 (88.9% respondents were pregnant and 5 (11.1% were breastfeeding. Mean age was 24 years. Regarding socioeconomic characteristics, 12 (30% women said they were housemaids, 9 (22.5% were housewives and 6 (15% were unemployed. Concerning the definition of exclusive breastfeeding, 25 (55.6% women considered breast milk as the only form of breastfeeding, five (11.1% respondents considered breast milk, water and tea and 12 (26.7% women did not know the meaning of the term. Considering the benefits, 16 (35.7% women reported the strengthening of the bond with the child. Conclusion: It was observed that the assessed moms had knowledge of the definition, duration and benefits of exclusive breastfeeding; however, they presented some factors that contributed to early weaning. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p311

  2. Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh; Hana Husni Al Nabulsi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social), as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members). The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against preg...

  3. The observation of serum CG levels in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors determined the levels of the CG contained in serum by RIA in 83 normal pregnant women and in 53 pregnant patients with ICP. The result showed that CG levels of ICP patients increased significantly as compared with that of normal middle and late pregnancy (P < 0.01). The routine examination of the serum CG levels in pregnant women is of great value of the earlier diagnosis to ICP and treatment as well as health care of perinatal period

  4. Estimating coverage of a women’s group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Layla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’s group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the intervention’s coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1 direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2 direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated women’s group intervention’s coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with women’s group members and facilitators participating in the Women’s Groups intervention.

  5. [Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women - safety and effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Wo?niak Kosek, Agnieszka; Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics, pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications from influenza. The factors believed to increase the susceptibility of complicated influenza infection during pregnancy are linked to the physiologic changes, including immunologic changes (attenuation of the cell-mediated immune responses, selective suppression of T-helper 1 cell mediated immunity while the adaptive humoral immunity remains unimpaired), increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption and tidal volume. Pregnant women have similar incidence of seasonal influenza as the general population, however because of the physiological changes, they are at an increased risk of complications (including secondary pneumonia, acute respiratory insufficiency increased risk of stillbirth, premature deliveries) and death. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries. Vaccination against influenza with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) has been proven to be safe and effective. Lack of harmful effect of TIV on pregnant women and newborns has been demonstrated in several studies: no increased risk of spontaneous abortions, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations, cesarean section have been reported. Vaccination against influenza has been proven to be effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Several studies revealed a decreased risk of influenza-like illnesses among mothers who were vaccinated during pregnancy but also a decreased risk of laboratory confirmed cases of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza and its complications among newborns and infants born to vaccinated mothers. Currently available inactivated influenza vaccines are not licensed for use in infants younger than 6 months. Protection of young infants against the infection in early life thus requires a cocooning strategy to reduce the number of vulnerable individuals among care givers and contacts. Neonates and infants may be also protected against influenza directly by antibodies of maternal origin that cross the placenta or are transferred via breast milk. The duration of passively acquired antibodies depends on the initial blood concentration and is probably less than 6 months. Vaccine coverage among pregnant women rdmains low Possible explanations include lack of education by health care workers, the feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious problem, and the failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. Overall, the most important factor for a woman to decide to be immunized during pregnancy was to have a clear recommendation from the health care provider Reasons evoked by obstetricians for not providing influenza vaccines included lack sufficient data on safety and efficacy concerns about the medical legal risks of vaccination during pregnancy and the perdeption that pregnant women would not want to be vaccinated. Educational intervention targeting health care workers in charge of pregnant women should be primary implemented to provide higher influenza vaccine coverage and to protect pregnant women and young infants from influenza related morbidity PMID:23488311

  6. Vitamin D study in pregnant women and their babies

    OpenAIRE

    Al Emadi, Samar; Hammoudeh, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in pregnant women. Deficiencies have been prevalent even in studies where over 90% of the women took prenatal vitamins. The current guidelines for vitamin D intake during pregnancy of 200–400 IU has little scientific support and has been recently challenged. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and to evaluate the effectiveness and level of weekly oral 50,000 IU of vita...

  7. Doppler Echocardiographic Assessment of Pregnant Women with Chronic Arterial Hypertension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nádia Cristiane de, Mattia; Regina Lúcia, Barbin; Vera Therezinha M., Borges; José Carlos, Peraçoli; Beatriz B., Matsubara.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess structural and functional cardiac changes in asymptomatic pregnant women with chronic arterial hypertension (CAH). METHODS: One hundred pregnant women with CAH underwent conventional Doppler echocardiography. The Student t test was used to compare them with 29 normotensive pregn [...] ant women (NT) in their third gestational trimester. RESULTS: Systolic (SBP; mmHg) and diastolic (DBP; mmHg) blood pressure values were higher (p

  8. Diagnosis of and Screening for Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, S. C.; Hall, B; Whybin, L. R.; Leader, L.; Robertson, P; Maine, G. T.; Rawlinson, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    No single diagnostic test for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is currently available for pregnant women at all stages of gestation. Improved accuracy in estimating the timing of primary infections can be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to congenitally infected infants. A diagnostic algorithm utilizing immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgG avidity was used to prospectively screen serum from 600 pregnant women enrolled from two groups: ?20 weeks gestation (n = 396) or >20...

  9. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili; Mahnaz Shahnazi; Khadijeh Hajizadeh; Mahmoud Shekari Khaniani

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Ira...

  10. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2014-10-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n?=?207) and non-pregnant women (n?=?370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p?=?0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p?=?0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r?=?0.731, p?discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p?=?0.008), but not in pregnant women (p?=?0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  11. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  12. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Helle Margrete Meltzer; Marianne Hope Abel; Margaretha Haugen; Anne Lise Brantsæter

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Ch...

  13. Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

  14. Prevalence and Risk Indicators for Anal Incontinence among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Katariina Laine; Finn Egil Skjeldestad; Leiv Sandvik; Anne Cathrine Staff

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of anal incontinence in an unselected pregnant population at second trimester. A survey of pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination was conducted in a university hospital in Oslo, Norway. A questionnaire consisting of 105 items concerning anal incontinence (including St. Mark's score), urinary incontinence, medication use, and comorbidity was posted to women when invited to the ultrasound examination. Results...

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rifakis; Jesús Benitez; Gilberto Cabaniel; Elianet Araujo; Elizabeth Hernández; Magdary Colina; Juan J. Blanco; Anna Viloria; Ymora Aguilera; Andrea Maldonado; Nestor Rubio; Gloria Gervasio; Oscar Urdaneta; Henry Perez; Marisela Ravelo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a pren...

  16. Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Te-Fu Chan; Fan-Hao Chou; Eing-Mei Tsai; Yu-Hua Lin; Yu-Ling Lin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles andrelated factors in pregnant women.Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan.Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceivedhealth status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or peers’health-promoting behaviors, and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP?...

  17. Do Pregnant Teens Have Higher Risk of Intimate Partner Violence than Pregnant Adult Women in Mexico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Valdez Santiago

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV and identify factors linked to it in pregnant Mexican adult and adolescent women. Methods: Data were gathered by the National Survey of Violence against Women (2006, applied to women between the ages 15-49, users of Mexican public health institutions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the significant factors associated with IPV against pregnant women. Results: Both adolescent and adult study participating women showed a 24% prevalence of current IPV (during the previous 12 months. The study’s multivariate model for adult women revealed the following as main predictors for IPV: a woman’s agreement with traditional gender roles (OR = 4.35, CI95% = 2.20 - 8.60, and women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (OR = 2.76, CI95% = 1.68 - 4.55. The main predictor of IPV in pregnant adolescents was their partners’ frequency of alcohol consumption: often/usually (OR = 6.49, CI95% = 2.18 - 19.33. Conclusion: To this date, Mexico has not been able to guarantee universal screening methods for IPV as a part of prenatal care protocols. The phenomenon of IPV towards pregnant women neither has been followed-up by further research nor has been identified as a public health problem in spite of the seriousness of its implications for women and their offspring.

  18. Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p3Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no s and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

  19. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Pereira, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo Pereira; Almeida, Alexandra Isabel; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Parreira, Vitória Barros Castro; Amaral, Maria Odete

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care. PMID:25830730

  20. Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social, as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members. The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against pregnant women, a study in which consisted of 250 women from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Salt in Jordan, was used package Statistical Social Sciences (SPSS.The study was applied at statistical methods and simple statistics advanced test, to analysis of variance T-test and F-test, to show the differences and implications of statistical variables, the results revealed that the actions stressful work, being forced to have sex, and beating, is one of the most prevalent forms of physical violence.  A Study also demonstrated that questioning the sex of the baby, neglecting, and the carelessness of the husband to towards the health status, was one of the most common forms of psychological violence known. The exposure of pregnant women to smoke, and the neglect of her husband because of being pregnant with a female and not allowing seeing the doctor was one of the forms of social violence. Also showed that stress, the anxiety and depression is the psychological effects of violence, also the slackness to perform house duties, and isolation forms other social impacts. The results also showed the presence of statistically significant relationships between forms of violence against a pregnant woman due to the variable places of residence, and monthly income. And there are no statistically significant differences to forms of violence attributed to the educational level.

  1. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who have received the smallpox vaccine receive Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG)? Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG) is a treatment that can be used ... Immunization Practices does not recommend preventive use of Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG) for pregnant women. However, if a woman ...

  2. Possibilities for the early detection of hypertensive disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Savinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate morphofunctional changes in the cardiovascular system of pregnant women with arterial hypertension (AH to detectchronic AH - hypertensive disease.Subjects and methods. 126 pregnant women with AH (at 28–34 weeks gestation; mean age 26.1 ± 1.7 years were examined. All the pregnantwomen underwent assessment of risk factors for AH, double measurement of office blood pressure, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, electrocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, a microalbumin urine test, and eyeground examination. The pattern of AH was specified 12 weeks after childbirth.Results. Chronic AH – hypertensive disease – was diagnosed in 51 % of the examined pregnant women with AH. There was a considerable spread of risk factors for AH in this patient group. 26 % of them were found to have lesions of target organs (heart and/or arterial vessels; the rate of microalbuminuria registration was 41 %.Conclusion. Among our examined group of pregnant patients with AH, the prevalence of hypertensive disease is 51 %. In the identified patientgroup, cardiac and arterial vascular changes that could be considered as target organ lesions were found in almost a third of cases. Pregnant women with AH need to be meticulously examined and followed up by a therapist and a cardiologist in the postpartum period.

  3. Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rifakis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P<.01. Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  4. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  5. Doppler Echocardiographic Assessment of Pregnant Women with Chronic Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristiane de Mattia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess structural and functional cardiac changes in asymptomatic pregnant women with chronic arterial hypertension (CAH. METHODS: One hundred pregnant women with CAH underwent conventional Doppler echocardiography. The Student t test was used to compare them with 29 normotensive pregnant women (NT in their third gestational trimester. RESULTS: Systolic (SBP; mmHg and diastolic (DBP; mmHg blood pressure values were higher (p<0.001 in the CAH pregnant women (SBP: 139±19 and DBP: 92± 18 as compared with those of the NT group (SBP: 112±10 and DBP: 74±9. A significant enlargement of the left atrium (4.10±0.48 cm vs 3.6±0.3 cm; p<0.001 and of the left ventricular normalized mass (59.6±19.7 g/cm2,7 vs 41.9±3.4 g/cm2,7; p<0.001 was observed. Cardiac output (CO, L/min and systolic volume (SV, mL were significantly higher in the CAH group (CO: 6.0±1.54 vs 4.9±2.1, p<0.01; SV: 77.3±19.8 vs 56.5±25.8, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Chronic hypertensive pregnant women have structural and functional cardiac changes that justify routine cardiologic assessment, even in the absence of cardiopulmonary symptoms.

  6. Weight gain restriction for obese pregnant women : An Intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Claesson, Ing-marie

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is a growing global public health problem and is as prevalent among pregnant women as in the general population. It is well known that obese women have an increased risk for several complications during pregnancy and delivery and this is also true for the neonate. Excessive gestational weight gain among obese women seems to further increase these risks for adverse outcomes. It has not been known up to the time of this study whether a behavioral intervention program desig...

  7. Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

  8. Mechanisms of diminished natural killer cell activity in pregnant women and neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because alterations in natural killer (NK) activity in the perinatal period may be important in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, the mechanisms by which these alterations are mediated in neonates and in pregnant and postpartum women was examined. NK activity, as measured in a 4-hr 51Cr-release assay and compared with adult controls, is significantly diminished in all three trimesters of pregnancy and in immediately postpartum women. In postpartum women, NK activity appears to be higher than in pregnant women, although this does not reach statistical significance. Pregnant and postpartum women have normal numbers of large granular lymphocytes and normal target cell binding in an agarose single cell assay but decreased lysis of the bound target cells. NK activity of mononuclear cells from postpartum women, in addition, demonstrate a shift in distribution to higher levels of resistance to gamma-irradiation. Further, sera from postpartum women cause a similar shift to increased radioresistance in mononuclear cells from adult controls. Because radioresistance is a property of interleukin 2-stimulated NK, the shift to radioresistance may represent lymphokine-mediated stimulation occurring during parturition. In contrast, cord blood cells have a more profound decrease in NK activity as determined by 51Cr-release assay and decreases in both binding and lysis of bound target cells in the single cell assay. The resistance of NK activity in cord cellThe resistance of NK activity in cord cells to gamma-irradiation is also increased, as seen in postpartum women. Cord blood serum, however, did not alter radioresistance or inhibit NK activity. The results suggest that the observed diminished NK activity in pregnant women and neonates arise by different mechanisms: an absence of mature NK cells in the neonate and an alteration of the NK cell in pregnancy leading to decreased killing

  9. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe. PMID:22937114

  10. Effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women on gestational weight gain and mental health: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaerts, Annick; Devlieger, Roland; Nuyts, Erik; Witters, Ingrid; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Den Bergh, Bea

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lifestyle intervention could help obese pregnant women to limit their weight gain during pregnancy and improve their psychological comfort, but has not yet been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. We evaluated whether a targeted antenatal lifestyle intervention programme for obese pregnant women influences gestational weight gain (GWG) and levels of anxiety or depressed mood. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: This study used a longitudinal interventional design. Of the 235 eligi...

  11. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS (Hillan, 1999 also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba’s method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328

  12. Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 ?Sv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units

  13. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Mitisha Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disorder in the world. WHO has estimated the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women in developed and developing countries, and that is 14% in developed and 51% in developing countries.1 Anaemia in pregnancy remains one of the most intractable public health problems in the developing countries.2,3 The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that more than half of the pregnant women in the world have a haemoglobin level (<11.0 g/dl which is indicative of anaemia.

  14. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public...for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 ...involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other...

  15. Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Safieh Jamali; Leili Mosalanejad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Method...

  16. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

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    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  17. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that higher AS doses would be required to maintain similar DHA levels in pregnant women as achieved in non-pregnant controls.

  19. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Antony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32 and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE, resting (REE, and physical activity (PAEE energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007 and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002. Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity.

  20. Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women in Comparison to the Reference Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Ruqayya Sajjad; Alam Khan

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women with poor nutritional status have an increased risk of birth outcomes. Nutritional assessment is an effective method of preventing potential complications in pregnant women. To assess and compare the dietary intake of nutrients and energy in pregnant women from antenatal care units of Peshawar. A Cross sectional study was carried out in Lady Reading hospital (Govt) and Alkhidmat (Private) hospital Peshawar for a period of three months. A total of 198 Pregnant Women (PW), 66 fro...

  1. Listeriosis prevention knowledge among pregnant women in the USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Lynfield; Jay Schulkin; Elizabeth Kirkland; Joni Scheftel; Jones, Jeffery L.; Folashade Ogunmodede

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted...

  2. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  3. Comparison of methods for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn, M. A.; Hillier, S. L.; Eschenbach, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually based on clinical criteria including homogeneous vaginal discharge, an elevated vaginal pH, the presence of clue cells, and an amine odor. We have evaluated the vaginal flora and clinical signs for 593 pregnant women. Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides spp., and Mycoplasma hominis were isolated more frequently among women with clinical signs than among those without clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis in multivariable analyses that controlled ...

  4. Passive smoking by pregnant women and fetal growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, H.; Tominaga, S.; HORI, K.; Noguchi, K.; Kanou, I; Matsubara, M.

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effect of passive smoke exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth in the Japanese population. DESIGN--The study comprised a community based interview and clinical survey of pregnant women in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. SETTING--Participants attended for delivery at 146 private and public practices and hospital clinics in the Prefecture. SUBJECTS--Participants were 6831 women who delivered a live singleton without malformation during the three conse...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F Nde

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, PToxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  6. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross Karin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.

  7. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Epidemiological Determinants in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.Viveki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia in pregnant women is one of the India’s major public health problems, despite the fact that this problem is largely preventable & easily treatable. Objectives: 1.To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women. 2. To assess the epidemiological determinants of anaemia in pregnancy. Methodology: A descriptive case series study was conducted among the pregnant women from second trimester onwards from urban field practice area from 1st March 2010 to 31st July 2010 by using pre-designed, pre-tested, structured schedule. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method & anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analyses were done by percentages and proportions, Mean and Standard Deviation (S.D, Chi-square test. Results: A high prevalence (82.9% of anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 11.0gm/dl was observed among 228 pregnant women. Majority (50.4% had moderate degree of anaemia (Haemoglobin - 7.0 to 10.0 gm/dl and 7.0% had severe anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 7.0 gm/dl. Severity of anaemia was more in 26 years of age, from nuclear families, educated upto secondary level, having vegetarian diet, parity two or more & those in third trimester with two or more abortions, although statistically not significant. However, anaemia prevalence was significantly higher among those subjects from below Class IV socio-economic status, those with less than two years of spacing between previous and index pregnancies & with less than two months IFA tablet consumption. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women from 4th month onwards till 3-6 months post-partum along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.

  8. Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... active ? Yes, most women with gestational diabetes can control their blood sugar with the diabetes meal plan and exercise. It is also important to be careful about your weight gain during pregnancy. Work with your doctor or ...

  9. Upholding pregnant women's right to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2012-04-01

    Recent decisions of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the High Court of Delhi have shown how the pregnancy-related deaths of individual women have been bases on which these authoritative tribunals have held Brazil, Paraguay, and India respectively accountable for avoidable maternal mortality not only in these cases, but also among their populations more generally. The right to life is the most fundamental of women's human rights, recognized in international human rights treaties and national laws. Failure of governments to apply their resources adequately to address, respect, and protect this right violates the law of human rights. These cases show, however, that governments may fail to allocate adequate resources to women's survival of pregnancy. Tribunals can build on the failures in individual cases to set standards of performance to which governments will legally be held to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:22356763

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  11. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women : A Danish Regional Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding women after the introduction of the mandatory iodine fortification of salt in a region of Denmark with previously moderate iodine deficiency. Additionally, the PhD thesis addresses mechanisms of iodide transport to the fetus across the placenta and methodological challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women.

  12. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

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    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available.

  13. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were highly correlated. • Exposure information can expand the utility of biospecimens in the NCS Main Study

  14. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n?=?32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n?=?22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

  16. Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP) at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa) for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa) for those at term. In theearly pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05) whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho) was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84), between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81), and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85). CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.

  17. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  18. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1??g\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  19. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug depe...

  20. Predictors of prenatal multivitamin adherence in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Patricia; Thomas, Martin; Koren, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    There is no study available that has investigated determinants of prenatal multivitamin adherence among pregnant women, based on gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. The objective of this study was to identify determinants predicting adherence to prenatal multivitamins in pregnant women who were randomized to take 2 different supplements. The authors recruited and interviewed 70 women on the importance of various factors that may have affected adherence to previous and assigned multivitamins. The different factors included GI symptoms and swallowing difficulty. The authors used a 5-point scale to measure degree of importance. The highest scoring factors for not taking or discontinuing any previous multivitamins were fear of or experience of nausea, vomiting, and gagging. For women who never took the assigned prenatal multivitamins, the highest scoring factors contributing to that decision were fear of nausea, fear of vomiting, and health care provider advice. For women who started taking the assigned supplements, the most important factors affecting adherence were dosing regimen, health care provider advice, and mode of product distribution. Adherence to assigned prenatal multivitamins significantly correlated only with the importance of constipation in deciding to discontinue any previous multivitamins. It is concluded that predictors of adherence to recommended prenatal multivitamins during pregnancy are rooted in women's prior experiences with multivitamin use. PMID:19386624

  1. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. PMID:23830308

  2. Epidemiology and Risk Analysis of Malaria among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    I Baruah; NG Das; Goswami, D; K. Yadav; S Dhiman; Singh, L.

    2012-01-01

    "nMalaria remains a complex problem during the pregnancy, which threatens > 35 millions pregnant women every year. Malaria pathogenesis in pregnancy results in accumulation of infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces causing severe alterations leading to the reduced materno-foetal exchanges. In this article we have revisited the current evidences of clinical implications and overall burden of malaria in pregnancy. Many adverse aftermaths including, low birth weight, intrauterine g...

  3. Should pregnant women with substance use disorders be managed differently?

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Verena; Köchl, Birgit; Fischer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women with substance use disorders have multiple special needs, which might be best managed within a multiprofessional treatment setting involving medical, psychological and social care. Adequate treatment provision remains a challenge for healthcare professionals, who should undergo special training and education when working with this patient population. Careful assessment and screening is necessary to tailor interventions individually to the woman's needs in order to achieve benef...

  4. Role of dyslipidemia in preeclamptic overweight pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Seyede Hajar Sharami; Azita Tangestani; Roya Faraji; Ziba Zahiri; Azam Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor of preeclampsia with unknown mechanism and hyperlipidemia might be a probable case of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hyper-triglyceridemi in association with high prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted this case-control study of 42 preeclamptic and 41 normotensive overweight pregnant women. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gestation...

  5. Predictors of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Alyson M.; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Yatich, Nelly; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2010-01-01

    Anemia in pregnancy is a worldwide problem, but it is most prevalent in the developing world. This research project was conducted to determine the predictors of anemia in pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study design was conducted and descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Body mass index, Mid-upper arm circumference, and the number of antenatal care visits showed a statistically significant association with anemia. Based on the ...

  6. Risk Factors on Hypertensive Disorders among Jordanian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman, Amal K.

    2013-01-01

    Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper­tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patient...

  7. Amniocentesis in HIV Pregnant Women: 16 Years of Experience

    OpenAIRE

    João Castela; Cristina Guerreiro; Joaquim Correia; Ana Paula Pereira; Catarina Marques; Ana Gonçalves; Mafalda Simões

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of...

  8. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  9. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Gross Karin; Alba Sandra; Glass Tracy R; Schellenberg Joanna; Obrist Brigit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first...

  10. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-García Juan; Estrada-Martínez Sergio; Narro-Duarte Sergio; Sifuentes-Álvarez Antonio; Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme; Liesenfeld Oliver; Martínez-García Sergio; Canales-Molina Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in...

  11. TROPHOBLASTIC ?1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic ?1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic ?1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, ? 1, pp. 85588

  12. Induction of labour in postdates pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To differentiate the effect of gestation on the mode of delivery by analysing the difference in the mode of induction, length of labour and the difference in parity or Bishop score and their effect on the mode of delivery of postdates women. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad, from July 2006 to July 2008. Methodology:Patients were induced at 41 weeks (Group B) and > 40 weeks (Group A) of gestation. Tab misoprostol and PGE2 tablets were administered according to amniotic fluid index (AFI) and parity . Study variables included duration of gestation, mode of induction, length of labour, difference in parity and Bishop score assessed before induction in each group. The outcome was assessed by applying Chi-square test by comparing mode of delivery with the study variables in both groups. Results: A total of 78 patients were inducted in the study. They were divided in group B (n = 39) induced 41 weeks and group A (n = 39) induced at 40 weeks. Eighty four percent (n = 35) patients in group B delivered vaginally as compared to 71% (n = 28) in the 40 weeks group (p < 0.0001). The higher number of vaginal deliveries in 41 weeks group was independent of association between the induction agent, parity and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The mean length of gestation was the single most important factor among the studied variables in predicting a vaginal delivery. (author)l delivery. (author)

  13. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-01-01

    Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sampl...

  14. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from the Clinical Microbiology Database. Maternal data were obtained from a local database at the RH. RESULTS: In our cohort, a total of 638 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with GBS, 517 (81%) from urine, 92 (14%) from vaginal swabs and 29 (5%) from both. The overall rate of women colonised with GBS rose from 3.3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p <0.0001). A total of 48 infants had early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS), 1.4 per 1,000neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: We found a low GBS colonisation rate in our pregnant cohort, but the rate followed an increasing trend over the study period. GBS during pregnancy was associated with a low birth weight and preterm delivery. More research on preventive measures is needed, but updated guidelines, screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of EOGBS disease prevention.

  15. Prevalence of Prescription Medication Use Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:25287251

  16. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non-planners with accepting planners and by comparing rejecting planners with rejecting non-planners. The variables studied comprise age, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economic situation and contraceptives. RESULTS: The characteristics of accepting non-planners and accepting planners were in accordance and in contrast to those of rejecting planners and in particular of rejecting non-planners. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was 15%. Among rejecting non-planners the same figure was 51%. CONCLUSION: Accepting non-planners seemed to be in a situation which could be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one.

  17. Comprehension of Risk Factors of Malaria during Pregnancy among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Mpanga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the comprehension of pregnant women on malaria risk factors during pregnancy. Comprehension of Malaria risks is important to ensure compliance to prevention methods and treatment by the pregnant women and hence optimizes the pregnancy outcomes. The study was conducted in 2012 at three health facilities, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Ndirande health Centre and St. Joseph Mission Hospital in Malawi. The study design was descriptive and utilized quantitative data collection and analysis methods on a random sample of 316 antenatal mothers. The study targeted antenatal mothers who were aged between 15 and 49 years, in the gestation period of 28 to 36 weeks and able to converse in English or vernacular language. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data which were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Most of the participants (79.4%, n = 251 knew the risk factors of malaria during pregnancy but very few (18.4%, n = 58 knew about intermittent prevention treatment despite taking SP as prescribed. The motivation factors for taking SP were husband support and the desire to protect their babies and themselves from Malaria. Although the comprehension of the intermittent prevention treatment among the women was low, the women were motivated to adhere to the treatment when instructed by the healthcare workers due to the desire for good health for themselves and their unborn babies. Husbands were the most significant other that motivated the pregnant women to adhere to treatment. Results show that there is a need for healthcare workers to facilitate comprehension of intermittent prevention treatment among pregnant mothers.

  18. Influenza vaccination acceptance among diverse pregnant women and its impact on infant immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Frew, Paula M.; Zhang, Siyu; Saint-victor, Diane S.; Schade, Ashley C.; Benedict, Samantha; Banan, Maral; Ren, Xiang; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined pregnant women’s likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed “Contagion” to understand cultural influences on message perception.

  19. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

  20. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values

  1. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JM, Mathibe-Neke.

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping t [...] he current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328). Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  2. Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tognazzo Federica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before their clinic visit for a Pap test. Results With respect to socio-demographic factors, the stages of change in pregnant women were associated with level of education, marital status, and the presence of roommates, partners and friends who smoke. In pregnant women, there was no statistically significant difference in the processes used to stop smoking among the stages of change. Furthermore, behavioral processes were higher in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women, and the difference was statistically significant in the advanced stages of behavioral change. Both pregnant and non-pregnant women showed higher levels of acceptance towards smoking in the earlier stages of change, but the acceptability of smoking in the pre-contemplative stage was higher in non-pregnant women. Greater craving was detected in non-pregnant vs. pregnant women at all stages and reached a statistically significant level at the pre-contemplative stage. Conclusion Pregnancy is a favorable time to stop smoking since pregnant women are more likely to be in an advanced stage of behavioral change. Pregnant and non-pregnant women are distinct populations in the types and processes of change involved in smoking cessation. The intervention programs to promote smoking cessation and prevent relapses will need to take these differences into account.

  3. Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Tognazzo Federica; Forza Giovanni; Guarnieri Emanuela; Buja Alessandra; Sandonà Paolo; Zampieron Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smo...

  4. Knowledge, attitude and belief of pregnant women towards safe motherhood in a rural Indian setting

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhanshu Sharma; Manju Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about safe motherhood practices amongst pregnant women residing in the urban slum of the city of Jaipur, India.The study recruited 100 pregnant women from one of the urban slums of a selected district. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered on the selected sample. Overall, the results show low levels of awareness among rural pregnant women. Two major axes of investigation were used - age and education. In both inst...

  5. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  6. Detary Practices and Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Koryo-Dabrah; Nti, Christina A.; Richard Adanu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy, nutrient intakes of pregnant women and the effect of socio-demographic factors on nutrient intakes of pregnant women. The research design was cross-sectional. A systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 279 pregnant women from the antenatal clinic of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Osu Maternity Home in Accra. In-depth interviews were performed to assess perceptions and attitudes regardi...

  7. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking at maternity booking or provide false information. Carbon monoxide breath testing can bypass this difficulty. Identified smokers may not be referred but an opt-out referral policy can remove this barrier. Engagement at home allowed a greater proportion to set a quit date and quit, but costs were higher.

  8. Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n=189 and control group (n=178 during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. Results. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR=6.76; 95% CI=1.28-7.72, upper respiratory symptoms (OR=9.53; 95% CI=1.32-3.8 and bleeding (OR=20.5; 95% CI=2.03-6.97 was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=40.42; 95% CI=2.96-8.91 and bleeding (OR=53.21; 95% CI=4.3-15.73 was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=34.58; 95% CI=3.05-11.66.

  9. Comparison of antiphospholipid antibodies in hypertensive with normotensive pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) in pregnancy and antiphospholipid antibodies. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 pregnant women with their first pregnancy induced HTN and no history of thrombosis, renal disease or systemic autoimmune diseases. HTN was defined as blood pressure (BP) of 140/90 mmHg or higher on two measurements with 6 hours apart. Control group comprised of pregnant women without hypertension or proteinuria and without history of thrombosis or systemic autoimmune disease. Antiphospholipid Antibodies (Antiphospholipid IgG and IgM and anticardiolipin IgG and IgM) levels were measured in both groups. There were significantly higher titer of Antiphospholipid IgG and anticardiolipin IgG and IgM in case group (p<0.05). Antiphospholipid IgM had no difference between two groups (p=0.14). There were moderate but statistically significant correlation between blood pressure and parity (r=0.3; p=0.0001), gestational age and antiphospholipid IgM antibody level (r=0.3; p=0.02), and between gestational age and anticardiolipin IgM antibody level (r=0.28; p=0.002). We found elevated levels of IgG and IgM anticardiolipin and IgG antiphospholipid antibodies in pregnancy induced HTN, but level of antiphospholipid IgM antibody was not different in hypertensive and normotensive women. (author)

  10. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  11. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos, Piscoya; Ricardo Arraes de Alencar, Ximenes; Genivaldo Moura da, Silva; Sílvia Regina, Jamelli; Sonia Bechara, Coutinho.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at [...] the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  12. Over-the-Counter Medication Use, Perceived Safety, and Decision-Making Behaviors in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Katie L Kline, Pharm D. Candidate; Sarah M Westberg, Pharm D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which over-the-counter (OTC) medications women are using during pregnancy, and to assess patients’ perceived safety of these medications. In addition, the decision-making process utilized by pregnant women when choosing OTC drug therapy was explored, including sources of information and recommendation. The subjects included pregnant women 18 years and older. Subjects were solicited as a convenience sample by providing surveys in two urban women’s...

  13. Attitudes and behaviors of pregnant women about smoking in Konya

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    Kamile Marako?lu

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, it was aimed to describe the smoking status of women during pregnancy who had had delivery in the Gynecology and Obstetric Department of Konya Meram Medical Faculty of Selcuk University; their husbands are also investigated to identify their attitudes towards smoking.Material and Methods: This study was carried out on women who delivered between June 22, 2004 and Jaunary 31, 2005. During this period 830 infants were delivered. The ?nitial decision and attempt was to include all of these women in the study. However, because of several reasons only 600 (72.3% were included. Questions related to smoking in pregnancy, the educational status of their husbands and themselves, their socioeconomic status and the harmful effects of smoking that could affect their babies and themselves were asked in a face- to-face interview with the mothers on the first day after the parturition. The chi square test was used for statistical significance.Results: The percentage of women who had smoked at any time during pregnancy was 7.3%. The percentage of women who smoked throughout pregnancy period was 2.3%. The percentage of current smokers among the husbands of the responders was 56.7%. When the smoking status of husbands of the women who had smoked at any time during pregnancy was compared with non-smoker mothers, the percentage of current smokers was significantly higher (p<0.05. It was observed that women had difficulty expressing the harmful effects of smoking on their babies and themselves. The study subjects did not appear to have adequate advice or support from health care providers regarding giving up smoking or protecting themselves from environmental tobacco smoking. It was determined that the women who smoked during pregnancy were desirous to smoke after delivery as well.Conclusion: This situation shows that new plans such as giving education especially to pregnant women should be prepared.

