WorldWideScience
1

Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC) using mixed methods to...

van Teijlingen Edwin R; Gray Denise A; Cg, Douglas Flora

2010-01-01

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Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

van Teijlingen Edwin R

2010-02-01

3

Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subject...

Paul Erhunmwunse Imade; Patience Emiolu Izekor; Nosakhare Odeh Eghafona; Onaiwu Idahosa Enabulele; Endurance Ophori

2013-01-01

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Vaccinations for pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

2015-01-01

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Online Medicine for Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) h...

Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David; Peleg, Roni

2014-01-01

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Toxoplasmosis in Kosovo pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the initial results of a collaborative project aimed at the evaluation of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a population of Kosovar pregnant women. The serum samples of 334 pregnant women were tested to detect IgG, IgM, IgG avidity for toxoplasmosis. Data regarding age, occupation, area of origin and education were also obtained for the pregnant women examined; 97/334 (29.4%) resulted positive for IgG antibodies, four of whom (4.1%) were also positive for IgM, (1.2% of the total population examined). All four IgM-positive pregnant women also demonstrated low avidity tests. The rate of IgG seroprevalence found in our study was lower than that observed in various European countries, especially those of western Europe. Conversely, the percentage of recent infections was higher than expected. The higher rate of infections could be the result of a recent toxoplasmosis epidemic in Kosovo, most likely due to the altered hygienic conditions caused by the forced transfer of the ethnic-Albanian population from an area of low (Serbia) to high (Kosovo) toxoplasmosis prevalence. PMID:21617833

Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Putoto, Giovanni; Ramadani, Naser; Bertinato, Luigi; Berisha, Merita; Schinaia, Nicola; Quaglio, Gianluca; Maggi, Paolo

2011-04-01

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Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past ... Español File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this ...

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Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

Fahimeh Rezazadeh

2014-12-01

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Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria in pregnant women referred to the medical centers of Tabriz, Iran, for prenatal care. Materials and Methods: A total of 1100 healthy pregnant women who were referred to 50 medical centers in Tabriz for a regular prenatal care were evaluated for bacteriuria. Results: The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.1%. Maternal age was lower in the women with a positive urine culture (P = .02. Asymptomatic bacteriuria had no relationship with gestational age, parity, level of education, and body mass index. Conclusion: We found a relatively high rate of bacteriuria in our cohort of asymptomatic pregnant subjects, especially the younger ones. For prevention from the complications of the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, such as pyelonephritis, hypertension, preeclampsia, low birth weight, prematurity, septicemia, and even maternal and neonatal death, it is recommended to perform urine culture as a routine evaluation during the pregnancy.

Samad Hazhir

2007-02-01

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Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

2010-06-01

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Preoperative preparation of pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated with the highest risks since it may lead to a life-threatening complication - eclampsia. As for other coexisting diseases, urinary tract infections and gestational diabetes are the most common as well as hyperthyroidism and other diseases that may also develop. The type and severity of the acute surgical disease, extensiveness of the planned surgery as well as the type of planned anesthesia to be applied, occasionally necessitate, depending on the gestational age, termination of pregnancy to be considered. Gynecological-obstetric consultations are mandatory in all surgical interventions planned in pregnant women.

Liki?-La?evi? Ivana

2011-01-01

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Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... safety while breastfeeding For More Information Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Food Safety Food safety is especially important for pregnant women. ... careful about food safety while you are pregnant. Food safety advice for everyone Keep food safe to eat ...

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Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-11-17

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Assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women.  

OpenAIRE

Studies on the effects of caffeine on health, while numerous, have produced inconsistent results. One of the most uncertain and controversial effects is on pregnancy outcome. Studies have produced conflicting results due to a number of methodological variations. The major challenge is the accurate assessment of caffeine intake. The aim of the present study was to explore different methods of assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women. Twenty-four healthy pregnant women from the UK city of ...

Boylan, S. M.; Cade, J. E.; Kirk, S. F.; Greenwood, D. C.; White, K. L.; Shires, S.; Simpson, N. A.; Wild, C. P.; Hay, A. W.

2008-01-01

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Syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique.  

OpenAIRE

To establish the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique and evaluate present diagnostic methods, 1468 pregnant women in eight of the country's 10 provinces were examined using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Positive serum samples were also analysed using the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) assay and one group was also analysed using the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS) test. The prevalence of VDRL seroreactivity was found to...

Liljestrand, J.; Bergstro?m, S.; Nieuwenhuis, F.; Hederstedt, B.

1985-01-01

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Iodine deficiency in pregnant women of Lahore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To know extent of iodine deficiency (ID), role of thyroid enlargement (goiter) as marker of ID and current status of iodized salt intake in pregnant women of Lahore. A cross sectional study was carried out at Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, during March 2002 to September 2005. Pregnant women (n = 254) during first trimester attending antenatal clinic participated voluntarily. Iodine intake status was determined by urinary iodine (UI) excretion. UI excretion ranged from 34 to 142 >g/L and median value was 67>g/L. According to international criteria, 202 (79.5%) pregnant women were iodine deficient (UI <100 mu g/L) mostly (68.8%) of mild (UI: 50-99 mu g/L) degree. Moderate iodine deficiency (MID; UI <50 mu g/L) was found in 63 (24.8%) pregnant women. Among all pregnant women 80 (31.5%) had slightly visible goiter and only 87(34.2%) were currently taking iodized salt. The difference in UI excretion between goitrous and non-goitrous pregnant women was not significant. Among iodized salt users percentage of women with MID was less, though not significant, as compared to non-users (20.7% Vs 26.9%). About one-fourth of pregnant women screened in this study are moderately iodine deficient in Lahore. These women and their neonates are at increased risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Goiter is not a good indicator of low iodine intake while iodized salt consumption is beneficial in this regard (JPMA 59:741; 2009). (author)thor)

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High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ?104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (?² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U. urealyticum ? 104 is more frequent in pregnant women with risk pregnancy than in pregnant women with normal term delivery. High-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization should be observed as a possible etiological factor for PROM.

Ran?elovi? Gordana

2006-01-01

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Sepsis in obese pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal, epidemiological and limited human studies have reported that obesity increases susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. Obesity has now reached worldwide epidemic proportions with a recent study estimating that there are currently 2.1 billion obese adults in the world. The rates of sepsis in both the non-pregnant and pregnant population are also increasing. Obesity is an independent risk factor for both infection and sepsis in pregnancy. This review article addresses the epidemiology, immunological factors, infection sites, investigation, management, specific intrapartum care and postnatal care of the obese pregnant woman with infection. PMID:25467427

Orr, Katrine; Chien, Patrick

2015-04-01

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Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women Finding ... 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that yoga may help ease depression in pregnant women. "This ...

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45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46.204 Public...Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research ...Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

2010-10-01

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Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS...

Elham Ebrahimi; Mina Soleymani; Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh; Fatemeh Hosseini

2013-01-01

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Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Employers Health Care Workers American Indian & Alaska Natives Spanish Language Mobile Content Influenza FluView App Syndication Catalog RSS Feed Web Tools Animated Images Young Adults NIVW Families and General Audience Pregnant Women Heart Disease Flu-Related Hospitalizations Take 3 The Flu I.Q. ...

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Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age.

Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

2010-01-01

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Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteristics were evaluated. Results. Compared to women without M. genitalium, women with M. genitalium were more likely to report nulliparity (41.7% versus 17.4%, P=.04, history of pelvic inflammatory disease (27.3% versus 8.8%, P=.08, prior C. trachomatis infection (63.6% versus 36.9%, P=.11, and problems getting pregnant (18.2% versus 4.4%, P=.10. M. genitalium was not associated with SAB (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.2–3.8. Conclusions. Pregnant women who test positive for M. genitalium do not have an increased risk of SAB but report a history of reproductive morbidities.

Vanessa L. Short

2010-01-01

25

[Hemodynamics during arterial hypertension in pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamic profile of arterial hypertension during pregnancy. The study group consisted of 84 pregnant women with arterial hypertension (age 29+/-3,6 years), control group included 21 healthy women (age 20+/-1,3 years). In the study group the following subgroups were identified: chronic arterial hypertension (24 cases), preeclampsia (22 cases), combination of preeclampsia with chronic arterial hypertension (18 cases), gestational hypertension (20 cases). The status of hemodynamics was evaluated by Doppler echocardiography (Sonoline-elegra-Siemens, Germany). It was proved, that in the pregnant women with chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, combination of preeclampsia with chronic hypertension and gestational hypertension, high-output hemodynamic syndrome has been developed. Significant differences in diameter of the root of aorta, thickness of the posterior wall of the left ventricle and end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle was revealed, those correlated with age of the arterial hypertension. PMID:15988073

Tsaava, F; Shonia, R

2005-05-01

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Contesting "Silhouettes of a Pregnant Belly": Young Pregnant Women’s Discursive Constructions of the Body  

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Full Text Available In this article, we draw on a feminist poststructuralist perspective to explore how young pregnant women discursively construct the pregnant body in the context of the dominant obesity discourse and other prevailing bodily discourses. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 15 pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 28 coming from various socioeconomic and educational backgrounds in the Ottawa region. The poststructralist discourse analysis reveals that, overall, the participants are interpellated by the dominant obesity discourse and other bodily discourses surrounding beauty, femininity, and heterosexuality. Paradoxically, they also recite alternative discourses that resist dominant bodily discourses. The young pregnant women seem to constitute themselves as conflicted subjects simultaneously reproducing dominant and subversive discourses. This leads us to conclude with a discussion surrounding the need for more realistic and inclusive subject positions within pregnancy discourses.

GENEVIÈVE RAIL

2011-01-01

27

Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitt [...] ed to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

H., Ben Nasr; T. S., Hammami; Z., Sahnoun; T., Rebai; M., Bouaziz; M., Kassis; K. M., Zeghal.

28

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.Results: A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.Conclusion: It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

Elham Ebrahimi

2013-03-01

29

Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrea...

Hotelling, Barbara A.

2008-01-01

30

Syphilis in pregnant women in Zambia.  

OpenAIRE

Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera ...

Ratnam, A. V.; Din, S. N.; Hira, S. K.; Bhat, G. J.; Wacha, D. S.; Rukmini, A.; Mulenga, R. C.

1982-01-01

31

Recurrent Gingival Swelling in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this case report is to present a rare case which has been reported with the history of small nodule like growth on mandibular buccal and lingual area. Thirty year old pregnant women reported a nodule on left mandibular buccal and lingual region. The lesion was surgically excised and sent for biopsy to differentiate from kimura's disease, pyogenic granuloma, epithelioid angiosarcoma (EH). Histologically lesion shows proliferation of endothelial cells along blood vessels suggesting e...

Kumar, Mukesh; Goyal, Niti; Dahiya, Parveen; Gupta, Rajan

2013-01-01

32

Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, see...

Nucci Luciana Bertoldi; Schmidt Maria Inês; Duncan Bruce Bartholow; Fuchs Sandra Costa; Fleck Eni Teresinha; Britto Maria Margarida Santos

2001-01-01

33

Assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the effects of caffeine on health, while numerous, have produced inconsistent results. One of the most uncertain and controversial effects is on pregnancy outcome. Studies have produced conflicting results due to a number of methodological variations. The major challenge is the accurate assessment of caffeine intake. The aim of the present study was to explore different methods of assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women. Twenty-four healthy pregnant women from the UK city of Leeds completed both a detailed questionnaire, the caffeine assessment tool (CAT) designed specifically to assess caffeine intake and a prospective 3 d food and drink diary. The women also provided nine saliva samples over two consecutive days for estimation of caffeine and a metabolite (paraxanthine). Caffeine intakes from the CAT and diary showed adequate agreement (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.5). For saliva caffeine and paraxanthine measures, the between-sample variation (within the same woman) was greater than between-woman and between-day variation. However, there was still adequate agreement between these measures and the CAT. The CAT is a valuable tool that is now being used in a large prospective study investigating caffeine's role in pregnancy outcome. PMID:18331663

Boylan, Sinead M; Cade, Janet E; Kirk, Sara F L; Greenwood, Darren C; White, Kay L M; Shires, Susan; Simpson, Nigel A B; Wild, Chris P; Hay, Alastair W M

2008-10-01

34

Recurrent gingival swelling in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this case report is to present a rare case which has been reported with the history of small nodule like growth on mandibular buccal and lingual area. Thirty year old pregnant women reported a nodule on left mandibular buccal and lingual region. The lesion was surgically excised and sent for biopsy to differentiate from kimura's disease, pyogenic granuloma, epithelioid angiosarcoma (EH). Histologically lesion shows proliferation of endothelial cells along blood vessels suggesting epithelioid hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to discuss and differentiate EH and other vascular rare entities occurring in the oral cavity. PMID:23723608