  14. Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. PMID:18020792

  15. Pregnant women's responses to a tailored smoking cessation intervention: turning hopelessness into competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaino Petersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive behavioral interventions consisting of brief counseling and the provision of self-help material designed for pregnancy have been documented as effective smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women. However, there is a need to understand how such interventions are perceived by the targeted group. Aim: To understand the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses of pregnant women to a clinic-based smoking cessation intervention. Methods: In-depth interviews with women attending four antenatal clinics in Cape Town, South Africa, who were exposed to a smoking intervention delivered by midwives and peer counselors. Women were purposively selected to represent a variation in smoking behavior. Thirteen women were interviewed at their first antenatal visit and 10 were followed up and reinterviewed later in their pregnancies. A content analysis approach was used, which resulted in categories and themes describing women's experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the intervention. Results: Five women quit, five had cut down, and three could not be traced for follow-up. All informants perceived the intervention positively. Four main themes captured the intervention's role in influencing women's smoking behavior. The process started with ‘understanding their reality,’ which led to ‘embracing change’ and ‘deciding to hold nothing back,’ which created a basis for ‘turning hopelessness into a feeling of competence.’Conclusion: The intervention succeeded in shifting women from feeling pessimistic about ever quitting to feeling encouraged to try and quit. Informants rated the social support they received very highly and expressed the need for the intervention to become a routine component of clinic services.

  16. Characteristics of pregnant and lactating women with leprosy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Sacha Frota, Nogueira; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira, Moura; Andrezza Alves, Dias; Camila Félix, Américo; Lidiane Rebouças, Aguiar; Mayenne Myrcea Quintino Pereira, Valente.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of women who conceive during leprosy and the association between leprosy and pregnancy are not well known. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 49 pregnant or lactating women diagnosed with leprosy in 2011. RESULTS: The patients had a clinical dimo [...] rphous form of leprosy (44.9%), no physical incapacity at diagnosis (87.5%), and no complications in either the patient or infant (33.4%). In 36.3% of cases, leprosy symptoms were presented in the last trimester of pregnancy, and in 31.9% of patients were in the first trimester of lactation. CONCLUSIONS: The association between leprosy and pregnancy should be routinely investigated, particularly in endemic areas.

  17. Prevalence and clinical symptoms of geographic tongue in pregnant women

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    Parichehr Ghalyani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: “Geographic tongue” or benign migratory glossitis is a tongue disorder which causes pain and dysfunction and its persistence leads to cancer phobia. Based on some reports, hormones (especially female sex hormones are associated with geographic tongue development or exacerbation. Geographic tongue might be confused with lichen planus and candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the lesion with pregnancy and its changes during each trimester. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, 451 eligible cases were selected. After clinical examination and completion of questionnaires, if geographic tongue was diagnosed, photographs were taken and compared between the three trimesters. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: The prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was 36.8%. There were no significant relationships between the number of pregnancies, age and the frequency of the lesions. However, there was a significant relationship between the ectopic lesions and the fissured tongue (p value = 0.001 and also between the gestational age and geographic tongue lesions (p value = 0.043. The lesions were most prevalent in the second trimester, but in third trimester, prevalence of severs lesions decreased. Conclusions: Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was higher than previous reports in other communities. Severe lesions were more prevalent in the second trimester. Key words: Benign migratory glossitis, Hormones, Pregnancy.

  18. Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women

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    Te-Fu Chan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles andrelated factors in pregnant women.Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan.Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceivedhealth status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or peers’health-promoting behaviors, and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP?.Results: The results showed that the standardized total score of health promotinglifestyles was 66.88 (moderate level. The subscales of the HPLP ? indescending order of standardized scores were as follows: “interpersonal relationships,”“health responsibility,” “psychological wellness,” “nutrition,”“stress management” and “physical activity.” There were significant differencesin the total scores of the HPLP ? among subjects with different educationallevel, socioeconomic status, chronic diseases, exercise habits, lengthof sleep, and perceived health status. Both perception of health-promotingbehaviors among family (or peers and self-efficacy of health behaviors hadsignificantly positive relationships with health-promoting lifestyles.Perception of the family or peers’ health-promoting behaviors, self-efficacyof health behaviors, perceived health status and chronic diseases were thefour significant predictors of health-promoting lifestyles, accounting for62.4% of the variance.Conclusion: The findings of this study could be used as a reference for prenatal care,nursing education, and maternal / neonatal health policies.

  19. Biomechanics of rising from a chair and walking in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Yasuyo; Anan, Masaya; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to assess the changes in the pattern of rising from a chair and walking forward as pregnancy progressed. Twelve pregnant women and 10 nulliparous women were included in this study. Participants were videotaped with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane, and the coordinates of the markers attached to the subjects were identified using image analysis software. The peak trunk-flexion angle in pregnant women during rising was smaller, but the hip-extension angle during the stance phase was larger than in controls. Also, the peak horizontal and vertical velocities of the center of mass were lower, and appeared earlier, in pregnant women than in controls. During rising, pregnant women dampened the propulsion attributable to increased uterus volume, and they enhanced the forward propulsion at gait initiation. To ensure safe motion, pregnant women should not initiate gait until reaching a stable standing position after rising. PMID:23452381

  20. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Shaffer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

  1. Many Pregnant Women Think E-Cigarettes 'Safer' Than Regular Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_152294.html Many Pregnant Women Think E-Cigarettes 'Safer' Than Regular Cigarettes But expectant moms shouldn' ... only 57 percent of the women believed that e-cigarettes contain nicotine. And fewer than two-thirds of ...

  2. Environmental Chemicals in Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Zota, Ami R.; Schwartz, Jackie M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to chemicals during fetal development can increase the risk of adverse health effects, and while biomonitoring studies suggest pregnant women are exposed to chemicals, little is known about the extent of multiple chemicals exposures among pregnant women in the United States. Objective We analyzed biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to characterize both individual and multiple chemical exposures in U.S. pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data for 163 chemical analytes in 12 chemical classes for subsamples of 268 pregnant women from NHANES 2003–2004, a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. For each chemical analyte, we calculated descriptive statistics. We calculated the number of chemicals detected within the following chemical classes: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and phthalates and across multiple chemical classes. We compared chemical analyte concentrations for pregnant and nonpregnant women using least-squares geometric means, adjusting for demographic and physiological covariates. Results The percentage of pregnant women with detectable levels of an individual chemical ranged from 0 to 100%. Certain polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, PFCs, phenols, PBDEs, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and perchlorate were detected in 99–100% of pregnant women. The median number of detected chemicals by chemical class ranged from 4 of 12 PFCs to 9 of 13 phthalates. Across chemical classes, median number ranged from 8 of 17 chemical analytes to 50 of 71 chemical analytes. We found, generally, that levels in pregnant women were similar to or lower than levels in nonpregnant women; adjustment for covariates tended to increase levels in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Conclusions Pregnant women in the U.S. are exposed to multiple chemicals. Further efforts are warranted to understand sources of exposure and implications for policy making. PMID:21233055

  3. Comparative study of major depressive symptoms among pregnant women by employment status

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Aïssatou; Goulet , Lise; Vézina, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to compare the prevalence of major depressive symptoms between subgroups of pregnant women: working women, women who had stopped working, housewives and students; and to identify risk factors for major depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The CES-D scale (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale) was used to measure major depressive symptoms (CES-D score ?23) in 5337 pregnant women interviewed at 24–26 weeks of pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regr...

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Bamanikar; Liew Kok Kee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal c...

  5. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  6. Violence against woman from the perspective of pregnants women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fernandes e Silva, Maíra Domingues Bernardes Silva, Leila Rangel da Silva, Inês Maria Meneses dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the kinds of violence suffered in gestational period based on Ecological Model of Violence from Pan American Health Organization and to discuss the violence concept under point of view from pregnant women. Methods: descriptive study from qualitative approach conducted in a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro city. One hundred interviews were conducted with mothers in the Rooming-in Care. Results: among women who have suffered some kind of violence there is a greater proportion of physical aggression (67%, and the aggressor is, in most cases (33%, a person close to the woman. The victims did not seek a specialized help service (79%. The socio-demographic profile showed that the predominant age range was 20-29 years (56%, with a low level of schooling, less than six years of study, with a predominant family income of more than two minimum salaries and residents, most of them (27% from A.P.3.1 Méier. Conclusions: it’s important to ensure human rights and enhance the full care to women victims of violence. The existance of a regular training is essential to take care of these women, facing this violence phenomenon, offering then a careful, ethical and humane nursing.

  7. Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending a Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is an important risk factor for pregnancy complications. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related factors in a population of pregnant women. A cross sectional study was done on 426 women who were attended to an obstetrics ward of a hospital in Iran. A 35 item questionnaire was completed by the respondents. The life time prevalence of domestic violence was 42% and it was 19.3% during pregnancy. There was no relation between socioeconomic status, women`s education and employment and age of marriage with domestic violence. Unemployment, addiction and alcohol use among husbands were related to domestic violence. Slapping and punching were the most common kinds of violent behavior. The prevalence of domestic violence even during pregnancy is high in Iran, so there is a need to increase the awareness of the community and empower the health workers and professionals in order to prevent and control this problem.

  8. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  9. Proximity to Goat Farms and Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Wim; Meekelenkamp, Jamie C. E.; Dijkstra, Frederika; Notermans, Daan W.; Bom, Ben; Vellema, Piet; Rietveld, Ariene; Duynhoven, Yvonne T. H. P.; Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007–2009, we tested serum samples from 2,004 pregnant women living in an area of high Q fever incidence in the Netherlands. Results confirmed that presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii is related to proximity to infected dairy goat farms. Pregnant women and patients with certain cardiovascular conditions should avoid these farms.

  10. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Campos, Machado; Dionéia Evangelista, Cesar; Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho, Assis; Cláudio Galuppo, Diniz; Rosangela Almeida, Ribeiro.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimeste [...] r of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  11. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Shipton Debbie; Eadie Douglas; Bauld Linda; MacAskill Susan; Tappin David M; Galbraith Linsey

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one...

  12. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  13. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Mary E., E-mail: MMortensen@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wright, David J. [Westat, Inc. Rockville, MD (United States); Pirkle, James L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Merrill, Lori S. [Westat, Inc. Rockville, MD (United States); Moye, John [NCS Program Office, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes for Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were highly correlated. • Exposure information can expand the utility of biospecimens in the NCS Main Study.

  14. Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tamsin; Thebus, Elizabeth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mcintyre, James; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We used routine medical records to follow-up pregnant women initiating ART within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Cape Town, South Africa. Outcomes assessed through six months postpartum were (1) disengagement (no attendance within 56 days of a scheduled visit) and (2) missed visits (returning to care 14–56 days late for a scheduled visit). Results A total of 358 women (median age, 28 years; median gestational age, 26 weeks) initiated ART during pregnancy. By six months postpartum, 24% of women (n=86) had missed at least one visit and an additional 32% (n=115) had disengaged from care; together, 49% of women had either missed a visit or had disengaged by six months postpartum. Disengagement was more than twice as frequent postpartum compared to in the antenatal period (6.2 vs. 2.4 per 100 woman-months, respectively; ppromote retention overall, as well as targeting women newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy. PMID:25301494

  15. Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Uchenna I., Eze; Adego E., Eferakeya; Azuka C., Oparah; Ehijie F., Enato.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Manejar las complicaciones médicas en el embarazo es un reto para los clínicos. Objetivos: Este estudio delineó algunos patrones de enfermedades y prescripciones en embarazadas que visitan una clínica prenatal en Nigeria. Se determinó una clasificación de riesgo de los medicamentos. Métodos: Se inve [...] stigaron los historiales médicos de 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron las clínicas de preparto de tres centros en la ciudad de Benin , Nigeria. Los patrones de enfermedades se determinaron desde sus diagnósticos. Los patrones de prescripción se evaluaron utilizando los indicadores del a OMS y la clasificación de medicamentos de la Food and Drug Adminsitration de Estados Unidos según el riesgo para el feto. Resultados: Durante el periodo de revisión, se evaluaron 1897 prescripciones de las 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron. Los resultados indicaron que la malaria con 554 (38%) fue la enfermedad más prevalente, seguida de las infeccione respiratorias altas (IRA) con 13% y enfermedades gastrointestinales (GI) con 12%. La media de medicamentos prescritos por visita fue de 3,0 y 2434 (43%) fueron prescritas en genéricos. Minerales/vitaminas, con 2396 (42%) fueron los medicamentos mas prescritos, y los antibióticos aparecieron en 502 (8,8%). De todos los medicamentos prescritos, 984 (17%) se incluían en la categoría de riesgo fetal C y 286 (5%) en la categoría D. Conclusión: Este estudio concluyó que entre las mujeres embarazadas, la malaria era la enfermedad más frecuente, seguida de las IRA y las GI. Los minerales y vitaminas seguidos el os antibióticos encabezaron l alista de medicamentos prescritos. La media de medicamentos por visita fue mucho mayor que los estándares recomendados por la OMS. La aparición de medicamentos contraindicados era baja. Abstract in english Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files o [...] f 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38%) was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%). The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43%) of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8%) of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17%) were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5%) in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

  16. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  17. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05.  Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.  

  18. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  19. Trauma abdominal em grávidas Abdominal trauma in pregnant women

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    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores indicativos (parâmetros clínicos e índices de gravidade fisiológicos e anatômicos da evolução materna e fetal entre gestantes vítimas de trauma abdominal submetidas à laparotomia e discutir as particularidades do atendimento nesta situação. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 245 mulheres com trauma abdominal e tratamento operatório, atendidas entre 1990 e 2002. Foram identificadas 13 gestantes com lesão abdominal submetidas à laparotomia. Para registro e análise estatística dos dados foram utilizados o protocolo Epi-Info 6.04 e o teste exato de Fisher, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foram relacionados com a mortalidade fetal: escore na escala de coma de Glasgow, pressão arterial sistólica, índices de trauma (RTS, ATI, ISS e lesão uterina. RESULTADOS: a idade variou de 13 a 34 anos (média de 22,5. Seis mulheres (46,2% estavam no terceiro trimestre de gestação. O trauma penetrante correspondeu a 53,8% das lesões e em seis dessas pacientes o mecanismo de trauma foi ferimento por projétil de arma de fogo. Três pacientes tiveram lesões uterinas, associadas com óbito fetal. Não houve óbito materno e a mortalidade fetal foi de 30,7%. Não houve associação entre os índices de trauma e a mortalidade materna e fetal. A lesão uterina foi o único fator preditivo de risco para perda fetal (p=0,014. CONCLUSÕES: apesar da casuística pequena e de se tratar de estudo retrospectivo de gestantes com trauma grave, os achados deste estudo mostram que não há indicadores com boa acurácia para indicação da evolução materna e fetal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the predictors (clinical findings and physiological and anatomical scores of the maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women victims of abdominal trauma who were submitted to laparotomy and to discuss particularities of assessment in this situation. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the medical records of 245 women with abdominal trauma and surgical treatment, from 1990 to 2002. Thirteen pregnant women with abdominal injury were identified. All cases were registered in the Epi-Info 6.04 protocol and data were analyzed statistically by the Fisher exact test, with confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: ages ranged from 13 to 34 years (mean of 22.5. Six women (46.2% were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Penetrating trauma accounted for 53.8% of injuries and in six of these patients the mechanism of trauma was gunshot wounds. Three patients had uterine injuries associated with fetal death. There were no maternal deaths and fetal mortality was 30.7%. The use of trauma scores was not associated with maternal and fetal mortality. Uterine injury was the only predictive risk factor for fetal loss (p=0.014. CONCLUSIONS: this is a retrospective study analyzing a small number of pregnant women victims of severe trauma. However, the results show that there are no predictive accuracy scores to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes.

  20. Depressed Pregnant Black Women Have a Greater Incidence of Prematurity and Low Birthweight Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Holder, Vitillius; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant black depressed women were compared to pregnant black non-depressed women on self-report stress measures and cortisol levels at mid and late pregnancy and on neonatal outcomes. The depressed women had higher anxiety, anger, daily hassles, sleep disturbance scores and cortisol levels at both prenatal visits. These higher stress levels may have contributed to the greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight neonatal outcomes noted in the depressed group, and they may partially ...

  1. Ethnic differences in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in pregnant women of African and Caucasian origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Koukkou, E; Watts, G. F.; Mazurkiewicz, J; Lowy, C

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate differences in serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations in pregnant women of different ethnic origin. METHODS--Serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 232 women (114 Caucasians, 118 Africans/Afro-Caribbeans), who presented consecutively for screening for gestational diabetes in the third trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS--African/Afro-Caribbean pregnant women had lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low densi...

  2. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Oyen, Herman; Moreno-reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected...

  3. Pregnant women's experiences of routine counselling and testing for HIV in Eastern Uganda: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rujumba, Joseph; Neema, Stella; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleska?r, Thorkild; Heggenhougen, Harald K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Routine HIV counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Understanding how women experience this mode of HIV testing is important to generate ideas on how to strengthen the PMTCT programme. We explored pregnant HIV positive and negative women’ s experiences of routine counselling and testing in Mbale District,...

  4. Vitamin A Status of Pregnant Women in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria

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    Ima O. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin A status of 101 pregnant women attending clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH, Calabar, Nigeria was assessed based on 24 h dietary recall, serum retinol concentration, history of night blindness, physical appearance and clinical eye signs. The study revealed that the mean dietary vitamin A intake of the respondents (2645.31 ±188.91 ?g RE and their mean serum retinol concentration (31.18 ±2.94 ?g dL-1 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the FAO/WHO recommended intake and cutoff level for VAD. No case of night blindness, physical signs and symptoms, or clinical eye signs attributable to VAD was observed. There was a significant (p<0.01 correlation between the amount of 24 h vitamin A intake of the women and their serum retinol concentration (r = 0.31. Also, women who had above 50% of their vitamin A intake from provitamin A sources had a significantly (p<0.05 lower serum retinol concentration (23.10 ±21.12 ?g dL-1 than those who had above 50% intake from preformed sources (49.54 ±42.63 ?g dL-1 and those with about equal intake from both sources (55.75 ±30.80 ?g dL-1. There was a significant (p<0.05 and steady decline in serum retinol concentration in the women from the first trimester (37.79 ±6.65 ?g dL-1, through the second trimester (35.12 ±4.72 ?g dL-1, to the third trimester (21.54 ±1.46 ?g dL-1 of pregnancy.

  5. Detection of Syphilis by Serologic Tests in Pregnant Iranian Women, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Motamedifar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum and transmitted via sexual contact, infected discharge and blood as well as vertical transmission. It causes various impacts on women during pregnancy and their newborns which results in various complications. Thus, screening of syphilis is routinely performed during pregnancy. Choosing to perform a specific screening test is based on the prevalence of the disease in the target population which needs adequate information in this regard. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women in Shiraz, South-west of Iran. Materials and Methods: in this 15 month prospective study, 1100 pregnant women aged between 15 – 42 years, referred to University affiliated hospital in shiraz, Iran were included Blood samples were obtained from all of our study population for performing RPR test. FTA-ABS serologic test was carried out on positive cases of RPR test. Results:15 suspicious cases with weakly positive RPR test were detected but in all of them FTA-ABS tests were negative.Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of syphilis was low in our area which may be due to variable reasons, such as reduction in the rate of unsafe and unprotected sex, improving knowledge, and adequate health care services. More studies are still needed to decide whether syphilis screening is beneficial in our area and should be considered as a routine test in pregnancy

  6. Pregnant Women’s Perceptions of Patient-Provider Communication for Health Behavior Change during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn Leiferman; Elizabeth Sinatra; Jennifer Huberty

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The primary aim of the project was to conduct focus groups with pregnant women to examine their perceptions on patient and health care provider (HCP) communication during prenatal visits pertaining to health behavioral change. In particular, to determine what types of communication facilitate or prevent patient engagement and adherence to certain health behaviors related to smoking cessation, engagement in physical activity, healthy eating and healthy weight gain, ...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin F in plasma of pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this dissertation was to determine quantitatively prostaglandin-F in the plasma of pregnant women in order to obtain further knowledge on changes in PG-F during pregnancy, in particular during the last three months. The plasma of women with clinically normal pregnancies was taken. Prior to radioimmunoassay the plasma was extracted (separation of PG from other plasma components) and chromatography carried out (group separation of PG). The efficiency of this process, as measured by the recovery rate of 3H-PGF, lies between 60.99% and 93.01% for extraction and between 80.58% and 92.16% for chromatography. The plasma was extracted and analysed chromatographically for the assay. The radioimmunoassay was carried out according to the procedure recommended by the manufacturer. A calibration curve was produced without difficulty. The results of the examination of plasma samples were unsatisfactory because of the low sensitivity of the assay; PG-F values of the same order were obtained for all weeks of pregnancy. (orig./MG)

  8. Blood lead levels of pregnant women from the Klang Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisham, H J; Chuah, S Y; Syarif, H L; Nik Nasri, I; Fairulnizam, M N

    1998-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the blood lead levels of 97 pregnant women warded at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital, according to their ethnicity, residence and place of work. The lead content of venous blood samples was determined with a graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Blood lead levels of Klang Valley women seem to have decreased from 17.3 micrograms/dl in 1982 to 7.71 micrograms/dl in the present study most probably attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. This level is below the 10 micrograms/dl recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the public, even though 27.8% of them still have blood lead levels that are equal to or in excess of 10 micrograms/dl. The study shows that certain segments of the population such as Indians (geometric mean = 9.35 micrograms/dl) and housewives (geometric mean = 9.55 micrograms/dl) may still experience blood lead levels that are slightly elevated than the rest of the population. PMID:10968142

  9. Urinary ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapec, T; Sarkanj, B; Banjari, I; Strelec, I

    2012-12-01

    This study determined exposure of pregnant women to ochratoxin A (OTA). Forty samples of first-void urine samples from Croatian women in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for OTA and its major metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OT?). The subjects filled a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Analysis was performed by HPLC-FLD following liquid-liquid extraction. All samples were subjected in parallel to enzymatic treatment (?-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase) to release OTA and OT? from the conjugates. The median urinary levels of OTA and OT? before treatment were 0.02 (range: nd-1.07) ng/mL and 0.16 (nd-1.86) ng/mL; the concentrations after enzyme hydrolysis were 0.02 (nd-1.11) ng/mL and 1.18 (0.11-7.57) ng/mL. While OT? levels increased significantly following enzymatic treatment, evidence for OTA conjugation was weak. The ratio of urinary OT? medians after and before hydrolysis was 1.5 times higher than previously reported for nonpregnant female subjects, possibly indicating upregulated metabolism and/or elimination of the mycotoxin and metabolites in pregnancy. The mean daily dietary OTA intake calculated from FFQs (1.08±0.57 ng/kg body weight) was well below the provisional tolerable daily intake and the greatest contributors to intake were cereal products, fruit juices, chocolate and coffee. PMID:23041474

  10. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Information for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Than Your Home Tell the staff at the shelter or temporary housing you are pregnant or if you think ... the-counter and prescription). If checking into a shelter or temporary housing, tell the staff you are pregnant or ...

  11. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please do the following: When checking into a shelter or temporary housing, tell the staff you are pregnant or ... Be prepared to tell the staff at the shelter or temporary housing you are pregnant or if you think ...

  12. A cost-effectiveness analysis of self-help smoking cessation methods for pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Windsor, R. A.; Warner, K. E.; Cutter, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of health promotion-health education methods for pregnant smokers designed to increase birth weight are not available. This paper presents the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis from a recently completed randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of self-help smoking cessation methods for pregnant women in public health maternity clinics. The study population--309 pregnant smokers from 3 prenatal clinics--were randomly assigned, d...

  13. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

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    Ali Salah K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  14. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

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    McIntyre H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ?900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

  15. Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women

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    Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

  16. Pharmaceutical care to pregnant women carrying human immunodeficiency virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geysa Aguiar, Romeu; Larissa Varela de, Paiva; Mariana Mota Moura, Fé.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo conhecer o perfil farmacoepidemiológico das gestantes portadoras do vírus HIV, as ações de prevenção da transmissão vertical e avaliar o serviço quanto ao nível de satisfação das pacientes. Realizou-se estudo quali-quantitativo, longitudinal, sendo a amostra compos [...] ta pelas gestantes portadoras do vírus HIV atendidas no Serviço de Atenção Farmacêutica de um hospital público de Fortaleza-CE, no período de janeiro a setembro de 2007. Coletaram-se os dados por meio de fichas de seguimento, prontuários das pacientes e, finalmente, entrevistas para verificar o nível de satisfação das usuárias em relação ao serviço. Participaram do estudo 27 gestantes e parturientes infectadas pelo HIV. O perfil encontrado foi de mulheres solteiras, na faixa etária de 18 a 28 anos, de cor branca ou parda, com renda familiar inferior a um salário mínimo, com ensino fundamental ou médio e desempregadas. Observou-se que 77,8% (n=21) pacientes seguiram todas as estratégias de prevenção da transmissão materno-infantil. Detectaram-se 29 problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos, dos quais 51,7% (n=15) foram resolvidos. O nível de satisfação geral em relação ao serviço de atenção farmacêutica foi bastante satisfatório. Por meio do serviço de atenção farmacêutica, o profissional farmacêutico colabora com a utilização correta dos medicamentos, podendo repercutir diretamente na redução da transmissão vertical do HIV. Abstract in english The purpose of this present study was to know the pharmacoepidemiological profile of pregnant women carrying HIV, the prevention actions against vertical transmission, and evaluate the service respecting the patients' level of satisfaction. It was developed a quali-quantitative longitudinal study, w [...] ith the sample being composed by pregnant women carrying HIV attended at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of a public hospital of Fortaleza - state of Ceará, during the period between January and September, 2007. The data were collected by means of follow-up cards, patients' medical history and, finally, interviews to verify the users' level of satisfaction related to the service. Twenty seven pregnant and parturient women have participated in the study. The mean profile found was of a single woman, aged in the range between 18 and 28 years, of Caucasian race or dark colored, with familial revenue below the minimum wage, having elementary or high school, and being unemployed. It was observed that 77.8% (n=21) of patients followed all prevention strategies against maternal-infant transmission. Twenty nine drug related problems have been detected, out of which 51.7% (n=15) were resolved. The general level of satisfaction respecting the Pharmaceutical Care Service was quite satisfactory. By means of the Pharmaceutical Care Service, the pharmacist professional effectively collaborates for the correct utilization of medications, and this action results directly in a decrease of HIV vertical transmission.

  17. Pharmaceutical care to pregnant women carrying human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Aguiar Romeu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this present study was to know the pharmacoepidemiological profile of pregnant women carrying HIV, the prevention actions against vertical transmission, and evaluate the service respecting the patients' level of satisfaction. It was developed a quali-quantitative longitudinal study, with the sample being composed by pregnant women carrying HIV attended at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of a public hospital of Fortaleza - state of Ceará, during the period between January and September, 2007. The data were collected by means of follow-up cards, patients' medical history and, finally, interviews to verify the users' level of satisfaction related to the service. Twenty seven pregnant and parturient women have participated in the study. The mean profile found was of a single woman, aged in the range between 18 and 28 years, of Caucasian race or dark colored, with familial revenue below the minimum wage, having elementary or high school, and being unemployed. It was observed that 77.8% (n=21 of patients followed all prevention strategies against maternal-infant transmission. Twenty nine drug related problems have been detected, out of which 51.7% (n=15 were resolved. The general level of satisfaction respecting the Pharmaceutical Care Service was quite satisfactory. By means of the Pharmaceutical Care Service, the pharmacist professional effectively collaborates for the correct utilization of medications, and this action results directly in a decrease of HIV vertical transmission.Objetivou-se com o presente estudo conhecer o perfil farmacoepidemiológico das gestantes portadoras do vírus HIV, as ações de prevenção da transmissão vertical e avaliar o serviço quanto ao nível de satisfação das pacientes. Realizou-se estudo quali-quantitativo, longitudinal, sendo a amostra composta pelas gestantes portadoras do vírus HIV atendidas no Serviço de Atenção Farmacêutica de um hospital público de Fortaleza-CE, no período de janeiro a setembro de 2007. Coletaram-se os dados por meio de fichas de seguimento, prontuários das pacientes e, finalmente, entrevistas para verificar o nível de satisfação das usuárias em relação ao serviço. Participaram do estudo 27 gestantes e parturientes infectadas pelo HIV. O perfil encontrado foi de mulheres solteiras, na faixa etária de 18 a 28 anos, de cor branca ou parda, com renda familiar inferior a um salário mínimo, com ensino fundamental ou médio e desempregadas. Observou-se que 77,8% (n=21 pacientes seguiram todas as estratégias de prevenção da transmissão materno-infantil. Detectaram-se 29 problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos, dos quais 51,7% (n=15 foram resolvidos. O nível de satisfação geral em relação ao serviço de atenção farmacêutica foi bastante satisfatório. Por meio do serviço de atenção farmacêutica, o profissional farmacêutico colabora com a utilização correta dos medicamentos, podendo repercutir diretamente na redução da transmissão vertical do HIV.

  18. Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for femalekes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential dose to their conceptus or children. The calculations are based on the data from ICRP Publications 88and 95.

  19. Incidence of micronuclei in pregnant women and cord blood samples before and after the bombing of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Miroslava; Joksi? Gordana; Gu?-Š?eki? Marija P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study provides the data regarding monitoring of population using CB-micronuclei assay in the period 1995-2001 in Serbia. The target groups consisted of 45 pregnant women of mean age 34.3(6.56) years, unaware of being exposed to chemicals drugs or other substances and undergoing cordocentesis. The incidence of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in fetal cord blood lymphocytes was analyzed. METHODS: The study was carried out on cultures of PHA-stimulated blood...

  20. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Munari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ?36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

  1. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  2. Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Parenti

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected pregnant women.

  3. Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Parenti; Young, Heather A; Bathgate, Susanne L.; Sklar, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women.

  4. AN ETHNOGRAPHY STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BANTEN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in childbirth in developing countries is still high. The study describes the qualitative methods used to examine the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviour related to nutrition and nutritional supplementation of pregnant women. The role of village midwives and cadres’ in relation to nutrition education resulted in improving nutritional behaviour of pregnant women to some extent, but poverty and culture restricted the ability of pregnant women to access better food. The study shows that the position of pregnant woman is low within the hierarchy of both the health care system and the power structures of the broader community. Husbands, mothers-in-law, village midwives, cadres and village leaders all have more power in determining nutrition during pregnancy. However, some women tried to eat better and more nutritious food in secret, thereby subverting culture and the authority of husbands and mothers-in-law.

  5. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or...or fetuses may be involved in research if all of the following conditions...scientifically appropriate, preclinical studies, including...

  6. Immunogenicity of an Inactivated Monovalent 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Lisa A.; Patel, Shital M.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Frey, Sharon E.; Creech, C. Buddy; Munoz, Flor M.; Artal, Raul; Keitel, Wendy A.; Noah, Diana L.; Petrie, Carey Rodeheffer; Wolff, Mark; Edwards, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Background.?Although pregnant women are at increased risk of severe illness following influenza infection, there is relatively little information on the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines administered during pregnancy.

  7. Chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and their infants in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main transmission route of the hepatitis B virus (HBV is mother to child transmission and contributes significantly to chronic HBV infection. Even though immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine is administrated to neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive, about 10% of the neonates suffer from HBV infection in their early life. Objectives To survey chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and their infants and analyze the reason for immunoprophylaxis failure. Methods Serum HBsAg was tested in all pregnant women. HBVDNA and other serum HBV markers including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs were tested among HBsAg positive pregnant women. All infants whose mothers were HBsAg positive were vaccinated with a standard immunoprophylaxis. Serum HBV markers and HBVDNA were tested among these infants at 7 months of age. HBV genotypes were analyzed among the infants and pregnant women who were HBVDNA positive. Results The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs among 4,536 pregnant women was 5.49%, 29.65% and 58.55%, respectively. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs among pregnant women older than 20 years of age was significantly different compared to pregnant women younger than 20 years of age (4.54, 5.69 and 0.61 times, prevalence older vs. younger, respectively. P107 IU/ml. Among the infants whose mothers were HBsAg positive, 214 (85.94% infants were anti-HBs positive. There were 12 (4.82% infants who were HBsAg and HBVDNA positive, and all 12 of these infants mothers were HBeAg positive and had HBVDNA >107 IU/ml. Genotypes B and C were present among 165 pregnant women and genotype C was present in 85 pregnant women. There were 12 infants who were HBsAg positive and had the same HBV genotypes as their mothers. There was a significant difference in genotypes between the pregnant women whose infants were infected with HBV compared to those without HBV infection (P Conclusions There was a significant decline in HBsAg prevalence among pregnant women and their infants in Shenyang. Genotype C might be a risk factor for mother to child transmission of HBV.