Kumar, Mukesh; Goyal, Niti; Dahiya, Parveen; Gupta, Rajan

2013-01-01

35

Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

Marnoch Gordon J

2011-10-01

36

137Cs metabolism in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137Cs intake. For the first woman 137Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

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Suicide Attempts with Drug Intoxication in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Insufficient data are available comparing medical costs, hospitalization or admission rate, and drugs used for the treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant women admited to the emergency department (ED due to suicide attempts following drug intoxication. We sought to evaluate these differences in our ED. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study; hence we attempted to follow all pregnant and non-pregnant women who were admitted in our ED at Ataturk University, Erzurum-Turkey, due to suicide attempt with drug intoxication. We have obtained records of management plans, estimated costs and hospital admission rate in the ED from 2008 to 2011 and compared in both groups. Results: A total of 309 women were registered as suicide attempts with drug intoxication. Out of these, 23 (7.4% were pregnant and 286 (92.6% were non-pregnant. The pregnant women had lower rate of past history of psychiatric illness as compared to non-pregnant women (4.3% vs. 26.2%; p=0.019. Comparison of drug intoxication revealed a higher rate of intake of organophosphate (39.1%; vs. 34.8% p<0.001 and paracetamol (39.1% vs. 19.9%; p=0.031, but a lower rate of multidrug ingestion (39.1% vs. 67.8%; p=0.005 in pregnant women. Furthermore, pregnant women have a lower rate of hospitalization in ED (56.5% vs. 77.6%, but higher rates of hospitalization in internal services (13% vs. 6.3%, and intensive care units (13% vs. 3.1%; p=0.039 compared to non-pregnant women. Consequently, the cost of therapy was also higher in pregnant (2553.5±6206.7 TL vs. 581.3±490.3 TL; p<0.001. Conclusions: Though pregnant women were admitted less frequently compared to non-pregnant women, suicide attempts with drug intoxication among pregnant women have increased consequences in terms of hospitalization rate and cost. Thus there is an urgent need to incorporate a special screening program to measure suicide risk followed by counseling for pregnant women during post-conceptual care.

Mustafa UZKESER

2012-01-01

38

Determinants of Non-Vaccination against Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Pregnant Women: A Prospective Cohort Study  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: In October 2009, the French government organized a national-wide, free of charge vaccination campaign against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, especially targeting pregnant women, a high risk group for severe illness. The study objective was to evaluate pandemic flu vaccine uptake and factors associated with non-vaccination in a population of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort conducted in 3 maternity hospitals in Paris, 882 pregnant women were r...

Freund, Romain; Le Ray, Camille; Charlier, Caroline; Avenell, Carolyn; Truster, Van; Tre?luyer, Jean-marc; Skalli, Dounia; Ville, Yves; Goffinet, Franc?ois; Launay, Odile

2011-01-01

39

How Metformin Acts in PCOS Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE Metformin has been reported to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GD) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of this drug during pregnancy. In the attempt to fill this gap, we performed a prospective longitudinal study providing a detailed examination of glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnant women with PCOS undergoing metformin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We enrolled 60 women with PCOS who conceived while undergoing metformin treatment. An oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed at each trimester of gestation in 47 ongoing pregnancies. RESULTS Twenty-two of the study subjects had development of GD despite the treatment. At baseline, insulin sensitivity was comparable between women who had development of GD and women who did not. A progressive decline in this parameter occurred in all subjects, independently of the trimester of GD diagnosis. Insulin secretion was significantly higher during the first trimester in patients with an early failure of metformin treatment. Women with third trimester GD and women with no GD exhibited a significant increase in insulin output as gestation proceeded. All newborns were healthy and only one case of macrosomia was observed. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS who enter pregnancy in a condition of severe hyperinsulinemia have development of GD earlier, independently of metformin treatment. The physiologic deterioration of insulin sensitivity is not affected by the drug and does not predict the timing and severity of the glycemic imbalance. Despite the high incidence of GD observed, the drug itself or the intensive monitoring probably accounted for the good neonatal outcome. PMID:23315599

Romualdi, Daniela; De Cicco, Simona; Gagliano, Donatella; Busacca, Matteo; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio; Guido, Maurizio

2013-01-01

40

Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

2015-02-01

41

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2010-07-01

42

Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social), as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members). The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against preg...

Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh; Hana Husni Al Nabulsi

2013-01-01

43

Estimating coverage of a women’s group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’s group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the intervention’s coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1 direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2 direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated women’s group intervention’s coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with women’s group members and facilitators participating in the Women’s Groups intervention.

Younes Layla

2012-06-01

44

[Investigative care practice of HIV-positive pregnant women according Parse's theory].  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a qualitative study aimed developing an investigative care practice of HIV-positive pregnant woman based on Rosemarie Parse's theory. The study was carried out at a Maternity Ward in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Its target population included four HIV-positive pregnant women under pre-natal care. The theoretical foundation was applied to the nursing process, taking into account three dimensions: clarifying meaning, synchronizing rhythm, and mobilizing transcendence. Data were collected using interviews and patient observation. The results reveal an innovative method of providing care to HIV-positive pregnant women holistically, thereby, promoting their evolution as human beings. PMID:17476956

Coelho, Rita de Cássia Heinzen de Almeida; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; dos Santos, Evanguelia Kotzias Atherino

2006-12-01

45

The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

Zahraei M

1993-04-01

46

Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008) pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008) were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs...

Nana Philip N; Tonye Rebecca N; Fx, Mbopi-keou; Kongnyuy Eugene J; Mbu Enow R; Ji, Leke Robert

2008-01-01

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Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smoking-related consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty women, selected to constitute four subgroups formed by pregnant vs. non-pregnant and trying vs. not trying to quit smoking, rated times at which they would expect smoking-related consequences to occur given continuing ...

Tuula Wallsten; Per Näsman; Bo Simonsson; Monica Ortendahl; Alf Uttermalm

2009-01-01

48

Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women  

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Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

A.V. Lepilin

2010-06-01

49

Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants  

Science.gov (United States)

... Plan Organization Chart Major Milestones Data and Statistics Abortion FAQ Epidemiology Glossary Emergency Preparedness Wildfires: Pregnant Women ... What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Unintended Pregnancy Contraception Contraceptive Guidance for Providers ...

50

Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: Environmental Exposures  

Science.gov (United States)

... PSAs People with Blood Disorders People with Disabilities Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: Environmental Exposures Recommend ... woman might be especially concerned about the potential effects of carbon monoxide exposure on her unborn child. ...

51

Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles andrelated factors in pregnant women.Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan.Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceivedhealth status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or peers’health-promoting behaviors, and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP?...

Te-Fu Chan; Fan-Hao Chou; Eing-Mei Tsai; Yu-Hua Lin; Yu-Ling Lin

2009-01-01

52

Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela  

OpenAIRE

Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a pren...

Pedro Rifakis; Benitez, Jes S.; Gilberto Cabaniel; Elianet Araujo; Elizabeth Hernández; Magdary Colina; Blanco, Juan J.; Anna Viloria; Ymora Aguilera; Andrea Maldonado; Nestor Rubio; Gloria Gervasio; Oscar Urdaneta; Henry Perez; Marisela Ravelo

2006-01-01

53

Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

54

Prevalence and Risk Indicators for Anal Incontinence among Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of anal incontinence in an unselected pregnant population at second trimester. A survey of pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination was conducted in a university hospital in Oslo, Norway. A questionnaire consisting of 105 items concerning anal incontinence (including St. Mark's score), urinary incontinence, medication use, and comorbidity was posted to women when invited to the ultrasound examination. Results...

Katariina Laine; Finn Egil Skjeldestad; Leiv Sandvik; Anne Cathrine Staff

2013-01-01

55

Daily versus intermittent iron supplementation in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women. Method The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n = 50) received a 50 mg-ferrous s...

Cherati Shahla; Zeinal Zadeh Mahtab; Basirat Zahra; Bouzari Zinatossadat; Ardebil Maryam; Mohammadnetaj Maedeh; Barat Shahnaz

2011-01-01

56

Cytomegalovirus infection in primiparous pregnant women and their neonates  

OpenAIRE

Cytomegaloviurs (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection in humans. In various parts of the world the prevalence of antibodies to CMV ranges from 40-100%. The prevalence of primary infection with CMV in pregnant Iranian women and risk of congenital CMV infection in their neonates are unknown. To Determine the prevalence of CMV infection in primiparous pregnant (youner) women and incidence rate of cangenital CMV infection among preterm and full-term infants borned from these wo...

"Siadati A; Noorbakhsh S; Ghazi F; Rimaz Sh; Shr, Monavari

2002-01-01

57

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Ch...

Helle Margrete Meltzer; Marianne Hope Abel; Margaretha Haugen; Anne Lise Brantsæter

2013-01-01

58

Do Pregnant Teens Have Higher Risk of Intimate Partner Violence than Pregnant Adult Women in Mexico?  

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Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV and identify factors linked to it in pregnant Mexican adult and adolescent women. Methods: Data were gathered by the National Survey of Violence against Women (2006, applied to women between the ages 15-49, users of Mexican public health institutions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the significant factors associated with IPV against pregnant women. Results: Both adolescent and adult study participating women showed a 24% prevalence of current IPV (during the previous 12 months. The study’s multivariate model for adult women revealed the following as main predictors for IPV: a woman’s agreement with traditional gender roles (OR = 4.35, CI95% = 2.20 - 8.60, and women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (OR = 2.76, CI95% = 1.68 - 4.55. The main predictor of IPV in pregnant adolescents was their partners’ frequency of alcohol consumption: often/usually (OR = 6.49, CI95% = 2.18 - 19.33. Conclusion: To this date, Mexico has not been able to guarantee universal screening methods for IPV as a part of prenatal care protocols. The phenomenon of IPV towards pregnant women neither has been followed-up by further research nor has been identified as a public health problem in spite of the seriousness of its implications for women and their offspring.

Rosario Valdez Santiago

2014-12-01

59

Comparison of Sexual Function between Nulliparous with Multiparous Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background & Aim: Pregnancy can conflict with sexual function that can be affected by physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare sexual functions between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women referred to health centers in Eastern district of Guilan. Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Guilan during 2009-2010. We used convenient sampling method to select 554 pregnant women. Data were gathered using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, sexual function and fear of harm to fetus. The SPSS-16 was used to analyze the data by the Mann-Whitney U and Generalized linear models. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: There was no significant difference between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women regarding sexual function in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (P=0.353, P=0.251. There were significant differences between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women regarding sexual desire (P=0.002, arousal (P=0.01, orgasm (P=0.01, pain (P=0.02 and sexual function total score (P=0.016. There was significant difference between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women regarding sexual function (P=0.008. Conclusion: Sexual counseling and rehabilitation programs should be compiled as part of the comprehensive care of prenatal care especially for multiparous pregnant women.  

Kobra Abouzari Gazafroodi

2012-12-01

60

Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p3Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no s and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

61

A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women a...

Munari, F. M.; De-paris, F.; Salton, G. D.; Lora, P. S.; Giovanella, P.; Machado, A. B. M. P.; Laybauer, L. S.; Oliveira, K. R. P.; Ferri, C.; Silveira, J. L. S.; Laurino, C. C. F. C.; Xavier, R. M.; Barth, A. L.; Echeverrigaray, S.; Laurino, J. P.

2012-01-01

62

Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women. PMID:24150690

Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

2014-12-01

63

Sources of Infant Feeding Information Used by Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Selecting an infant feeding method is one of the most important decisions a mother-to-be makes. Little information is available to characterize women who plan to use both formula and breast milk. In this study, 89 pregnant women indicated their anticipated feeding method and the sources and initiator of infant feeding information. No differences were found in the type of resources used by women who planned to breastfeed, formula feed, or combination feed. Women in the study were four times mo...

Chezem, Jocarol; Friesen, Carol; Clark, Heidi

2001-01-01

64

Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social, as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members. The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against pregnant women, a study in which consisted of 250 women from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Salt in Jordan, was used package Statistical Social Sciences (SPSS.The study was applied at statistical methods and simple statistics advanced test, to analysis of variance T-test and F-test, to show the differences and implications of statistical variables, the results revealed that the actions stressful work, being forced to have sex, and beating, is one of the most prevalent forms of physical violence.  A Study also demonstrated that questioning the sex of the baby, neglecting, and the carelessness of the husband to towards the health status, was one of the most common forms of psychological violence known. The exposure of pregnant women to smoke, and the neglect of her husband because of being pregnant with a female and not allowing seeing the doctor was one of the forms of social violence. Also showed that stress, the anxiety and depression is the psychological effects of violence, also the slackness to perform house duties, and isolation forms other social impacts. The results also showed the presence of statistically significant relationships between forms of violence against a pregnant woman due to the variable places of residence, and monthly income. And there are no statistically significant differences to forms of violence attributed to the educational level.

Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh

2013-01-01

65

Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ?3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

Hilda Razzaghi

2014-06-01

66

Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

2006-01-01

67

Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

2014-04-01

68

Neutralizing Dengue Antibody in Pregnant Thai Women and Cord Blood  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The WHO ‘Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, 2012–2020’ addresses the growing need for the treatment of dengue, and targets a 25% reduction in morbidity and 50% in mortality (using 2010 estimates as baseline). Achieving these goals requires future dengue prevention strategies that will employ both potential vaccines and sustainable vector-control measures. Maternally transferred dengue antibody is an important factor in determining the optimal age for dengue vaccination. Objectives To estimate the seroprevalence of dengue antibodies among mothers living in an area of high endemicity – Ban Pong, Ratchaburi Province – and to assess maternal dengue antibodies transferred to cord blood. Materials & Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 141 pregnant women who delivered at Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand. Maternal-cord paired sera were tested for dengue neutralizing (NT) antibody by PRNT50 assay. A ratio of ? 1:10 NT titer to dengue serotype was considered seropositive. Results Most mothers (137/141, 97.2%) had NT antibodies to at least one dengue serotype in their sera. At birth, the proportion of cord sera with NT antibodies to DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4, were high and similar to the sera of their mothers, at 93.6%, 97.2%, 97.9%, and 92.2%, respectively. The dengue geometric mean titers (GMT) in cord blood were significantly higher than the maternal antibodies (p<0.001): highest in DEN-2, followed by DEN-3, and then DEN-1. The GMT of DEN-4 was the lowest among all four serotypes. Conclusions Dengue infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in this dengue-endemic area. Most of the cord blood had transferred dengue antibodies, which may have an impact on the disease burden in this population. PMID:25658481

Khamim, Kriangsak; Hattasingh, Weerawan; Nisalak, Ananda; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Fernandez, Stefan; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Pengsaa, Krisana; Thisyakorn, Usa

2015-01-01

69

Mechanisms of diminished natural killer cell activity in pregnant women and neonates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because alterations in natural killer (NK) activity in the perinatal period may be important in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, the mechanisms by which these alterations are mediated in neonates and in pregnant and postpartum women was examined. NK activity, as measured in a 4-hr 51Cr-release assay and compared with adult controls, is significantly diminished in all three trimesters of pregnancy and in immediately postpartum women. In postpartum women, NK activity appears to be higher than in pregnant women, although this does not reach statistical significance. Pregnant and postpartum women have normal numbers of large granular lymphocytes and normal target cell binding in an agarose single cell assay but decreased lysis of the bound target cells. NK activity of mononuclear cells from postpartum women, in addition, demonstrate a shift in distribution to higher levels of resistance to gamma-irradiation. Further, sera from postpartum women cause a similar shift to increased radioresistance in mononuclear cells from adult controls. Because radioresistance is a property of interleukin 2-stimulated NK, the shift to radioresistance may represent lymphokine-mediated stimulation occurring during parturition. In contrast, cord blood cells have a more profound decrease in NK activity as determined by 51Cr-release assay and decreases in both binding and lysis of bound target cells in the single cell assay. The resistance of NK activity in cord cellThe resistance of NK activity in cord cells to gamma-irradiation is also increased, as seen in postpartum women. Cord blood serum, however, did not alter radioresistance or inhibit NK activity. The results suggest that the observed diminished NK activity in pregnant women and neonates arise by different mechanisms: an absence of mature NK cells in the neonate and an alteration of the NK cell in pregnancy leading to decreased killing

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The Quality of Pregnant Women Life with Nausea and Vomiting  

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Full Text Available

Background and Objectives: About 50-90% of pregnant women at the first trimester of the pregnancy experience nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting has deep impact on well being and daily living activities. The aim of this study has been to explore the quality of pregnant women life with nausea and vomiting.

 

Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study has been conducted on 120 pregnant women that referred to medical & health centers in Gorgan (North of Iran during 2008. The data sampling method was purposeful. For assessing quality of life, SF-36 questionnaire and for evaluation nausea and vomiting "Rhodes scale" were applied. The data analyzed with SPSS using T-test, Chi-square, and Spearman test.

 

Results: Quality life of 60 % of women with the average higher than 50, showed a high performance. 40% of women with the average lower than 50 had lower performance too. In terms of intensity, nausea and vomiting for 21.7% of the women were severe, 59.2% moderate, and 32.5% mild. According to Spearman test, there was a significant relationship between quality of life and severity of nausea and vomiting (r=0.04. The relationships among the quality of life, age of mother (p=0.04, education of mother (p=0.04, and academic education of husband (p=0.01 were significant.

 

Conclusion: The quality of life only in a small percentage of the women is desirable and also the relationship between quality of life with nausea and vomiting is significant. It is essential that health care workers consider the impact of nausea and vomiting on quality of the pregnant women life and provide appropriate interventions to support pregnant mothers.

 

L Jouybari

2012-07-01

71

Cardiorespiratory responses of pregnant and nonpregnant women during resistance exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bgeginski, R, Almada, BP, and Kruel, LFM. Cardiorespiratory responses of pregnant and nonpregnant women during resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 29(3): 596-603, 2015-The purpose of this study was to determine cardiorespiratory responses in pregnant and nonpregnant women during the execution of resistance exercises for upper and lower body. Twenty healthy women (10 pregnant: 22-24 weeks, 25.20 ± 4.44 years, 69.80 ± 9.52 kg, 161.60 ± 5.21 cm and 10 nonpregnant: 25.20 ± 3.73 years, 62.36 ± 8.60 kg, 162.40 ± 3.97 cm) performed 5 experimental sessions. Session 1: familiarization with the equipments and the determination of 1 estimated maximum repetition. Sessions 2, 3, 4, and 5: determination of the cardiorespiratory responses during the execution of resistance exercise on the bilateral leg extension and pec-deck fly, with 1 and 3 sets of 15 repetitions, 50% of 1 estimated maximum repetition. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (BP) responses were lower (p = 0.029, 0.018, 0.009, respectively) in the pregnant group. When the exercises were performed with a single set, heart rate showed increased values for bilateral leg extension (pregnant: 109.40 ± 10.75 b·min, nonpregnant: 108.51 ± 19.05 b·min) compared with pec-deck (pregnant: 101.59 ± 14.83 b·min, nonpregnant: 100.37 ± 12.36 b·min); however, when the exercises were performed with 3 sets, bilateral leg extension showed increased values for the heart rate (pregnant: 114.70 ± 13.58 b·min, nonpregnant: 121.29 ± 10.86 b·min), systolic (pregnant: 124.50 ± 17.32 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 136.00 ± 17.79 mm Hg), diastolic (pregnant: 68.10 ± 8.23 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 77.89 ± 15.25 mm Hg), and mean BP (pregnant: 86.90 ± 10.38 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 97.73 ± 12.64 mm Hg), ventilation (pregnant: 12.88 ± 4.05 L·min, nonpregnant: 15.02 ± 4.19 L·min), and oxygen consumption (pregnant: 0.41 ± 0.08 L·min, nonpregnant: 0.42 ± 0.09 L·min) compared with pec-deck fly exercise. We concluded that the pressure response was unaffected by pregnancy and showed to be safe during the performance of resistance exercises. PMID:25226315

Bgeginski, Roberta; Almada, Bruna P; Martins Kruel, Luiz F

2015-03-01

72

A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN  

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Full Text Available Anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disorder in the world. WHO has estimated the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women in developed and developing countries, and that is 14% in developed and 51% in developing countries.1 Anaemia in pregnancy remains one of the most intractable public health problems in the developing countries.2,3 The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that more than half of the pregnant women in the world have a haemoglobin level (<11.0 g/dl which is indicative of anaemia.

Mitisha Jain

2014-12-01

73

Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

74

Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 ?Sv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units

75

Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Table 2.4 presents summary data from several epidemiologic surveys collecting food and supplement intake data from pregnant or lactating women. More details on the specific surveys are included in Table 2.5. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess diet and supplement intake. Neither survey included a sizable number of pregnant or lactating women.

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45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

...with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section...Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research ...with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to...

2010-10-01

77

Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that higher AS doses would be required to maintain similar DHA levels in pregnant women as achieved in non-pregnant controls.

Bose Carl

2011-05-01

78

Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

79

Guidelines for Pregnant Women Who Have Been Exposed to Anthrax but Do Not Have Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Info for Special Groups Women Who Are Pregnant Immunizations Infections Environmental Stress Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women Anthrax and Pregnancy Radio and Video PSAs People with Blood Disorders ...

80

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32 and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE, resting (REE, and physical activity (PAEE energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007 and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002. Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity.

Wright Antony

2011-06-01

81

Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA  

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Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

Ruth Lynfield

2005-01-01

82

Effect of audit on critically ill pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to ascertain whether there has been a change in the outcome of critically ill pregnant women from the indigent South African population from a clearly defined region in Pretoria, after the introduction of new management protocols supported by regular audit and feedback. Design/methodology/approach – A comparison of outcome of all women with severe acute maternal morbidity or maternal deaths was made between 1997/1998 (original protocol) and 2...

Macdonald, A. P.; Backer, Febe; Kleynhans, Michael; Pattinson, Robert Clive; Pattinson, Bob

2006-01-01

83

Passive smoking by pregnant women and fetal growth.  

OpenAIRE

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effect of passive smoke exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth in the Japanese population. DESIGN--The study comprised a community based interview and clinical survey of pregnant women in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. SETTING--Participants attended for delivery at 146 private and public practices and hospital clinics in the Prefecture. SUBJECTS--Participants were 6831 women who delivered a live singleton without malformation during the three conse...

Ogawa, H.; Tominaga, S.; Hori, K.; Noguchi, K.; Kanou, I.; Matsubara, M.

1991-01-01

84

Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment?  

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... page, please enable JavaScript. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment? Controlling blood pressure doesn't seem to ... 2015) Wednesday, January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

85

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, PToxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

Peter F Nde

2011-09-01

86

Cytomegalovirus infection in primiparous pregnant women and their neonates  

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Full Text Available Cytomegaloviurs (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection in humans. In various parts of the world the prevalence of antibodies to CMV ranges from 40-100%. The prevalence of primary infection with CMV in pregnant Iranian women and risk of congenital CMV infection in their neonates are unknown. To Determine the prevalence of CMV infection in primiparous pregnant (youner women and incidence rate of cangenital CMV infection among preterm and full-term infants borned from these women, in serum of 164 primigravid women before delivery, CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were measured by ELISA method and CMV-DNA detection by PCR in ~10% of their infants. 100% of women were immune to CMV infection (CMV-IgG positive were detected in mothers and newborns. Therefore, we can not compare gestational age and weight of infants in seropositive and serongegative mothers. Probably, in Iranian pregnant women, CMV screening test is not recommended.

"Siadati A

2002-07-01

87

First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge. Both participants and non-participants in the screening programme were included. The results are based on 4,095 responders (64%). Differences between sub-groups were examined by chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis. Estimates are stated with 95% CI. RESULTS: The majority of the participants (87.6% (86.6-88.6) to 92.6% (91.7-93.3)) correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. Fewer participants (16.4% (15.3-17.6) to 43.3% (41.8-44.8)) correctly recognised test accuracy and the potential risk of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session was weakly associated with more knowledge. CONCLUSION: The majority of the pregnant women correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. The pregnant women were found less knowledgeable on test accuracy and drawbacks. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone

2010-01-01

88

Upholding pregnant women's right to life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent decisions of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the High Court of Delhi have shown how the pregnancy-related deaths of individual women have been bases on which these authoritative tribunals have held Brazil, Paraguay, and India respectively accountable for avoidable maternal mortality not only in these cases, but also among their populations more generally. The right to life is the most fundamental of women's human rights, recognized in international human rights treaties and national laws. Failure of governments to apply their resources adequately to address, respect, and protect this right violates the law of human rights. These cases show, however, that governments may fail to allocate adequate resources to women's survival of pregnancy. Tribunals can build on the failures in individual cases to set standards of performance to which governments will legally be held to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:22356763

Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

2012-04-01

89

Characteristics of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal study of 229 pregnancies in 186 pregnant women with recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections revealed an increased incidence of recurrent episodes in the third trimester compared with the first or second trimesters. The duration of symptomatic recurrences did not change with each trimester. Cervical HSV shedding concomitant with HSV culture-positive vulvar lesions did not change significantly with advancing gestation. The presence of an HSV culture-positive vulvar lesion indicated a significantly (P less than .001) greater risk of concomitant cervical HSV shedding (44 of 333, 13.2%) than in pregnant women with HSV culture-positive remote lesions (zero of 60) or in asymptomatic women (27 of 1460, 1.9%). Comparison of the characteristics among 43 pairs of pregnancies in 34 women revealed no consistent change over time. This study of the natural history of genital HSV recurrences in pregnant women demonstrated no proclivity for an increased rate of preterm delivery (1.3%) or congenital anomalies (2.2%) in a predominantly white, non-Hispanic middle-class population. PMID:2536912

Harger, J H; Amortegui, A J; Meyer, M P; Pazin, G J

1989-03-01

90

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available.