  8. Reduction of primary and secondary smoke exposure for low-income black pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Pamela K

    2002-06-01

    Cigarette smoking by women during pregnancy continues to be a substantial contributor to poor perinatal outcomes in the United States. Decreasing tobacco smoke exposure for women and children is a lifestyle change that will improve perinatal health. A study was conducted with a sample of 74 low-income black women to evaluate the effectiveness of the Smoke Free Families intervention in moving pregnant women forward in the stages of change toward becoming a non-smoker and reducing exposure to second-hand smoke. Transtheoretical model variables were measured at intake, postintervention, and during the last month of pregnancy. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment and control group in movement forward in the stages of change. The findings raise questions about the conceptual fit of the transtheoretical model with pregnant women. We discuss additional interventions and suggest types of studies that would provide new insight into tobacco exposure issues for pregnant women. PMID:12389272

  9. Knowledge, attitude, perception of malaria and evaluation of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Iriemenam, A.O. Dosunmu, W.A. Oyibo & A.F. Fagbenro-Beyioku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women to malaria managementin malaria endemic countries. This study was designed to access knowledge, attitude, perception and homemanagement of malaria among consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC clinic.Methods: In total, 350 pregnant women were randomly recruited during their ANC Clinic in Lagos. Structuredquestionnaires were administered in a two-stages research design; first during their early months of ANC visitand the second approximately 1–2 months before delivery. Information on occupation, parity, symptoms used torecognise malaria, treatment sources, control measures, knowledge factors, anti-vector measures, health-seekingpractices, malaria parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV were recorded.Results: The results revealed that 78.9% of the pregnant women identified infected mosquitoes as the cause ofmalaria while 86% of the pregnant women identified stagnant water as its breeding sites. Knowledge of thebenefit of insecticide-treated mosquito bednets was less prominent as most of the selected subjects decried itshigh market price. Our data also showed that educational programme targeted on potential mothers is beneficial.Overall, 27.4% (96/350 of the pregnant women had peripheral malaria infection with 88.5% (85/96 of theparasite positive women infected with Plasmodium falciparum and 11.5% (11/96 with P. malariae. PCV rangedfrom 20–40% (median 33.9% with 25.7% (90/350 of the pregnant women being anaemic with PCV <33%. Wefound an association between malaria infection and occupation, and this association was not influenced byparity.Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings revealed that improvement in knowledge and education of women ofchild-bearing age has an influential impact on malaria control

  10. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baselin...

  11. Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. METHODS: We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance wit...

  12. Dental Care Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States Reported in 1999 and 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Peggy Timothe?, Dds; Paul I Eke, Phd; Scott M Presson, Dds; Dolores M Malvitz, Drph

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine national and state-specific estimates of dental care use among adult pregnant women in the United States using data from two 12-month periods. The study also determined person-level characteristics that may predict a lack of dental care use within this subgroup. Methods Responses were analyzed from 4619 pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years who participated in the 1999 and 2002 state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. De...

  13. Suspected acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women Suspeita de toxoplasmose aguda em gestantes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Peres Castilho-Pelloso; Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna; Ana Lúcia Falavigna-Guilherme

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reagent serology for suspected acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and to describe clinical, laboratory and therapeutic profiles of mothers and their children. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with IgM-anti-Toxoplasma gondii-reagent pregnant women and their children who attended the public health system in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, from January 2001 to December 2003. Information were obtained from clinical, laboratory (ELISA ...

  14. Malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in six Rwandan districts

    OpenAIRE

    Geertruyden, J. P.; Ntakirutimana, D.; Erhart, A.; Rwagacondo, C.; Kabano, A.; D Alessandro, U.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women towards malaria and their association with malaria morbidity. Methods Cross-sectional malaria survey of 1432 pregnant women attending six health centres, each of them situated in a specific health district in Rwanda from September to October 2002. Results The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 13.6% and all infections but two were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The six heal...

  15. Avidity of Antibodies against HSV-2 and Risk to Neonatal Transmission among Mexican Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Herrera-Ortiz; Carlos Jesús Conde-Glez; Dayana Nicté Vergara-Ortega; Santa García-Cisneros; Ma. Leonidez Olamendi-Portugal; Miguel Angel Sánchez-Alemán

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine HSV-2 seroprevalence, risk factors, and antibody avidity among a sample of Mexican pregnant women. Material and Methods. The avidity test was standardized with different urea concentrations and incubation times; the cut-off point was calculated to determine the low avidity (early infection). IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected from pregnant and postpartum women from Morelos, Mexico, and the avidity test was performed to positive samples. Multivariate regression ...

  16. The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Qiana L.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Penniman, Typhanye V.; Latimer, William W.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interv...

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    Kloprogge, F.; Piola, P.; Dhorda, M.; Muwanga, S.; Turyakira, E.; Apinan, S.; Lindega?rdh, N.; Nosten, F.; Day, Np; White, Nj; Guerin, Pj; Tarning, J.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether-lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous ...

  18. The pharmacokinetics of artemether and lumefantrine in pregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mcgready, R.; Stepniewska, K.; Lindegardh, N.; Ashley, Ea; La, Y.; Singhasivanon, P.; White, Nj; Nosten, F.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with recrudescent uncomplicated multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria. METHODS: Pregnant women who had recurrence of parasitaemia following 7 days supervised quinine treatment were treated with AL. Serial blood samples were taken over a 7-day period, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. For lumefantrine, these data were compared in a population pharmacokinetic model with da...

  19. Mobile GIS and Open Source Platform Based on Android: Technology for System Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaeel, Ayad Ghany; Hamead, Nur Gaylan

    2014-01-01

    The statistic of World Health Organization shows at one year about 287000 women died most of them during and following pregnancy and childbirth in Africa and south Asia. This paper suggests system for serving pregnant women using open source based on Android technology, the proposed system works based on mobile GIS to select closest care centre or hospital maternity on Google map for the pregnant woman, which completed an online registration by sending SMS via GPRS network (...

  20. Physical activity in pregnancy: a qualitative study of the beliefs of overweight and obese pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin Judith; McParlin Catherine; Robson Stephen C; Bush Judith; Weir Zoe; Bell Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women; and (ii) inform interventions which could promote the adoption of physical activity during pregnancy....

  1. Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    HemahAndiappan; NongyaoSawangjareon; Si LayKhaing; Cristina CSalibay; Mary Mae MCheung; Julieta ZDungca

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to dete...

  2. Evaluation of various screening tests to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalakshmi J; Jayaram V

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Clean catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 630 consecutive pregnant women and processed. Forty-four (7.4%) of the urine samples were culture positive, with Escherichia coli as the predominant organism isolated (57.4%). The results of the four screening tests, viz., Gram?s staining of uncentrifuged urine, pus cell count, nitrite test and...

  3. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN FARS PROVINCE ABOUT INTAKE OF IRON SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, F.; Mohammadi, S.; Kadivar, A. A.; Masoumi, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    During pregnancy, the need of mother and fetus to iron gradually increases and will reach at its most level at the end of the pregnancy. This study was preformed to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pregnant women in Fars Province about supplements containing iron intake. Data collection was a questionnaire completed by face to face interview using simple nonrandom sampling method in 2997 pregnant women of urban and rural areas including their demographic information and questions about ...

  4. Unmarried pregnant women's accounts of their contraceptive practices: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Abbey

    1996-01-01

    This article presents qualitative data on the contraceptive practices of fifty-one unmarried pregnant women selected at a Dublin maternity hospital. Seven categories have been constructed from data to capture the ways in which the women became pregnant, namely 'fertility denial', 'destiny dependence', 'progressive remissness', 'occasional or intermittent risk-taking', 'calculated risk-taking', 'pro-active fertility management', and 'contraceptive failure or misuse'. It is ar...

  5. Factors Associated with Pregnant Women’s Anticipations and Experiences of HIV-related Stigma in Rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1,777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose hus...

  6. Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M

    2013-01-01

    More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32...

  7. Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Bc, Chan; Koren G

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban®) in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelin...

  8. Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Yahia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

  9. Association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women

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    Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for periodontitis. However, it is possible that periodontitis induces a systemic inflammatory process which could initiate and propagate an insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2 in pregnant women. Methods: The sample consisted of studying 20 pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, 20 women with GDM and 40 pregnant women without any endocrinopathy. Periodontal examination included analysis of bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of four or more teeth with at least one site with PD ? 4 mm and CAL ? 3 mm with BOP associated in the same site. Results: Results demonstrated an association between GDM and high maternal age, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The prevalence of periodontitis observed was 55%, 40% and 42,5% for women with DM 1 or DM 2 (p=0,360, with GDM (p=0,853 and in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The sample showed high prevalence of periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference between pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, women with GDM or pregnant women in the control group.

  10. HIV/AIDS prevalence and behaviour in drug users and pregnant women in Kashgar Prefecture: Case report

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    Fitzwarryne C

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed method drug users and pregnant and postnatal women. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the epidemic is shifting from a concentrated stage to a more generalised epidemic. One hundred and forty two (142 exclusively injecting drug users (66 and mixed method drug users (injecting and non-injecting-76 participated in this survey. Eight hundred and two (802 pregnant and postnatal women participated in the survey. In Kashgar City and Shache County the serum prevalence of HIV amongst injecting drug users was 56.06%, for mixed method drug users 48.68% and 0.38% in pregnant women. In Shache County HIV infection rates were significantly lower in drug user groups and amongst pregnant and post-natal women, at 2.22% and 0% respectively. The behavioral survey indicated that 15% of injecting drug users have shared needles (however sero prevalence and knowledge in relation to access to clean needles and syringes suggests that this may not reflect the actual situation. Knowledge of prevention of transmission strategies (not sharing needles and condom utilisation is similar between both groups at 60–70%. However it appears that this knowledge has not significantly impacted on behavior such as needle sharing and condom utilisation. In Kashgar City and Shache County there have been very few interventions to support HIV/AIDS prevention, care and control. The results from this survey will inform future directions and the development and implementation of targeted interventions including targeted information dissemination and harm reduction strategies. This survey was funded by the Xinjiang HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project, a bilateral project jointly implemented by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of Australia.

  11. Depressed Pregnant Black Women Have a Greater Incidence of Prematurity and Low Birthweight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Holder, Vitillius; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant black depressed women were compared to pregnant black non-depressed women on self-report stress measures and cortisol levels at mid and late pregnancy and on neonatal outcomes. The depressed women had higher anxiety, anger, daily hassles, sleep disturbance scores and cortisol levels at both prenatal visits. These higher stress levels may have contributed to the greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight neonatal outcomes noted in the depressed group, and they may partially explain the higher rate of prematurity and low birthweight among black women. PMID:19004502

  12. Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C.; Cheung, Mary Mae M.; Dungca, Julieta Z.; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20–29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy. PMID:24966855

  13. Psychotherapeutic correction and rehabilitation of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage

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    I. E. Kupriyanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficiency of psychotherapeutic correction of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage.Patients and methods. Psychotherapy for mental disorders and prenosological conditions was performed in 84 pregnant women aged 18 to 41 years with threatened miscarriage. The efficiency of performed measures was evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire, Spielberger–Hanin’s scale, and a therapy efficiency assessment scale in patients with borderline states. Delivery outcomes were analyzed in relation to management tactics in this cohort of pregnant women. The health status of newborn infants was assessed by the neonatologists of maternity hospitals.Results and discussion. After psychotherapeutic correction, the quality-of-life indicators in the pregnant women with threatened miscarriage from the study group were significantly higher than in those from the comparison group. The level of reactive and personality anxiety significantly decreased in the pregnant women in the study group. The pregnant women with the asthenic variant of prenosological conditions and those who had ICD-10 diagnoses F40-48 were most successful in the context of psychotherapeutic rehabilitation. Sporadic cases of incomplete recovery were noted when psychotherapeutical support was got. In the study group, pregnancy resulted in full-term babies in 100% of the women. In the pregnant women with prenosological conditions and mental disorders from the study group, parturition proceeded significantlymore rapidly than in those from the comparison study. Significantly higher physical quotients were found in the newborn babies from the study group parturients. The psychotherapy that supplements the complex system of therapeutic measures has been shown to be highly effective in the women with threatened miscarriage accompanied by mental disorders.

  14. Knowledge and Practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.

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    HemahAndiappan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2,598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents’ general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%, completed secondary level of education (51.7%, in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%, non parous (36.6% and had no history of abortion (90.4. Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4% and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%. There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses towards prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P<0.05. Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy.

  15. Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra, Brandão; Heloisa Ramos, Lacerda; Norma, Lucena-Silva; Ricardo Arraes de Alencar, Ximenes.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant an [...] d HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant), who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau) and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143), with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50), of whom 60.4% (29/48) were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51) of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51) of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45) of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant), characterising its distribution in this setting.

  16. Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra Brandão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant and HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant, who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143, with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50, of whom 60.4% (29/48 were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51 of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51 of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45 of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant, characterising its distribution in this setting.

  17. Prevalence of malaria parasitemia amongst asymptomatic pregnant women attending a Nigerian teaching hospital

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    Isah Aliyu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria parasitemia among pregnant women is associated with complications to mother and the unborn fetus. There is paucity of data on asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, particularly in the northwest region of Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in asymptomatic pregnant women and to estimate the packed cell volume (PCV of this group of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of only well pregnant women recruited consecutively at the time of booking for antenatal care. Thick film microscopy and qualitative immunoassay test for malaria parasite (MP were performed for all the women. PCV estimation was also done using the micro-centrifuge method and comparison was made for women with parasitemia with those without MP. Some socio-demographic variables were also analyzed. Chi-square test was used to test for significance and a P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Two hundred and twenty-five healthy pregnant women were studied. Seven women (3.1% had MP by direct microscopy while 11 (4.8% were MP positive with the qualitative immunoassay test. One hundred and eighty-five (82% of the women were literate while 128 (57% used insecticide treated mosquito nets in their homes. The mean PCV of the women with positive MP was 30.57 ± 2.26 as against 32.89 ± 2.45 for those without parasitemia (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia in the study group was low but there was associated anemia in those with parasitemia. The use of intermittent preventive treatment is recommended for all pregnant women including those who are asymptomatic to forestall complications like maternal anemia.

  18. Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border

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    Moo Yoe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/?L was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/?L were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt antimalarial treatment resulted in normalization of platelet counts within a week.

  19. The status of malaria among pregnant women: a study in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwa, Omolade O

    2003-12-01

    A study was carried out on the status of malaria among 800 randomly selected pregnant women in Lagos State, Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained from finger pricking and tested for malaria parasites in thin blood films and 60% prevalence of malaria parasites was obtained. Interviews were conducted and structured questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women to obtain information on the clinical and social aspects of malaria. Results show that primigravidae accounted for a greater part of the 60% prevalence of malaria that affected mainly women in their 1st to 3rd month of pregnancy. The ages of the infected women ranged from 30 to 39 years (77%). Women with blood groups A and O had the highest prevalence of malaria, but there was no statistically significant difference between them and the uninfected women. Women with genotype AA had the highest prevalence of malaria, while pregnant women in Ikeja division had the highest incidence of malaria (41.7%). Majority of the infected women believed that mosquito bites and stress were responsible for their infection. Only 21.8% of the women did not associate mosquitoes with malaria. All the women were familiar with the symptoms of malaria but did not see it as a serious disease that could lead to death. Most of the women used bed nets but not the impregnated brands. There is need to educate women, especially during antenatal visits, on the severity of malaria and the risk of their susceptibility to it during pregnancy. PMID:15055150

  20. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women in South India

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    Nabhi VR. Murty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction is one of the commonest endocrinopathies seen in pregnancy and affects both maternal and fetal outcomes. There is little data available on its prevalence in Indian pregnant women. This study was conducted at Bhaskar medical college and hospital situated in a rural/suburban area near Hyderabad, Telengana, India. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of thyroid disease among pregnant women. Methods: All consecutive pregnant women registered from January 2014 to December 2014 were included in the study. Morning samples of serum were tested for T3, T4 and TSH. Results: A total of 1340 women were included in the study. 260 pregnant women (19.41% had TSH values more than 3.0 mIU/L, the cut-off value used for upper limit of normal in this study. Out of these, 216 had normal T4 value, hence labeled as subclinical hypothyroidism and 44 had low T4, hence termed overt hypothyroidism. Three pregnant women had overt hyperthyroidism and 11 had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine women had low T4 values-Isolated hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnancy was found to be higher in our patients, more so the sub clinical hypothyroidism. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 453-456

  1. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  2. Food handling behaviors of special importance for pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and immune-compromised people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia C; Hillers, Virginia; Chen, Gang; DiMascola, Steve

    2003-12-01

    This study used a Web-based Delphi process with a group of nationally recognized food safety experts to identify food-handling behaviors of special importance in reducing the risk of foodborne illness among pregnant women, infants and young children, elderly people, and people with compromised immune systems because of disease or pharmacologic therapy. Behaviors were related to 13 pathogens. Top-rated behaviors for pregnant women were associated with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii, and Salmonella species. Top-rated behaviors for infants and young children, elderly people, and immune-compromised people were associated with a number of different pathogens. The results should help dietetics professionals and community health educators focus their efforts on those behaviors of special importance to the population being targeted. PMID:14647094

  3. Risk Factors on Hypertensive Disorders among Jordanian Pregnant Women

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    Amal K. Suleiman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper­tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Ammn city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium. A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher’s exact test, chi-square, Student’s t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care.

  4. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Akinsegun A; Ajibola, Sarah O; Rabiu, Kabiru A; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Dosunmu, Adedoyin O; Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent O; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin I; Ismail, Kamal A

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy. Subjects and methods This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed. Results Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]): hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 109, 7.88 ± 2.33 × 109, and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 109, respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 109, 227.57 ± 63 × 109, and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 109, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296). Conclusion These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria. PMID:23662089

  5. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

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    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ?70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  6. Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the coficantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

  7. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

  8. Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMR Lopes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2% and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2% showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8% pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

  9. Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FMR, Lopes; R, Mitsuka-Breganó; DD, Gonçalves; RL, Freire; CJT, Karigyo; GF, Wedy; T, Matsuo; EMV, Reiche; HK, Morimoto; JD, Capobiango; IT, Inoue; JL, Garcia; IT, Navarro.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiologic [...] al questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2%) and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2%) showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8%) pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

  10. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool - Sharifi-Mood

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of HIV infections in women occur primarily during their reproductive years. Hence, pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for implementing prevention strategies against HIV infection. If we define the seroprevalence of infection in pregnancy, the effective and timely intervention will reduce the transmission of infection to newborns. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Zahedan, we conducted this study.
    • METHODS: From January 2006 to November 2006, we evaluated a series of pregnant women referred to antenatal clinics in Zahedan, for obstetric consultation. Blood samples of all pregnant women were collected and tested for HIV antibodies by ELISA method. Positive samples were retested by Western-blot.
    • RESULTS: A total of 1783 cases were evaluated. Three cases were found to be HIV seroreactive. Infection was confirmed in one case (0.05%.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Upon the results emerged from this study, we don’t recommend HIV screening on each pregnant woman in this area. HIV testing is recommended only for those with risk factors.
    • KEYWORDS: Seroprevalence, human immunodeficiency virus infection, pregnant women.>

  11. The cytological diagnosis and prognosis of malignization of cervical epithelium of uterus in pregnant women.

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    Sumenko V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation is dedicated to the study of the pathological alterations of cervical epithelium of uterus, proliferative activity in the lesion focuses and the improvement of cytological diagnosis of the state of cervical epithelium of uterus. The correlation between the proliferative processes in abnormal epithelium of uterine cervix and some pathological factors of the pregnant women organism was studied. The criteria for prognosis of the cervical epithelial dysplasia in pregnant women were elaborated on this basis of our data. The pathological processes in cervical epithelium were revealed in 309 pregnant women in the first trimester (mean age of women was 26,17±0,83 years. The hormonal state of pregnant women was studied on the basis of colpocytological picture and the colpocytological types which indicate the unfavorable prognosis with a certain degree of validity were determined. The mathematic model for all cytological groups of pregnant women for prognosis of inflammatory processes, epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was created. The simple and comprehensible prognostic scheme for diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was developed.

  12. CORRELATION OF PROGRESSION RISK OF FETOPLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY WITH VEGETATIVE STATUS DISTURBANCE IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshkova E.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Research Goal was to compare probability of risk progression of chronic fetoplacental insuffciency with various disturbances of vegetative nervous system (VNS in pregnant women. Materials. Basic group consisted of 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; control group included 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Status of VNS was determined with the purpose to estimate initial vegetative tone in various functional systems and forming concept of general vegetative status in the sample. Results. Presence of fetoplacental insuffciency in pregnant women was extensively associated with increase of sympathetic section tone and VNS lability. Occurrence frequency of critical indices of hemodynamics disturbances in the system mother- placenta-fetus revealed reliable correlation dependence on VNS lability and index of vegetative supply of activity. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency had 25?–?30?% increased tone and lability indices of VNS sympathetic section in contrast to physiological course of pregnancy. Progression of fetoplacental insuffciency was more often revealed in pregnant women in case of replacement of sympathicotonia by vagotonia, and against a background of high VNS lability and reactivity.

  13. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

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    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  14. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  15. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  16. Knowledge and Attitude of Urban Pregnant Women of Bangladesh Toward Nutrition, Health Care Practice and Delivery Place

    OpenAIRE

    M.N Islam; Ullah, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports an investigation about knowledge and attitude of urban pregnant women on nutrition and delivery place and an attempt has also been made to identify factors that are closely related to these behaviors based on primary data. The analysis shows that educational status of pregnant women, their occupation, their husband`s occupation, monthly family income have significant influence on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward nutrition and health care practice. The result ...

  17. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Mangone; Jannes Kodero; Patrizia Romito; Maricianah Onono; Merab Odero; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Turan, Janet M; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by com...

  18. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes Estado nutricional de gestantes: prevalência e desfechos associados à gravidez

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Bertoldi Nucci; Maria Inês Schmidt; Bruce Bartholow Duncan; Sandra Costa Fuchs; Eni Teresinha Fleck; Maria Margarida Santos Britto

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, see...

  19. Why do pregnant women smoke and can we help them quit?

    OpenAIRE

    Brosky, G

    1995-01-01

    As observed by Dr. Linda Dodds (see pages 185 to 190 of this issue), there has been little change in recent years in the smoking rate of about 30% among pregnant women in Nova Scotia. Women who smoke during pregnancy tend to be young, unmarried, undereducated and multiparous and tend not to go to prenatal classes. Many pregnant women find it extremely difficult to stop smoking even when they understand the risks to the fetus. Routine advice given by physicians on smoking cessation is clearly ...

  20. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

  1. Thyroid status and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid function, lipid peroxidation (LPO) products content and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus are studied. The levels of malonic dialdehyde, vitamins A, C and E, reduced glutathion, and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were measured in the blood of 60 women living in Minsk and 90 pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The functions of the thyroid was assessed from the blood levels of tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, thyroidbinding globulin, and T4/TSH ratio. It is shown that the content of LPO products is increased higher and the levels of antioxidant vitamins and reduced glutathion decreased lower in the residents of contaminated territories. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in pregnant women depend on the function of the thyroid

  2. PECULIARITY OF CYTOKINE SECRETION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH CHRONIC DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhestkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The cytokine concentration measured in serum and brush cytology of cervical canal in pregnant women with chronic disseminated intravascular syndrome. The serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in brush cytology of cervical canal in pregnant women with chronic disseminated intravascular syndrome, especially in patients with infection genesis recurrent pregnancy loss in anamnesis. The profiles of Th1-cytokines in serum and brush cytology of cervical canal in pregnancy women were different depending on activity of chronic disseminated intravascular syndrome. The analysis of opposition cytokines pools reveals an similarity of TNF?/IL-10 in serum and brush cytology of cervical canal, IFN?/IL-4 ? IL-1RA/ IL-1? in brush cytology of cervical canal were significantly reduced in pregnant women with chronic disseminated intravascular syndrome.

  3. Utilization Patterns of Antenatal Services Among Pregnant Women: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Area of North Karnataka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.Metgud

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To study the profile of antenatal care received 2. To know the factors influencing the utilization Study Design: Longitudinal study.Setting: Shindolli village of Belgaum District Participants: All women (n =130 in this village who were pregnant at the start of the study and who became pregnant during the study. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square Test Results: Most of the pregnant women (92.31% were registered for antenatal care, but only 30.00% of them were registered in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. As regards to TT immunization, 70.77% of the pregnant women had received 2 doses or 1 booster dose. Iron and Folic Acid supplementation was taken by 59.68% of the pregnant women. Nearly 39.52 % of pregnant women were provided with full antenatal care. The main antenatal care provider for pregnant women was doctor (64.52%. The provision of full antenatal care package was found to be significantly higher among the pregnant women belonging to social classes I and II and in those who have studied above SSLC. Conclusion: The study shows early and wide spread use of antenatal care, but it also reveals that the antenatal visits occur late in the pregnancy. The literacy of women has significant bearing on utilization of antenatal care by the pregnant women.

  4. Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Madsen, M

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88 200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression. About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. Multiparity, a normal or less good self-rated health, smoking, and a less health conscious diet were the strongest predictors of not doing exercise. Women of 25 years or older, with metabolic or psychiatric disorders, or who had received subfecundity treatment were more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups.In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target activities that may fit their needs, and, for research purposes, to identify adjustment variables or guide sensitivity analyses when data on confounders are lacking.

  5. The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

    2014-10-01

    Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

  6. Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus status of pregnant women and their newborns in west iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women and in cord blood of their newborns. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH) Vit D, were measured in 193 pregnant subjects between 16-45 years of age in third trimester admitted in Be'sat hospital. Same were measured in the cord blood of 193 newborns belonging to them. Mean maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D was 16.5+-14.2 ng/mL, and cord blood was 12+-0.2 ng/mL. Fifty-seven percent of pregnant women had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Seventy six percent of newborns had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D correlated positively with cord 25(OH) Vit D (r=0.77, P<0.05). Mean maternal serum calcium was 8.89+-0.73 mg/ml and mean newborn serum calcium was 9.46+-0.93. Mean maternal serum calcium correlated with mean newborn serum calcium (r= 0.38, P<0.05). Twenty six percent of women and 37.8% of newborns had hypocalcemia. There was a high prevalence of significant hypovitaminosis D among pregnant women and their newborns. Our study emphasize the need of majority of pregnant women and their newborns to supplemental vitamin D and has significant public health implications. (author)

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan

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    Khamis Amar H

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which is associated with serious adverse effects on pregnancy. The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the level of transmission in the area. Our study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors for malaria (age, parity and gestational age among pregnant women of eastern Sudan, which is characterized by unstable malaria transmission. Methods The prevalence and possible risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria were investigated in 744 pregnant Sudanese women attending the antenatal clinic of New Haifa Teaching Hospital, eastern Sudan, during October 2003-April 2004. Results A total 102 (13.7% had P. falciparum malaria, 18(17.6% of these were severe cases (jaundice and severe anaemia. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that, age and parity were not associated with malaria. Women who attended the antenatal clinic in the third trimester were at highest risk for malaria (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02–2.4; P Women with malaria had significantly lower mean haemoglobin (9.4 g/dl, 95% CI 9.1–9.7 versus 10.7, CI 10.6–10.8, P Conclusion The results suggest that P. falciparum malaria is common in pregnant women attending antenatal care and that anaemia is an important complication. Preventive measures (chemoprophylaxis and insecticide-treated bednets may be beneficial in this area for all women irrespective of age or parity.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppina Messina; Elisa Colombo; Elena Cassinerio; Claudia Cesaretti; Alessia Marcon; Laura Zanaboni; Marina Baldini; Maria Domenica Cappellini

    2010-01-01

    Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psych...

  9. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Neiswanger, Katherine; Daniel W. McNeil; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; COOPER, MARGARET E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Scott R. Beach; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and no...

  10. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbalibulha Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yona Mbalibulha,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Godfrey R Mugyenyi,2 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods: Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results: Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%; A: 190 (26.%; B: 152 (21%; and AB: 28 (4%. A total of 28 (3.86% pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1% of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8% were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, in Uganda. Keywords: ABO/RhD blood groups, anti-D alloimmunization, indirect antiglobulin test, pregnant women, Western Uganda

  11. Iodine insufficiency in pregnant women from the State of São Paulo / Insuficiência iódica em gestantes paulistas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sabrina Maria Saueia, Ferreira; Anderson Marliere, Navarro; Patrícia Künzle Ribeiro, Magalhães; Léa Maria Zanini, Maciel.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo : O consumo de quantidade adequada de iodo durante a gestação é de fundamental importância para o desenvolvimento neurológico do feto. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional iódico em gestantes do estado de São Paulo, Brasil.Material e métodos : Analisamos a concentração u [...] rinária de iodo (UIC) em 191 gestantes e em 58 mulheres não gestantes de mesma faixa etária. Foram utilizados os critérios da OMS para definir suficiência iódica (mediana de UIC: 150-249 µg/L entre as gestantes e 100-199 µg/L para as não gestantes).Resultados : A mediana de UIC das gestantes estudadas esteve abaixo da recomendada (mediana = 137,7 ?g/L; 95% IC = 132,9 – 155,9) enquanto a das mulheres não grávidas se mostrou na faixa adequada (mediana = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159,3 – 200,1). Entre as gestantes, 57% apresentaram UIC Abstract in english Objective : The intake of adequate amounts of iodine during pregnancy is essential for the neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in pregnant women from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Material and methods : We analyzed urinary iodine concen [...] tration (UIC) in 191 pregnant and 58 non-pregnant women matched by age. We used the World Health Organization criteria to define sufficient iodine supply (median UIC: 150-249 µg/L among pregnant women, and 100-199 µg/L for non-pregnant women).Results : Median UIC of the pregnant women studied was lower than the recommended value (median = 137.7 µg/L, 95% CI = 132.9 – 155.9), while non-pregnant women had UIC levels within the appropriate range (median = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159.3-200.1). UIC was below 150 µg/L in 57% of the pregnant women.Conclusions : Although a larger sample is needed to consolidate these findings, these results raise concerns about the adequacy of the iodine supply of pregnant women in Brazil, especially considering the new determinations of the Brazilian government, which have recently reduced the concentrations of iodine in table salt to 15-45 mg/kg of salt. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):282-7

  12. Alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy and correlated factors among indigenous pregnant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei

    2012-02-01

    To examine the rates and factors associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women, as well as the rates and factors associated with continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan. A total of 806 indigenous women who had just given birth in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan were recruited. They were interviewed to collect their substance use information, demographic characteristics, psychological health status, history of physical abuse, and pregnancy history. The rates of alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy in all indigenous pregnant women and the rates of continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among those who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were calculated. The factors relating to alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy were examined using logistic regression analyses. The results of this study found that 26.6% of indigenous pregnant women drank alcohol at any stage after the recognition of pregnancy, and 52.5% of indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy persisted in drinking alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy. Multiple parities, smoking or chewing betel quid after the recognition of pregnancy, and a higher frequency of drinking alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. Meanwhile, being single or divorced, and intimate partner violence after the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. High prevalence rates of alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy were found among indigenous pregnant women in Taiwan. Early detection of alcohol consumption and effective intervention for alcohol consumption during pregnancy are needed. PMID:21258959

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Community Service Needs among Pregnant and Post-partum Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenman, David P; Richardson, Erin; Sumner, Lekeisha A.; Ahmed, Sawssan R.; Liu, Honghu; Valentine, Jeannette; Rodriguez, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare providers are advised to refer abused women to needed community services. However, little is known about abused women's perceived need for services, particularly among Latina women. We examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and perceived needs for legal, social, and job services among a prospective cohort of 210 pregnant Latinas. At the pre-natal interview 27.2% of recent IPV(+) Latinas reported needing legal services compared to 27.1% of ever IPV(+) and ...

  14. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women in Northern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Uyar; Cevat Cabar; Alaadin Balci

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: Prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is extremely important because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier state. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBV markers among pregnant women in the Middle Black Sea Region in Turkey.Methods: Between March 2003 and May 2004, 2654 women in the first trimester of pregnancy who attended the Samsun Maternity and Women's Disease and Pediatrics Hospital pregnancy...

  15. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami AA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Akinsegun A Akinbami,1 Sarah O Ajibola,2 Kabiru A Rabiu,3 Adeniyi A Adewunmi,3 Adedoyin O Dosunmu,1 Adewumi Adediran,4 Vincent O Osunkalu,4 Bodunrin I Osikomaiya,5 Kamal A Ismail,51Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 2Department of Haematology and Blood, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 4Department of Haematology and Blood, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 5Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy.Subjects and methods: This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed.Results: Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 109, 7.88 ± 2.33 × 109, and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 109, respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 109, 227.57 ± 63 × 109, and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 109, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296.Conclusion: These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria.Keywords: anemia, thrombocytopenia, hematology, normal pregnancy, trimester

  16. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acheampong, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean catch urine was cultured on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar aerobically at 37oC . Isolates were identified to the species level using standard proto-col. Antibiotic sensitivity test were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Of the 200 women examined, 19 had significant bacteriuria representing a prevalence of 9.5% in the study population. Pregnant women in their second trimester from the study had the highest prevalence of significant bacteriuria (52.6% with age ranges between 30-34 years having the highest prevalence (36.8%. Nulliparous women were 35 (17.5% with 3 (8.6% testing positive for bacteriuria and 165 (82.5% were multiparous with 16 (9.7% testing positive for bacteriuria. E. coli (36.8% was the common bacteria isolate from this study. From this study, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among antenatal women in the population studied. It is therefore recommended that periodic test-ing of pregnant women is advocated and those found to be infected need to be treated to avoid complications.