Siziya Seter

2008-10-01

91

[HIV infection in pregnant women in Dakar (Senegal)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiologic and sociodemographic characteristics of human deficiency virus (HIV) infection vary from one country to another. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Dakar and associated factors. Systematic anonymous screening was performed in pregnant women admitted to the maternity ward. Women whose seropositivity was confirmed by Western blot retroviral serology were included. One woman out of four was assigned by simple random selection to the case control group. Over a 24 month period, 12,498 women were tested. 104 were seropositive (44 HIV1, 58HIV2, and 2 HIV1-HIV2 giving a prevalence of 0.8%. Factors associated with HIV1 and HIV2 were different: mean age 21.7 years for HIV1 versus 30.6 for HIV 2 (p = 0.05); origin in Guinea-Bissau for HIV2 (p = 0.001); mean number of pregnancies 2.6 for HIV1 versus 5.9 for HIV2 (p = 0.001); mean parity 1.5 for HIV1 versus 4.5 for HIV2 (p product in 85.1% for HIV2 versus 67.5% for HIV1 (p = 0.0001). These data confirm the low prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women, with a predominance for HIV2. The factors identified in associated with virus type suggest a different mode of transmission and/or reduced virulence or HIV2 compared with HIV1. Knowledge of these factors helps orient management strategies, especially in pregnant women. PMID:8767227

Diouf, A; Kebe, F; Faye, E O; Diallo, D; Ndour Sarr, A; Mboup, S; Diadhiou, F

1996-01-01

92

Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

2001-01-01

93

Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

1990-01-01

94

Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

95

Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP) at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa) for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa) for those at term. In theearly pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05) whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho) was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84), between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81), and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85). CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.

Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua

2014-01-01

96

Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11)t significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women. (author)

97

Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1??g\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

McGowan, C A

2011-09-01

98

First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

Modh Carin

2011-04-01

99

Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bac...

Chaitanya Tellapragada; Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara; Shashidhar Acharya; Parvati Bhat; Asha Kamath; Shashidhar Vishwanath; Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay

2014-01-01

100

The use of radioisotopes in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This outline review concludes that pregnancy is a major contra-indication for any diagnostic procedures. The only exception is a perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs, when a pulmonary embolism is suspected. Accidental exposures of the embryo should be guarded against by implementing the ten day rule for diagnostic examinations of fertile women at risk of pregnancy. In the event of clinical emergencies resulting in radiation of an early developing embryo, reconstruction of the received dose is essential. A foetal dose of 10 rads or more is usually considered as an indication of a therapeutic abortion, while doses below 1 rad can probably be neglected. (U.K.)

101

Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences  

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Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSmoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS.There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion,reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten yearsago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. Duringthe last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around 20%.

Kjell Haug

2009-10-01

102

Risk Factors on Hypertensive Disorders among Jordanian Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper­tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patient...

Suleiman, Amal K.

2013-01-01

103

Should pregnant women with substance use disorders be managed differently?  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant women with substance use disorders have multiple special needs, which might be best managed within a multiprofessional treatment setting involving medical, psychological and social care. Adequate treatment provision remains a challenge for healthcare professionals, who should undergo special training and education when working with this patient population. Careful assessment and screening is necessary to tailor interventions individually to the woman's needs in order to achieve benef...

Metz, Verena; Ko?chl, Birgit; Fischer, Gabriele

2012-01-01

104

Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences  

OpenAIRE

 ABSTRACTSmoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS.There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion,reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten yearsago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. Duringthe last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around...

Kjell Haug

2009-01-01

105

Sleep disturbances in depressed pregnant women and their newborns  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant women (N= 253) were recruited during their second trimester of pregnancy (M= 22.3 weeks gestation) and assigned to depressed (N= 83) and non-depressed groups based on a SCID diagnosis of depression. They were then given self-report measures on sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety and anger, and their urine was assayed for norepinephrine and cortisol. These measures were repeated during their third trimester (M= 32.4 weeks). Their newborns were then observed during sleep. During...

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Ba?rbara; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

2007-01-01

106

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

Kendjo Eric

2003-06-01

107

HCV viremia is associated with drug use in young HIV-1 and HCV coinfected pregnant and non-pregnant women*  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims Vertical transmission of HCV is increased among HIV-1/HCV coinfected women and is related to HCV viral load. In this study we assessed clinical and demographic factors associated with HCV viremia in a cohort of young pregnant and non-pregnant mothers coinfected with HIV-1. Design A cross-sectional clinic-based study nested within a prospective cohort study. Methods From 1988 to 2000, HIV-1 + pregnant and non-pregnant women with children followed in a large maternal, child and adolescent HIV-1 clinic were evaluated for HCV infection using EIA 3.0. HCV RNA levels were determined for HCV antibody + women using polymerase chain reaction. Demographic and clinical characteristics between HCV-RNA(+) and HCV-RNA(?) women and between pregnant and non-pregnant HIV-1/HCV coinfected women were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings Among 359 HIV-1(+) women, 84 (23%) were HCV-ab + and 49/84 (58%) had detectable HCV-RNA in plasma. Median age was 31. CD4 counts, HIV-1 RNA levels and demographic characteristics were similar for viremic and non-viremic women and pregnant and non-pregnant women. However, viremic women were more likely to report a history of (88% versus 43%; P AIDU) (83% versus 29%; P AIDU (adjusted OR: 15.17; 95% CI: 3.56, 64.56) after adjusting for age, race, number of sexual partners, pregnancy status, CD4 counts and HIV-1 viral load. Conclusion In this cohort of young HIV-1 and HCV coinfected women, HCV viremia was associated strongly with active injection drug use, perhaps due to reinfection or reactivation of HCV. Thus, careful evaluation for HCV infection and counseling related to drug use may be necessary. PMID:15847620

Nikolopoulou, Georgia B.; Nowicki, Marek J.; Du, Wenbo; Homans, James; Stek, Alice; Kramer, Francoise; Kovacs, Andrea

2011-01-01

108

Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

109

Prevention of changes in thyroid endocrine function in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The circadian biocycles of the thyrotropic hormone (TTH), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxinbinding globulin (TBG) were studied in 178 practically healthy pregnant women, including 76 ones who received potassium iodide for preventing iodide deficit and 102 women no preventive therapy was prescribed to. The necessity in thyroid hormones was determined to increase during the gestation period. The preventive therapy consisting of 200 ?kg of potassium iodide a day favoured the gestation physiologic run, the thyroid function normalization, the duration of the gestation period and the newborns' mass optimization

110

A comparative study of Zinc deficiency prevalence in pregnant and non pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Zinc is one of the elements necessary for growth and health in human. Some evidences indicate that zinc deficiency is one of real difficulties for the public health in both developed and developing countries. Since the pregnant women are more at risk of zinc deficiency, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of zinc deficiency in pregnant women in the 3 trimesters and to compare these data with that of the healthy controls."n"nMethods: This research was an analytic- descriptive study which was done on 677 pregnant women in 3 Trimesters and 140 non pregnant groups who referred to clinic of Tehran University. Blood sample were taken And serum zinc was assessed By Enzymatic technique."n"nResults: The prevalence of zinc deficiency is 16% in pregnancy and 0% in non pregnant women with a significant difference between two groups (p<0.001. Zinc deficiency had no relation to mother's age, gestational age, Iron supplementation, Parity and mothers BMI. Hemoglobin level showed a direct relation to zinc deficiency and was grossly found to be more prevalent in Hb levels less than 12 (CI: 1/36-4/26, OR=2/4."n"nConclusion: Acording to the finding of presented study, zinc deficiency is more prevalent in Hb<12 inspite of iron supplementation. Iron and zinc supplements in pregnancy period seem to be more effective for Hb repair in each case.

Borna S

2009-08-01

111

A Pilot Study of the Nutritional Status of Opiate Abusing Pregnant Women on Methadone Maintenance Therapy  

OpenAIRE

Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women ha...

Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

112

Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

2012-08-01

113

Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions. The role of CCL22 on HIV transmission should now be investigated in prospective studies.

Stek Alice

2011-09-01

114

Management of Pregnant Women With Presumptive Exposure to Listeria monocytogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

: Listeriosis is predominantly a foodborne illness, with sporadic and outbreak-related cases tied to consumption of food contaminated with listeria (Listeria monocytogenes). The incidence of listeriosis associated with pregnancy is approximately 13 times higher than in the general population. Maternal infection may present as a nonspecific, flu-like illness with fever, myalgia, backache, and headache, often preceded by diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms. However, fetal and neonatal infections can be severe, leading to fetal loss, preterm labor, neonatal sepsis, meningitis, and death. Pregnant women have been advised to avoid foods with a high risk of contamination with listeria. An exposed pregnant woman with a fever higher than 38.1°C (100.6°F) and signs and symptoms consistent with listeriosis for whom no other cause of illness is known should be simultaneously tested and treated for presumptive listeriosis. No testing, including blood and stool cultures, or treatment is indicated for an asymptomatic pregnant woman who reports consumption of a product that was recalled or implicated during an outbreak of listeria contamination. A pregnant woman who ate a product that was recalled because of listeria contamination and who is afebrile but has signs and symptoms consistent with a minor gastrointestinal or flu-like illness can be managed expectantly. PMID:25098360

2014-08-01

115

Obstetric MR imaging: Experience with 75 pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-five pregnant women underwent MR imaging at 0.35 T. The subjects fell into two broad categories: women with suspected medical or surgical disease (n = 37), and women with abnormal gestations, as determined by prior US studies (n = 38). In the first group, MR imaging depicted a wide variety of maternal ailments, including abnormalities in the brain, chest, liver, adrenals, kidneys, and pelvis. There were no false-positive MR imaging studies. There were two true-negative studies in this group. The only false-negative examination occurred in a patient with a tubal ectopic pregnancy. In the second group, MR imaging depicted fetal anomalies in all 24 cases identified on US. However, in every instance, US provided equivalent or more morphologic information and also physiologic information not available from MR imaging. MR imaging may be useful for evaluating pregnant women with medical or surgical diseases, but currently it provides only limited morphologic data on the fetus, in comparison to US

116

Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from the Clinical Microbiology Database. Maternal data were obtained from a local database at the RH. RESULTS: In our cohort, a total of 638 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with GBS, 517 (81%) from urine, 92 (14%) from vaginal swabs and 29 (5%) from both. The overall rate of women colonised with GBS rose from 3.3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p <0.0001). A total of 48 infants had early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS), 1.4 per 1,000neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: We found a low GBS colonisation rate in our pregnant cohort, but the rate followed an increasing trend over the study period. GBS during pregnancy was associated with a low birth weight and preterm delivery. More research on preventive measures is needed, but updated guidelines, screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of EOGBS disease prevention.

Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh

2014-01-01

117

Prevalence of Prescription Medication Use Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:25287251

Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

2015-05-01

118

Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non-planners with accepting planners and by comparing rejecting planners with rejecting non-planners. The variables studied comprise age, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economic situation and contraceptives. RESULTS: The characteristics of accepting non-planners and accepting planners were in accordance and in contrast to those of rejecting planners and in particular of rejecting non-planners. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was 15%. Among rejecting non-planners the same figure was 51%. CONCLUSION: Accepting non-planners seemed to be in a situation which could be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one.

Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B

2001-01-01

119

Occurrence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Young Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although acute leukaemia is rare in pregnancy its importance lies in its life-threatening potential, both to the child and the mother. The possibility of vertical transmission of leukemic cells increases the attention devoted to these patients and their offspring. Three cases of pregnant young women (15–17 years of age with AML are presented. This series of cases is the first report where gene abnormalities such as ITD mutations of the FLT3 gene and AML1/ETO fusion genes were screened in pregnant AML patients and their babies, so far. Unfortunately, very poor outcomes have been associated to similar cases described in literature, and the same was true to the patients described herein. Although very speculative, we think that the timing and possible similar exposures would be involved in all cases.

Juliane Menezes

2008-01-01

120

[Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly in developing countries. The condition and welfare of women are tightly linked to 3 factors: age at marriage, beginning of procreation, and capacity to regulate and space pregnancies. Women's status is also influenced by whether they are married and their rights to divorce. In developing countries about 45% of women are illiterate, compared to 25% of men. The salaries of women do not equal those of men in any country. Only Finland and Sweden have been unreservedly committed to providing equal political rights and legal protection against sexual discrimination. PMID:12157687

1988-12-01

121

Influenza vaccination acceptance among diverse pregnant women and its impact on infant immunization  

OpenAIRE

Objective: We examined pregnant women’s likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed “Contagion” to understand cultural influences on message perception.

Frew, Paula M.; Zhang, Siyu; Saint-victor, Diane S.; Schade, Ashley C.; Benedict, Samantha; Banan, Maral; Ren, Xiang; Omer, Saad B.

2013-01-01

122

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

2013-10-15

123

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values

124

Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smo...

Tognazzo Federica; Forza Giovanni; Guarnieri Emanuela; Buja Alessandra; Sandonà Paolo; Zampieron Alessandra

2011-01-01

125

Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947) were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by...

Mahé Antoine; Brun-Vézinet Francoise; Branger Michel; Njouom Richard; Makuwa Maria; Ndong-Atome Guy-Roger; Rousset Dominique; Kazanji Mirdad

2008-01-01

126

Malária grave em gestantes Severe malaria in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a evolução clínica de três pacientes grávidas com malária grave internadas em unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital localizado em Porto Velho (RO. MÉTODOS: foi realizado estudo descritivo em três gestantes, portadoras de malária por Plasmodium falciparum, internadas em unidade de terapia intensiva em Porto Velho, no período de 2005 a 2006. As variáveis categóricas utilizadas foram os critérios de classificação da Organização Mundial de Saúde para classificação de malária grave e os índices Acute Physiology and Chronic Health disease Classification System II (APACHE II e Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA preditores de morbidade e gravidade das doenças em unidade de terapia intensiva. RESULTADOS: a malária adquirida pelas gestantes, caracterizada pela infecção por Plasmodium falciparum na forma grave da doença, resultou em óbito para as três pacientes e seus conceptos. CONCLUSÕES: embora a casuística seja pequena, a importância deste estudo reflete a repercussão da malária grave em gestantes, bem como a necessidade de um acompanhamento pré-natal mais criterioso e atento à identificação precoce do início das complicações da malária em gestantes.PURPOSE: to analyze the clinical course of three pregnant patients with severe malaria admitted to the intensive care unit of a hospital in Porto Velho (RO, Brazil. METHODS: a descriptive study was conducted on three pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, admitted to the intensive care unit of a hospital in Porto Velho from 2005 to 2006. Categorical variables used were the classification criteria of the World Health Organization which ranks severe malaria and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II (APACHE II and Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA predictors of morbidity and severity of intensive care unit diseases. RESULTS: the malaria acquired by the pregnant subjects characterized by infection with Plasmodium falciparum in its most serious form resulted in death for all three patients and their fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: although the sample of this study was small it reflects the important impact of severe malaria on pregnant women as well as the need for a more judicious and attentive prenatal care to identify the disease in its early stages and its first complications in pregnant women.

Flavia Barbosa Fernandes

2010-12-01

127

Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes  

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Full Text Available Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n=189 and control group (n=178 during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. Results. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR=6.76; 95% CI=1.28-7.72, upper respiratory symptoms (OR=9.53; 95% CI=1.32-3.8 and bleeding (OR=20.5; 95% CI=2.03-6.97 was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=40.42; 95% CI=2.96-8.91 and bleeding (OR=53.21; 95% CI=4.3-15.73 was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=34.58; 95% CI=3.05-11.66.

Stankovi? Aleksandra

2011-01-01

128

Comparison of antiphospholipid antibodies in hypertensive with normotensive pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess the association between the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) in pregnancy and antiphospholipid antibodies. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 pregnant women with their first pregnancy induced HTN and no history of thrombosis, renal disease or systemic autoimmune diseases. HTN was defined as blood pressure (BP) of 140/90 mmHg or higher on two measurements with 6 hours apart. Control group comprised of pregnant women without hypertension or proteinuria and without history of thrombosis or systemic autoimmune disease. Antiphospholipid Antibodies (Antiphospholipid IgG and IgM and anticardiolipin IgG and IgM) levels were measured in both groups. There were significantly higher titer of Antiphospholipid IgG and anticardiolipin IgG and IgM in case group (p<0.05). Antiphospholipid IgM had no difference between two groups (p=0.14). There were moderate but statistically significant correlation between blood pressure and parity (r=0.3; p=0.0001), gestational age and antiphospholipid IgM antibody level (r=0.3; p=0.02), and between gestational age and anticardiolipin IgM antibody level (r=0.28; p=0.002). We found elevated levels of IgG and IgM anticardiolipin and IgG antiphospholipid antibodies in pregnancy induced HTN, but level of antiphospholipid IgM antibody was not different in hypertensive and normotensive women. (author)

129

Thrombocytopenia in plasmodium parasitized pregnant women in the Niger Delta of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available O Erhabor1, Z A Jeremiah1, T C Adias2, M L Hart11Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Hematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Plasmodium parasitaemia on the platelet count of pregnant women in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.Methods: In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy (pregnant and nonpregnant and malaria-infected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 100 × 109/L was the threshold at two standard deviations below the mean for healthy Nigerian pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts were compared based on malaria species and parasitemia in matched nonpregnant and pregnant women. Blood smears from Quantitative Buffy Coat malaria-positive samples stained with Giemsa were used for determination of parasite load and specie identification by light microscopy.Study design: This case control study evaluated the effect of malaria parasitemia on the platelet count of 50 plasmodium parasitized pregnant subjects. Fifty nonmalaria parasitized pregnant women and fifty nonpregnant and nonmalaria-infected subjects served as control.Results: The mean platelet counts (×109/L were significantly lower in pregnant subjects with an episode of Plasmodium falciparum malaria 111.3 ± 9.3 × 109/L compared to nonparasitized and healthy nonpregnant controls (255.09 ± 24.10 and 270 ± 51.5 × 109/L respectively. Platelet count values were 112.5 ± 9.68 × 109/L and 126.3 ± 16.7 × 109/L for the primigravidae and multigravidae respectively. (?2 = 10.46; P = 0.05. Parasite density was significantly higher among Plasmodium parasitized primigravidae compared to multigravidae 2150 (1638–2662 parasites/µL in primigravidae women compared to 1826 (1430–2222 parasites/µL in multigravid women. The mean parasite count in Plasmodium falciparum parasitized subjects was 2650 ± 234 parasites/µL, 95% confidence interval (2092–3118. Malaria parasite was found to exert a significant reduction in platelet density in parasitized subjects. This reduction was more pronounced in primigravidae and multigravidae. An inverse relationship was established between parasite density and platelet count (y = -0.020 × +86.2, r = -0.3.Conclusion: There is need for a strengthened antenatal care system with increased awareness of the problem among communities most affected by malaria. Preventative strategies including regular chemoprophylaxis, intermittent preventative treatment with antimalarials and provision of insecticide-treated bed nets should be implemented as well as integration of malaria control tools with other health programmes targeted to pregnant women and newborns.Keywords: thrombocytopenia, malaria, pregnancy, Niger Delta, Nigeria

O Erhabor

2010-01-01

130

Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. PMID:18020792

Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie

2007-11-01

131

Awareness of Pregnant Women about Folic Acid Supplementation in Iran  

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Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of folic acid supplementation amongst Iranian pregnant women.Materials and methods: We selected 322 women through simple randomized method in a cross section study. Data was gathered on the base of questionnaire and interview. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: The obtained information revealed that 7.8% with high level of knowledge, 43.8% with intermediate level, 30.4% with low level knowledge, and 18% with no knowledge. Hospitals and health centers are two major sources for promoting popular awareness about folic acid. There is a significant relationship between the knowledge, education, employment, time of prenatal care beginning, age, gravidity, and sources of health information. The number of women with high level of knowledge was more among those with lower parity, higher level of education, employment, young age and looking for health information.Conclusion: Awareness of folic acid is low among Iranian women. The different strategies are required to elevate the knowledge about folic acid among the women in reproductive age and provide them with some information about the benefits of this supplement.

Hedyeh Riazi

2012-12-01

132

Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

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This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:21989677

Rahman, Mosfequr

2012-08-01

133

[Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels. PMID:18982827

Sto?kova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazne?kova, V; Tsoncheva, A

2005-01-01

134

[Metafolin--alternative for folate deficiency supplementation in pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper folate supplementation is required in order to ensure proper folate concentration in the organism, and consequently to prevent the development of numerous complications in general population and pregnant women. Metafolin (stable calcium salt of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate acid, L-5-MTHF) is the most active form of reduced folate circulating in plasma, which directly enters the metabolic process of folate. After administration metafolin shows optimum absorption, comparable or higher bioavailability as well as physiological activity when compared to folic acid. Metafolin supplementation is effective in decreasing plasma homocysteine, as well as increasing folate in plasma and erythrocytes, in pregnant and breastfeeding women or those who wish to conceive. In addition, metafolin administration omits the multistage process of reduction before entering the folate cell cycle, as well as a possible deficiency of activity of enzymes participating in the reduction of folate process in the intestine epithelium (DHFR and MTHFR enzymes). So far no potential adverse and toxic effects of metafolin management have been reported. The published findings require confirmation in larger groups of patients and an additional analysis of the presence of particular genotypes of 677C > T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene. Analysis of the recent literature reposts suggests that metafolin could be an effective and safe alternative to folic acid supplementation and could effectively prevent complications in pregnancy and series birth defects in fetuses and newborns. PMID:24032278

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-07-01

135

Prevalence and clinical symptoms of geographic tongue in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Introduction: “Geographic tongue” or benign migratory glossitis is a tongue disorder which causes pain and dysfunction and its persistence leads to cancer phobia. Based on some reports, hormones (especially female sex hormones are associated with geographic tongue development or exacerbation. Geographic tongue might be confused with lichen planus and candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the lesion with pregnancy and its changes during each trimester. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, 451 eligible cases were selected. After clinical examination and completion of questionnaires, if geographic tongue was diagnosed, photographs were taken and compared between the three trimesters. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: The prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was 36.8%. There were no significant relationships between the number of pregnancies, age and the frequency of the lesions. However, there was a significant relationship between the ectopic lesions and the fissured tongue (p value = 0.001 and also between the gestational age and geographic tongue lesions (p value = 0.043. The lesions were most prevalent in the second trimester, but in third trimester, prevalence of severs lesions decreased. Conclusions: Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was higher than previous reports in other communities. Severe lesions were more prevalent in the second trimester. Key words: Benign migratory glossitis, Hormones, Pregnancy.

Parichehr Ghalyani

2012-01-01

136

Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles andrelated factors in pregnant women.Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan.Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceivedhealth status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or peers’health-promoting behaviors, and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP?.Results: The results showed that the standardized total score of health promotinglifestyles was 66.88 (moderate level. The subscales of the HPLP ? indescending order of standardized scores were as follows: “interpersonal relationships,”“health responsibility,” “psychological wellness,” “nutrition,”“stress management” and “physical activity.” There were significant differencesin the total scores of the HPLP ? among subjects with different educationallevel, socioeconomic status, chronic diseases, exercise habits, lengthof sleep, and perceived health status. Both perception of health-promotingbehaviors among family (or peers and self-efficacy of health behaviors hadsignificantly positive relationships with health-promoting lifestyles.Perception of the family or peers’ health-promoting behaviors, self-efficacyof health behaviors, perceived health status and chronic diseases were thefour significant predictors of health-promoting lifestyles, accounting for62.4% of the variance.Conclusion: The findings of this study could be used as a reference for prenatal care,nursing education, and maternal / neonatal health policies.

Te-Fu Chan

2009-12-01

137

Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab, Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg, Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-Aand antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in Yenagoa city, the heart of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies were detected by using "Determine" HIV-1/2 test strip (Abbott Laboratories, Japan; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and antibodies to T. pallidum were carried out using ACON rapid test strips (ACON Laboratories, USA. All positive samples for HIV, HBV and HCV were confirmed using the Clinotech diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kits (Clinotech Laboratories, USA, while all reactive samples to Treponema pallidum antibodies were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA test (Lorne Laboratories Ltd., UK. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers? instructions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data generated were coded, entered, validated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 12.0, and Epi info. The seroprevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV and HIV was expressed for the entire study group by age, sex and other demographic features using Pearson chi-square analysis. Values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,000 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 15 and 44 years with a mean of 27.34?5.43 years were screened. In terms of percentage, 89.4% of the subjects were married, and 10.6% were without formal husbands. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis was found to be 4.1%, 5.3%, 0.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Conclusions: High prevalence of some infectious diseases was observed in the present study, which may pose serious health risk to women of reproductive age in this region. It is important to point out that there is need to improve antenatal care of pregnant women by mandatory screening for these infectious diseases.