  17. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Maryann; Rodan Margaret F; White Davene B; Sharps Phyllis W; Milligan Renee A; Blake Susan M; Katz Kathy S; Murray Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component...

  18. Smoking and health care patterns among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Paula J.; Dunkley, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    A population-based hospital survey of 3628 women in the postpartum period was conducted in the Ottawa-Carleton region in 1983 to determine the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy, the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women who smoke during pregnancy and the use of health care services by these women. Of the 3628 women 91% completed a full-length questionnaire and 4% completed a shorter questionnaire. Before pregnancy 37.4% of the women smoked cigarettes. Overall,...

  19. Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren G

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban® in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for smoking cessation for pregnant patients. There are currently four studies that have investigated the use of nicotine patch, three for nicotine gum, and registry and preliminary reports for bupropion. These studies did not show any adverse pregnancy outcomes with the use of pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. All the nicotine replacement therapy studies, with the exception of one randomized-controlled nicotine patch trial had small sample sizes and looked at short-term use of drug in the third trimester. Two studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman. The results from these studies reveal greater nicotine metabolism in pregnant individuals who continue to smoke during pregnancy. Current guidelines from several organizations uniformly recommend that Nicotine Replacement Therapy should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have been unsuccessful. Bupropion is recommended in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. There is a need for further studies on the safety and effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement therapy and bupropion in pregnancy. However, considering the current research and guidelines, pharmacological cessation aids should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have not been effective.

  20. The perception of pregnant women dealing with HIV infection - an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves Vasconcelos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to learn about the feelings experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women. This was a qualitative study carried out at a Maternity in Fortaleza, Brazil, from April to May 2005. Nine pregnant women who were aware of being infected with HIV were interviewed using guided questions. Data analysis was performed by reading and ordering the data, culminating in speech categorization. The data indicated that, when the pregnant women received a diagnosis of HIV infection they experienced episodes of sadness, anger and depression, but, with the passing of time, they looked for different strategies in order to cope with the disease. Pregnancy, even when unplanned, became something indispensable in their lives and represented not only encouragement and hope not to develop more advanced stages of the disease, but also a reason to overcome the social problems due to the infection.

  1. The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

  2. Antibodies Frequency Against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella Virus and Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz Doðan Toklu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available      Aim: Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus (CMV infections can be seen in all age groups and they are usually asymptomatic infection diseases, but it is important seeing them in pregnant women especially in first trimester because they compose congenital malformations in fetus.In this study, I aimed at the seroprevelance of IgM and IgG type antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV infections according to the age groups 14-24, 25-34 and 35-44 of pregnant women who applied for routine examination in Usak region. Material and Method: 1465 pregnant women who applied for examination in Usak State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between the dates of July 1st 2010 - June 30th 2011 during 1 year period were seperated in to 3 age groups of 14-24, 25-34 and 35- 44. These patient’s laboratory results of IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV were analysed retrospectively. Results: 588 pregnant women (40.1% between the ages 14-24, 758 (51.8% between 25-34, 119 (8.1% between 35-44, total 1465 pregnant women examined. The results are Toxoplasmosis IgM positivity 3.0%, Toxoplasmosis IgG positivity 18.3%, Rubella virusIgM positivity 1.0%, Rubella virus IgG positivity 92.2%, CMV IgM positivity 1.0%, CMV IgG positivity 99.4% according to the all age groups. Discussion: In this study, Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus, and CMV seroprevalence were determined in pregnant women who admitted to Usak State Hospital. As there is no similar datas of Usak City in the past, I believe this study provide constributes to the literature.

  3. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) ?g/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized ? = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized ? = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard ? = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  4. Glycemic Control among Pregnant Diabetic Women on Insulin Who Fasted During Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ramadan fasting for pregnant women with diabetes remains controversial and underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the glycemic control in pregnant diabetic women on insulin who fasted during Ramadan.Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of three years including pregnant diabetic women, who were on short-acting, intermediate-acting, or a combination of them, and opted to carry out Ramadan fasting. Glycemic control was assessed before, middle and after Ramadan fasting.Results: Thirty seven women opted to fast with 24 (64.9% of them had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 83.8% of them required combined insulin (short- acting, intermediate-acting therapy. The age of the participants was 32.13±4.68 years, and the age of their pregnancies was 25.60±7.12 weeks when the study was performed. The median number of days fasted was 25 days, and most of the women were able to fast for more than 15 days. There was no difference between glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus women prior to fasting. In the middle of Ramadan, serum fructosamine decreased in both groups. However, only serum HbA1c reduced in gestational diabetes mellitus after Ramadan. Conclusion: the findings indicate that pregnant diabetic women on insulin were able to fast during Ramadan and that their glycemic control was improved during fasting period. They may also suggest that instead of absolute ban on fasting for pregnant diabetic women more practical approach and close consultation with health care providers might be more helpful.

  5. Pregnant women’s cortisol is elevated with anxiety and depression — but only when comorbid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lynn M.; Myers, Michael M.; Monk, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cortisol during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes and may alter fetal development and subsequent adult health. Numerous studies link elevated cortisol to depression and anxiety, but only a few have examined these relationships during pregnancy and in response to laboratory stressors. No studies have investigated the impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on cortisol during pregnancy. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice before and once after a set of computer-based tasks (Stroop color-word matching task and either mental arithmetic or a controlled breathing task) from 180 pregnant women at approximately 36 weeks gestation. Based on psychiatric diagnoses, four groups of women were compared: 121 control, 16 depression, 34 anxiety, and 9 comorbid. Women also completed symptom and stress self-report scales. There was a significant main effect for maternal diagnosis on cortisol levels. Post hoc comparisons showed that comorbid subjects had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls, but subjects with only one diagnosis did not. Similar to cortisol, the comorbid subjects also had higher ratings on pregnancy-specific distress. Comorbidity during pregnancy, versus depression or an anxiety disorder alone, is uniquely associated with elevated cortisol and a negative evaluation of pregnancy. The potential impact of this combined psychiatric diagnosis on fetal development and future adult health needs further investigation. PMID:18493710

  6. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36 old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

  7. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  8. Exploring posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Seng, Julia S; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Resnick, Heidi; Reed, Caroline D.; King, Anthony; Low, Lisa Kane; McPherson, Melnee; Muzik, Maria; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel

    2010-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in perinatal than general samples of women (6–8% versus 4–5%). To explore potential causes, we examined the symptom profiles of women belonging to two separate samples: a perinatal clinic sample (n = 1,581) and a subsample of women in a similar age range from the U. S. National Women’s Study (n = 2,000). Within the perinatal sample, risk ratios were higher for all 17 PTSD symptoms among women with current PTSD compared with unaffected wom...

  9. Diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes : prevalence, antihypertensive strategy, and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Julie Agner; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol.

  10. Total and unbound darunavir (DRV) pharmacokinetics (PK) in HIV-1-infected pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Zorrilla, C.; Wright, R.; Osiyemi, O.; Yasin, S.; Baugh, B.; Brown, K.; Coate, B.; Verboven, P.; Hillewaert, V.; Kakuda, T.

    2012-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Physiologic changes during pregnancy can affect PK. We present the PK of total and unbound (pharmacologically active) DRV in HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving twice-daily (bid) DRV/ritonavir (rtv). This Phase IIIb study enrolled HIV-1-infected pregnant women?18 years old in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy receiving DRV/rtv 600/100 mg bid and other ARVs. DRV (tota...

  11. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant Sudanese women with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Alfarazdeg A; Mohamed, Omar E; Ali, Abdelaziem A; Bashir, Ahmed M; Ali, Naji I; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Adam, Ishag

    2012-09-01

    A case-control study was carried out in Kassala and Medani Maternity Hospitals in Sudan to investigate acute-phase proteins [haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and albumin] in three groups of pregnant women (32 in each arm) comprising those with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria or uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. Whilst there was no significant difference in the levels of albumin and haptoglobin, ferritin and CRP levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with severe P. falciparum malaria. There were significant positive correlations between parasite count and haptoglobin, and medium positive correlations between parasite count and CRP. PMID:22818740

  12. Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolini, D. A.; Pinho, J. R. R.; Saraceni, C. P.; Moreira, R. C.; Granato, C. F. H.; Carrilho, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Brazil increases from South to North but moderate to elevated prevalence has been detected in the Southwest of Paraná State. The prevalence of serological markers of HBV was evaluated in 3188 pregnant women from different counties in Paraná State and relevant epidemiological features were described. The prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women for the state as a whole was 18.5% (95% CI = 17.2-19.9), ranging from 7.2% in Curitiba to 38.5% in Fr...

  13. Toxoplasmosis-Serological Evidence and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ling, Lau Yee; Chandeying, Verapol

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and none were positive for IgM antibody. Multivariate analysis ...

  14. Clinical significance of combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol and human lactogen in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical significance of combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol (FE3) and human lactogen (HPL) for determination of intrauterine fetal growth and development. The serum FE3 and HPL in pregnant women were measured by chemiluminescence and RIA respectively. The results showed that the E3 and HPL levels in pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension were lower than the normal controls (P0.05). The combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol and human lactogen has important clinical significance in determination of fetus-placenta function and high risk pregnancy. (authors)

  15. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  16. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan T. Ramlal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  17. Misoprostol as a family planning drug : use in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sa?a?v, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Availability of comprehensive family planning services is fundamental in improving and ensuring women’s right to life and health. An estimated 222 million women have an unmet need for contraception, and 43.8 million pregnancies are terminated each year, of which 21.6 million are considered to be unsafe and one of the main contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity. Medical abortion using misoprostol alone, or preferably the combined regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol,...

  18. Comparison of real-time PCR and microscopy for malaria parasite detection in Malawian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleta Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New diagnostic tools for malaria are required owing to the changing epidemiology of malaria, particularly among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Real-time PCR assays targeting Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfldh gene may facilitate the identification of a high proportion of pregnant women with a P. falciparum parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy. These molecular methods will enable further studies on the effects of these submicroscopic infections on maternal health and birth outcomes. Methods The pfldh real-time PCR assay and conventional microscopy were compared for the detection of P. falciparum from dried blood spots and blood smears collected from the peripheral blood of 475 Malawian women at delivery. A cycle threshold (Ct of the real-time PCR was determined optimizing the sensitivity and specificity of the pfldh PCR assay compared to microscopy. A real-time PCR species-specific assay was applied to identify the contribution to malaria infections of three Plasmodium species (P. falciparum P. ovale and P. malariae in 44 discordant smear and pfldh PCR assay results. Results Of the 475 women, P. falciparum was detected in 11 (2.3% by microscopy and in 51 (10.7% by real-time PCR; compared to microscopy, the sensitivity of real-time PCR was 90.9% and the specificity 91.2%. If a Ct value of 38 was used as a cut-off, specificity improved to 94.6% with no change in sensitivity. The real-time PCR species-specific assay detected P. falciparum alone in all but four samples: two samples were mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. malariae, one was a pure P. malariae infection and one was a pfldh PCR assay-positive/species-specific assay-negative sample. Of three P. malariae infections detected by microscopy, only one was confirmed by the species-specific assay. Conclusions Although microscopy remains the most appropriate method for clinical malaria diagnosis in field settings, molecular diagnostics such as real-time PCR offer a more reliable means to detect malaria parasites, particularly at low levels. Determination of the possible contribution of these submicroscopic infections to poor birth outcomes and maternal health is critical. For future studies to investigate these effects, this pfldh real-time PCR assay offers a reliable detection method.

  19. Initial Feasibility and Acceptability of a Comprehensive Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Pregnant Women in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Hendr Xe E. E.; Bronwyn Myers; Grady, Kevin E. O. X.; Stefan Gebhardt; Theron, Gerhard B.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a women-focused intervention addressing methamphetamine use and HIV sexual risk among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. A two-group randomized pilot study was conducted, comparing a women-focused intervention for methamphetamine use and related sexual risk behaviors to a psychoeducational condition. Participants were pregnant women who used methamphetamine regularly, had unprotec...

  20. Diabetes and pregnancy: analysis of pregnant women submitted to fetal echocardiography during a ten-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Nilson Abrão Szylit; Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre2; Maria Virginia Machado

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze diabetic pregnant women who underwent fetalechocardiography , from April 1993 to December 2003, and to identify the fetal echocardiographic abnormalities and postnatal outcome. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 178 diabetic pregnant women who underwent fetal echocardiography. Clinical and laboratory maternal, fetal echocardiographic, delivery and newborn variables were studied. Means were calculated for quantitative variables and percentages for qualitat...

  1. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  2. Toxoplasma prevalence among pregnant women in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findal, Gry; Barlinn, Regine; Sandven, Irene; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Nordbø, Svein A; Samdal, Helvi H; Vainio, Kirsti; Dudman, Susanne G; Jenum, Pål A

    2015-04-01

    Infection by Toxoplasma gondii may lead to complications in the foetus if the mother suffers from primary infection during pregnancy. Previously infected women have produced toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies. The most recent study on prevalence of toxoplasma IgG in the Norwegian pregnant population was conducted 20 years ago. The present study is part of a research programme initiated by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We aimed to update the knowledge regarding the prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway. In this cross-sectional study, sera from 1922 pregnant women in Buskerud (992) and Sør-Trøndelag counties (930) in Norway were collected consecutively. The presence of toxoplasma IgG was identified by values ?8 IU/mL using an ELISA test. The overall prevalence of toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was 9.3% (95% CI 8.1-10.7); Sør-Trøndelag 10.4% (95% CI 8.6-12.6) and Buskerud 8.3% (95% CI 6.7-10.2). There was no difference between the counties (p = 0.13), and the result did not differ from prevalences found in 1974 (12.1%) and 1994 (10.7%). We found a higher prevalence among women ?40 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.30-5.42). The prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway is low and has been stable during the last decades. PMID:25628065

  3. Clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the change of serum TRAb and changeable regularity of thyroid function and clinical significance of pregnant women with Graves' diease treated by propylthiouracil. Methods: Detecting the serum TRAb, FT3, FT4, TSH levels of pregnant women with Graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil using radioreceptor assay and electro chemiluminescence. Results: The serum TRAb level of the pregnant women with Graves' disease in early gestation treated by propylthiouracil descended much more than that in the initial diagnosis (P<0.01). The positive rates of TRAb in the women before treated by propylthiouracil and treated 3 months, 6 months, 8 months were 90.2%, 82.9%, 68.2% and 21.9% separately. The activity of TRAb descended slightly 3 months latter after treated. The activity of TRAb descend obviously and the positive rates changed largely 8 months after treated. Conclusion: There is very important clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with Graves' disease in diagnosis and differential diagnosis and observation of therapeutic effects. Also, a favourable prognosis judgement. Meanwhile, provides significant reference index of pathogenetic condition judgement and drug discontinuance whether or not for the clinician. (authors)

  4. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions. PMID:25796023

  5. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbalibulha, Yona; Muwanguzi, Enoch; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Natukunda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%); A: 190 (26.%); B: 152 (21%); and AB: 28 (4%). A total of 28 (3.86%) pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1%) of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8%) were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, in Uganda.

  6. Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwu GN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

  7. Use of antimicrobials by pregnant women in the public health care

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    Janaína Soder Fritzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify and classify, according to the risk, the antimicrobials prescribed to pregnant women assisted by the National Program of Prenatal and Postpartum Follow-up in a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: Analytical and retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in 2011 based on the registers of 87 pregnant women assisted in 2010 using an instrument with questions about the dispensed drugs. The prescribed antimicrobials were identified and classified as topical and systemic use and according to the risk of using it during pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The pregnant women had a mean age of 28.01 years and attended 5.3 consultations. There was an average prescription of 6.52 drugs/pregnant woman. Of the 568 drugs prescribed, 85 (14.96% had an antimicrobial activity, 29 (34.1% were for topical use and 56 (65.9% for systemic use, and 46 (52.9% pregnant women received at least one antimicrobial. There were 13 different products with a prevalence of antifungals of gynecological / topical use, 16 (18.82%, 30 (35.3% were prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy, 30 (35.3% in the second and 25 (29.4% in the third trimester. According to the classification of the risk to the fetus, nine (61.54% antimicrobials belonged to the B category and four (30.77% to the C category. Conclusion: It was verified the prescription of antimicrobials for systemic use and B category risk for pregnancy to 52.9% of pregnant women in prenatal follow-up in the place where the study took place. Miconazole and metronidazole vaginal cream, cephalexin 500 mg, azithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 500 mg were the most prescribed drugs.

  8. Detary Practices and Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Koryo-Dabrah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy, nutrient intakes of pregnant women and the effect of socio-demographic factors on nutrient intakes of pregnant women. The research design was cross-sectional. A systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 279 pregnant women from the antenatal clinic of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Osu Maternity Home in Accra. In-depth interviews were performed to assess perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption and dietary habits during pregnancy. In addition, an interactive 24-h recall repeated for three days was used to obtain data on food and nutrient intakes of the women. Information on foods consumed was converted into quantitative data of nutrients using Ghana Food Composition Tables and FOOD PROCESSOR PLUS Software. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, 17. The mean energy, vitamin B12, folate, iron and zinc intakes were found to be inadequate compared with the Recommended Intakes. There was also a significant difference (p<0.001 in the mean intake of protein across the different trimesters. On the average protein, fat and carbohydrate contributed 13.2, 34.7 and 52.1%, respectively to total calories. Significant differences were observed between educational level and mean intake of protein (p<0.001, as well as income levels and mean intake of protein (p<0.001 and zinc (p<0.02. Surprisingly women with larger household size had high intake of energy and nutrients. Most of the women (67.7% reported food craving, 57.3% practiced pica and 48.8% reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy. However no significant difference was found in nutrient intakes between women who reported food craving, food avoidance and pica and women who did not. In conclusion, pregnant women in the study had lower intake of energy and nutrients compared with the RNI. Food craving and aversion as well as pica practice are common dietary practices among pregnant women in the study. Protein and zinc are associated with income and educational levels of the pregnant women in the study. It is recommended that more attention should be focused on nutrition education and intervention programs during pregnancy as well as dietary approaches such as fortification of foods to increase both macronutrient and micronutrient intakes.

  9. Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-09-01

    This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use. PMID:25205417

  10. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT. Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

  11. Psychopharmacology Decision-Making Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Health Providers: Informing Compassionate and Collaborative Care Women's Health

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Sarah Kye; Bentley, Kia J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopharmaceutical use by pregnant and postpartum women is complicated by the complexity of prescribing as well as the sociocultural context in which medication-related decisions are made. This study sought to advance understanding of decision–making processes and communication experiences regarding use of psychopharmaceuticals during pregnancy by considering both provider and consumer perspectives. An electronic survey was conducted with health care providers (N = 88) and women consumers (...

  12. Incidence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in 35,940 Pregnant Women in Norway and Pregnancy Outcome for Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jenum, Pål A.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Melby, Kjetil K.; Kapperud, Georg; Whitelaw, Andrew; Eskild, Anne; Eng, Jan

    1998-01-01

    From 1992 to 1994 a screening program for detection of specific Toxoplasma gondii antibodies involving 35,940 pregnant women was conducted in Norway. For women with serological evidence of primary T. gondii infection, amniocentesis and antiparasitic treatment were offered. The amniotic fluid was examined for T. gondii by PCR and mouse inoculation to detect fetal infection. Infants of infected mothers had clinical and serological follow-up for at least 1 year to detect congenital infection. Of...

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending the Hospital for Women & Children in Koutiala, Mali

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brett, MacLean; Rosanna F, Hess; Edward, Bonvillain; Joseph, Kamate; Daoda, Dao; Amy, Cosimano; Shannon, Hoy.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To establish the rate of seroprevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women in south-eastern Mali, and to decrease mother-to-child transmission. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional comparison study, 3 659 pregnant women attending a non-governmental hospital in Kout [...] iala, Mali, during 2008 and 2009 were screened for the hepatitis B surface antigen during antenatal clinic attendance or when admitted for delivery. A chart review compared the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive women to HBV-negative women used as controls to identify potential risk factors for HBsAg positivity. The variables compared were age, parity, type of genital excision, birthweight of baby and HIV status. RESULTS: A total of 293 (8.0%) pregnant women tested positive for HBsAg. Their average age was 27.6 years, average parity of 2.8 births, 90% had Type 2 genital excision, 21% had low-birthweight infants, and 14 (0.4%) women also tested positive for HIV. Infants born to HbsAg-positive women were immunised with the hepatitis B vaccine in the delivery room. Two hundred and eighty-four HBVnegative women were compared with the HBV-positive women. None of the differences of means or relationships was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: In view of the high endemicity and lack of easily identifiable risk factors, free maternal HBV screening should be provided to all women in Mali, and the infants born to HBsAgpositive women should be immunised within 12 hours of birth.

  14. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

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    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  15. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

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    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8% have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ? two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53, with ? secondary education (OR=1.96, had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88 and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08 as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is necessary to avert the potential toxoplasmosis related complications especially in the neonates.

  16. Recommendations of ICRP-60 for occupationally exposed pregnant women. Compliance evaluation in six health centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease in the limits of dose equivalent at the entry of the abdomen of occupationally exposed pregnant women, as recommended by ICRP-60, necessitates to evaluate with dosimeter the various professional positions in different services existing in a health care centre, to guarantee that such limits cannot be exceeded, and thus ensure the protection of the foetus. The results obtained in this work, related exclusively to external radiation dose, show that the radiation protection system currently in force is in compliance with the regulation in the majority of the professional positions evaluated, though stricter criteria for pregnant women workers must be established with the aim of obtaining a better dose optimization. The fact that pregnant operators are working in Nuclear Medicine requires an additional effort to ensure that doses in excess of the limits stated are prevented

  17. Mixed infections with distinct cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotypes in Polish pregnant women, fetuses, and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycel, M; Wujcicka, W; Zawili?ska, B; Paradowska, E; Suski, P; Gaj, Z; Wilczy?ski, J; Le?nikowski, Z; Nowakowska, D

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe a distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) single and multiple genotypes among infected pregnant women, their fetuses, and newborns coming from Central Poland, as well as congenital cytomegaly outcome. The study involved 278 CMV-seropositive pregnant women, of whom 192 were tested for viral DNAemia. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genotyping was performed for 18 of 34 pregnant women carrying the viral DNA and for 12 of their 15 offspring with confirmed HCMV infections. Anti-HCMV antibodies levels were assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) tests. Viral DNA loads and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the UL55 gene. In the pregnant women, we identified HCMV gB1, gB2, gB3, and gB4 genotypes. Single gB2, gB3, or gB4 genotypes were observed in 14 (77.8 %) women, while multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes were observed in four (22.2 %). Maternal HCMV genotypes determined the genotypes identified in their fetuses and newborns (p???0.050). Half of them were infected with single HCMV gB1, gB2, or gB3 genotypes and the other half with multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes. Single and multiple genotypes were observed in both asymptomatic and symptomatic congenital cytomegaly, although no gB3 genotype was identified among asymptomatic cases. In Central Poland, infections with single and multiple HCMV strains occur in pregnant women, as well as in their fetuses and neonates, with both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. HCMV infections identified in mothers seem to be associated with the viral genotypes in their children. PMID:25348608

  18. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

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    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  19. The influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered amoxicillin in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Anouk E; Dörr, P Joep; Mouton, Johan W; De Jongh, Joost; Oostvogel, Paul M; Steegers, Eric A P; Voskuyl, Rob A; Danhof, Meindert

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTExamples exist that pharmacokinetics of drugs in pregnant women can differ from that in non-pregnant individuals.In pregnant women before the onset of labour, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin is similar to that in non-pregnant individuals, but for women during labour this is unknown. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSLabour influences the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin.During labour and even more in the immediate postpartum period, the peripheral volume of distribution was decreased compared with pregnant women before the onset of labour.The volume of distribution increases with an increasing amount of oedema. AIMS Many physiological changes take place during pregnancy and labour. These might change the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, necessitating adjustment of the dose for prevention of neonatal infections. We investigated the influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. METHODS Pregnant women before and during labour were recruited and treated with amoxicillin intravenously. A postpartum dose was offered. Blood samples were obtained and amoxicillin concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetics were characterized by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling using NONMEM. RESULTS The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin in 34 patients was best described by a three-compartment model. Moderate interindividual variability was identified in CL, central and peripheral volumes of distribution. The volume of distribution (V) increased with an increasing amount of oedema. Labour influenced the parameter estimate of peripheral volume of distribution (V2). V2 was decreased during labour, and even more in the immediate postpartum period. For all patients the population estimates (mean ± SE) for CL and V were 21.1 ± 4.1 l h?1 (CL), 8.7 ± 6.6 l (V1), 11.8 ± 7.7 l (V2) and 20.5 ± 15.4 l (V3) respectively. CONCLUSIONS The peripheral distribution volume of amoxicillin in pregnant women during labour and immediately postpartum is decreased. However, these changes are not clinically relevant and do not warrant deviations from the recommended dosing regimen for amoxicillin during labour in healthy pregnant patients. PMID:19032729

  20. A proposed new international convention supporting the rights of pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winrow, Benjamin; Bile, Khalif; Hafeez, Assad; Davies, Hugh; Brown, Nick; Zafar, Shamsa; Cham, Mamady; Phillips, Barbara; MacDonald, Rhona; Southall, David P

    2012-05-01

    For a multitude of eminently modifiable reasons, death rates for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants in poorly resourced countries remain unacceptably high. The concomitant high morbidity rates compound the situation. The rights of these vulnerable individuals are incompletely protected by existing United Nations human rights conventions, which many countries have failed to implement. The authors propose a novel approach grounded on both human rights and robust evidence-based clinical guidelines to create a 'human rights convention specifically for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants'. The approach targets the 'right to health' of these large, vulnerable and neglected populations. The proposed convention is designed so that it can be monitored, audited and evaluated objectively. It should also foster a sense of national ownership and accountability as it is designed to be relevant to local situations and to be incorporated into local clinical governance systems. It may be of particular value to those countries that are not yet on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially MDGs 4 and 5, which target child and maternal mortality, respectively. To foster a sense of international responsibility, two additional initiatives are integral to its philosophy: the promotion of twinning between well and poorly resourced regions and a raising of awareness of how some well-resourced countries can damage the health of mothers and babies, for example, through the recruitment of health workers trained by national governments and taken from the public health system. PMID:22247245

  1. Effectiveness of a Broad-Spectrum Sunscreen in the Prevention of Melasma in Asian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Seité; Seok Beom Park

    2013-01-01

    Chloasma, or melasma, is a commonly acquired pigmentary disorder among Asian women. It may be considered as a physiological change during pregnancy. The incidence in Asian women is higher than that in other ethnic groups but further epidemiologic data are needed. There are very few studies related to the benefits of sunscreens to prevent this dermatosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a broad-spectrum sunscreen in the prevention of melasma in Korean pregnant wom...

  2. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Sydsjö Gunilla; Josefsson Ann; Claesson Ing-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. Methods 151 obese pre...

  3. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre H; Byrne Nuala M; Rowlands Ingrid J; Foxcroft¹ Katie F; Callaway Leonie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestationa...

  4. Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Paraná State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.A., Bertolini; J.R.R., Pinho; C.P., Saraceni; R.C., Moreira; C.F.H., Granato; F.J., Carrilho.

    1083-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Brazil increases from South to North but moderate to elevated prevalence has been detected in the Southwest of Paraná State. The prevalence of serological markers of HBV was evaluated in 3188 pregnant women from different counties in Paraná State and rele [...] vant epidemiological features were described. The prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women for the state as a whole was 18.5% (95% CI = 17.2-19.9), ranging from 7.2% in Curitiba to 38.5% in Francisco Beltrão. The endemicity of HBV marker prevalence in pregnant women was intermediate in Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu, and Francisco Beltrão, and low in Curitiba, Londrina, Maringá, and Paranaguá. Multiple logistic regression showed that HBV marker prevalence increased with age, was higher among black women, among women of Italian and German descent, and among women who had family members in neighboring Rio Grande do Sul State. Univariate analysis showed that HBV marker prevalence was also higher among women with no education or only primary education, with a lower family income and whose families originated from the South Region of Brazil. Pregnant women not having positive HBV markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg or anti-HBs detected by ELISA) corresponded to 73.7% of the population studied, implying that HBV vaccination needs to be reinforced in Paraná State. The highest prevalence was found in three counties that received the largest number of families from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, where most immigrants were of German or Italian ascendance. This finding probably indicates that immigrants that came to this area brought HBV infection to Southwestern Paraná State.

  5. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Kloster, Stine

    2012-01-01

    Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures.

  6. Association between Anemia and Aflatoxin B1 Biomarker Levels among Pregnant Women in Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Ehiri, John E.; Jiang, Yi; Ellis, William O.; Stiles, Jonathan K; Nelly J. Yatich; FUNKHOUSER, ELLEN; Person, Sharina D.; Wilson, Craig; Jonathan H. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites that contaminate staple food crops in many developing countries. Up to 40% of women attending a prenatal clinic in Africa may be anemic. In a cross-sectional study of 755 pregnant women, Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts (AF-ALB) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants were divided into quartiles “low,” “moderate,” “high,” and “very high.” Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dL. Logistic regression w...

  7. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz; Emine Sen; Osman Sevket; Yusuf Polat; Aysun Karabulut; Omer Uysal

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples wer...

  8. Deoxynivalenol exposure assessment in a cohort of pregnant women from Bradford, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hepworth, Sarah; Hardie, Laura; Fraser, Lorna; Burley, Victoria J; Mijal, Renee; Wild, Christopher; Azad, Rafaq; McKinney, Patricia; Paul C. Turner

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a ubiquitous contaminant of cereal crops in temperate regions of the world. DON causes growth faltering and immune suppression in animals. Limited information is available on DON exposure in UK sub-populations. Objectives This study provides DON exposure assessment in a subset of pregnant women scheduled for an elective caesarean in a large multi-ethnic mother/infant birth cohort from Bradford, UK. Methods Women aged 16-44 years (n=85)...

  9. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment in Pregnant Women with a Mechanical Heart Valve Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Choi, Sae Young; Kwon, Ki Young; Cho, Chi Heum

    2007-01-01

    No definitive recommendation is available concerning optimal antithrombotic therapy in pregnant women with a mechanical heart valve. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the clinical results of nadroparin treatment with respect to pregnancy outcome and maternal complications. From 1997 to 2005, 31 pregnancies were reviewed in 25 women. Nadroparin (7,500 U, twice daily) was used in 23 pregnancies between 6 and 12 weeks of gestation and close-to-term only, and coumarin derivatives w...

  10. Smoking habits in Italian pregnant women: any changes after the ban?

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Carla Maria; CHARRIER, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    A reduction in the prevalence of smoking and tobacco consumption was noted after the enactment in 2005 of new smoking regulations in Italy. To determine the impact of the smoking ban on pregnant women, we compared the results of two retrospective studies on two samples of 300 women, who recently delivered, conducted before and after the regulations went into effect. The comparison showed a marked drop in passive exposure to smoke in the workplace but not in the family environment; however, pa...

  11. Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke, O. G.; Brown, I. R.; Bone, C D; Carter, N D; Cleeve, H J; Maxwell, J.D.; Robinson, V P; Winder, S M

    1980-01-01

    In a double-blind trial of vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women calciferol (ergocalciferol, 1000 IU/day) was administered to 59 women and placebo to 67 controls during the last trimester. The two groups had similar distributions of maternal age, height, parity, number of vegetarians, countries of origin, and sex and gestation of the infants. At entry to the trial maternal serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations were low in both treatment and control groups and significantl...

  12. Prevention and management of excessive gestational weight gain: a survey of overweight and obese pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, W S; Gibson, A; Hankey, C R

    2013-01-01

    Background - Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with adverse infant, childhood and maternal outcomes and research to develop interventions to address this issue is ongoing. The views of women on gestational weight gain and the resources they would consider helpful in addressing this are however largely unknown. This survey aimed to determine the views of newly pregnant women, living in areas of social disadvantage, on 1) their current body weight and potential gestational weight ...

  13. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ? secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ? 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ? 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  14. Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ziadat, Ayed H.

    2010-01-01

    air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

  15. Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed H. Ziadat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

  16. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Rebecca

    2015-05-20

    Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.

  17. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy.

  18. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants. : Complex physiology with a risk of misinterpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and Young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Design: Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Setting: Population Surveys and research studies. Subjects: Pregnant women and young infants. Results. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (mu g l(-1)) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (mu g per 24 h); 2) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cordblood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine deficiency than in the mother. Conclusions: if the iodine status Of pregnant women and small children is not to be Misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account.