Buseri F

2010-01-01

138

Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease y during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

139

Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women  

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Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

Lakshmi. D

2014-12-01

140

Violence against woman from the perspective of pregnants women  

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Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the kinds of violence suffered in gestational period based on Ecological Model of Violence from Pan American Health Organization and to discuss the violence concept under point of view from pregnant women. Methods: descriptive study from qualitative approach conducted in a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro city. One hundred interviews were conducted with mothers in the Rooming-in Care. Results: among women who have suffered some kind of violence there is a greater proportion of physical aggression (67%, and the aggressor is, in most cases (33%, a person close to the woman. The victims did not seek a specialized help service (79%. The socio-demographic profile showed that the predominant age range was 20-29 years (56%, with a low level of schooling, less than six years of study, with a predominant family income of more than two minimum salaries and residents, most of them (27% from A.P.3.1 Méier. Conclusions: it’s important to ensure human rights and enhance the full care to women victims of violence. The existance of a regular training is essential to take care of these women, facing this violence phenomenon, offering then a careful, ethical and humane nursing.

Gabriela Fernandes e Silva, Maíra Domingues Bernardes Silva, Leila Rangel da Silva, Inês Maria Meneses dos Santos

2009-07-01

141

Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection. PMID:25533327

Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

2015-01-29

142

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City  

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Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ? 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

M. Fallah

2006-04-01

143

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending a Hospital in Iran  

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Full Text Available Domestic violence is an important risk factor for pregnancy complications. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related factors in a population of pregnant women. A cross sectional study was done on 426 women who were attended to an obstetrics ward of a hospital in Iran. A 35 item questionnaire was completed by the respondents. The life time prevalence of domestic violence was 42% and it was 19.3% during pregnancy. There was no relation between socioeconomic status, women`s education and employment and age of marriage with domestic violence. Unemployment, addiction and alcohol use among husbands were related to domestic violence. Slapping and punching were the most common kinds of violent behavior. The prevalence of domestic violence even during pregnancy is high in Iran, so there is a need to increase the awareness of the community and empower the health workers and professionals in order to prevent and control this problem.

2008-01-01

144

Prevalence and etiological classification of thrombocytopenia among a group of pregnant women in Erbil City, Iraq  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To determine the prevalence and define the causes of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 850 pregnant women at different ages of gestation were screened for thrombocytopenia. A control group of 150 age-matched non-pregnant women were tested for platelet count. Newborns of thrombocytopenic women were tested within 24 hours of delivery and reassessment of the women's platelets was done within 7-10 days post-delivery. Results: The mean platelet co...

Rawand Pouls Shamoon; Nawsherwan Sadiq Muhammed; Muhammed Salih Jaff

2009-01-01

145

Comparative study of major depressive symptoms among pregnant women by employment status  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of our study were to compare the prevalence of major depressive symptoms between subgroups of pregnant women: working women, women who had stopped working, housewives and students; and to identify risk factors for major depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The CES-D scale (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale) was used to measure major depressive symptoms (CES-D score ?23) in 5337 pregnant women interviewed at 24–26 weeks of pregnancy. Multivariate logistic ...

Fall, Ai?ssatou; Goulet, Lise; Ve?zina, Michel

2013-01-01

146

Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported diet...

Huybregts, L. F.; Roberfroid, D. A.; Kolsteren, P. W.; Camp, J. H.

2009-01-01

147

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

148

[The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-05-01

149

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimeste [...] r of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Fernanda Campos, Machado; Dionéia Evangelista, Cesar; Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho, Assis; Cláudio Galuppo, Diniz; Rosangela Almeida, Ribeiro.

2012-10-01

150

Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%), Prevotella nigrescens (44%), Treponema denticola (32%), and Prevotella intermedius (24%) were noted along with significant association with the disease (P < 0.05). PMID:24899898

Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Asha; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

2014-01-01

151

Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one...

Shipton Debbie; Eadie Douglas; Bauld Linda; MacAskill Susan; Tappin David M; Galbraith Linsey

2010-01-01

152

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2-7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. PMID:23890969

Hinwood, A L; Callan, A C; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; Heyworth, J; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

2013-10-01

153

A population pharmacokinetic model of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing a malaria infection and a higher risk of developing severe malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarials are also altered during pregnancy, often resulting in a decreased drug exposure. Piperaquine is a promising anti-malarial partner drug used in a fixed-dose combination with dihydroartemisinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Method Symptomatic patients received a standard dose regimen of the fixed dose oral piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin combination treatment. Densely sampled plasma aliquots were collected and analysed using a previously described LC-MS/MS method. Data from 12 pregnant and 12 non-pregnant women were analysed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. A Monte Carlo Mapped Power (MCMP analysis was conducted based on a previously published study to evaluate the power of detecting covariates in this relatively small study. Results A three-compartment disposition model with a transit-absorption model described the observed data well. Body weight was added as an allometric function on all clearance and volume parameters. A statistically significant decrease in estimated terminal piperaquine half-life in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women was found, but there were no differences in post-hoc estimates of total piperaquine exposure. The MCMP analysis indicated a minimum of 13 pregnant and 13 non-pregnant women were required to identify pregnancy as a covariate on relevant pharmacokinetic parameters (80% power and p=0.05. Pregnancy was, therefore, evaluated as a categorical and continuous covariate (i.e. estimate gestational age in a full covariate approach. Using this approach pregnancy was not associated with any major change in piperaquine elimination clearance. However, a trend of increasing elimination clearance with increasing gestational age could be seen. Conclusions The population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine were well described by a three-compartment disposition model in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. The modelling approach showed no major difference in piperaquine exposure between the two groups and data presented here do not warrant a dose adjustment in pregnancy in this vulnerable population.

Hoglund Richard M

2012-11-01

154

Epidemiology of anaemia among pregnant women in Geizera, central Sudan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2010 at the antenatal care clinic of the Araba Waeshreen Hospital (Geizera), central Sudan. Sociodemographic, medical, obstetric and use of pica information were gathered. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Haemoglobin levels were measured and blood films and stools were examined for malaria and schistosomiasis. Out of the 292 women, 119 (40.8%) had anaemia (HB < 11 g/dl); eight (2.7%) had severe anaemia (HB < 7 g/dl). One patient had a positive blood film for malaria. A total of 38 (13.0%) out of the 292 pregnant women had S. mansoni infections. While age, parity, gestational age, education, occupation, interpregnancy interval and BMI were not associated with anaemia, pica (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.9, p = 0.02) and S. mansoni infections (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2-6.7, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with anaemia using univariate and multivariate analyses. The high prevalence of anaemia among these women needs to be controlled through preventive measurement of S. mansoni infections and health education to prevent practising pica. PMID:22185535

Abdelgadir, M A; Khalid, A R; Ashmaig, A L; Ibrahim, A R M; Ahmed, A-Aziz M; Adam, I

2012-01-01

155

Awareness of methylmercury in fish and fish consumption among pregnant and postpartum women and women of childbearing age in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reissued joint advice recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not consume fish high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, and not consume more than 12 ounces (340.2g) of other lower mercury fish per week. These groups were encouraged to eat up to 12 ounces (340.2g) of low mercury fish per week to get the health benefits of fish. Using a survey of 1286 pregnant women, 522 postpartum women, and a control group of 1349 non-pregnant/non-postpartum women of childbearing age, this study evaluated awareness of mercury as a problem in food and examined fish consumption levels across groups using regression analysis. We also compared awareness of mercury as a problem in food to awareness of Listeria, dioxins and PCBs. We found that the majority of all 3 groups of women were aware of mercury and that nearly all women in all 3 groups limited consumption consistent with the advice; they ate less than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish per week and no high mercury fish. Compared with the control group, pregnant and postpartum women were more likely to be aware of mercury as a problem in food, and pregnant women ate less total fish and were less likely to eat fish, to eat more than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish, and to eat high mercury fish. However, all groups ate much less than the recommended 340.2g (12 oz) of low mercury fish per week for optimum health benefits. Among women who ate fish, the median intake of total fish was 51.6 g/wk (1.8 oz/wk), 71.4 g/wk (2.5 oz/wk), and 85.3 g/wk (3.0 oz/wk) for the pregnant, postpartum, and control groups, respectively. Thus, it appears that the targeted groups of women were more aware of mercury and were eating fish within the FDA/EPA guidelines, but these women may be missing the health benefits to themselves and their children of eating a sufficient amount of fish. PMID:22534145

Lando, Amy M; Fein, Sara B; Choinière, Conrad J

2012-07-01

156

Should pregnant women with substance use disorders be managed differently?  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women with substance use disorders have multiple special needs, which might be best managed within a multiprofessional treatment setting involving medical, psychological and social care. Adequate treatment provision remains a challenge for healthcare professionals, who should undergo special training and education when working with this patient population. Careful assessment and screening is necessary to tailor interventions individually to the woman's needs in order to achieve beneficial clinical outcomes for mothers and newborns, whereas the choice of treatment options highly depends on the type of substance of abuse and evidence-based treatment interventions available. Economic considerations have shown that early multiprofessional treatment might yield better clinical outcomes and save healthcare costs over the lifespan. PMID:23243466

Metz, Verena; Köchl, Birgit; Fischer, Gabriele

2012-01-25

157

Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Manejar las complicaciones médicas en el embarazo es un reto para los clínicos. Objetivos: Este estudio delineó algunos patrones de enfermedades y prescripciones en embarazadas que visitan una clínica prenatal en Nigeria. Se determinó una clasificación de riesgo de los medicamentos. Métodos: Se inve [...] stigaron los historiales médicos de 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron las clínicas de preparto de tres centros en la ciudad de Benin , Nigeria. Los patrones de enfermedades se determinaron desde sus diagnósticos. Los patrones de prescripción se evaluaron utilizando los indicadores del a OMS y la clasificación de medicamentos de la Food and Drug Adminsitration de Estados Unidos según el riesgo para el feto. Resultados: Durante el periodo de revisión, se evaluaron 1897 prescripciones de las 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron. Los resultados indicaron que la malaria con 554 (38%) fue la enfermedad más prevalente, seguida de las infeccione respiratorias altas (IRA) con 13% y enfermedades gastrointestinales (GI) con 12%. La media de medicamentos prescritos por visita fue de 3,0 y 2434 (43%) fueron prescritas en genéricos. Minerales/vitaminas, con 2396 (42%) fueron los medicamentos mas prescritos, y los antibióticos aparecieron en 502 (8,8%). De todos los medicamentos prescritos, 984 (17%) se incluían en la categoría de riesgo fetal C y 286 (5%) en la categoría D. Conclusión: Este estudio concluyó que entre las mujeres embarazadas, la malaria era la enfermedad más frecuente, seguida de las IRA y las GI. Los minerales y vitaminas seguidos el os antibióticos encabezaron l alista de medicamentos prescritos. La media de medicamentos por visita fue mucho mayor que los estándares recomendados por la OMS. La aparición de medicamentos contraindicados era baja. Abstract in english Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files o [...] f 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38%) was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%). The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43%) of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8%) of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17%) were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5%) in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

Uchenna I., Eze; Adego E., Eferakeya; Azuka C., Oparah; Ehijie F., Enato.

2007-09-01

158

Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

2009-01-01

159

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR...

2010-07-01

160

The risk of folate and vitamin B(12) deficiencies associated with hyperhomocysteinemia among pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare the folate and vitamin B (12) levels in pregnant and nonpregnant women to evaluate the risk for hyperhomocysteinemia and for folate and vitamin B (12) deficiencies during pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 92; 24 to 28 gestational weeks; 18 to 39 years old) and nonpregnant women (n = 176; 18 to 39 years old) were sampled for serum levels of folate, vitamin B (12), and homocysteine. Pregnant women were less likely to have folate deficiency (8.0% versus 12.0%) but much more likely to have vitamin B (12) deficiency (46.1% versus 0.6%) than nonpregnant women. Those with lower dietary vitamin intakes were more likely to have vitamin B (12) deficiency. Serum folate and vitamin B (12) were negatively correlated with homocysteine among pregnant women. Pregnant women with folate deficiency were more likely to have hyperhomocysteinemia than those without folate deficiency. The vitamin B (12) level associated with hyperhomocysteinemia was lower in pregnant subjects than in nonpregnant subjects in this study, indicating that pregnant women require vitamin B (12) supplementation. PMID:15580543

Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young Ju; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Ki Nam; Chang, Namsoo

2004-11-01

161

Vitamin A Status of Pregnant Women in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vitamin A status of 101 pregnant women attending clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH, Calabar, Nigeria was assessed based on 24 h dietary recall, serum retinol concentration, history of night blindness, physical appearance and clinical eye signs. The study revealed that the mean dietary vitamin A intake of the respondents (2645.31 ±188.91 ?g RE and their mean serum retinol concentration (31.18 ±2.94 ?g dL-1 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the FAO/WHO recommended intake and cutoff level for VAD. No case of night blindness, physical signs and symptoms, or clinical eye signs attributable to VAD was observed. There was a significant (p<0.01 correlation between the amount of 24 h vitamin A intake of the women and their serum retinol concentration (r = 0.31. Also, women who had above 50% of their vitamin A intake from provitamin A sources had a significantly (p<0.05 lower serum retinol concentration (23.10 ±21.12 ?g dL-1 than those who had above 50% intake from preformed sources (49.54 ±42.63 ?g dL-1 and those with about equal intake from both sources (55.75 ±30.80 ?g dL-1. There was a significant (p<0.05 and steady decline in serum retinol concentration in the women from the first trimester (37.79 ±6.65 ?g dL-1, through the second trimester (35.12 ±4.72 ?g dL-1, to the third trimester (21.54 ±1.46 ?g dL-1 of pregnancy.

Ima O. Williams

2008-01-01

162

Dietary intake and nutritional status of Turkish pregnant women during Ramadan.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of Ramadan fasting on dietary intakes, nutritional status and biochemical parameters of Turkish pregnant women. METHODS We carried out this study at Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Care and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey from October 15th to November 13th 2004. Forty-nine fasting group and 49 non-fasting group (control group) voluntarily enrolled for the study. We analyzed the blood biochemical parameters of pregnant women and obtained...

Gul Kiziltan; Efsun Karabudak; Gorkem Tuncay; Filiz Avsar; Piril Tuncay; Onur Mungan; Pinar Meral

2006-01-01

163

Determination of Knowledge Requirements and Health Practices of Adolescent Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Background: Health practices in pregnancy could be defined as the activities affecting the health of mothers, fetus andnewborns.Objective: To determine knowledge requirements and health practices of adolescent pregnant women.Design: Descriptive studyMethodology: The population is composed of adolescents women applying to pregnancy polyclinics of state hospitals forroutine antenatal colsultation in Izmir, Ayd?n and Manisa provinces. 156 pregnant women between 13-21 years of age whoaccepted pa...

Aynur Saruhan; Ahsen Sirin; Oya Kavlak; Aytül Hadimli; Emre Yanikkerem; Sezer Er Güneri; Emine Sen

2012-01-01

164

Stress-buffering effects of psychosocial resources on physiological and psychological stress response in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Sixty healthy pregnant women (aged 21-35 years), including 30 pregnant women at the beginning of second trimester and 30 women at the beginning of third trimester underwent a psychosocial stress test. Physiological (salivary free cortisol levels, salivary alpha-amylase levels) and psychological (perceived stress, mood, anxiety) responses to standardized psychosocial stress have been brought in association with psychosocial resources (self-efficacy and daily uplifts). Predictions revealed that...

Nierop, A.; Wirtz, P. H.; Bratsikas, A.; Zimmermann, R.; Ehlert, U.

2008-01-01

165

Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnanc...

Mette Rasmussen; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann; Hanne Tønnesen

2013-01-01

166

Detection of Syphilis by Serologic Tests in Pregnant Iranian Women, Shiraz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background:Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum and transmitted via sexual contact, infected discharge and blood as well as vertical transmission. It causes various impacts on women during pregnancy and their newborns which results in various complications. Thus, screening of syphilis is routinely performed during pregnancy. Choosing to perform a specific screening test is based on the prevalence of the disease in the target population which needs adequate information in this regard. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women in Shiraz, South-west of Iran. Materials and Methods: in this 15 month prospective study, 1100 pregnant women aged between 15 – 42 years, referred to University affiliated hospital in shiraz, Iran were included Blood samples were obtained from all of our study population for performing RPR test. FTA-ABS serologic test was carried out on positive cases of RPR test. Results:15 suspicious cases with weakly positive RPR test were detected but in all of them FTA-ABS tests were negative.Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of syphilis was low in our area which may be due to variable reasons, such as reduction in the rate of unsafe and unprotected sex, improving knowledge, and adequate health care services. More studies are still needed to decide whether syphilis screening is beneficial in our area and should be considered as a routine test in pregnancy

Mohammad Motamedifar

2013-09-01

167

Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

2013-11-01

168

Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life.

Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

2013-01-01

169

Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin F in plasma of pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this dissertation was to determine quantitatively prostaglandin-F in the plasma of pregnant women in order to obtain further knowledge on changes in PG-F during pregnancy, in particular during the last three months. The plasma of women with clinically normal pregnancies was taken. Prior to radioimmunoassay the plasma was extracted (separation of PG from other plasma components) and chromatography carried out (group separation of PG). The efficiency of this process, as measured by the recovery rate of 3H-PGF, lies between 60.99% and 93.01% for extraction and between 80.58% and 92.16% for chromatography. The plasma was extracted and analysed chromatographically for the assay. The radioimmunoassay was carried out according to the procedure recommended by the manufacturer. A calibration curve was produced without difficulty. The results of the examination of plasma samples were unsatisfactory because of the low sensitivity of the assay; PG-F values of the same order were obtained for all weeks of pregnancy. (orig./MG)

170

Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circulating IGF1, IGF2 or methylation of the INS – IGF2 – H19 locus in men (n=134), non-pregnant women (n=74) and women at 15 weeks of gestation (n=98). Plasma IGF1 concentrations decreased with age (PIGF2 concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or men (each PSNP genotypes in the INS – IGF2 – H19 locus were associated with plasma IGF1 (IGF2 rs680, IGF2 rs1004446 and IGF2 rs3741204) and IGF2 (IGF2 rs1004446, IGF2 rs3741204 and H19 rs217727). In single SNP models, effects of IGF2 rs680 were similar between groups, with higher plasma IGF1 concentrations in individuals with the GG genotype when compared with GA (P=0.016), or combined GA and AA genotypes (P=0.003). SNPs in the IGF2 gene associated with IGF1 or IGF2 were in linkage disequilibrium, hence these associations could reflect other genotype variations within this region or be due to changes in INS – IGF2 – H19 methylation previously associated with some of these variants. As IGF1 in early pregnancy promotes placental differentiation and function, lower IGF1 concentrations in pregnant women carrying IGF2 rs680 A alleles may affect placental development and/or risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:25117571

Gatford, K L; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J A; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T

2014-01-01

171

[Subcutaneous fat tissue drainage in obese pregnant women after caesarean section].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have analyzed the outcome of cesarean section celiotomy in obese pregnant women. The occurrence of postoperative wound infections, eventually dehiscence, in 2015 pregnant women who underwent caesarean section in a 3-year interval at the Craiova 1st Clinic of Obstetrics was studied. The analysis revealed the relation between postoperative wound infection and its topography, the type of fat tissue drainage (if done), and skin suture. The authors present a very effective method of subcutaneous drainage in obese pregnant women after cesarean section. PMID:21870736

Rac?, Ana Maria; Rack, R; C?rbunaru, O; Munteanu, M; Râc?, N

2011-01-01

172

Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.  

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The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

2006-01-01

173

Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?  

Science.gov (United States)

International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20-80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

2015-01-01

174

Cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women, health care workers and persons with underlying illnesses in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk groups with increased vulnerability for influenza complications such as pregnant women, persons with underlying illnesses as well as persons who come into contact with them, such as health care workers, are currently given priority (along with other classic target groups) to receive seasonal influenza vaccination in Belgium. We aimed to evaluate this policy from a health care payer perspective by cost-effectiveness analysis in the three specific target groups above, while accounting for effects beyond the target group. Increasing the coverage of influenza vaccination is likely to be cost-effective for pregnant women (median €6589 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained [€4073-€10,249]) and health care workers (median €24,096/QALY gained [€16,442-€36,342]), if this can be achieved without incurring additional administration costs. Assuming an additional physician's consult is charged to administer each additional vaccine dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women depends strongly on the extent of its impact on the neonate's health. For health care workers, the assumed number of preventable secondary infections has a strong influence on the cost-effectiveness. Vaccinating people with underlying illnesses is likely highly cost-effective above 50 years of age and borderline cost-effective for younger persons, depending on relative life expectancy and vaccine efficacy in this risk group compared to the general population. The case-fatality ratios of the target group, of the secondary affected groups and vaccine efficacy are key sources of uncertainty. PMID:25239481

Blommaert, Adriaan; Bilcke, Joke; Vandendijck, Yannick; Hanquet, Germaine; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

2014-10-21

175

[Exposure to tobacco smoke of pregnant women--results of prospective study in Lodz region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to analyze the active smoking by pregnant women in different weeks of pregnancy. The study population consisted of 136 women before 22 weeks of pregnancy. The women were interviewed three times during pregnancy. From all women included into the study the saliva sample was collected three times to verified smoking status in pregnancy. Cotinine level in saliva was analyzes using Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Based on interview about 25-30% of pregnant women smoked cigarettes during pregnancy. This percentage was higher when the smoking status was verified using cotinine level in saliva (33-41%). In the group of pregnant women who smoked cigarettes there was no decreasing trend in cotinine level during pregnancy whereas in nonsmokers the decreasing trend was observed. Unmarried women, those with lover educational level, and unemployed had the highest risk of smoking during pregnancy. PMID:18409318

Pola?ska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Jurewicz, Joanna

2007-01-01

176

Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

2012-06-01

177

Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for femalekes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential dose to their conceptus or children. The calculations are based on the data from ICRP Publications 88and 95.

178

Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

2012-10-01

179

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1% of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5% were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR?=?5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p? Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was high among the pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women.

Zemene Endalew

2012-12-01

180

Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers among pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

As there is a risk of MTCT of HTLV-1, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT was organized in 2011. To determine how many pregnant women are infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido, which is the northernmost and the second largest island in Japan with a population of 5,467,000 and 39,392 newborns in 2011, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT asked all facilities that may care for pregnant women in Hokkaido in July 2013 to provide information on the number of pregnant women who underwent screening for anti-HTLV-1 antibody using particle agglutination or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, and the numbers of those with positive, equivocal, and negative test results in the screening and confirmation tests using western blotting or PCR methods in 2012, respectively. A total of 111 facilities participated in this study and provided information on 33,617 pregnant women who underwent screening in 2012, corresponding to approximately 85% of all pregnant women who gave birth in Hokkaido in 2012. Of 81 candidates for a confirmation test because of positive (n?=?77) or equivocal (n?=?4) results on screening, 63 (78%) underwent the confirmation test and, finally, 34 (0.1%) and 33,563 (99.8%) women were judged to be HTLV-1 carriers and non-carriers, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 carriers was low, one per 1000 pregnant women in Hokkaido. Approximately 40 infants are born yearly to mothers infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido. PMID:24909551

Yamada, Takahiro; Togashi, Takehiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi; Okabe, Mihiro; Takamuro, Noriko; Tashiro, Kunio; Yano, Koichi; Yamamoto, Nagafumi; Hirakawa, Yukiko; Minakami, Hisanori

2014-08-01

181

Diet and weight gain characteristics of pregnant women with gestational diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objectives: To determine if women with gestational diabetes (GD) modify their diet and nutrient intake in late pregnancy and gain more weight during pregnancy compared to women without GD. Subjects and methods: Food and nutrient intake of 3 613 pregnant women was studied using food frequency questionnaires from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study. Results: GD was reported in 4.8% of the participating women (n=174). Women with GD gained less ...

Salmenhaara, Maija; Uusitalo, Liisa; Uusitalo, Ulla; Kronberg-kippila?, Carina; Sinkko, Harri; Ahonen, Suvi; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Kaila, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M.

2010-01-01

182

Differences in sexual behaviour between HIV-infected pregnant women and their husbands in Bangkok, Thailand.  

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In a Bangkok antenatal clinic, we interviewed 102 HIV-infected pregnant women and their husbands, 30% of whom were HIV-negative. We evaluated these data by matched and unmatched analysis, compared men and women in stable couple relationships on a number of sociodemographic and risk factor indicators and investigated further whether there were any differences in sociodemographic or risk factor profiles between HIV-serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples. When compared to wives, more of the husbands were working (p = 0.001), earning more money (p = 0.001), had had more than two sex partners (p = 0.001) and had had syphilis (p = 0.001). Serodiscordant couples did not differ greatly from seroconcordant couples except that women married to HIV-negative men were more likely to have been divorced or separated than their husbands which was not the case for women married to HIV-positive men (p = 0.02). There was poor agreement between husband and wife reports of husband risk behaviour and this did not differ between concordant and discordant couples. These findings suggest that assessment of risk and counselling of Thai women is incomplete without information on the HIV status and risk behaviour of her partner. Prevention strategies to decrease heterosexual transmission among couples need to target both the man and the woman. PMID:10716006

Bennetts, A; Shaffer, N; Phophong, P; Chaiyakul, P; Mock, P A; Neeyapun, K; Bhadrakom, C; Mastro, T D

1999-12-01

183

High mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of obesity in pregnant women?  