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  20. Compliance to Iron Supplementation Among Pregnant Women: a Cross Sectional Study in Urban Slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpanarani J Dutta, Prakash Patel, R K Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Every six out of ten pregnant women were found taking iron supplement pills. As number of antenatal visits and knowledge of dose and duration of iron supplementation pills are independently affecting compliance to iron pills, increasing number of antenatal visits and imparting knowledge about dose and duration of iron supplementation pills will improve compliance to iron pills."

  1. Experiences of Low Gestational Weight Gain: A Phenomenological Study with Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Murray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Low maternal, gestational weight gain is associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age infants, neural tube defects, infant death, failure to initiate breastfeeding, and childhood asthma. The advantage of qualitative research is it can provide valuable insights for health care professionals into the experience and perceptions of low gestational weight gain from the vantage point of women with first-hand lived experience. In this Heideggarian interpretive phenomenological study, the meaning and experiences of weight gain for pregnant women with low gestational weight gain were explored. Data were collected through interviews with 10 pregnant women from Atlantic Canada. Conroy’s pathway for interpretive phenomenology was utilized. A hermeneutical spiral of interpretation identified six patterns or major themes: confronting one’s mortality; defending oneself against a permanent metamorphosis into a stranger; playing with fire and brimstone; slipping under the radar; trying to find peace; and riding an emotional roller coaster. The findings point to a war that is being waged over pregnant bodies with respect to weight that leaves pregnant women fending for themselves, apparently with little help from their health care providers. Implications of the findings for health practice, education, and research are discussed.

  2. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Catherine B

    2013-05-01

    Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

  3. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  4. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; SchjØrring, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

  5. Iodine in urine of pregnant women after augmentation of iodine in salt in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iodination of salt with 20-30 m gr iodine /Kg NaCl substantially raised the level of iodine in the urine of pregnant women from a total of 6.9 (median value in 1994) to 12.77 micro g iodine/dl (median value). The iodine metabolism in Macedonia is dependent on salt iodination. (Original)

  6. Surveillance of Transmitted Drug-Resistant HIV Among Young Pregnant Women in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Somda, Antoine; Sangare, Lassana; Soro, Monique; Yameogo, Saydou; Bazie, Babou; Bigirimana, Françoise; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Peeters, Martine; Mouacha, Fatima; Rivera, Ana Maria; Jordan, Michael R.; Sanou, Marie-Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Burkina Faso began rapid antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in 2003 and by December 2009, 26?448 individuals were on treatment. With rapid scale-up of ART, some degree of human immunodeficiency virus transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is inevitable. Following World Health Organization methods, between June 2008 and July 2009, Burkina Faso assessed TDR in primigravid pregnant women aged

  7. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee; Masoumeh Farahani; Ali Reza Abadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH) was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespecti...

  8. Methadone and Metabolites in Hair of Methadone-Assisted Pregnant Women and Their Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Himes, Sarah K.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Rock, Colleen M.; Jones, Hendre?e E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Methadone is the recommended pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. The primary aims of this study were to determine whether a dose-concentration relationship exists between cumulative maternal methadone dose, methadone and metabolite concentrations in maternal hair during pregnancy and whether maternal hair methadone and metabolite concentrations predict neonatal outcomes.

  9. Study on the relationship between the levels of serum cholylglycine (CG) and blood lipids in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis during pregnancy and the relationship between levels of serum CG and blood lipids. Methods: Serum CG, blood lipid and liver function profile were examined in 2040 women with pregnancy during the second or third trimester. Among these pregnant women, 57 were diagnosed as with intrahepatic cholestasis. Blood lipids (TG, cholesterol, HDL, LDL) and ALP levels in 50 of the 57 pregnant women were studied and compared with those in 50 otherwise normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Serum CG levels were above normal range in 372 of the 2040 pregnant women (18.5%). Fifty seven of these 372 pregnant women were confirmed to be with intrahepatic cholestasis (2.8% of the 2040 pregnancies). The TG, cholesterol, LDL contents and ALP levels in the pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis were significantly higher (P0.05) than those in controls. Conclusion: Intrahepatic cholestasis developed in a substantial proportion of pregnant women (2.8% in this study) and should be carefully monitored due to possible damage to the fetus. Serum CG was shown to be an early and sensitive marker for the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis. Changes of blood lipid and ALP levels were related to disease status. (authors)

  10. Correlates of vaginal colonization with group B streptococci among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechen Tsering

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. Setting and Design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Three high vaginal swabs were obtained from all the pregnant women admitted at term and in preterm labor. Two swabs were used for aerobic culture and the third one for gram staining. The first set of swabs was cultured on 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The second set of swabs were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth and then subcultured in 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The main outcome measures were the presence of GBS infection in comparison to the age group, gravida, gestational age, premature rupture of membrane (PROM, preterm labor and association with febrile spells of the present pregnancy. Results: The culture positivity rate of GBS was 4.77% and coexistent organisms isolated were Candida species (36%, Staphylococcus aureus (8% and Enterococcus species (8%. Culture positivity in the age group of 18-25 years was 5.71%, of which 5.74% were in their first pregnancy. The correlation between age group and gravida with GBS culture positivity was statistically insignificant. The culture positivity in <36 weeks of gestational age was 6.93%. This relation was statistically significant. Twenty-eight percent developed PROM. Sixty-four percent of culture positives had preterm labor. Conclusion: GBS infection among pregnant women was significantly correlated with the gestational age, PROM and preterm labor. In pregnancy GBS colonization causes asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI. It is a well known cause of puerperal infections with amnionitis,endometritis and sepsis being the most commonly reported infections. [5

  11. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined effects of cumulative stressful experiences are associated with disrupted HPA functioning among pregnant women. While the etiology of racial/ethnic differences in stress-induced HPA alterations is not clear, this warrants further research. PMID:21423846

  12. Acceptability of neonatal circumcision by pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogerio, Phili; Quarraisha A., Karim.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) have provided convincing evidence on its efficacy to provide partial protection against female-to-male HIV transmission in circumcised men. The World Health Organization and UNAIDS subsequently formulated recommendations for VMMC impl [...] ementation that included implementation of neonatal medical male circumcision (NMMC) to all infants up to two months old. Knowledge regarding the acceptability of NMMC by pregnant women who are candidates for granting of consents for NMMC procedures or its ideal placement within health programmes is low OBJECTIVES: We sought to establish NMMC acceptability by pregnant women and the feasibility of its integration within Maternal, Child and Women's Health (MCWH) programmes to inform implementation guidelines METHOD: Nurses and counsellors at two public health facilities were trained to provide NMMC counselling and offer NMMC to 1778 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care services. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed on data collected on NMMC acceptance and refusals. Thematic analysis was also performed on qualitative reasons for refusals RESULTS: Acceptability of NMMC by women was high (82.9%). Refusals resulted from the need for consultations with partners and/or family members prior to consenting (41.3%), fear of the procedure (23.8%), cultural reasons (15.9%) and no reasons given (15.3%) CONCLUSION: The acceptability of NMMC by pregnant women and its integration with MCWH services was feasible. However socio-cultural factors, including the need for further consultation prior to consenting for NMMC procedures and preference of traditional circumcision by some women, need to be addressed in order to increase uptakes

  13. Basal and postprandial gut peptides affecting food intake in lean and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodowski, K; Zwirska-Korczala, K; Kuka, D; Kukla, M; Budziszewska, P; Czuba, B; W?och, A; Cnota, W; Biela?ski, W; Brzozowski, T; Rehfeld, J F; Zdun, R; Konturek, P C

    2007-03-01

    Maternal obesity has been reported as a risk factor for various maternal and fetal complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of certain gut hormones affecting food intake such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), cholecystokinin (CCK), insulin and glucose in pregnant women with varying body mass gain during physiological pregnancy. The study included 34 women with singleton pregnancies in the 2(nd) trimester of gestation. The examined pregnant women were divided into 4 groups; I. control pregnancy (CP) with weight gain below 0.5 kg/week; II. overweight low weight gain 1 kg/week (OHWG); morbidly obese pregnant with weight gain >1.5 kg/week (MOP). The basal acylated-ghrelin levels in MOP subjects were significantly higher than those in CP and no usual suppression of acylated ghrelin after the meal observed in CP as well as in OLWG and OHWG was found in MOP women. Basal PYY(3-36) plasma levels were similar in CP, OLWG and OHWG but in MOP was significantly reduced and no significant increase in hormone level, typically observed in CP, was detected after a meal in overweight or obese women studied. The fasting CCK and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in MOP subjects were significantly higher than those in CP and other overweight women. In conclusion, we found that pregnant women with overweight and obesity exhibit significant changes in fasting and postprandial gut hormones affecting food intake such as acylated ghrelin, PYY(3-36) and CCK as well as in CRP and these changes might contribute, at least in part, the development of obesity in pregnancy. PMID:17443026

  14. Opt-out HIV testing during antenatal care: experiences of pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Elin C; Thorson, Anna; Pariyo, George; Conrad, Paul; Arinaitwe, Moses; Kemigisa, Margaret; Eriksen, Jaran; Tomson, Göran; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2012-01-01

    Two years after the introduction of provider-initiated, opt-out HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care (ANC) in Uganda, HIV testing uptake is still low. This study was carried out to explore pregnant women's experiences of, and views on, the policies for opt-out, and couple HIV testing, and to understand how the policy implementation could be improved in order to increase access to prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) services. The study was conducted at three ANC health facilities at different levels of care in rural eastern Uganda. Data were collected through sit-in observations during ANC and 18 semi-structured interviews with pregnant women receiving ANC, and thereafter analysed using latent content analysis. Pregnant women who received ANC from facilities that provided HIV testing on-site perceived HIV testing as compulsory without actually fully realizing the benefits of HIV testing and PMTCT. No referral for HIV testing or information about testing was given at ANC facilities that lacked HIV testing on-site. A major challenge of couple HIV testing was that pregnant women were made responsible for recruiting their spouses for testing, a precarious dilemma for many women who tried to fulfil health workers' requests without having the power to do so. In order to increase uptake of PMTCT services, the pre-test counselling in groups that precedes the provider-initiated HIV testing should be adjusted to inform women about the benefits of PMTCT. Further, if testing is perceived as compulsory it could potentially deter some women from seeking ANC services. In order to increase HIV testing of male partners new strategies are needed, for example peer-sensitization and male clinics. Moreover, to achieve the desired outcomes of the PMTCT programme, monitoring and evaluation should be built into the programme. PMID:21292708

  15. Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels. - Highlights: • We assessed exposure of heavy metals to pregnant mothers who consume geophagic soil. • We analyzed 100 samples of soil originated in Tanzania. • The technique used was energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent. • Essential and toxic elements were detected in concentrations above WHO limits. • Hence, geophagy is exposing pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity

  16. Placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b antibodies in malnourished pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rejane S., Cavalcante; Benjamin I., Kopelman; Beatriz T., Costa-Carvalho.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the vaccination response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in malnourished pregnant women (MN), cord blood (CB) and in infants at two and six months of age for comparison with a control group (C). Twenty-eight malnourished pregnant women and 29 pregnant controls were immuni [...] zed with conjugated Act-HIB® in the third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all before the immunization, during labor (post immunization), and from CB. All infants were immunized with Hib vaccine according to normal vaccine schedule and sera were collected at two and six months of age. Antibody levels to polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were similar for both groups. Preimmunization: MN 1.94 µg/mL, C 1.68 µg/mL; post-vaccination: MN 18.53 µg/mL and C 17.55 µg/mL; in CB from MN 14.46 µg/mL and from C 17.04 µg/mL. Infants from MN and C mothers presented respectively at two months: 5.18 µg/mL and 8.60 µg/mL and at six months: MN 3.42 µg/mL and C 2.18 µg/mL. Antibody levels were similar in both groups studied (p = 0.485), however the vertical transmission rate was 14% lower in the MN pregnant group. Levels of antibodies > 0.15 µg/mL were found in all newborns from the MN pregnant group. Pregnant MN presented an immunological response to Hib vaccine similar to group C, however, vertical transmission rate of antibodies to PRP in the MN pregnant group was 14% lower than that in C, suggesting a less efficient passage of antibodies within this group.

  17. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Chunfang; Gelaye Bizu; Fida Neway; Williams Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate od...

  18. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Hormann; Bellows, Anne C.; Qi Wang; Hans Konrad Biesalski; Veronika Scherbaum; Stiller, Caroline K.; Haoyue Gao

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied ...

  19. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydsjö Gunilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. Methods 151 obese pregnant women in an intervention group and 188 obese pregnant women in a control group answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Group differences between the two groups were estimated by using the ?2 - test on categorical variables. The Student's t-test on continuous, normally distributed variables measuring changes in mean score on BAI and EPDS over time was used. To make a more comprehensive assessment of group differences, between as well as within the two groups, logistic regressions were performed with the BAI and EPDS as dependent variables, measured at gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks postnatal. The grouping variable has been adjusted for socio-demographic variables and complications. Results The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy varied between 24% and 25% in the intervention group and 22% and 23% in the control group. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety postnatally was 9% in the intervention group and 11% in the control group. Five percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% of the women in the control group showed symptoms of anxiety during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. The prevalence of symptoms of depression during pregnancy varied between 19% and 22% in the intervention group but was constant at 18% in the control group. Postnatal prevalence was 11% in both groups. Six percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% in the control group showed symptoms of depression during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. We found no differences between the two groups as concerns demographic characteristics, weight gain in kg, or the distribution of scores on anxiety and depressive symptoms nor did we find differences in the fluctuation of anxiety and depressive symptoms over time between the women in the intervention group and in the control group. Conclusion Obese pregnant women attending an intervention program seem to have the same risk of experiencing anxiety and/or depressive symptoms as do obese pregnant and postnatal women in general.

  20. Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is safe to drink or to use for cooking or bathing. For more information or to discuss individual chemical exposures during pregnancy, women and health professionals can call the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists ...

  1. The effect of food intake during labor on pain and anxiety in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaieh Rahmani-Bilandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The policy of fasting of pregnant women during labor is probably an unnecessary medical intervention. It may cause adverse consequences to mother and fetus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assessthe effect of food intake on pain and anxiety of low risk pregnant women.Materials and Method: This is a semi-experimental study on 175 pregnant low risk women was elected at central hospital of Gonabad during1387-88. Women in the intervention group (n=87 got dates, orange juice and water; and women in the control group (n=88 underwent fasting. The investigators used visual analogue scale (VAS and (PBI. Data was analyzed using t and chi-squared tests. P-value of less than 0.05 was determined significant.Results: Anxiety levels in 7-6 cm cervical dilatation and transition as well as pain during delivery in the intervention group were lower than control group (p 0.05.Conclusion: We concluded that intake of food during labor could decrease pain and anxiety level during labor

  2. Analysis of pregnancy and childbirth course in pregnant women with excessive weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka Yu.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under supervision there were 233 pregnant women with excessive weight aged 18-43 years. Patients were under observation and gave birth on the basis of obstetric units of municipal establishment "Dnepropetrovsk regional perinatal center with in-patient unit of" Dnepropetrovsk regional council". When performing research 2 groups were formed: 120 (51,5% pregnant women with miscarriage threat against excessive weight being at in-patient treatment since early terms of pregnancy. They underwent in-depth study. 113 (48,5% pregnant women with obesity with gestation course estimated retrospectively at the time of delivery. As a result of the obtained data in women of prospective group treatment algorithm was developed. This algorithm represented a complex treatment including antiagregant and anticoagulant therapy, co-factor vitamin therapy. Despite a more mature age of women of prospective group, adverse anamnesis by missarriage, high frequency of miscarriage in its first half, low placentation level, this complex allowed to improve course of the second half of pregnancy and to reduce number of gestational complications and perinatal losses.

  3. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  4. Does Rubella Immunity Predict Measles Immunity? A Serosurvey of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Ault

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to determine whether rubella immunity infers measles immunity in pregnant women. Methods. Stored serum samples were obtained from the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory for evaluation of rubella and measles immunities with IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Nine hundred serum samples were obtained for testing. The average age of the women at the time of antepartum serum collection was 28 (range, 14 to 44 years. Measles and rubella immunity were 88% and 98%, respectively; there was no effect of immunity status by age identified. Eighty eight percent of those with rubella immunity were also measles immune. There was no association between paired rubella and measles immunity identified, P<.0001. Discussion. Known rubella immunity did not infer measles immunity in our population. Thus, we recommend that pregnant women exposed to measles be tested and appropriately treated if they are found to be nonimmune.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and risk factors in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosiléia Marinho de, Quadros; Gino Chaves da, Rocha; Getúlio, Romagna; Juliana Pellizzoni de, Oliveira; Dadryhan Morghani, Ribeiro; Sandra Márcia Tietz, Marques.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is transmitted by the ingestion of contaminated water and foods, by soil contaminated with cat feces, especially while handling it, and congenitally via the placenta. The diagnosis of maternal infection is made by [...] serological detection of either IgM or IgG antibodies. This study assessed the seropositivity in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: The study was performed in 19 FHS units and included 148 childbearing women. The outcomes evaluated were IgM and IgG seropositivity and behavioral variables. RESULTS: IgG yielded positive results in 16% of the pregnant women, whereas IgM was positive in only 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The 1% IgM positivity rate for T. gondii indicates congenital toxoplasmosis is not common in Lages.

  6. [Mental disorders in a sample of pregnant women receiving primary health care in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Michele Scortegagna de; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Camey, Suzi; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders diagnosed during pregnancy and related sociodemographic causative factors among 712 women between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy receiving prenatal care in 18 basic health units in Porto Alegre and Bento Gonçalves in southern Brazil. PRIME-MD was used to assess mental disorders. The prevalence of probable mental disorder occurred in 41.7% of the women. The most prevalent diagnosis was major depressive disorder (21.6%), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (19.8%). A multivariate analysis showed that the factors most significantly associated with a probable psychiatric disorder were: the fact that the pregnant woman did not work or study: PR = 1.25 (95%CI: 1.04-1.51);the fact that the pregnant woman did not live with her spouse: PR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.01-1.52);the fact that the pregnant woman had two or more children: PR = 1.21 (95%CI: 1.01-1.46). A high prevalence of probable mental disorder was observed. The increased search for health care by pregnant women provides an opportunity for screening, diagnosing and treating these disorders under the primary health care system. PMID:22331164

  7. Vitamin A status of pregnant Nigerian women: relationship to dietary habits and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, O A; Adelekan, D A; Ajewole, E O

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin A status of pregnant Nigerian women has been determined by measurement of retinol concentration in plasma samples obtained from pregnant subjects, using a spectrophotometric method. The relationship between vitamin A status, dietary habits and morbidity pattern was also examined. Two hundred (200) consecutive pregnant women registered for antenatal clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex within a period of eight (8) weeks were recruited as subjects. The subjects were aged 15-43 years (mean 27.2 years), and were at different stages of pregnancy. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered on the subjects to obtain data on dietary habits, present health status and obstetric history. Vitamin A deficiency (plasma retinol concentration 0.70 micromol/L) vitamin A status respectively. There is a significant relationship between frequent micturition and vitamin A status (chi-square = 0.39: P red palm oil daily, about 64% would heat the oil to smoking for at least 10 minutes, before adding to stew during cooking. Green vegetables were also boiled in hot water before adding to sauce, while liver is consumed on just about three days per month. The findings reported in this study have further strengthened the claim that vitamin A deficiency is fairly prevalent in pregnant Nigerian women, underlining the need for prompt and effective intervention. PMID:15174740

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Pregnant Women without Vector Exposure Have Higher Parasitemia Levels: Implications for Congenital Transmission Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Victoria R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Valencia, Edward; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Leny; Acosta, Janet; Sanchez, Gerardo; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; LaFuente, Carlos; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Colanzi, Rony; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital transmission is a major source of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections, and as vector and blood bank control continue to improve, the proportion due to congenital infection will grow. A major unanswered question is why reported transmission rates from T. cruzi-infected mothers vary so widely among study populations. Women with high parasite loads during pregnancy are more likely to transmit to their infants, but the factors that govern maternal parasite load are largely unknown. Better understanding of these factors could enable prioritization of screening programs to target women most at risk of transmission to their infants. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened pregnant women presenting for delivery in a large urban hospital in Bolivia and followed infants of infected women for congenital Chagas disease. Of 596 women screened, 128 (21.5%) had confirmed T. cruzi infection; transmission occurred from 15 (11.7%) infected women to their infants. Parasite loads were significantly higher among women who transmitted compared to those who did not. Congenital transmission occurred from 31.3% (9/29), 15.4% (4/26) and 0% (0/62) of women with high, moderate and low parasite load, respectively (?x2 for trend 18.2; p<0.0001). Twin births were associated with higher transmission risk and higher maternal parasite loads. Infected women without reported vector exposure had significantly higher parasite loads than those who had lived in an infested house (median 26.4 vs 0 parasites/mL; p<0.001) with an inverse relationship between years of living in an infested house and parasite load. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that sustained vector-borne parasite exposure and repeated superinfection by T. cruzi may act as an immune booster, allowing women to maintain effective control of the parasite despite the down-regulation of late pregnancy. PMID:25807498

  9. Determinants of insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah Augustine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria leading to increase in the risk of maternal mortality, low birth weight and infant mortality. This paper is aimed at highlighting key predictors of the ownership of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and its use among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods A total of 2348 pregnant women were selected by a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics, ITN ownership, use, knowledge, behaviour and practices. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of two indicators: ITN ownership, and ITN use in pregnancy among those who owned ITNs. Results ITN ownership was low; only 28.8% owned ITNs. Key predictors of ITN ownership included women who knew that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 3.85; p p = 0.003. The use of ITNs was equally low with only 7.5% of all pregnant women, and 25.7% of all pregnant women who owned ITNs sleeping under a net. The predictors of ITN use in pregnancy among women who owned ITNs (N = 677 identified by logistic regression were: urban residence (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001; knowledge that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 2.93; p p = 0.036. Educational level was not significantly related to any of the two outcome variables. Although registration at ANC is significantly associated with ownership of a bednet (perhaps through free ITN distribution this does not translate to significant use of ITNs. Conclusions ITN use lagged well behind ITN ownership. This seems to suggest that the current mass distribution of ITNs at antenatal facilities and community levels may not necessarily lead to use unless it is accompanied by behaviour change interventions that address the community level perceptions, misconceptions and positively position ITN as an effective prevention device to prevent malaria

  10. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diab Tayseer E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg/height (m 2. Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1% were primigravidae, 926 (54.8% had ? secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years and 1445 (85.5% were housewives. The mean (SD of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3 years and 2.0 (2.1 respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5% were underweight (BMI of ? 19.9 Kg/m2, 603 (35.6% were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg/m2 and 328 (19.4% were obese (BMI of ? 30 Kg/m2. In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; PP = 0.001. Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02 Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  11. Hyperhomocysteinaemia, vascular related pregnancy complications and the response to vitamin supplementation in pregnant women of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elaborate the relationship between serum homocysteine (hcy) levels and vascular related pregnancy complications in pregnant women as well as to assess the homocysteine lowering effects of folate, vitamin B12 and B6. The secondary objectives were to establish a link between serum homocysteine levels and maternal age, parity, gestational age, foetal birth weight, mean arterial pressure and albuminuria. Methods: A total of 332 pregnant women (gestational age: >24 weeks) attending Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, Pakistan, were enrolled. Of these 112 were healthy normal pregnant women; 61 pregnant women had pre-eclampsia, 49 with eclampsia and 110 with placental abruption. A cohort of 30 patients with elevated hcy levels (>8.2 mu mol/liter), were given folate, vitamin B12 and B6 as supplements for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected, centrifuged and stored at 2 to 8 deg. C. Hcy levels were determined by IMx immunoassay. Results: Higher serum hcy levels, higher mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), pre-term deliveries and low foetal birth weights were noted in women with pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and eclampsia as compared to control and those with placental abruption. Significant hcy lowering effects of folate, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation were observed. Significant and positive correlation was found between hhcy and MAP (r = 0.001; p<0.001), albuminuria (r = 0.004; p< 0.01) and low birth weights (r= 0.05; p<0.06). Conclusion: Higher hts (r= 0.05; p<0.06). Conclusion: Higher hcy levels in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and eclampsia have been noted. Data support the hypothesis that folate, vitamin B12 and B6 lower hcy levels in hyperhomocysteinaemic women. (author)

  12. The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Maternal Factors in Pregnant Women in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of m...

  13. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ?6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16.2-27.7% for emotional abuse, and 8.3-21.1% for sexual abuse. Few women reported current sexual abuse, 0.4% compared with 2.2% current physical abuse and 2.7% current emotional abuse. Current severe suffering was reported by 6.8% of the women who reported physical abuse, 9.8% of those who reported sexual abuse and 13.5% for emotional abuse. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of pregnant women attending routine antenatal care report a history of abuse. About one in ten of them experiences severe current suffering from the reported abuse. In particular, these women might benefit from being identified in the antenatal care setting and being offered specialized care.

  14. Increased neopterin level and chitotriosidase activity in pregnant women with threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, U?ur; Ulubay, Mustafa; Kurt, Yasemin Gülcan; Fidan, Ula?; Koçyi?it, Yahya Kemal; Honca, Tevfik; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Ergün, Ali

    2014-07-28

    Abstract Objectives: To determine whether the cellular inflammatory markers of activated macrophages, neopterin (NEO), chitotriosidase activity and the acute-phase inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated in pregnancy with threatened preterm labor (TPL). Methods: Thirty-two pregnant women with TPL and 32 women with uncomplicated pregnancy (UP) were included this study. The primary aim was to compare the NEO, chitotriosidase activity and CRP levels between women with TPL and women with UP. Results: NEO levels were all significantly elevated in patients with TPL compared to UP (median 25-75%; 9.61 [8.47-12.29] versus 4.46 [3.59-6.92], respectively; p?TPL compared to UP (median 25-75%; 59.00 [38.00-87.25] versus 43.50 [23.25-65.25], respectively; p?=?0.036). However, CRP levels were not different in women with TPL compared to UP (p?=?0.573). Furthermore, a significant moderate negative correlation was found between delivery week and NEO level (r?=?-0.557, p?=?0.001). However, a significant correlation was not seen between delivery week and chitotriosidase activity (r?=?-0.042, p?=?0.741). Conclusions: Inflammatory markers such as NEO and chitotriosidase activity, which are markers of macrophages, are more elevated in pregnant women with TPL than in women with UP. These data suggest that there are striking increases in inflammation and cellular immune activation in TPL. PMID:25005858

  15. The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FN, Dube; ZZ, Nkosi.

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-nata [...] l clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy. Self-administered questionnaires with close-ended questions were used in the collection of data. The questions included the women's demographic details, their views of HIV testing, knowledge and as well as their acceptability of HIV testing. Forty questionnaires were distributed and they were all returned. A quantitative method was used to analyse the data. The findings of the study revealed that 45 % of the women in the sample were relatively young ( 18-25 years) and most of them (90%) were unmarried .The majority of women (92.5%) said testing was a good idea and 85% said it was necessary. However only 52.5% said they would opt for HIV testing. The uptake of HIV testing was found to be low. Eighty-seven and a half percent (87.5%) of the women in the sample were of the opinion that HIV testing in pregnancy was of benefit to the mother and her baby. Women in the study were generally found to have a good understanding and good perceptions towards HIV testing in pregnancy, but this was not consistent with their behaviour.

  16. Living conditions, contraceptive use and the choice of induced abortion among pregnant women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Wielandt, Hanne

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study describes women with induced abortion and thereby elucidates how living conditions and contraceptive failure are associated with the choice of induced abortion in a population of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: The study population consisted of pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital. They were categorized in two groups: women with induced abortion (n = 373) and a reference group consisting of women with spontaneous abortion and antenatal care attendees (n = 2,176). The two groups were compared by use of a case-referent design. The variables studied comprise age, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economical situation, and contraceptive use. RESULTS: Being single, aged 15-24 or 35 and above, having either no children or two or more children, and the experience of contraceptive failure were parameters which were associated with the choice of induced abortion. Among married/cohabiting women aged 20-39 with fewer than two children, being under education,unemployed, on leave, or willing to invest effort in obtaining a more satisfying job influenced the choice of induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the number of induced abortions, it should be recognized that many women both want to establish a family with the number of children they wish for and to have a satisfying job with influence and challenge.

  17. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  18. Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lindsay, K L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

  19. Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lindsay, K.L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

  20. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaLara-Carrasco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodelling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from 7 months to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated and later analyzed following four dream categories: 1 Dreamed MMR, 2 Quality of baby/child representations, 3 Pregnancy-related themes, 4 Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p?0.006. Baby/child representations were less specific in late 3rd than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.005 and than in non-pregnant women (p=0.01. Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p?.01. Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.01. Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p<.05. Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodelling MMR of the woman as a mother and of the unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content.

  1. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy

  2. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:25231606

  3. "KETONURIA AND SERUM GLUCOSE OF FASTING PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE END OF A DAY IN RAMADAN"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arab

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Moslem pregnant women are inclined to fast during the month of Ramadan. Ketonuria and hypoglycemia are harmful in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to find out whether clinical symptoms and/ or calorie deficiency of fasting pregnant women before Eftar (ending of the daily fast can accurately predict ketonuria and hypoglycemia. In a descriptive study, 185 volunteer fasting pregnant women in Ramadan of 1999 were tested just before Eftar taking into account their clinical symptoms, intake of the previous 24 hours and testing their ketonuria and serum glucose. The positive predictive values of clinical symptoms before breaking the fast for ketonuria and hypoglycemia were 32% and 56%, respectively. The negative predictive values of clinical symptoms for ketonuria and hypoglycemia were 70% and 33%. The positive predictive values of over 500 Kcal deficiency in ketonuria and hypoglycemia were 33% and 57%. Severe calorie deficiency (more than 2000 Kcal positively predicts ketonuria in 70% of cases and sufficient calorie intake (less than 500 Kcal deficiency negatively predicts ketonuria in 93% of women. Clinical symptoms and calorie intake were not appropriate criteria for predicting ketonuria and hypoglycemia except in asymptomatic or severely calorie deficient cases or those with sufficient calorie intake whose ketonuria was predicted accurately.

  4. Non-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction in pregnant Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Emami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infection. In 75% of women and 50% of men infection is asymptomatic. According to World Health Organization reports, the number of new genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis reaches 100 million annually. The sensitivity and specificity of nacid amplification tests are 95% and 99%, respectively. Urine samples can provide a non-invasive method of testing for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women referred to a teaching hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Urine samples were obtained from 210 pregnant women and investigated microscopically and macroscopically by urinalysis. Precipitants were also used for DNA extraction and PCR test for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. Among 210 urine specimens from women aged 15-39 years, none were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR. In spite of the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR, and the elimination of inhibitory effects on PCR test, no pregnant woman was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. Here, we suggest that a larger sample should be studied and other sensitive methods could also be used in the future.

  5. Interference factors in digoxin analysis, especially in the serum of pregnant women, by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of false digoxin concentrations measured in pregnant women by RIA were gone into; 103 sera of healthy women in their last trimester of pregnancy were analyzed by 4 different RIA methods. In 6 cases, falsepositive digoxin levels above 1.0 ng/ml were found; 4 of the measured digoxin levels were above 2.0 ng/ml, i.e. a clinically toxic concentration. No pseudodigoxin was detected post partum; however, the author was only able to make control measurements of 2 of the 3 positive sera between the 6th and 12th week post partum. The causes of this phenomenon remain unclear. It cannot be excluded that these pregnant women may have a still unknown hormone metabolite, resulting from a possible enzymatic defect, which cross-reacts with the digoxin antiserum and thus causes false-positive results. In those rare cases where pregnant women receive digitalis treatment, digoxin serum measurements by RIA must be analyzed very critically due to the possibility of false-positive results. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  7. Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Neeru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP, especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW, and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC or delivery units (DU, or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12?months in high (Bastar and low (Rajnandgaon transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696 among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025. Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8% than in Rajnandgaon (0.1% (p? Conclusions Given the overall low prevalence of malaria, a strategy of enhanced anti-vector measures coupled with intermittent screening and targeted treatment during pregnancy should be considered for preventing malaria-associated morbidity in central India.

  8. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome. DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective study, Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-six consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Twenty-five healthy pregnant controls. METHODS: At 8, 14, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, the diabetic women self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) (8/day) for 3 days and had blood samplings obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (T4), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), anti-TPO, pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Anti-TPO was detected in 31 (32%) of the pregnant diabetic women compared with two women (8%) in the healthy controls (p=0.015). The presence of anti-TPO was associated with higher TSH at 8 (p2.5 mIU/l), most prevalently among anti-TPO positive women. Sixteen women (17%) were treated for thyroid disorder during pregnancy. No differences were detected between the diabetic women with and without anti-TPO regarding HbA1C, insulin dose, median SMPG or pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TPO was present in one-third of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and associated with slightly higher TSH, but not poorer glycemic control or adverse birth outcome. A total of 17% of women with type 1 diabetes were treated for thyroid disorder during pregnancy Udgivelsesdato: 2008

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angelica E., Miranda; Valdir M., Pinto; Charlotte A., Gaydos.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15–24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. v [...] aginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7–10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs OR = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.63–13.56, p = 0.004)] and not attending antenatal care OR = 5.15 (95% CI: 1.15–23.25, p = 0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil.

  10. What models of maternity care do pregnant women in Ireland want?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, C

    2012-02-01

    The introduction of new models of care in the Irish maternity services has been recommended by both advocacy groups and strategic reports. Yet there is a dearth of information about what models of care pregnant women want. We surveyed women in early pregnancy who were attending a large Dublin maternity hospital. Demographic and clinical details were recorded from the hospital chart. Of the 501 women, 351 (70%) (352 (70.3%) of women wanted shared antenatal care between their family doctor and either a hospital doctor or midwife. 228 (45.5%) preferred to have their baby delivered in a doctor-led unit, while 215 (42.9%) preferred a midwifery-led unit. Of those 215 (42.9%), 118 (55%) met criteria for suitability. There was minimal demand (1.6%) for home births. Choice was influenced by whether the woman was attending for private care or not. Safety is the most important factor for women when choosing the type of maternity care they want. Pregnant women want a wide range of choices when it comes to models of maternity care. Their choice is strongly influenced by safety considerations, and will be determined in part by risk assessment.

  11. Homocysteine in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR: a comparison with normotensive pregnant women with isolated IUGR and healthy pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Laskowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze homocysteine levels in maternal serum in women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and/or IUGR. Patients and methods: The study was carried out on 49 pregnant patients with normotensive pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction (group IUGR, 31 patients with preeclampsia complicated by IUGR (group PRE-IUGR, and 35 preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight fetuses (group PRE. The control group consisted of 47 healthy normotensive pregnant patients with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies and with proper intrauterine fetal growth. Results: We revealed higher levels of maternal serum homocysteine in the group of pregnant patients with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction in comparison with the control subjects. The concentrations of homocysteine were also higher in both groups of patients with pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR. The highest levels of homocysteine were observed in preeclamptic women with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetal growth. The mean values were 9.004 +/– 2.820 umol/L in the IUGR group, 10.815 +/– 3.785 umol/ L in the group PRE, 9.808 +/– 2.543 umol/L in the group PRE-IUGR and 7.639 +/– 2.728 umol/L in the control group. Conclusions: Increased levels of homocysteine are involved in pathogenesis IUGR and preeclampsia and may contribute to endothelial cells activation or dysfunction observed in these pregnancy disorders. Further studies are needed to explain these aspects in order to improve the management and therapeutic strategies for pregnancies complicated by IUGR and/or preeclampsia.

  12. Iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women : a Danish regional investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences and a mandatory iodine fortification of salt was introduced in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigated intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding women after introduction of iodine fortification in a region of Denmark with previously moderate iodine deficiency. Additionally, thesis addressed mechanisms of iodiden transport to the fetus across the placenta and methodological challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in prengnant and breastfeeding women.

  13. Superficial Mycoses In Pregnant Women Consulting At University Hospital Center Of Yaounde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petmy Lohoue J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women may contaminate new borns and babies with vaginal candidiasis and ringworms, thus the choice of this group for our study. Cases were recruited at the UHC Yaounde from June 2001 to September 2002. Four hundred and thirty (29.3% out of 1467 examined presented at least one mycosis. The principal lesions were vaginal thrush 44% and athlete�s foot 22%. The causal fungi were essentially yeasts with the predominance of candida albicans (72% and for the dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum (71.84%. The other species were Candida tropicalis, Candida Krusei, Candida parapsilosis, candida glabrata, Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon sp., Trichophyton soundanense, Trichophyton interdigitale, Thrichophyton mentagrophytes and scytalidium dimidiatum. Because these infections affect up to 30% of pregnant women, they should be taken into consideration during prenatal care.

  14. The Condition of Thyroid and Fetoplacental Systems in Pregnant Women with Clinically Euthyroid Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Petrova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study a condition of thyroid and fetoplacental systems at pregnant women with clinically euthyroid goiter. Materials and methods: 116 pregnant women have been included in the basic group with clinically euthyroid goiter. The control group was made by 60 pregnant women with physiologically proceeding pregnancy, not having anamnestic and the clinical data on diseases of the thyroid. Inspection included: definition of concentration thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (fT4 by a radio-immunologic method, sets “RIA-gnost” (France and the maintenance of antibodies to thyroid peroxydase (anti-TPO by a method hard phase immune-enzyme analysis; ultrasonic assessment of a thyroid with the help of device SONOACE 8800 “GAIA MT”; ultrasonic fetometry, placentography, measurement of amniotic fluid volume, doppler ultrasound examination of the blood flow, an estimation of a functional condition of a fetus on parameters of its biophysical profile (BP and cardiotocography (CTG, carried out on device “Oxford Sonicaid Team S8000”. Results: At studying hormonal function thyroid systems at 25 pregnant (21.6% with euthyroid goiter in the third trimester of pregnancy a level fT4 norms were lower and had values from 4.5 up to 6.9 ng/ml, therefore an average level fT4 at pregnant women of the basic group was authentically lower, than in control (8.26 ± 0.30 and 10.71 ± 0.52 ng/ml, accordingly. At the retrospective analysis it is established, that only at 5 of 116 (4.3% pregnant women with a goiter were not complications pregnancy, at the others — 111 (95.7% took place a combination various obstetric complications: an anemia — at 72 (62.0%, threat noncarrying of pregnancy — at 75 (64.6 %, an early toxicosis — at 45 (38.6%, a gestosis — at 47 (40.5% which frequency authentically is higher, than in control group: 20.0%, 25.0%, 16.6%. 20.0%, accordingly, ? < 0.05. Average Estimation CTG at patients of the basic group is authentically lower, than in control (7.2 ± 0.1; 7.9 ± 0.07 points accordingly, ? < 0.05. The expressed infringement of biophysical activity of a fetus in the basic group proved to be true lower average estimation BP (8.3 ± 0.12 a point, than in control group (9.8 ± 0.13 a point. With a goiter the arrest of development of an intra-uterine fetus is diagnosed for pregnant women — at 19 (16.4%, infringement placentation — at 14 (12.1%, hypamnions - at 27 (23.3%, that is authentically more often, than in control group (9.5%; 3.3%; 3.3%, accordingly, ? < 0.05. Conclusion: Thus, at pregnant women with euthyroid goiter decrease in thyroid function in second half of the pregnancy, resulting to development of hypothyroxinemia in 21,6 % of supervision is marked. Pregnancy at patients with euthyroid goiter frequently has the complicated character. At women with euthyroid goiter of change in fetoplacental system meet more often and in a significant greater measure that demands their duly revealing and correction.

  15. Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women living in an area of stable malaria transmission such as Lagos, Nigeria, have been identified as being at an increased risk of the effects of malaria infection. In this area, most of the infections are asymptomatic which means they are overlooked and untreated much to the detriment of the mother and her foetus. The reality of scaled-up malaria interventions with long-lasting insecticide treated nets, vector control, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is that it is also essential to determine the risk factors at play in these kinds of circumstances. This study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with risk of malaria infection in pregnant women in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Methods Demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women studied were captured using structured questionnaire. Microscopy was used to establish malaria infection, species identification and parasite density. Relative risk and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare factors associated with malaria in pregnant women. Results Malaria microscopy details, demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of malaria using peripheral blood from 1,084 pregnant women that participated in the study was 7.7%. Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) was seen in 95.2% of the cases as either mixed infection with P. malariae (3.6%) or as a mono infection (91.6%). Malaria preventive practices associated with a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the malaria infection was the use of insecticide sprays (RR = 0.36, 95 C.I. 0.24-0.54), and the combined use of insecticide spray and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) (RR= 6.53, 95% C.I. 0.92-46.33). Sleeping under ITN alone (RR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 0.55-2.09) was not associated with significant reduction in malaria infection among the study participants with malaria parasitaemia. Young maternal age (<20years) (RR = 2.86, 95% C.I. 1.48 – 5.50), but not primigravidity (RR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 0.90-2.05), was associated with an increased risk of malaria infection during pregnancy. After a multivariate logistic regression, young maternal age (OR = 2.61, 95% C.I. 1.13 – 6.03) and the use of insecticide spray (OR = 0.38, 95% C.I. 0.24-0.63) were associated with an increase and a reduction in malaria infection, respectively. Conclusion Malaria prevalence was low among the pregnant women studied. Young maternal age and non-usage of insecticidal spray were the main factors associated with an increased risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. PMID:24001135

  16. Vaginal Misoprostol for Cervical Priming before Gynaecological Procedures on Non Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shyama Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Nabendu; Baru, Gangotri

    2007-01-01

    Background Misoprostol has been extensively researched for its use in obstetrics and has proved to be a very effective cervical softening agent before termination of pregnancy. The beneficial effects on cervical ripening may make misoprostol a desirable agent for helping cervical dilatation on non pregnant women also. The objective is to study the efficacy of preoperative vaginal application of misoprostol as cervical priming agent before gynaecological procedures on non pregnant women. Methods Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting: Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of two medical colleges. Participants: 468 non pregnant pre-menopausal nulli-parous or parous women scheduled to have diagnostic D&C or diagnostic hysteroscopy operations. Interventions: 400 mcg intravaginal misoprostol (229 women) in the study group and 400 mg intravaginal metronidazole as placebo (231 women) in control group. Outcome Measure: The main outcome measures were baseline cervical width at the beginning of the procedures, the number of women who required further cervical dilatation, time taken for dilatation, side effects and other complications. Results : Base line cervical width in the study group was significantly higher than control group (4.6±0.8 mm vs. 3.8±0.7 mm, p < 0.0001). 141 (61.57%) cases required further cervical dilatation in the study group compared to 206 (89.18%) in the control group (p < 0.0001). Time taken for further cervical dilatation was significantly lower in the study group compared to control group (48.3±18.4 sec vs. 68.6±17.3 sec, p < 0.0001). Cervical injury and uterine perforation occurred in 12 and 3 women respectively in the control group compared to 1 and 0 women respectively in the misoprostol group. Two most common side effects of vaginal misoprostol were mild lower abdominal pain (21%) and slight vaginal bleeding (09.2%) which were within tolerable limit. Conclusion: Preoperative vaginal application of misoprostol before gynaecological procedures on non pregnant women decreases the cervical resistance, facilitates the cervical dilatation and operative procedures minimizing cervical or uterine injuries. PMID:21475427

  17. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...postsecondary or secondary school settings, including area vocational education schools, and community-based...81(c), that serve single parents, displaced homemakers...C. 2335(b)) Sex Equity...

  18. Depressive Symptoms, Substance Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women of Diverse Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Kisha B.; McKenzie, Robetta; Pruitt, Vikki; Aaron, Katrina; Hall, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. D...

  19. Levels and patterns of HIV RNA viral load in untreated pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    BENEDETTO, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess pregnancy levels and patterns of HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, while appropriately adjusting for potential confounders, including maternal immune status and race. Methods Data on ?1 antenatal HIV RNA measurements were available for 333 untreated HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in the European Collaborative Study. CD4 counts and HIV RNA measurements were routinely collected from 1992 and 1998, respectively. Linear mixed effects models base...

  20. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvild E. Graff; Maria W. Markhus; Kjell M. Stormark; Hanne C. Braarud; Seldal, Camilla F.; Lisbeth Dahl; Siv Skotheim; Malde, Marian K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Seafood (fish and shellfish) is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega...

  1. Spinal Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section in Pregnant Women with Fetal Distress: Time for Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Afolayan, J. M.; Olajumoke, T. O.; Esangbedo, S. E.; Edomwonyi, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    Residents’ competency-based training and multidisciplinary cooperation are needed for rapid sequence spinal anaesthesia for fetal distress. Multiple standard but ‘crash’ spinal anaesthesia for non-obstetric procedures is imperative for acquisition of experienced hands. The purpose of this review is to share our modest experiences in the use of rapid spinal anaesthesia for emergency Caesarean delivery in pregnant women complicated with fetal distress. Fetal distress diagnosis is made pro...

  2. The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were measured five times on 0, 7th, 14th and 28th days of Ramadan and on the 14th day post-Ramadan. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5) using repeated measures ANOVA to find whether any changes occurred in the variables of interest during the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relations among the variables. Results: A significant change in fasting blood sugar, neuropeptide Y and leptin was observed during the study (pFasting blood sugar decreased significantly during Ramadan and increased after Ramadan, with the lowest value at the end of Ramadan. Neuropeptide Y increased both during Ramadan and two weeks after Ramadan. Also, leptin decreased significantly two weeks after Ramadan compared to the end of Ramadan. No significant change was observed in insulin level during the study (p>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed the important role of leptin and neuropeptide Y in the long term regulation of energy balance in pregnant women with chronic diurnal fasting, and it further revealed that Ramadan fasting did not significantly change the serum insulin level. PMID:25664293

  3. Economic evaluation of drug abuse treatment and HIV prevention programs in pregnant women: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Lazar, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse and transmission of HIV during pregnancy are major public health problems that adversely affect pregnant women, their children and surrounding communities. Programs that address this vulnerable population have the ability to be cost effective due to resulting cost savings for mother, child and society. Economic evaluations of programs that address these issues are an important tool to better understand the costs of services and create sustainable healthcare systems. This study crit...

  4. Mid-upper arm circumference in pregnant women and its relation to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Ricalde Anamaría E.; Velásquez-Meléndez Gustavo; Tanaka Ana Cristina d'A; Siqueira Arnaldo A.F. de

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to determine the relationship between some maternal anthropometric indicators and birth weight, crown-heel length and newborn's head circumference, 92 pregnant women were followed through at the prenatal service of hospital in S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The following variables were established for the mother: weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and Quetelet's index. For the newborn the following variables w...

  5. Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Martha L.; Montoya, Ivan D.; Jansson, *Lauren M.; Walters, Vickie; Svikis, Dace; Jones, Hendree E.; Chilcoat, Howard; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Their rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 40....

  6. Smoking Cessation Counselling for Pregnant and Postpartum Women among Midwives, Gynaecologists and Paediatricians in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Hannöver; Kathrin Röske; Jochen René Thyrian; Ulrich John; Hans-Joachim Hannich

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of guidelines for the treatment of tobacco smoking into routine care requires positive attitudes, counselling skills and knowledge about additional help available for smokers. The study assesses performance of smoking cessation intervention, attitudes, training status and knowledge about additional help for smokers in the care for pregnant and parenting women by midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians. A survey of all midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians registere...

  7. Rift Valley fever: a sero-epidemiological survey among pregnant women in Mozambique.

    OpenAIRE

    Niklasson, B.; Liljestrand, J.; Bergstro?m, S.; Peters, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) causes abortion in sheep and cattle. However, the teratogenic and abortogenic potential of RVF in humans is not known. Sera from a total of 1163 pregnant women in Mozambique were tested for RVF virus antibodies by ELISA and 28 (2%) were found to be positive. Mothers experiencing fetal death or miscarriage (155) had the same RVF virus antibody prevalence as those with normal deliveries. Analysis of maternity histories showed some indication of increased fetal wastage am...

  8. Prevalência do uso de drogas de abuso por gestantes / Prevalence of drug abuse among pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielle Satie, Kassada; Sonia Silva, Marcon; Maria Angélica, Pagliarini; Robson Marcelo, Rossi.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência do uso de drogas de abuso por gestantes. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que incluiu 394 gestantes usuárias de serviço de atenção primária. A variável dependente foi o uso de drogas de abuso durante a gestação e as variáveis independentes foram: socioeconômicas e obstét [...] ricas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas entre gestantes foi de 18,28%. A regressão logística multivariada indicou como variáveis significativas: anos de estudo, participação em grupo de gestante e orientação de profissional de saúde quanto ao risco de usar drogas de abuso durante a gestação. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam a predominância de gestantes jovens, pardas, com baixa escolaridade e renda de até três salários mínimos e que faz uso de drogas de abuso, sendo que a mais utilizada o cigarro, seguido do álcool. As drogas ilícitas utilizadas foram a cocaína e seu derivado o crack e a maconha. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of drug abuse among pregnant women. METHOD: Cross-sectional study including 394 pregnant women who use the primary health care service. The dependent variable was the use of drugs during pregnancy and independent variables were: socioeconomic and obstetrics-relate [...] d data. RESULTS: The prevalence of drug abuse among pregnant women was 18.28%. Multivariate logistic regression indicates the following significant variables: years of education, participation in a pregnancy group and healthcare professional orientation as to the risk of using drugs during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the predominance of young mixed-race pregnant women, with low educational level, income of up to three minimum wages and who use drugs, the most common being cigarettes, followed by alcohol. Illegal drugs used were cocaine and its derivate, crack, as well as marihuana.

  9. Chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and their infants in Shenyang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Yang; Sheng Qiuju; Ma Li; Dou Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main transmission route of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mother to child transmission and contributes significantly to chronic HBV infection. Even though immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine is administrated to neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, about 10% of the neonates suffer from HBV infection in their early life. Objectives To survey chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and the...

  10. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Central Adiposity with Pregnancy Complications in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani; Esmat Mehrabi; Mahin Kamalifard; ParisaYavarikia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing throughout the world. Obesity assessed by body mass index (BMI) has shown to be associated with gestational complications while the relationship using waist circumference (WC) is not clear yet. The present study was aimed to determine the relationship be-tween WC and adverse pregnancy complications.Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 1140 nulliparous pregnant women at 1st trimester of pregnancy referred to health care centers in Tabri...

  11. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during on...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula B. de, Borborema-Alfaia; Norma Suely de Lima, Freitas; Spartaco, Astolfi Filho; Cristina Maria, Borborema-Santos.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this [...] infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319). A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998). Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

  13. Cortisol and Anxiety Response to a Relaxing Intervention on Pregnant Women Awaiting Amniocentesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, T; Gomes, MC; Carreira, T

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stress and anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with premature and low birth weight babies, presumably through fetus over exposion to glucocorticoids. Antenatal stress also seems to have long-term effects upon infant development and adult health. However, medication for stress may carry risks to the expectant mother, therefore the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions should be investigated. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 154) awaiting amniocentesis, were ra...

  14. Tap water use amongst pregnant women in a multi-ethnic cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Raynor Pauline; Wright John; Toledano Mireille B; Smith Rachel B; Nieuwenhuijsen Mark J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of disinfection by-products in drinking water and measures of adverse fetal growth have often been limited by exposure assessment lacking data on individual water use, and therefore failing to reflect individual variation in DBP exposure. Methods Pregnant women recruited to the Born in Bradford cohort study completed a questionnaire which covers water exposure. Information was collected on water consumption, showering, bathing and swimming. Water exposure data from...

  15. The ethics of anonymised HIV testing of pregnant women: a reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    de Zulueta, P.

    2000-01-01

    Seroprevalence monitoring of HIV in pregnant women by anonymised unlinked testing has been widely adopted in the UK and other countries. The scientific rationale is to eliminate participation and selection bias. The ethical justification is that the public good outweighs any harm to individuals. The assumption has been that individuals have had their autonomy respected by the offer of informed consent. In the light of new scientific evidence, it is doubtful that the public good is best served...

  16. A Comparison of Physical Activity and Nutritional Practices in Hypertensive and Non- hypertensive Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Sehati Shafayi; Maryam Akef; Homayoon Sadegi; Akram sallakh Niknazhad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension is the most common medical problem affecting pregnant women during pregnancy contributing to one third of substantial maternal mortality and varieties of fetal and neonatal health problems, while representing health status of a society. This study aimed to investigate the links between a healthy life style and developing hypertension during pregnancy in order to improve healthier behaviors.Methods: In a case-control study from October 2009 to April 2010, physical ac...

  17. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; RICH-EDWARDS, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stresso...

  18. Diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women, neonates and immunocompromised patients

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Eskild

    2005-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii poses unique diagnostic problems like long-term persistence of specific IgM-antibodies, which makes it difficult to use the presence of Toxoplasma-specific IgM-antibodies alone as a sign of acute infection. The importance of determining the time of infection in pregnant women is also a unique diagnostic challenge in Toxoplasma diagnostics. The first paper in this thesis compares the performance of different enzyme immuno assays, immunofluores...

  19. Recommended cessation counselling for pregnant women who smoke: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin,C; Dolan-Mullen, P.; Windsor, R.; Whiteside, H; Goldenberg, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To review the evidence base underlying recommended cessation counselling for pregnant women who smoke, as it applies to the steps identified in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's publication, Treating tobacco use and dependence: a clinical practice guideline.?DATA SOURCES—Secondary analysis of literature reviews and meta-analyses.?DATA SYNTHESIS—A brief cessation counselling session of 5-15 minutes, when delivered by a trained provider with the provision of p...

  20. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  1. The necessity of HIV testing in Iranian pregnant women and its ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Azizi; Pooneh Salari

    2009-01-01

    A high number of HIV positive babies are born each year, whereas by highly effectivepreventive measures, the risk of mother-to-child transmission can be decreasedsignificantly. There are different methods (for example mandatory versus voluntary) forHIV screening in pregnant women, but there are debates on conducting HIV testing bythese methods. One of the most important issues in this field is its ethical considerations.Also its limitations cannot be ignored. According to these facts several ...

  2. Violência doméstica na gravidez / Domestic violence against pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Massumi, Okada; Luiza Akiko Komura, Hoga; Ana Luiza Vilela, Borges; Rosemeire Sartori de, Albuquerque; Maria Aparecida, Belli.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Caracterizar violência doméstica na gravidez. Métodos: Estudo transversal, exploratório e analítico da violência doméstica com 385 mulheres atendidas em maternidade pública. Testes de Qui-Quadrado de Pearson e Exato de Fisher foram utilizados para verificar associações e considerado [...] s significantes resultados p Abstract in english Abstract Objective: To characterize domestic violence in pregnancy. Method: Cross-sectional, exploratory and analytical study of domestic violence with 385 women who attended a public maternity. The Chi-square test of Pearson and Fisher exact test were used to verify associations and considering sig [...] nificant results p

  3. Posttest counseling and social support from health staff caring for HIV-infected pregnant women in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanh, Nguyen Thi Thúy; Rasch, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Women with HIV who want to have children face a range of challenges, quandaries, and hard decisions. This article examines the role of health staff in supporting HIV-infected pregnant women who desire to maintain their pregnancies. The article is derived from anthropological research conducted in Vietnam's Quang Ninh Province, an area that has a high HIV prevalence rate and is covered under the government's prevention of mother-to-child transmission program. The study included in-depth interviews with 23 HIV-infected women who had either recently given birth or were pregnant at the time of the research. Results showed that women were satisfied with the services they received from the program. The women believed that health care staff offered them not only medical care but also social and emotional support. The article concludes that the health care system is a vital point of support for pregnant women with HIV.

  4. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  5. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde; Richard Omoregie; Ikponmwosa Odia; Oladapo Babatunde Oladeinde

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence.Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration

  6. Free bednets to pregnant women through antenatal clinics in Kenya: a cheap, simple and equitable approach to delivery.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyatt, HL; Gotink, MH; Ochola, SA; Snow, RW

    2002-01-01

    Kenya's National Malaria Strategy states that insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) would be considered as a free service to pregnant women assuming sufficient financial commitment from donors. In 2001, United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Government of Kenya brokered support to procure and distribute nets and K-O TABs (deltamethrin) to 70 000 pregnant women in 35 districts throughout Kenya around Africa Malaria Day. This intervention represented the single largest operational distribut...

  7. Intakes of Iron and Folate and Hematologic Indices According to the Type of Supplements in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eunah; Lee, Hee-chul; Han, Jung-youl; Choi, June-seek; Hyun, Taisun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-01-01

    Adequate amounts of nutrients during pregnancy are essential for maternal, fetal and child health. This study was conducted to investigate the intakes of iron and folate and the effect of supplements on anemia status during pregnancy. One hundred sixty five pregnant women completed questionnaires which included food frequencies and supplement use, and blood tests for hematologic indices. Pregnant women were divided into four groups based on the type of supplements; single nutrient group (S), ...

  8. Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Manyando Christine; Mkandawire Rhoda; Puma Lwipa; Sinkala Moses; Mpabalwani Evans; Njunju Eric; Gomes Melba; Ribeiro Isabela; Walter Verena; Virtanen Mailis; Schlienger Raymond; Cousin Marc; Chipimo Miriam; Sullivan Frank M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific para...

  9. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in non-vaccinated, pregnant women in Spain (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; González-Candelas, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Castro, Ady; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan Carlos; Garin, Olatz; Soldevila, Núria; Baricot, Maretva; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martín, Vicente; Mayoral, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Quintana, José Maria; Tamames, Sonia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the main characteristics of non-vaccinated pregnant women who were hospitalised for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic versus pregnant women hospitalised for non-influenza-related reasons in Spain, and to characterise the clinical presentation of the disease in this population to facilitate early diagnosis and future action programmes. Understanding influenza infection during pregnancy is important as pregnant women are a high-risk population for increased morbidity from influenza infection. We investigated the socio-demographic and clinical features of 51 non-vaccinated, pregnant women infected with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Spain (cases) and compared them to 114 controls (non-vaccinated and non-infected pregnant women) aged 15-44 years. Substantial and significant odd ratios (ORs) for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were found for the pregnant women who were obese compared with controls (body mass index > 30) (OR 3.03; 95% confidence intervals 1.13-8.11). The more prevalent symptoms observed in pandemic influenza-infected pregnant women were high temperature, cough (82.4%), malaise (80.5%), myalgia (56.1%), and headaches (54.9%). Our results suggest that the initial symptoms and risk factors for infection of pregnant women with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus are similar to the symptoms and risk factors for seasonal influenza, which make early diagnosis difficult, and reinforces the need to identify and protect high-risk groups. PMID:24162551

  10. Comparisons in Perceived Importance of and Needs for Maternal Gestational Weight Information Between African American and Caucasian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shieh, Carol; Weaver, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the perceived importance of and needs for maternal gestational weight information between African American and Caucasian pregnant women. A secondary analysis of data from 113 pregnant women (82 African Americans and 31 Caucasians) attending an inner-city prenatal clinic was conducted for this study. Perceived importance of and needs for information were measured in five areas: (1) nutrition, (2) prenatal vitamins, (3) rest/activity balance, (4) exercise, and (5) appropriat...

  11. Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mwambe, Berno; Mshana, Stephen E; Kidenya , Benson R.; Massinde, Anthony N.; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Michael, Denna; MAJINGE, Charles; Groß, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Serological screening of pregnant women for Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies is not practiced as an antenatal care in Tanzania; and there is a limited data about sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection in developing countries. We therefore conducted this study to determine the sero-prevalence and factors associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods Between 1st November 2012 and 31st May 2013 a to...

  12. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this technology in busy inpatient settings. PMID:25622043

  13. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  14. Dental pain and associated factors among pregnant women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Marta S M; Lang, Celina A; Almeida, Luiza H S; Bello-Corrêa, Fernanda O; Romano, Ana R; Pappen, Fernanda G

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic factors and oral health conditions among 315 pregnant women in South Brazil. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data, such as age, educational level, employment status, family income, and marital and parity status. Medical and dental histories were also collected, including the occurrence of dental pain and the use of dental services during pregnancy. Clinical examinations were performed to assess the presence of visible plaque and gingival bleeding and to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Means and standard deviations of continuous variables and frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Independent variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 173 (54.9 %) pregnant women reported dental pain during pregnancy. After adjustment of the analysis, caries activity remained the main determinant of dental pain (odds ratio 3.33, 95 % CI 1.67-6.65). The prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy was high and the presence of caries activity was a determinant of dental pain. Moreover, access to oral health care was low, despite pregnant women's increased need for dental assistance. PMID:24894731

  15. Evaluation of Group B Streptococci Colonization Rate in Pregnant Women and Their Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Kharazmi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is one of the most important bacteria in the majority of maternal and neonatal infections, such as chorioamnionitis, endometritis, bacteremia, sepsis and meningitis. During pregnancy, GBS screening is one of the recommended strategies that are recommended by center of disease control (CDC. This study was aimed to determine the rectovaginal colonization prevalence among pregnant women, and also the rate of transmission to their offspring. Between June 2008 and April 2009, two hundred pregnant women admitted in department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran were enrolled in present study. Samples from maternal rectum and vagina as well as neonate ear and umbilical cord were taken for culture. The colonization rate for GBS in pregnant women and their neonates was around 6% and 5% respectively. All the carrier mothers were cases with premature rupture of membranes (at least 18 hours before delivery. In terms of colonization, there was a significant correlation between mothers and newborns, and more than 80% of neonates from GBS carrier mothers were colonized by GBS

  16. Bacterial urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Sana'a City Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered to be the most common bacterial infection during pregnancy. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of UTI among pregnant women, to identify the risk factors associated with UTI, to isolate and identify bacteria that are responsible for UTI and to determine the activity of some antibiotics against isolated bacteria. A total of 400 midstream urine specimens were collected from pregnant women (PW) and non-pregnant women (NPW). Identification and antibiotic sensitivity tests were made for the isolated bacteria. The prevalence rates of UTI in PW and NPW were 24.3% and 18.0% respectively. The association between pregnancy and UTI was not statistically significant (P=0.19). The higher prevalence rate of UTI was found in the age group 21-25 years old. However, there was no statistical significant association between age and UTI. The second trimester and third trimester were associated with higher prevalence of UTI (38.3%) and (37.0%), respectively but it was not statistically significant. High frequency of urination and lower abdominal pain were the most common symptoms. There was no statistical association between UTI and contraceptive use. The most common isolates were S. aureus and E.Coli, while the most effective antibiotics for most bacterial isolates were ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norofloxacin. (author)

  17. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of urethral anatomy in continent nulliparous pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: To quantify the distribution of morphologic appearances of urethral anatomy and measure variables of urethral sphincter anatomy in continent, nulliparous, pregnant women by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We studied fifteen women during their first pregnancy. We defined and quantified bladder neck and urethral morphology on axial and sagittal MR images from healthy, continent women. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) total transverse urethral diameter, anterior–posterior diameter, unilateral striated sphincter muscle thickness, and striated sphincter length were 15 ± 2 mm (range: 12–19 mm), 15 ± 2 mm (range: 11–20 mm), 2 ± 1 mm (range: 1–4 mm), and 13 ± 3 mm (range: 9–18 mm) respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) total urethral length on sagittal scans was 22 ± 3 mm (range: 17.6–26.4 mm). Discussion: Advances in MR technique combined with anatomical and histological findings will provide an insight to understand how changes in urethral anatomy might affect the continence mechanisms in pregnant and non-pregnant, continent or incontinent individuals.

  18. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard MØrck

    Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a descriptive analysis methodology. Results: Motivational interviewing is an excellent technique in the operation of daily clinics in obstetrics when communicating with obese pregnant women or pregnant women in general. The technique makes the healthcare professionals more aware of their own communication style. Time must be dedicated to the technique, but it enables the healthcare professionals to become more professional and assists them in handling difficult workloads. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals experienced motivational interviewing to be a useful tool when working in obstetrics. Awareness regarding their communication with the patients is increased and their ability to handle difficult workloads. is improved. Lack of time (- or personel?) seems to be a restriction in using the motivational technique

  19. The necessity of HIV testing in Iranian pregnant women and its ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Pooneh; Azizi, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    A high number of HIV positive babies are born each year, whereas by highly effective preventive measures, the risk of mother-to-child transmission can be decreased significantly. There are different methods (for example mandatory versus voluntary) for HIV screening in pregnant women, but there are debates on conducting HIV testing by these methods. One of the most important issues in this field is its ethical considerations. Also its limitations cannot be ignored. According to these facts several keywords were searched by search engines such as Web of Sciences, Medline, Google scholar, WHO website. The most relevant and recent articles were chosen. Concerning the importance of vertical transmission of HIV, the role of preventive measures, ethical considerations, and the limitations of HIV screening, we recommend HIV testing offer to every pregnant women at the first clinic visit by providing enough information for patient and considering her autonomy. Also policy makers should provide a guideline for this test according to the pregnant women's autonomy, confidentiality, and dignity. PMID:23908715

  20. The necessity of HIV testing in Iranian pregnant women and its ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Azizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A high number of HIV positive babies are born each year, whereas by highly effectivepreventive measures, the risk of mother-to-child transmission can be decreasedsignificantly. There are different methods (for example mandatory versus voluntary forHIV screening in pregnant women, but there are debates on conducting HIV testing bythese methods. One of the most important issues in this field is its ethical considerations.Also its limitations cannot be ignored. According to these facts several keywords weresearched by search engines such as Web of Sciences, Medline, Google scholar, WHOwebsite. The most relevant and recent articles were chosen.Concerning the importance of vertical transmission of HIV, the role of preventivemeasures, ethical considerations, and the limitations of HIV screening, we recommendHIV testing offer to every pregnant women at the first clinic visit by providing enoughinformation for patient and considering her autonomy. Also policy makers should providea guideline for this test according to the pregnant women's autonomy, confidentiality, anddignity.www.tums.ac.ir

  1. Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruk; Mahmuda, Ismat; Sattar, Abeda; Akhtaruzzaman, Md

    2003-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among pregnant women in a poor urban population of Bangladesh. It also examined the association of various socio-economic and dietary factors with anaemia and vitamin A status. A maternal and child health clinic in Dhaka city, Bangladesh was used to obtain the sample. Three hundred and eighty three pregnant women, aged 20-30 years, of 20-30 weeks gestation were randomly selected from women on their first presentation for antenatal care. Socio-economic, pregnancy related information, usual dietary pattern and anthropometric data were collected. Blood haemoglobin and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentrations were determined. About 40% of the pregnant women were anaemic (haemoglobin sweet pumpkin (52%) at all; while about 25% of the women reported consuming dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and 64% reported an intake of fruit at least four servings a week. The pregnant women who were either illiterate or received only informal education (up to grade ten) had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who completed at least a secondary school certificate. The women whose husbands were illiterate or received only informal education had significantly (P= 0.01) lower serum vitamin A levels than those whose husbands had received at least a secondary school certificate. The women who came from families with a per-capita income below the poverty line had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who came from families with a per-capita income above the poverty line. The women who consumed three servings or less of DGLV and fruit per week had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels than those who consumed four or more servings a week. The women who never consumed large fish had significantly lower haemoglobin compared to those who reported at least one serving a week. Furthermore, the women who never consumed sweet pumpkin had significantly lower serum vitamin A than the women who ate at least one serving a week. By multiple regression analysis, intake of meat, DGLV and fruit, and serum vitamin A levels were found to have a significant independent relationship with haemoglobin. The overall F-ratio (9.9) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.086 (multiple R=0.309). Multiple regression analysis for serum vitamin A also revealed a significant independent relationship with per capita income, haemoglobin levels, intakes of DGLV and sweet pumpkin. The overall F-ratio (10.2) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.10 (multiple R=0.312). In conclusion, anaemia and vitamin A deficiency were highly prevalent among poor urban pregnant women in Bangladesh. Various socio-economic and dietary factors may influence the anaemia and vitamin A status of these women. The present study emphasizes the need for a comprehensive intervention strategy, which include both nutritional and environmental factors, to improve the nutritional status of this population. PMID:14672871

  2. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean?±?SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p?PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p?PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  3. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) in pregnant women with history of recurrent fetal loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ja, Olaniyi; Sa, Olomu; Sa, Finomo

    2011-01-01

    Olaniyi JA, Olomu SA, Finomo SADepartment of Haematology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: The frequency of LA in 50 women with intact pregnancy, age range 26 to 39 years, but with past history of at least 2 lost pregnancies, was determined using coagulation-based assays. Most (68%) of the pregnant women were in the first trimester. Venous blood (4.5 mL) carefully collected from each of the subjects and also the controls (normal relative donors) was put in 0.5 mL of 3.8% ...

  4. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  5. Prevalence of antidepressant use and contacts with psychiatrists and psychologists in pregnant and postpartum women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, T; Gasse, C

    2012-01-01

    Munk-Olsen T, Gasse C, Laursen TM. Prevalence of antidepressant use and contacts with psychiatrists and psychologists in pregnant and postpartum women. Objective:? We aimed to study prevalence of antidepressant drug use from 12?months prior childbirth to 12?months postpartum and to compare the prevalences with those in a group of women of similar age who did not give birth. We additionally studied prevalences of contacts with private practicing psychiatrists and psychologists during a similar time period. Method:? Our study population comprised of pregnant women, and their controls were drawn from a 25% sample of the entire Danish population. Information on redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants and referrals to psychiatrists and psychologists was extracted. The outcome measure was period prevalence calculated in 3-month intervals from 12?months before childbirth to 12?months postpartum. Results:? In the 2-year observation period around childbirth, 2733 (3.17%) women had one or more prescriptions for an antidepressant and 935 (1.18%) and 1399 (1.76%) were referred to consultations with a psychiatrist or psychologist, respectively. Women giving birth had a markedly lower use of antidepressants compared to controls, with the largest observed difference during third trimester of pregnancy (0.6% vs. 2.20%). Conclusion:? We found that the prevalence of redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants decreased during pregnancy and increased postpartum. Similar patterns were observed for contacts with private practicing psychiatrists and psychologists.

  6. Antiviral medication use in a cohort of pregnant women during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen, A S; Fell, D B; Sprague, A E; Xie, R; Smith, G; Walker, M C; Wen, S W

    2014-11-19

    Preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) during pregnancy with antiviral medication use (AVMU) can mitigate serious health risks to mother and foetus. We report on AVMU in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada, and describe characteristics of AVMU during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. Rates and risk estimates of AVMU were compared across multiple categories and stratified across ILI infection status. Increased AVMU was observed in women with influenza infections, active smokers, those vaccinated against influenza, and those with pre-existing co-morbidities. Decreased AVMU was observed in women with multiple gestations, and those in neighbourhoods of high immigrant concentrations. Our stratified analysis indicated that the observed patterns differed by ILI infection status. We demonstrated that once infected, women across multiple groups were equally likely to use antiviral medications. In this report we also propose possible clinical explanations for the observed differences in AVMU, which will be useful in planning prevention initiatives for future pandemics. PMID:25409120

  7. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

  8. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezire, Onoriode; Adebayo, Samson B; Idogho, Omokhudu; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Nwokolo, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy is still a major health issue in Nigeria, accounting for about 33% of cause of maternal death. Despite massive efforts to make insecticide-treated net (ITN) available to pregnant women in Nigeria, the use is still low. This study was conducted to identify facilitators and inhibitors for the use of ITN/long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2011 State-Specific HIV & AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey conducted in 18 states of Nigeria. The survey was a population-based study among men and women of reproductive age living in households in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select eligible respondents. The sample size per state was 960 respondents. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results A total of 11.5% of the respondents were pregnant at the time of the survey of which 73.2% lived in rural location and approximately 70% were either not educated or attained at most a primary school education. A total of 93.2% of respondents have heard of net, 82.6% were confident that they can hang or use a net, and 64.6% owned an ITN/LLIN in their household while the actual use was just 19.2%. We found education, location (urban–rural), confidence to use a net, and knowledge that the use of a net can protect a pregnant woman from malaria to be significant at 5% level. The number of nets owned per household, the length of time the net is owned, age, and marital status were not significant. Multiple logistics regression shows that pregnant women who are confident to hang or use a net were almost ten times more likely to use a net than those who do not know, while those who know that the use of an ITN/LLIN can protect a pregnant woman from malaria were almost two times more likely to use a net than those who do not know. Conclusion In general, while owning a net facilitates its use, ownership does not necessarily translate to usage. Owning more than one ITN/LLIN per household was not significant in the use of an ITN/LLIN by pregnant women in this study, neither was the length of time the net was owned. This study shows that increasing the number of nets owned per household might not be a critical decider on whether the net will be used or not. We recommend massive education on the use of ITN. Skill building on use and increasing knowledge on the benefits of using nets may contribute to improving ITN use among pregnant women in Nigeria.

  9. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezire O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Onoriode Ezire,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Omokhudu Idogho,3 Elijah A Bamgboye,4 Ernest Nwokolo5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, 2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, 3Enhancing Nigeria’s Response to HIV & AIDS, Abuja, 4Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 5Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria Background: Malaria in pregnancy is still a major health issue in Nigeria, accounting for about 33% of cause of maternal death. Despite massive efforts to make insecticide-treated net (ITN available to pregnant women in Nigeria, the use is still low. This study was conducted to identify facilitators and inhibitors for the use of ITN/long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN among pregnant women in Nigeria.Methods: Data were obtained from the 2011 State-Specific HIV & AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey conducted in 18 states of Nigeria. The survey was a population-based study among men and women of reproductive age living in households in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select eligible respondents. The sample size per state was 960 respondents. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.Results: A total of 11.5% of the respondents were pregnant at the time of the survey of which 73.2% lived in rural location and approximately 70% were either not educated or attained at most a primary school education. A total of 93.2% of respondents have heard of net, 82.6% were confident that they can hang or use a net, and 64.6% owned an ITN/LLIN in their household while the actual use was just 19.2%. We found education, location (urban–rural, confidence to use a net, and knowledge that the use of a net can protect a pregnant woman from malaria to be significant at 5% level. The number of nets owned per household, the length of time the net is owned, age, and marital status were not significant. Multiple logistics regression shows that pregnant women who are confident to hang or use a net were almost ten times more likely to use a net than those who do not know, while those who know that the use of an ITN/LLIN can protect a pregnant woman from malaria were almost two times more likely to use a net than those who do not know.Conclusion: In general, while owning a net facilitates its use, ownership does not necessarily translate to usage. Owning more than one ITN/LLIN per household was not significant in the use of an ITN/LLIN by pregnant women in this study, neither was the length of time the net was owned. This study shows that increasing the number of nets owned per household might not be a critical decider on whether the net will be used or not. We recommend massive education on the use of ITN. Skill building on use and increasing knowledge on the benefits of using nets may contribute to improving ITN use among pregnant women in Nigeria. Keywords: net use in pregnancy, long-lasting insecticidal nets, education, skill building, massive distribution of nets

  10. Plasma viraemia in HIV-positive pregnant women entering antenatal care in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Gregory; Bekker, Linda-Gail; McIntyre, James A; Abrams, Elaine J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasma HIV viral load (VL) is the principle determinant of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), yet there are few data on VL in populations of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the distribution and determinants of VL in HIV-positive women seeking antenatal care (ANC) in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Consecutive HIV-positive pregnant women making their first antenatal clinic visit were recruited into a cross-sectional study of viraemia in pregnancy, including a brief questionnaire and specimens for VL testing and CD4 cell enumeration. Results & discussion Overall 5551 pregnant women sought ANC during the study period, of whom 1839 (33%) were HIV positive and 1521 (85%) were included. Approximately two-thirds of HIV-positive women in the sample (n=947) were not on antiretrovirals at the time of the first ANC visit, and the remainder (38%, n=574) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to conception. For women not on ART, the median VL was 3.98 log10 copies/mL; in this group, the sensitivity of CD4 cell counts ?350 cells/µL in detecting VL>10,000 copies/mL was 64% and this increased to 78% with a CD4 threshold of ?500 cells/µL. Among women on ART, 78% had VL1000 copies/mL at the time of their ANC visit. Conclusions VL >10,000 copies/mL was commonly observed in women not on ART with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/µL, suggesting that CD4 cell counts may not be adequately sensitive in identifying women at greatest risk of MTCT. A large proportion of women entering ANC initiated ART before conception, and in this group more than 10% had VL>1000 copies/mL despite ART use. VL monitoring during pregnancy may help to identify pregnancies that require additional clinical attention to minimize MTCT risk and improve maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:26154734

  11. Suicide ideation, depression and HIV among pregnant women in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Stein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite public perception to the contrary, pregnancy does not offer a protective effect for suicide ideation. In low and middle income countries (LMIC multiple concurrent risk factors including unplanned pregnancies, testing for HIV, intimate partner violence and depression may increase suicide risk among pregnant women. We examine suicide ideation among women attending routine antenatal care in rural South Africa. Method: A consecutive series of 109 women in the second half of pregnancy were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at a large primary health care facility in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal with high HIV prevalence. Using a mixed-methods approach, women were assessed using the Major Depression Section of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID for DSM-IV diagnosis; qualitative interview data were collected on women’s experiences of suicide ideation and plans. Women were assessed two weeks after routine HIV testing as part of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT screening. Results: Both HIV-positive (49/109 and HIV-negative (60/109 women were assessed. Depression was high (51/109, 46.7% and equally common amongst HIV-positive and negative women. Suicide ideation was high (30/109, 27.5% with thoughts of self harm closely linked to suicide plans. Age, previous history of depression and current depression were significantly associated with suicide ideation. Close to equal numbers of HIV-positive and negative women were suicidal. Suicide methods were frequently violent and most women cited family and partnership conflict related to an unplanned pregnancy or their newly HIV-positive status as triggers to their suicide ideation. Conclusions: Rates of suicide ideation among pregnant women testing for HIV are high. Testing HIV-positive causes considerable distress, and among HIV-negative women unplanned and unwanted pregnancies are important risk factors for suicide ideation. Pregnancy brings women into increased contact with the health services with important opportunities for prevention and intervention.

  12. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoh RC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RC Onoh,1 OUJ Umeora,1 VE Egwuatu,2 PO Ezeonu,1 TJP Onoh31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria; 3Department of Pathology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaBackground: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI.Methodology: This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software.Results: A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5% had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%, Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%, S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%, Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%, Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%, Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%, Enterobacter spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%, and Pseudomonas spp. (3 cultures, 1.2%. Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 92.5%. Others with overall antibiotic sensitivity pattern greater than 50% included cefpodoxime (87.3%, ofloxacin (77.4%, ciprofloxacin (66.7%, ceftriaxone (66.7%, and gentamicin (50.8%.Conclusion: E. coli was the most common etiological agent of UTI in pregnancy with Enterococcus (Staphylococcus gaining prominence. Cephalosporin and quinolones were shown to be very effective against the organisms causing UTI in these pregnant women.Keywords: antibiotic sensitivity pattern, pregnancy, urinary tract infection, uropathogens

  13. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women / Inadequação de folato na dieta de gestantes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lívia de Castro, Crivellenti; Patrícia, Barbieri; Daniela Saes, Sartorelli.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a inadequação de folato alimentar e folato dietético na dieta de gestantes adultas. MÉTODOS: Um estudo prospectivo foi conduzido entre 103 gestantes adultas e saudáveis, usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde do município de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram incluídas no p [...] resente estudo 82 mulheres com dados de consumo alimentar ao longo da gestação. Os dados dietéticos foram obtidos por meio de três inquéritos recordatórios de 24 horas, durante a gravidez. Para estimar a inadequação do folato alimentar (naturalmente presente nos alimentos) e do folato dietético (folato dos alimentos adicionado ao proveniente da fortificação das farinhas), empregou-se o método do requerimento médio estimado - Estimated Average Requirement como ponto de corte. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que 100% das gestantes apresentaram dietas com ingestão inadequada de folato alimentar. Considerando-se o folato dietético, 94% das gestantes reportaram dietas com ingestão inadequada do nutriente. Entretanto, houve um aumento de 87% na disponibilidade do valor mediano do nutriente após se considerar o ácido fólico proveniente da fortificação das farinhas. CONCLUSÃO: A inadequação de folato na dieta das gestantes avaliadas foi alarmante. Estudos populacionais de abrangência nacional são necessários para a confirmação da hipótese de uma elevada inadequação de folato na dieta de gestantes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with [...] complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods) and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal) inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, air pollution exposure and associated life style factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Manrique, Agurtzane; Rebagliato, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Iñiguez, Carmen

    2008-12-15

    1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are pollutants produced by the combustion of organic material, and could be found both indoors and outdoors. Prenatal exposure to these compounds has been associated with retarded intrauterine growth and respiratory problems in children. The objective of this study is to describe the 1-OHP levels in urine in pregnant women in the INMA cohort in Valencia, and to study the association with socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, as well as with indicators of air pollution. The study population is a sub-sample (n: 204) of a cohort of pregnant women in the multicentre INMA project in Valencia (Spain). Urine samples were taken in week 12 of gestation, and 1-OHP was analyzed, and adjusted for creatinine. Socio-demographic and lifestyle information was collected using a questionnaire. Data from the monitoring stations in Valencia were used to assign levels of exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulates (TSP) and carbon monoxide (CO). The median 1-OHP level was 0.061 muicrool/mol of creatinine. Women who smoked had higher 1-OHP levels (0.095 micromol/mol of creatinine) than non-smokers (0.050 micromol/mol of creatinine). The variables predicting 1-OHP levels on linear multivariate analysis were: tobacco consumption, consumption of fried and smoked foods. There was also a significant association with NO2 levels 4 and 5 days before the samples were taken. The 1-OHP levels found in pregnant women in Valencia were higher than those found among women in reports in USA. 1-hydroxypyrene could be a good marker of exposure to PAHs from tobacco and diet, and also a useful marker of short term exposure to air pollution. PMID:18804258

  15. Cartografia do cuidado na saúde da gestante Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Magalhães da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a cartografia como método para mapear a trajetória do cuidado à gestante no serviço da atenção básica. O campo de estudo foram nove Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Município de Juazeiro do Norte (CE. Participaram 15 mulheres que estavam entre 37 e 39 semanas de gestação, com as quais foram realizadas entrevistas nos meses de janeiro a junho de 2010. Os achados da cartografia foram descritos em etapas no fluxograma e revelaram lacunas no serviço do pré-natal, tais como o número reduzido da realização do exame da citologia oncótica e o déficit de atividades educativas. Observou-se, entretanto, certa resolubilidade na assistência à gestante, pois vários depoimentos demonstraram satisfação em relação ao serviço. A boa relação desenvolvida com o profissional foi o principal motivo que as levou a continuar o tratamento. Este fato reforça a importância do vínculo e do diálogo entre profissionais e gestantes para a adesão e sucesso do pré-natal.This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  16. An RCT protocol of varying financial incentive amounts for smoking cessation among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynagh Marita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to the unborn child. Few smoking cessation interventions have been successfully incorporated into standard antenatal care. The main aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of a personal financial incentive scheme for encouraging smoking cessation among pregnant women. Design A pilot randomised control trial will be conducted to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two varying financial incentives that increase incrementally in magnitude ($20 vs. $40AUD, compared to no incentive in reducing smoking in pregnant women attending an Australian public hospital antenatal clinic. Method Ninety (90 pregnant women who self-report smoking in the last 7 days and whose smoking status is biochemically verified, will be block randomised into one of three groups: a. No incentive control group (n=30, b. $20 incremental incentive group (n=30, and c. $40 incremental incentive group (n=30. Smoking status will be assessed via a self-report computer based survey in nine study sessions with saliva cotinine analysis used as biochemical validation. Women in the two incentive groups will be eligible to receive a cash reward at each of eight measurement points during pregnancy if 7-day smoking cessation is achieved. Cash rewards will increase incrementally for each period of smoking abstinence. Discussion Identifying strategies that are effective in reducing the number of women smoking during pregnancy and are easily adopted into standard antenatal practice is of utmost importance. A personal financial incentive scheme is a potential antenatal smoking cessation strategy that warrants further investigation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number: ACTRN12612000399897

  17. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals is of particular concern for pregnant women. We therefore studied current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in 200 healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between weeks 8-30 of pregnancy and analysed for 10 phenols, 7 parabens and 16 phthalate metabolites by LC-MS/MS. The 33 analytes represent 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in urine from most women. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite (s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups suggesting joint exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DI) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable daily intake (TDI) and with Hazard Quotients (HQ) below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the individual estimated DI of phthalates and BPA was below TDI, our results still raise concern. As current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure, the true cumulative risk for the foetus may be underestimated.

  18. [Pathogenetic percularities of fetal distress in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, I V

    2013-10-01

    It was performed the investigation of the fetal regulatory systems condition with the heart rate variability method application in 94 women with preeclampsia. It was established that preeclamptic patients had thrombophilia that was accompanied by increased reversible aggregation of platelets in response to low doses of ADP and collagen stimulation. The fetal deterioration in this group was characterized by decreased fetal heart rate variability fractal components with a relative predominance of the central sympathetic control circuit. The augmented sympathetic tone played the significant role in fetal rigid rhythm and decelerations appearance and has formed the fetal myocardium hypoxic injury and the suppressed sinus node response. The usage of semisynthetic diosmin 1 tablet (600 mg) 2 times daily in preeclamptic ladies has a pronounced disaggregant effect and improved fetal autonomic nervous regulation in its projections on hemodynamics. The restoration of the fetal cardiorespiratory synchronization periods has made it possible to consider that diosmine has neuroprotective effect that was directed on the fetal regulatory systems condition optimization. PMID:24214586

  19. Examining the Validity and Reliability of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale in a Population of Pregnant Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally; Davis, Deborah; Browne, Jenny; Taylor, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Antonovsky's Orientation to Life questionnaires were developed to measure sense of coherence (SOC). Although the SOC 13 instrument is widely used to measure health in general populations, it has not been assessed in pregnant women. If the SOC 13 is to be used to assess women's childbearing health, it requires further examination. The purpose of the research is to assess the psychometric properties of Antonovsky's SOC 13 questionnaire in pregnant women. When administered to 718 pregnant Australian women, the construct validity of the SOC 13 was difficult to establish. The SOC 9 was created by removing 4 items and provided best data fit. The SOC 13 and SOC 9 were found to have sound criterion validity, internal reliability, and equivalence between versions. It is hoped that the present study will stimulate additional research on SOC scales to examine their ability to assess women's childbearing health. PMID:25825376

  20. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women. PMID:23550851

  1. Study on types of vaginitis and association between bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infection in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramila Lamichhane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction:  Infectious vaginitis which includes bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis are common disorder in women.  Both vaginitis and Urinary Tract Infection during pregnancy have risk to lives of both the mother and fetus. Present study was done to assess type of vaginitis and to evaluate the risk of urinary tract infections in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis.Methods: Cross sectional descriptive study of 230 pregnant women was done from 1st July to 30th December 2010. Duplicate High Vaginal Swab and urine sample were collected from each patient. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed using Amsel’s criteria. Diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made when there were at least 100,000 organisms/ml of urine. Results: Out of 230 patients, 92 were positive for infectious vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis was the most prevalent type (27.8% followed by vulvovaginal candidiasis (24.3% and then trichomoniasis (0.4%. UTI was more than twice common among in pregnant women with BV than without it (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hence the prevalence of vaginitis was higher among pregnant women and women with bacterial vaginosis are at increased risk for urinary tract infections. We recommend all pregnant women during antenatal checkup should be screened for the presence of bacterial vaginosis and Urinary Tract Infection. 

  2. An assessment of the implementation of the National Therapeutic Programme for pregnant women within the City of Cape Town district

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Grundlingh; M, Herselman; P O, Iversen.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An integrated Nutritional Supplementation Programme (NSP), now termed the National Therapeutic Programme (NTP), was initiated in 1995 to address South Africa's pressing nutritional problems. It specifically focuses on maternal health, including iron deficiency anaemia and underweight amo [...] ng pregnant women, but its implementation and efficacy for pregnant women has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) whether pregnant women qualified for both the food and micronutrient (folate and iron) supplementation offered by the programme; (ii) whether those who qualified received such supplementation; and (iii) whether those who qualified were aware of the rationale for the supplementations. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in all primary healthcare antenatal clinics in the City of Cape Town district, involving 114 women. All were interviewed using a questionnaire, their mid-upper arm circumference was measured, and their symphysis-fundus measurements (where documented) were obtained from their medical files. RESULTS: Only 5% of the women qualified for the food supplementation, while all qualified for the micronutrient supplementation. Only 1 of the 6 participants who qualified for food supplementation was registered and received it. Seventy (61%) of the participants received the micronutrient supplementation and used it correctly. Twenty-nine (25%) participants had heard about the food supplementations for pregnant women and 54 (47%) had heard about the micronutrient supplementations. CONCLUSION: The food supplementation was not successfully implemented among pregnant women. The strategy requires further attention within the antenatal clinics.

  3. Co-Infection of Toxoplasma gondii with HBV in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Pregnant Women in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ouermi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infections can induce serious complications in HIV-infected pregnant women, leading to miscarriage; favour the mother-to-child transmission of HBV and HIV and birth defects. The purposes of this study were: (1 to quantify IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in HIV-seropositive and seronegative pregnant women, (2 to identify hepatitis B antigens (HBsAg in pregnant women and (3 to determine T. gondii and HBV co-infections among these patients. The study was conducted at Centre Medical Saint Camille, in Burkina Faso from January to June 2009. A total of 276 HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women were included. All women had less than 32 weeks of amenorrhoea and were aged from 19 to 42 years. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and HBsAg were detected using ELISA method. In addition, women freely agreed to answer a questionnaire. The results of our investigations revealed that, among these pregnant women, 38.8% were illiterates, 50.4% were housewives and only 5.4% were civil servants. Positive T. gondii-specific IgM (4.7% and IgG (27.2% were detected. In this study, we found that HIV-seropositive status seem to be associated with great prevalence rates of both T. gondii (31.9 vs. 22.5% and HBV (13.0 vs. 5.8%. The elevated co-infection rate in HIV-positive women suggested that they are exposed to T. gondii and HBV infections prevalently because of their immune depression. Therefore, to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii and HBV among HIV-seropositive pregnant women, lamivudine could be included in their HEART and women should follow healthy lifestyle formation.

  4. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsany Mubarak S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of viral hepatitis during pregnancy is essential for health planners and programme managers. While much data exist concerning viral hepatitis during pregnancy in many African countries, no proper published data are available in Sudan. Aim The study aimed to investigate the sero-prevalance and the possible risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV among antenatal care attendants in central Sudan. Methods During 3 months from March–June 2006, sera were collected from pregnant women at Umdurman Maternity Hospital in Sudan, and they were tested for markers of hepatitis B virus (HBVsAg and HCV. Results HBVsAg was detected in 41 (5.6% out 728 women, Anti-HCV was detected in 3 (0.6% out of 423 women, all of them were not aware of their condition. Age, parity, gestational age, residence, history of blood transfusion, dental manipulations, tattooing and circumcision did not contribute significantly to increased HBVsAg sero-positivity. Conclusion Thus 5.6% of pregnant women were positive for HBVsAg irrespective of their age, parity and socio-demographic characteristics. There was low prevalence of Anti-HCV.

  5. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that aonsiderably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic

  6. Dietary advices on carbohydrate intake for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roskjær, Ann B; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the quality and quantity of carbohydrate intake on glycaemic control and pregnancy outcome was evaluated with focus on pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. For women with type 1 diabetes, a gestational weight gain within the lower range of the guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general, carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes. A moderately low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40% of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic pregnancy. In type 1 diabetes pregnancy, a moderately low carbohydrate diet with 40% carbohydrates has been suggested; however, a minimum intake of 175?g carbohydrate daily is recommended. Despite limited evidence the combination of a low-glycaemic index diet with a moderately low carbohydrate intake, using carbohydrate counting can be recommended for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

  7. Prenatal multivitamins containing folic acid do not decrease prevalence of depression among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y J; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Ryu, H M; Kim, M Y; Yang, J H; Nava-Ocampo, A A; Koren, G

    2008-07-01

    Several studies have reported an association between depression and folic acid deficiency. We investigated whether intake of prenatal multivitamins containing folic acid (MVandFA) was associated with decreased rates of depression among pregnant women. A questionnaire was given to 1,314 low-risk pregnant women. Of them, 1,277 (97.2%) women completed the questionnaire. The overall prevalence of depression was 8.1%. Of 652 participants who did not take MVandFA, 9.4% had depression, whereas 6.9% of 624 women who had MVandFA had depression (p = 0.11). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, family history of depression (adjusted OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.9-7.3) and premenstrual syndrome (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) were identified as risk factors for depression during pregnancy. In conclusion, intake of MVandFA was not associated with lower rates of depression during pregnancy whereas family history of depression and personal history of premenstrual syndrome were significant risk factors. PMID:18850419

  8. A rapid questionnaire assessment of environmental exposures to pregnant women in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Finkton, D; Purwar, M; Noble, J A; Pang, R; Burnham, O; Cheikh Ismail, L; Farhi, F; Barros, F C; Lambert, A; Papageorghiou, A T; Carvalho, M; Jaffer, Y A; Bertino, E; Gravett, M G; Altman, D G; Ohuma, E O; Kennedy, S H; Bhutta, Z A; Villar, J

    2013-09-01

    Impaired fetal growth and preterm birth are the leading causes of neonatal and infant mortality worldwide and there is a growing scientific literature suggesting that environmental exposures during pregnancy may play a causal role in these outcomes. Our purpose was to assess the environmental exposure of the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) participants in the multinational INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. First, we developed a tool that could be used internationally to screen pregnant women for such exposures and administered it in eight countries on a subsample (n = 987) of the FGLS participants. The FGLS is a study of fetal growth among healthy pregnant women living in relatively affluent areas, at low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and environmental exposures. We confirmed that most women were not exposed to major environmental hazards that could affect pregnancy outcomes according to the protocol's entry criteria. However, the instrument was able to identify some women that reported various environmental concerns in their homes such as peeling paint, high residential density (>1 person per room), presence of rodents or cockroaches (hence the use of pesticides), noise pollution and safety concerns. This screening tool was therefore useful for the purposes of the project and can be used to ascertain environmental exposures in studies in which the primary aim is not focused on environmental exposures. The instrument can be used to identify subpopulations for more in-depth assessment, (e.g. environmental and biological laboratory markers) to pinpoint areas requiring education, intervention or policy change. PMID:24028080

  9. Determinants of gender preference and its association with reproductive behaviour among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Omprakash Lokare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. One of the serious concerns in India is declining female sex ratio. Aims: To know the factors determining gender preference by pregnant women, various reasons for such preference and its relation with reproductive behavior. Settings and Design: Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Medical College and District Women hospital, Amravati. Material and methods: The cross sectional study was conducted on 400 pregnant women who were interviewed by systematic random sampling after informed consent.  Statistical analysis: Binary Logistic regression analysis by enter method using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Out of fifteen independent variables on logistic regression, six variables were significantly associated with male child preference. The reasons for male child preference told by women were old age security (29.71% followed by keeping family line (23.42%. Conclusions: The religion, age, socio-economic status, gravida, number of abortions and number of male children were having the strongest impact on male child preference.

  10. Trends in CT scan rates in children and pregnant women: teaching, private, public and nonprofit facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshiko, Sumi; Smith, Daniel; Fan, Cathyn; Jones, Carrie R.; McNeel, Sandra V. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA (United States); Cohen, Ronald A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Radiology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation exposure from medical sources now equals or exceeds that from natural background sources, largely attributable to a 20-fold increase in CT use since 1980. Increasing exposure to children and fetuses is of most concern due to their heightened susceptibility. More recently, CT use may be leveling or decreasing, but it is unclear whether this change is widespread or varies by type of institution. We sought to characterize trends in CT utilization in California hospitals and emergency departments among children and pregnant women, looking at different types of facilities, such as teaching, private, public and nonprofit institutions. We examined frequency of CT examinations by year from 229 facilities reporting CT usage in routinely collected California statewide data for 2005-2012. We modeled trends overall and by facility type. CT scans for pediatric and pregnant patient visits in the emergency department increased initially, then started to decline after 2008. Among hospital admissions, rates declined or leveled after 2005. In the emergency department, CT rates varied between types of facilities, with teaching hospitals reducing use sooner and more sharply than other types of facilities. CT utilization in California among children and pregnant women has begun to level or decline. Still, population exposure remains at historically high levels, warranting consideration of potential public health implications. Further examination of reasons for trends among hospital types, particularly how teaching hospitals have reduced rates of CT utilization, may help identify strategies for CT reduction without compromising patient care. (orig.)

  11. Trends in CT scan rates in children and pregnant women: teaching, private, public and nonprofit facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure from medical sources now equals or exceeds that from natural background sources, largely attributable to a 20-fold increase in CT use since 1980. Increasing exposure to children and fetuses is of most concern due to their heightened susceptibility. More recently, CT use may be leveling or decreasing, but it is unclear whether this change is widespread or varies by type of institution. We sought to characterize trends in CT utilization in California hospitals and emergency departments among children and pregnant women, looking at different types of facilities, such as teaching, private, public and nonprofit institutions. We examined frequency of CT examinations by year from 229 facilities reporting CT usage in routinely collected California statewide data for 2005-2012. We modeled trends overall and by facility type. CT scans for pediatric and pregnant patient visits in the emergency department increased initially, then started to decline after 2008. Among hospital admissions, rates declined or leveled after 2005. In the emergency department, CT rates varied between types of facilities, with teaching hospitals reducing use sooner and more sharply than other types of facilities. CT utilization in California among children and pregnant women has begun to level or decline. Still, population exposure remains at historically high levels, warranting consideration of potential public health implications. Further examination of reasons for trends among hospital types, particularly how teaching hospitals have reduced rates of CT utilization, may help identify strategies for CT reduction without compromising patient care. (orig.)

  12. Correlates of Anaemia and Worm Infestation among Rural Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study from Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinjita Dutta, Sita Chatterjee, Debasish Sinha, Bobby Pal, Mausumi Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the preva-lence of worm infestation and anaemia among pregnant women along with their socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and state of personal hygiene and elicit the association, if any, with anemia and worm infestation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic at Nasibpur Union Health Center. All antenatal mothers who came for antenatal checkup for the first time to the health centre on two prefixed days of the week during the study period were interviewed. The reports of their stool and haemoglobin examination were followed up. Results: 82% of the pregnant women were suffering from anemia.25% of the study population had worm infestation. Age at marriage, green leafy vegetable, fruit and flesh food intake of at least 4 days a week, use of lemon with food most of the time, avoiding the practice of eating last in the family, handwashing with soap and water before eating and use of footwear outside the house were statically significant with hemoglobin concentration. Only religion and handwashing practice with soap and water before eating had statistically significant association with worm infestation. Conclusion: The study showed that certain protective factors like diet and personal hygiene if addressed at the time of antenatal checkup can reduce the number of cases of anemia significantly.

  13. Proteolytic antibodies in the sera of pregnant women: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimzadeh jahromi M, Mirshahi M, Shamsipour F, Mohamadi M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: The induction of catalytic antibodies (abzymes was first postulated by Pauling in 1948. Various catalytic antibodies have been detected recently in the sera of patients with several autoimmune pathologies such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, antibodies with DNase and RNase activity have been discovered in the milk and sera of healthy human mothers, which shows the physiologic role of these antibodies. In this study, we examined the proteolytic activity of antibodies in the sera of pregnant women. "n"nMethods: IgG antibody fractions were isolated from the sera of 30 healthy pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and 10 control samples (men and nonpregnant women by subsequent steps of chromatographic purification on Protein G sepharose and sephacryl S-300. All patients were in their first pregnancy and aged 25-35 years. The conditions for proteolytic activity, such as type of buffer, pH and temperature, were optimized. The proteolytic activity of these antibodies was demonstrated by in-gel assay with gelatin as the substrate. "n"nResults: Antibody treatments at the optimum temperature showed that some samples from pregnant women contain proteolytic abzymes, as demonstrated by in-gel assays. Western blot results confirmed that the proteolytic activity is an intrinsic property of the antibodies. "n"nConclusions: During pregnancy and immediately after delivery women very often experience autoimmune processes similar to those in patients with autoimmune disease. Because of their specific immune status, pregnant women can produce various catalytic antibodies with different enzymatic activity. These proteolytic abzymes might be involved in the direct clearance of antigens from blood.

  14. Association between Perfluorinated Compound Exposure and Miscarriage in Danish Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Nielsen, Flemming; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336) of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5) and 2.67 (1.31-5.44), respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2) and 3.71 (1.60-8.60), respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds. PMID:25848775

  15. Association between Perfluorinated Compound Exposure and Miscarriage in Danish Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersen, Louise BjØrkholt

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336) of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5) and 2.67 (1.31-5.44), respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2) and 3.71 (1.60-8.60), respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds.

  16. Association between Perfluorinated Compound Exposure and Miscarriage in Danish Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Nielsen, Flemming; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336) of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5) and 2.67 (1.31-5.44), respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2) and 3.71 (1.60-8.60), respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds. PMID:25848775

  17. Reasons for disclosure of gender to pregnant women during prenatal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukar-ud-din S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Shukar-ud-din,1 Fareeha Ubaid,2 Erum Shahani,1 Farah Saleh21Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II, Dow University Hospital, Karachi; 2Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sindh Government Hospital, Korangi, Karachi, PakistanBackground: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of women who want to know fetal gender on antenatal ultrasonography and the reasons behind this.Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out between March 10, 2012 and September 10, 2012 at two tertiary care hospitals (Dow University Hospital, Ojha Campus, and Lady Dufferin Hospital in Karachi. In total, 223 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic and gave their consent were included in the study. Information was collected on a predesigned questionnaire.Results: Of the 223 pregnant women, 109 (49.1% were younger than 25 years. The majority (216, 96.9% were Muslim, 164 (73.4% were educated to different levels, 121 (54.3% spoke Urdu, and 66 (29.6% were primigravidas. Thirty-four (15.2% women had a preference for a male child, 24 (10.8% had a female preference, and 165 (74% had no preference. Seventy (31.4% women were interested to know the fetal gender. The association between education and gender preference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.004 and also that between age and gender preference (P = 0.05, but no relationship was found between gender preference and gender of previous babies (P = 0.317 for males and P = 0.451 for females. Association of ethnicity was also not statistically significant (P = 0.102.Conclusion: This study revealed that 31.4% of women were interested in disclosure of gender on prenatal ultrasonography and only15.2% women had a preference for a male child.Keywords: gender determination, prenatal ultrasonography, Pakistan

  18. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous M?ori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest that incentives, in particular a choice of products, may be an effective addition to usual care to increase smoking cessation among pregnant M?ori women, which has the potential to improve health outcomes for both the mother and child. PMID:25427877

  19. Prototype for Internet support of pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes: focus group testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfsson A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson,1,2 Malin Jansson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skovde, Skovde, Sweden; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to pilot test a prototype website called MODIAB-web designed to support pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes.Method: A focus group was undertaken and the results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Eight subthemes were identified, comprising "blood glucose versus insulin," "application for smart phones," "the time aspect," "interface and technology," "forum," "direct link to the diabetes midwife," "ask the expert," and "lack of contact information." These subthemes were condensed into two main themes. The first theme was "easily understood interface, but in need of a more blood-glucose focused orientation" and the second theme was "forum for interaction with both equals and experts." Conclusion: The women in this study had positive impressions of several of the MODIAB-web functions, including a forum for pregnant mothers with type 1 diabetes and the possibility of being able to put their blood glucose levels into a diagram which could be sent directly to the diabetes midwife. Access to articles and information via the "fact" tab and the ability to ask questions of experts were also significantly helpful to women in the focus group. Pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes can gain support from such a Web-based self-help system.Keywords: type 1 diabetes, web support, pregnancy, focus group interview

  20. Risk factors for syphilis and hiv infection in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now been re-emerged as a major public health problem in many communities. It can complicate the pregnancies with serious consequences. Appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications. Aims: To study the frequency of syphilis in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital, and see the positivity for HIV/AIDS among syphilis positive women. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional and interventional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Sir Ganga Ram hospital for antenatal care at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Blood samples from 2000 women were collected after taking consent. The blood was tested for syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination. History of the subjects for risks factors was also taken. Syphilis positive women were further screened for human immunodeficiency virus positivity. Results: The treponemal antibodies were detected in less than one percent (9) pregnant women. The highest positivity was observed among age group of 21-26 years. Women in third trimester were significantly more infected with syphilis. Risk factors included husband's history with frequent traveling and drug abuse. All husbands of syphilis positive women were also positive. All syphilis positive women and their husbands were negative for Human immunodeficiency virue negative for Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Conclusions: Less than 1% of pregnant women were infected with syphilis, and most of the spouses of these positive women were either travelers or drug addicts.(author)

  1. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and household environment of pregnant women in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, A; Shankar, A V; Sutar, S; Joshi, A; Suryawanshi, N; Pisal, H; Bharucha, K E; Phadke, M A; Bollinger, R C; Sastry, J

    2003-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge of pregnant women in India. In a sub-sample of these women, we documented the extent to which they experienced adverse social and physical difficulties within their home. The study was performed at an urban antenatal hospital clinic in Maharastra, India. From April to September 2001, structured interviews were conducted on 707 randomly selected antenatal clinic patients related to HIV/AIDS knowledge. Of these, 283 were further interviewed to document any social or physical difficulties they experienced. Over 75% of women displayed knowledge of primary transmission routes. Nearly 70% of women demonstrated knowledge of maternal to child transmission, however, only 8% knew of any methods of prevention. TV and written material were more strongly related to knowledge than access to radio messages or conversations with individuals. Thirty per cent of the women experienced physical or mental abuse or their spouse's alcohol and/or drug problems. Women reporting such abuse were more than twice as likely to have adequate HIV/AIDS knowledge compared with women reporting no such abuse. We found no relationship between reported household abuse and educational level of woman, husband, occupation of either partner, language or religion. We found no relationship between HIV status and knowledge of HIV and no relationship between HIV status and risk of abuse in the household. However, the total number of HIV patients in our sample was very small. PMID:14678593

  2. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  3. [280-POS] : Prostasin and its regulatory proteins in human placentas from pregnant women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen-MØller, Britta; JØrgensen, Jan Stener

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Serine proteases are enzymes involved in digestion, immune response, blood coagulation and reproduction. The serine protease prostasin (PRSS8, CAP1) and its regulatory associated proteins (Matriptase, Hepatocyt growth factor activator inhibitors (HAIs), and Nexin-1) are essential for normal placental development in mice. Prostasin is regulated by aldosterone in the kidney and may activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Preeclampsia is characterized by disturbed placentation, suppression of aldosterone and avid renal sodium retention with hypertension. It was hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with low prostasin expression in placenta and spillover of prostasin into urine across the defect glomerular barrier. METHODS: This hypothesis was addressed in a cross-sectional design with 20 healthy pregnant women and 20 women with new onset of preeclampsia (hypertension and 1+ for protein on urine dipstick). Blood and urine samples were obtained in relation to delivery and placental biopsies were taken immediately after delivery (control = 39 and preeclampsia 40 weeks). RESULTS: Women with preeclampsia displayed lower levels of aldosterone in plasma (p=0.0475) and in spot urine normalized for creatinine (p=0.0001). Placental weight was not different between groups. Prostasin, matriptase, HAI 1 and 2, and nexin mRNA abundances were not different in placenta tissue between groups. Prostasin protein level in placental homogenate was not different between groups as judged from western blotting and ELISA assay. Western blotting showed significantly elevated urine excretion of prostasin in preeclamptic patients compared to controls. Plasma aldosterone correlated directly with placental weight (p=0.022), while plasma prostasin did not correlate to aldosterone or placental weight. No correlation between aldosterone and systolic or diastolic blood pressure was found. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that altered prostasin activity in placenta in preeclampsia is likely to be at the level of activity and not protein abundance. In perspective, urine prostasin may contribute to renal EnaC activation. DISCLOSURES: B. Frederiksen-Møller: None. J.S. Jørgensen: None. L.K. Vogel: None. B.L. Jensen: None.

  4. Prostasin and its regulatory proteins in human placentas from pregnant women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen-MØller, Britta; JØrgensen, Jan Stener

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Serine proteases are enzymes involved in digestion, immune response, blood coagulation and reproduction. The serine protease prostasin (PRSS8, CAP1) and its regulatory associated proteins (Matriptase, Hepatocyt growth factor activator inhibitors (HAIs), and Nexin-1) are essential for normal placental development in mice. Prostasin is regulated by aldosterone in the kidney and may activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Preeclampsia is characterized by disturbed placentation, suppression of aldosterone and avid renal sodium retention with hypertension. It was hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with low prostasin expression in placenta and spillover of prostasin into urine across the defect glomerular barrier. METHODS: This hypothesis was addressed in a cross-sectional design with 20 healthy pregnant women and 20 women with new onset of preeclampsia (hypertension and 1+ for protein on urine dipstick). Blood and urine samples were obtained in relation to delivery and placental biopsies were taken immediately after delivery (control = 39 and preeclampsia 40 weeks). RESULTS: Women with preeclampsia displayed lower levels of aldosterone in plasma (p=0.0475) and in spot urine normalized for creatinine (p=0.0001). Placental weight was not different between groups. Prostasin, matriptase, HAI 1 and 2, and nexin mRNA abundances were not different in placenta tissue between groups. Prostasin protein level in placental homogenate was not different between groups as judged from western blotting and ELISA assay. Western blotting showed significantly elevated urine excretion of prostasin in preeclamptic patients compared to controls. Plasma aldosterone correlated directly with placental weight (p=0.022), while plasma prostasin did not correlate to aldosterone or placental weight. No correlation between aldosterone and systolic or diastolic blood pressure was found. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that altered prostasin activity in placenta in preeclampsia is likely to be at the level of activity and not protein abundance. In perspective, urine prostasin may contribute to renal EnaC activation. DISCLOSURES: B. Frederiksen-Møller: None. J.S. Jørgensen: None. L.K. Vogel: None. B.L. Jensen: None.

  5. Depressive symptoms, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence among pregnant women of diverse ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha B; McKenzie, Robetta; Pruitt, Vikki; Aaron, Katrina; Hall, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. Descriptive statistics and significant relationships among selected variables using correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Findings are intended to inform strategies for community-based programs better to assist women of diverse ethnicities with addressing depression, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence during their pregnancies, with the ultimate aim of improving health and mental health outcomes for women and children. PMID:22643473

  6. Reenvisioning success for programs supporting pregnant women with problematic substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellus, Lenora; MacKinnon, Karen; Benoit, Cecilia; Phillips, Rachel; Stengel, Camille

    2015-04-01

    Community-based, integrated, primary care maternity programs for pregnant women affected by problematic substance use are emerging as effective models for engaging women affected by multiple health and social issues. Although addictions services have historically been evaluated by individual achievement of abstinence, new definitions of program success are required as addiction comes to be viewed as a chronic illness. We conducted a mixed-methods study to follow the formative development stages of a community-based program, identifying key evaluation indicators and processes related to this program, program team members, and women and families served. As this program model develops, it is critical that providers, community partners, and health system leaders collaborate to frame definitions of success in ways helpful for guiding program development. PMID:25258337

  7. The Effect of Smoking on the Serum Level of Some Trace Elements in Pregnant Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a cause of many adverse outcomes, not only during fetal life, but may also extend to childhood and even early adulthood. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on some trace elements on pregnant mothers who smoke and their newborns. The study was carried out on 150 pregnant women and their newborns; fifty smokers (group I), fifty passive smoker subjects (group II) and 50 non-smokers served as controls (group III). Their neonates were also categorized into three groups accordingly. Maternal urine cotinine was determined by radioimmunoassay as an indicator for the degree of influence of smoking, it confirmed a significant elevation among groups I and II. The serum levels of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) were measured in the serum of pregnant mothers and the cord serum of their newborns by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study demonstrated significant lower concentrations of serum Zn and Se in group I and II and their newborns when compared to the control group and control newborns. Significant increases in serum Cd and Cu were observed in-group I and II and their neonates versus the controls. As regards Mn and Mg no significant difference was established between the three studied groups. Our results suggested that tobacco smoking had definite effect on some trace elements that absolutely had drawbacks on both pregnant mothers and their babies on both pregnant mothers and their babies. Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, mutagenic and teratogenic substances. Several epidemiological studies illustrated that cigarette smoking among females during the reproductive period have a direct insult on the nutritional and health status of their babies (Jauniaux et al, 1999). Cigarette smoking

  8. Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Susanne L.; Young, Heather A.; Parenti, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Methods: Directors of all 65 approved maternal–fetal medicine training programs were sent questionnaires, responses to which were to reflect the consensus among members of their faculties. Programs were stratified based upon the number of HIV-infected pregnant patients cared for in the previous year. Results: Responses reflect experience with over 1000 infected pregnantwomen per year, nearly one-quarter with advanced disease. Combination antiretroviral therapy was prescribed by all respondents, universally in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. A three-drug regimen (often containing a protease inhibitor) was used more often by those who treated at least 20 HIV-infected pregnant patients per year than by those programs seeing a lower number of patients (80 vs 59%).Despite the known and unknown risks of the use of antiretrovirals during pregnancy, only half of all responding programs report adverse events to the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry; reporting was more common among the institutions seeing a higher number of patients (61 vs 45%). Seventy-eight percent of higher volume programs enroll their patients in clinical studies, usually multicenter, versus 35% of lower volume programs. Conclusions: Care for HIV² pregnant women has dramatically changed over the past decade. Antiretroviral therapy is now universally prescribed by physicians involved in maternal–fetal medicine training programs. Given limited experience with these agents in the setting of pregnancy, it is essential for maternal–fetal medicine practitioners to actively report on adverse events and participate in clinical trials. PMID:11495558

  9. Exploring the reach and program use of hello world, an email-based health promotion program for pregnant women in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongen Johanna M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Dutch government initiated Hello World, an email-based program promoting healthy lifestyles among pregnant women through quizzes with pregnancy-related questions. In 2008, an updated version was released. The present study aimed to (1 examine the reach of Hello World and the representativeness of its users for all pregnant women in the Netherlands, (2 explore the relationship between program engagement and lifestyle characteristics, and (3 explore the relationship between the program content participants accessed (content on smoking, physical activity, and nutrition and their lifestyle characteristics. Methods Data from 4,363 pregnant women were included. After registration, women received an online questionnaire with demographic and lifestyle questions. To evaluate their representativeness, their demographic characteristics were compared with existing data for Dutch (pregnant women. Women were classified on the following lifestyle characteristics: smoking, nutrition, physical activity, and pre-pregnancy weight status. Program use was tracked and the relationships between lifestyle characteristics, program engagement, and the percentage of smoking, physical activity, and nutrition questions accessed after opening a quiz were explored using Mann–Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Hello World reached ±4% of its target population. Ten percent of participants were low educated and 22% immigrants. On average, women received 6.1 (SD:2.8 quiz emails and opened 32% of the associated quizzes (2.0, SD:2.1. A significant positive association was found between the number of quizzes opened and the number of healthy lifestyle characteristics. After opening a quiz, women accessed most smoking, nutrition, and physical activity questions. Significant relationships were found between several lifestyle characteristics and the percentage of smoking, physical activity, and nutrition questions accessed. However, between-group differences were small, quiz topics were largely unrelated to their lifestyle characteristics, and inconsistencies were found regarding the directions of these associations. Conclusions Hello World reached ±4% of its target population, which is lower than the reach of its previous version (±8%. Relatively few low educated and immigrant women registered for the program. Active participation in the program was positively associated with the number of healthy behaviours participants engaged in. The program content participants chose to access was largely unrelated to their lifestyle characteristics.

  10. Over-the-Counter Medication Use, Perceived Safety, and Decision-Making Behaviors in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Kline, Pharm.D. Candidate 2011

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine which over-the-counter (OTC medications women are using during pregnancy, and to assess patients’ perceived safety of these medications. In addition, the decision-making process utilized by pregnant women when choosing OTC drug therapy was explored, including sources of information and recommendation. The subjects included pregnant women 18 years and older. Subjects were solicited as a convenience sample by providing surveys in two urban women’s clinic waiting rooms. Of the 61 respondents, 96.3% had used an OTC medication, herbal, or vitamin during their current pregnancy. The most common products included prenatal vitamins, acetaminophen, cough drops, antacids, calcium, vitamin D, and DHA. The majority of women surveyed regarded over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and herbals as “safe, but would talk to a healthcare professional before using.” The most utilized sources of drug information during pregnancy were a physician (68.9%, midwife (55.7%, and the Internet (44.3%. There were an equal number of respondents obtaining general OTC information from apharmacist as from their family and friends (26.2%. Almost all subjects had used an over-the-counter medication during their pregnancy and the majority considered OTCs safe after first consulting a healthcare professional. Although a high percentage of subjects have obtained their information and recommendations from healthcare professionals, a very small proportion of subjects had utilized a pharmacist as a resource. Being drug experts and easily accessible members of the healthcare team, pharmacists have a responsibility to aid the obstetric population in the appropriate and safe use of over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and herbals during pregnancy.

  11. Prevalence of Narcotics Abuse and their Complications in Pregnant Women Referring to the Obstetric Department of Valiasr Hospital, Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Alireza Saadatjoo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Nowadays, substance abuse has crossed many social, economic and geographical boundaries, presenting itself as a major health challenge. It affects many demographic groups, including pregnant women, rendering them susceptible to maternal and fetal complications. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of narcotics abuse in pregnant women, as well as the ensuing maternal and fetal outcomes.Material and Methods:This is a descriptive-analytic study conducted on all pregnant women referring to the obstetric department from October 2006 to December 2007. Data were collected using questionnaires, and analyzed with SPSS software.Results:The prevalence of addiction was 0.69% in women admitted for delivery. The mean age of addicted women was 29.4 ± 1.32 years and the most frequent age subgroup (45.5% pertained to ages 20-29 years. In the women studied, we found 11.4% placental abruption, 10% stillbirth, and 37.6% fetal distress. The mean gestational age was 34.6 ± 1.34 weeks, with addicted women having a significantly higher prevalence of premature delivery (p?0.01. The odds ratio (OR for premature delivery was 5.96 times higher for addicted women.Conclusion:Despite the small number of pregnant addicts, they constitute a high-risk population in terms of perinatal outcomes. Therefore, the educational programs during pregnancy must focus on rehabilitation or substitution of narcotics with safer drugs.

  12. Urinary isoflavone concentrations are inversely associated with lower cardiometabolic risk markers in pregnant U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some evidence suggests that phytoestrogens such as soy-derived isoflavones may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and glycemic control. These data are mainly limited to postmenopausal women or individuals at elevated cardiometabolic risk. There is a lack of data for pregnant women who ...

  13. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  14. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Substances Relating to the Renal and Bone Function of Fasting Pregnant Women, 2011-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Khoshdel; Soleiman Kheiri; Jafar Nasiri; Mahmoud Mobasheri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of fluid and food restrictions on biochemical substances relating to the renal and bone function of pregnant women is not well defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction on the following substances in pregnant fasting women during Ramadan: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and alkaline phosphates (ALP). Material and Methods: Thirty fasting pregnant women voluntarily participat...

  15. [Organ-preserving surgeries and nephrectomy in pregnant women with severe forms of acute suppurative destructive pyelonephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlatian, A A

    1995-01-01

    The results of surgical treatment of pyodestructive pyelonephritis in 105 (4.2%) pregnant women and puerperae out of 2506 ones treated in the urology department from 1986 to 1994 are analyzed. Uni- and bilateral apostematous nephritis, carbuncle and abscess of the kidney were diagnosed in 89 and 16 patients, respectively. Nephrostomy was the principal method of treatment of focal suppurative forms of acute pyelonephritis. Bilateral nephrostomy was carried out in 12 pregnant patients, in 3 of them secondary nephrectomy was performed. Nephrectomy is indicated in total destruction of the kidneys, it was made in 37 (35.2%) pregnant women and puerperae. Introduction of radical surgery into practical treatment of neglected forms of pyodestructive pyelonephritis led to almost total liquidation of postoperative mortality in pregnant women. The efficacy of treatment of pregnant women is provided by varying in extension surgical interventions on the kidneys. Organ-sparing and radical operations in grave purulent pyelonephritis were effective in 97.2% of pregnant patients. PMID:7762749

  16. Circulating levels of matrix proteases and their inhibitors in pregnant women with and without a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tin C; Elliott Sarah L; El Gelany Saad; Oc, Anumba Dilly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently shown that serum relaxin-2 levels are attenuated in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). We sought to determine whether a history of RPL is also associated with changes in serum matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMP) -1 and -2. Methods We obtained serum from 20 pregnant women with a history of RPL and 20 age-matched pregnant women with no history of RPL (NRPL) at 6-8, 10-12, 20, and 34 week...

  17. Health status in population of pregnant women and newborns residing on the radionuclide contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adverse influence of various radiation doses upon human organs and systems is well known. One of the scientific spheres of Mother and child research institute at the end of 80th and beginning of the 90th was the study of population effect of low dose radiation on certain persons both in the frame of works dedicated to medical aftereffects of Chernobyl accident, and in the process of constant monitoring of pregnant women and newborns health condition. Permanent evaluation of indices, characterizing morbidity of pregnant women and newborn infants is being held in Brest-, Mogilov-, Gomel areas in dependence of the level of radionuclide contamination of the residence territory . As a result it was found that: The fact of radionuclide contamination of residence territory did not effect on the reproductive behavior of the population. Over the post-Chernobyl period almost a half of million of new inhabitants was born, whose health status may depend on residence on the contaminated territory both the mother during her pregnancy, and the child itself after its birth. Both in the clean, and in the contaminated regions an increase in morbidity rate of pregnant women in the major groups of diseases was revealed over the whole period of the study. The rate of anemias, urogenital system diseases, late gestosis was higher on the radionuclide contaminated territories. On the base of the study of peculiarities of conformation state of hemoglobin the method of prophylaxis and treatmlobin the method of prophylaxis and treatment of anemias of pregnant women by antioxidant complex was developed and put in practice in the suffered regions. As a result, the rate of increase in the number of pregnant women with anemias became considerably slower on the contaminated territories (by factor 1.5). This stage of investigations permitted to state the following: In the first, under the common evidence of disorders in the health status of mothers and infants, residing in ecologically dangerous zones it was not found the confident direct influence of the factors, connected with radionuclide contamination of the territories. In the second, minimal doses of the radionuclides have an Gomel' area). (Authors)en and children in Bragin distrorganism due to the fact that their effect is summarized with the effects of other unfavourable factors of environment, such as anthropogenic contamination, geochemical peculiarities of regions (iodine deficiency, imbalance of other life important elements). The knowledge of these facts allowed to realize the complex of measures for prophylaxis and timely revealing of disorders in the function of life important systems of organism, such as immune and endocrine systems. In the third, practically all recommendation on the correction of some or other changes are of the sense only as fragments of complex sanitation of the population including not only medical measures, but the whole spectrum of social and economical measures. In the middle of 90th the complex approach to the solving of this problem proposed the main point of which was, mainly, as follows: because the treatment itself is not the factor affecting the 'ecology' of the organism, so it was necessary to find methods, which would be the most spare and had minor effects on the organism constants as biosystem. The results of researches of the institute are as follows: It is shown that for the restoration of ecological balance of the organism correction of iodine deficiency, microelements, dismicrobiocynosis is necessary. For its correction in pregnant women and newborns medical prophylactic bioserum and sourmilk products were developed and put into practice in collaboration with Belarus research and technologic design institute of meat and milk industry. These products contain normal microflora resistant to antibiotics. It is found that disorders in cell and humoral chains of immune system are of nonspecific character, and the whole system is in the state of functional strain. That's why for the correction of these disorders an administration of 'tender' immunomodula

  18. Knowledge of newborn healthcare among pregnant women: basis for promotional and educational programs on breastfeeding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Issler; Márcia Borges Sanches Rodrigues de, Sá; Dulce Maria, Senna.

    2001-01-04

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os programas de incentivo ao aleitamento materno são importantes para reverter o declínio desta prática. Muitos desses programas têm se fixado em discutir exclusivamente aspectos do aleitamento materno, quando conhecimentos gerais sobre cuidados de saúde para recém-nascidos podem ser deman [...] da importante, especialmente entre gestantes. OBJETIVO: Estudar conhecimentos de gestantes sobre cuidados gerais de saúde de recém-nascidos, incluindo aspectos referentes ao aleitamento materno. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Inquérito transversal. LOCAL: Centro de Saúde-Escola "Prof. Samuel Barnsley Pessoa" da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. AMOSTRA: Todas as gestantes inscritas no programa de cuidados pré-natais durante seis meses seguidos. VARIÁVEIS AVALIADAS: Aspectos da gestação atual, eventuais gestações e partos anteriores, conhecimentos sobre aspectos gerais da saúde de recém-nascidos e sobre a prática do aleitamento materno. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostram que apenas pouco mais da metade das gestantes recebeu alguma informação sobre cuidados de saúde para recém-nascidos. É clara a desinformação quanto ao tratamento adequado do coto umbilical, à noção do que seja a icterícia neonatal e, ainda mais grave, em relação ao tratamento da monilíase, da icterícia e vacinação. Em relação ao aleitamento materno, embora quase todas as gestantes declaram intenção de amamentar, menos da metade tinha proposta concreta quanto a duração da amamentação. Os baixos índices obtidos nos tópicos que tratam da duração, intervalos de mamada e sobre a atitude a ser tomada na hipogalactia mostram desconhecimento da técnica de aleitamento. A crença do leite fraco, a desinformação de métodos contraceptivos durante a amamentação, do custo da alimentação artificial formam um contexto também negativo para esta prática. CONCLUSÕES: Os conhecimentos das gestantes entrevistadas sobre cuidados de saúde para recém-nascidos são precários, tanto no aspecto de cuidados gerais, como também em relação à prática do aleitamento materno. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração nos programas educativos de incentivo ao aleitamento materno. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Promotional and educational programs relating to breastfeeding are important for reversing the decline in this practice. Most programs are centered exclusively on breastfeeding, although general knowledge about newborn healthcare may be important, especially among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: [...] To study pregnant women's knowledge about general healthcare of newborns, including breastfeeding aspects. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Prof. Samuel Barnsley Pessoa Health School Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: All pregnant women who were registered in the prenatal care program during six consecutive months. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Aspects of the current gestation, previous gestations and childbirths, knowledge of the general aspects of newborn healthcare and of breastfeeding practices. RESULTS: The results show that only a little over half of the pregnant women had received any information on newborn healthcare. Misinformation was clearly present regarding proper care of the umbilical stump and the nature of jaundice, and worst regarding how to treat oral thrush and jaundice, and about vaccination. In relation to breastfeeding, even though almost all the pregnant women declared their intention to breastfeed, less than half had a concrete response regarding how long to do it for. The low rates obtained in the topics dealing with the duration, nursing intervals and the attitude to be taken towards hypogalactia show unfamiliarity with the breastfeeding technique. The "weak milk" belief, the misinformation about contraceptive methods during breastfeeding and the cost of artificial formulas also have a negative impact on this practice. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women's knowledge of newborn healthcare is low, as much in the aspects of general care as in

  19. Susceptibility of pregnant women to toxoplasma infection--potential benefits for newborn screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, W

    2008-08-20

    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) arises as a result of new acquisition of Toxoplasma infection by a susceptible woman during pregnancy. Early detection of CT through neonatal screening programmes could optimize management and improve infant outcome. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma susceptibility in pregnant women. As detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in neonatal blood reflects maternal exposure history, maternal antibody seroprevalence was determined using anonymized residual blood from newborn screening cards. A total of 20,252 cards were tested in 1 year. 4,991 (24.6%) cards tested positive for Toxoplasma antibody. Results were stratified by county. Toxoplasma antibody seroprevalence rates of 25% indicated that Toxoplasma infection is common in Ireland and that up to 75% of women remain susceptible to primary infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to a) determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibody in pregnant women, and hence b) estimate the risk for acquisition of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in order to support an application to fund a pilot newborn screening programme.

  20. Seroprevalence of varicella antibodies among pregnant women in Lyon-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to calculate the seroprevalence of immunity to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection and to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of the self-reported history of VZV infection in pregnant women. A cross sectional study was conducted in 18 private medical analysis laboratories. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and past history of varicella or zoster were collected using a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained to determine the serological levels of past exposure to VZV. Overall, 486 pregnant women were recruited. The seroprevalence of VZV antibodies was 98.8%. Six women were seronegative, of whom four were primiparous. The PPV was high (99.5%) while the NPV was only 10.3%. The PPV is a reliable marker of prior VZV infection. In contrast, a negative history does not predict lack of immunity and should be completed by serological analysis which might be introduced to routine antenatal blood tests

  1. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespective of gestational age from October 2008-March 2012. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or more than 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose subclinical / overt hypothyroidism. If serum free T4 was in the normal range (0.7-1.8 ng/dl the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal range, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed. Results: A total of 3158 pregnant women were evaluated. One hundred forty seven of them were diagnosed as hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were present in 131 (89.1% and 16 (10.9% women respectively. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.15%. Most of the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases were diagnosed in the first trimester. Conclusion: It appears logical to check TSH during pregnancy due to the observed prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  2. Toxoplasmosis-serological evidence and associated risk factors among pregnant women in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ling, Lau Yee; Chandeying, Verapol

    2011-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and none were positive for IgM antibody. Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-2.67), living outside Songkhla province (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.08-2.24), parity (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.01-2.68), contact with cats (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.20-2.43), and drinking of unclean water (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.08-2.68) were factors associated with Toxoplasma seroprevalence. On the basis of the results obtained, a health surveillance program should be initiated as a primary preventive measure for congenital toxoplasmosis and focus on educating women of the child-bearing age group to avoid contact with cats and to strictly practice personal hygiene. PMID:21813842

  3. Prescription of drugs to pregnant women in France: the HIMAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Guy, Claire; Ratrema, Martine; Ollagnier, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The HIMAGE study, conducted in partnership with the principal Public Health Insurance Funds of the Loire region, analysed medicinal prescriptions during pregnancy on the basis of a representative sample of 911 pregnant women resident in this region of France. Altogether 93.5% received at least one prescription, with a mean of 10.9 different drugs per woman. The prescriptions were predominantly for drugs of the following Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classes: "alimentary tract and metabolism" (78%); "genito-urinary system and sex hormones" (62%); "nervous system" (62%); and "blood and blood-forming organs" (57%). Iron supplements, paracetamol, folic acid, magnesium, progesterone, oxaceprol, phloroglucinol, amoxicillin, domperidone and diosmine were the most frequently prescribed drugs. In total, 4.6% of the women were exposed to drugs involving a risk during pregnancy: principally nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescribed from the sixth month onwards. This study revealed a high frequency of prescription of drugs to pregnant women, largely motivated by non-rational and to some extent culture-specific considerations, and it also highlighted the prescription of drugs known to involve risk during pregnancy. These results provide a basis for advising clinicians on the rational and safe use of drugs during pregnancy. PMID:15058494

  4. Epidemiological factors associated with seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Gontijo, da Silva; Joseneide Teixeira, Câmara; Marina Clare, Vinaud; Ana Maria, de Castro.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii dissemination among pregnant