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Obesity is associated with an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in obese pregnant women, to assess the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of this disease and to evaluate its possible function as a diagnostic marker for obesity-related complications in obese women. Study participants were randomly selected, from a cohort of pregnant women afferent to our department. A total of 120 women were enrolled in this study: 60 pregnant women had normal body mass index (BMI) and 60 women resulted obese. Pre-pregnancy BMI, weight increase and HMGB1 levels were evaluated for each pregnant woman enrolled. Matching serum HMGB1 levels in two groups, our data evidenced higher levels in the obese women, with a statistically significant difference (p?=?0.0023). A significant positive univariate correlation was observed between serum HMGB1 levels and BMI in obese women. HMGB1 serum levels may therefore represent a predictive marker of disease in pregnant women (r?=?20.9 and p?=?0.0001). Further studies are needed in order to validate the role of this cytokine, with the aim of making it possible to use in clinical practice not only for diagnostic purposes, but especially for the early recognition of complications related to it. PMID:25356847

Giacobbe, A; Grasso, R; Imbesi, G; Salpietro, C D; Grasso, L; Laganà, A S; Triolo, O; Di Benedetto, A

2015-02-01

184

A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ?36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively). The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity. PMID:24031826

Munari, F M; De-Paris, F; Salton, G D; Lora, P S; Giovanella, P; Machado, A B M P; Laybauer, L S; Oliveira, K R P; Ferri, C; Silveira, J L S; Laurino, C C F C; Xavier, R M; Barth, A L; Echeverrigaray, S; Laurino, J P

2012-01-01

185

Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Intervention for Methadone-Maintained Women: A Comparison of Pregnant and Parenting Women  

OpenAIRE

Women in substance abuse programs have high rates of smoking. Pregnancy represents a unique opportunity for intervention, but few data exist to guide tailoring of effective interventions. In this study, 44 pregnant and 47 nonpregnant opioid-dependent women enrolled in comprehensive substance abuse treatment received a 6-week smoking cessation intervention based on the 5A's counseling model. The number of daily cigarettes decreased by 49% for pregnant patients and 32% for nonpregnant patients ...

Holbrook, Amber M.; Kaltenbach, Karol A.

2011-01-01

186

Characterisation of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol exposure among pregnant Egyptian women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycotoxins such as the aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequent contaminants of food. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and DON affect the immune system and restrict growth; additionally AFB1 is carcinogenic. To date there are limited descriptive biomarker data concerning maternal exposures during pregnancy, and none on co-exposures to these mycotoxins. This survey was a cross-sectional assessment providing descriptive data on the concentrations of serum aflatoxin-albumin (AF-alb), urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and urinary DON for 98 pregnant women from Egypt, in relation to diet and socioeconomic status, during the third trimester. AF-alb was detected in 34 of 98 (35%) samples, geometric mean (GM) of positives = 4.9 pg AF-lys mg(-1) albumin (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.1-5.8 pg mg(-1)), and AFM1 in 44 of 93 (48%) samples, GM of positives = 19.7 pg mg(-1) creatinine (95%CI = 14.8-26.3 pg mg(-1)). AF-alb and AFM1 levels were positively correlated (R = 0.276, p = 0.007). DON was detected in 63 of 93 (68%), GM of positives = 2.8 ng mg(-1) (95%CI = 2.1-3.6 ng mg(-1)). Aflatoxin and DON biomarkers were observed in 41% of the subjects concurrently. The frequency and level of these biomarkers in Egyptian women were modest compared with known high-risk countries. However, this study represents the first biomarker survey to report on the occurrence of DON biomarkers in an African population, in addition to the co-occurrence of these two potent mycotoxins. This combined exposure may be of particular concern during pregnancy given the potential of toxin transfer to the foetus. PMID:22376138

Piekkola, S; Turner, P C; Abdel-Hamid, M; Ezzat, S; El-Daly, M; El-Kafrawy, S; Savchenko, E; Poussa, T; Woo, J C S; Mykkänen, H; El-Nezami, H

2012-01-01

187

Adherence to antiretroviral treatment for hiv positive pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Objective: to adherence to antiretroviral therapy by pregnant women living with HIV / AIDS and its determinants advantages and constraints. Method: this is about an exploratory descriptive study, from qualitative approach, using socioeconomic data collection questionnaire and open interviews in depth, content analysis to establish the themes. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research of the Mother and Child Hospital (protocol number 023/07. Results: the material was sorted and grouped into two themes: “HIV/AIDS: infection dramatically worldwide” and “Pregnancy and Seropositivity: a challenge that is solvable”, each divided into subcategories for better understanding and analysis of data. Conclusions: the study presents results consistent with the profile of HIV/AIDS in the country with regard to internalization, pauperization and discovery of the diagnosis, confirming the pregnancy period as appropriate to the knowledge of their HIV status. Adherence to treatment in pregnancy is justified by the desire not to transmit the infection to their child. Descriptors: HIV seropositivity; psychology social; pregnancy; medication adherence.

Paula Saraiva Duailibe Barbosa, Loise Dantas Fonseca Ribeiro, Maria Eliane Liégio Matão, Pedro Humberto Faria Campos, Denismar Borges Miranda

2010-10-01

188

Increased maternal serum activin A but not follistatin levels in pregnant women with hypertensive disorders.  

OpenAIRE

Activin A levels are elevated in maternal serum of pregnant women with hypertensive disturbances. Because follistatin is a circulating binding protein for activin A, the present study was designed to evaluate whether serum follistatin and activin A levels also change in patients with hypertensive disorders in the last gestational trimester. The study design was a controlled survey performed in the setting of an academic prenatal care unit. Healthy pregnant women (controls, n=38) were compared...

Benedetto, Chiara

2000-01-01

189

Drug use in pregnancy: Knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

More than 90% of pregnant women take prescription or non-prescription drugs at some time during pregnancy. In general, unless absolutely necessary, drugs should not be used during pregnancy because many of them are harmful to the fetus. Appropriate dispensing is one of the steps for rational drug use; so, it is necessary that drug dispensers should have relevant and updated knowledge and skills regarding drug use in pregnancy. To assess the knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women rega...

Kamuhabwa, Appolinary; Jalal, Rashida

2011-01-01

190

Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women in Abha General Hospital  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women, to identify infectious agents causing the infection, and to explore relationship of specific socio–cultural factors with UTI. This study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Abha General Hospital, Saudi Arabia from September 2012 to January 2013 on 402 pregnant Saudi women. Midstream urine sample was obtained. A urine analysis test and culture were done as well as socio-demographic data sheet w...

Mona Abdullah Almushait; Hanem Abdullah Mohammed; Dai Abdullah Al-Harthy; Ashwaq Mohamed Abdullah

2013-01-01

191

Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to dete...

HemahAndiappan; NongyaoSawangjareon; Si LayKhaing; Cristina CSalibay; Mary Mae MCheung; Julieta ZDungca

2014-01-01

192

Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated-Herpes Virus (KSHV) Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Methods We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant women attending antenatal clini...

Malope-Kgokong Babatyi I; MacPhail Patrick; Mbisa Georgina; Ratshikhopha Edith; Maskew Mhairi; Stein Lara; Sitas Freddy; Whitby Denise

2010-01-01

193

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. De...

Adisa Rasaq; Fakeye Titilayo O; Musa Ismail E

2009-01-01

194

Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study  

OpenAIRE

Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/o...

Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

2014-01-01

195

Serum allopregnanolone levels in pregnant women: changes during pregnancy, at delivery, and in hypertensive patients.  

OpenAIRE

Allopregnanolone is a neuroactive steroid measurable in peripheral circulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and the possible changes in serum allopregnanolone and progesterone levels in pregnant women during gestation, at delivery, and in patients with chronic hypertension, with or without superimposed preeclampsia. We also evaluated allopregnanolone in cord blood. Three groups of pregnant women were studied: 1) healthy controls followed longitudinally through...

Benedetto, Chiara

2000-01-01

196

Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly selected from the six divisions of Bangladesh. Socio demographic information and iodine nutrition knowledge, weight and height were collected. Salt samples were collected from the household and spo...

Ara, G.; Melse-boonstra, A.; Roy, S. K.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh F.; Ahmed, T.

2010-01-01

197

Original paper
Epidemiological aspects of pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus in Brazil
 

OpenAIRE

Introduction: The aims of the current study are to report on preliminary epidemiological data of pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Material and methods: HIV tests of 4653 pregnant women from S?o José do Rio Preto, Brazil between May 1995 and May 1997 were assessed, and the following epidemiological aspects were noted: age ethnic background, number of gestations, marital status, type of delivery, and the patients’ knowledge about the disease including: forms of transmi...

Gala?o, Eloi?sa A.; José Maria Pereira de Godoy; Lúcia Buchalla Bagarelli; Lúcia Sílvia Aparecida Perea; Antonio Helio Oliani

2007-01-01

198

Nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

introduction and objective. Teaching pregnant women behaviours connected with care for one’s health condition and a healthy lifestyle is crucial in perinatal care. Desired health behaviours, including nutritional habits, play an important role in the health of the mother, as well as the proper development of the foetus. The aim of the presented study was to analyse the subjective assessment of nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women. materials an...

Justyna Krzepota; Ewa Putek-Szel?g

2014-01-01

199

HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behaviour among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan, 2007  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Central Asia has one of the most rapidly increasing HIV prevalence in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate current knowledge, risk behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing concerning HIV/AIDS among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. Methods We collected 226 questionnaires in a consecutive sample from a population on 520 pregnant women. The results were related to ethnicity, age and education level. Results Ninety-six percent had heard abou...

Sandgren Sofia; Sandgren Emma; Urazalin Marat; Andersson Rune

2008-01-01

200

Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine against Malaria and Anemia in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted ...

Wilson, Nana O.; Ceesay, Fatou K.; Obed, Samuel A.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Gyasi, Richard K.; Rodney, Patricia; Ndjakani, Yassa; Anderson, Winston A.; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

2011-01-01

201

Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban®) in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelin...

Bc, Chan; Koren G

2003-01-01

202

Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingeste reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy

203

Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--United States, 2013-14 influenza season.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women and infants are at increased risk for influenza-related complications and hospitalization. Influenza vaccination among pregnant women can reduce their risk for respiratory illness and reduce the risk for influenza in their infants aged Immunization Practices and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended influenza vaccination for all women who are or will be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of trimester. To assess influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2013-14 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted March 31-April 11, 2014. Among 1,619 survey respondents pregnant at any time during October 2013-January 2014, 52.2% reported vaccination before or during pregnancy (17.6% before and 34.6% during pregnancy), similar to the coverage in the preceding season. Overall, 65.1% of women reported receiving a clinician recommendation and offer of influenza vaccination, 15.1% received a clinician recommendation but no offer of vaccination, and 19.8% received no clinician recommendation or offer. Vaccination coverage among these women was 70.5%, 32.0%, and 9.7%, respectively. Continued efforts are needed to encourage clinicians to strongly recommend and offer influenza vaccination to their pregnant patients. PMID:25233283

Ding, Helen; Black, Carla L; Ball, Sarah; Donahue, Sara; Izrael, David; Williams, Walter W; Kennedy, Erin D; Bridges, Carolyn B; Lu, Peng-Jun; Kahn, Katherine E; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Sokolowski, John; DiSogra, Charles; Walker, Deborah K; Greby, Stacie M

2014-09-19

204

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P?cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. PMID:25164987

Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2015-03-01

205

High protein and iron-folate crackers supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that several factors influenced the relatively low success of iron supplementation for pregnant women. The factors included poor distribution, low coverage and compliance, as well as low absorption. The aim of this study is to measure the iron status of pregnant women after consuming crackers containing fish powder and iron-folate. This study was carried out in the Purworejo district (Central Java from February through October 2002. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT design, 70 pregnant women in their second-third month of pregnancy were recruited, and divided into two groups. Ten women dropped out during the study. The first group consisted of 28 women were given protein – iron enriched crackers (PIEC group, while the second group of 32 women were given iron–enriched crackers (IEC group for a total of 12 weeks. The results showed that the hemoglobin (Hb levels and serum transferrin receptors (sTfR of both groups were increased. Serum ferritins (SF of both groups were decreased. At the end of the study, the increase in Hb and sTfR levels between the two groups were significantly different, while the decrease in SF was not significantly different. Animal protein from fish powder tended to improve absorption of non-heme iron among pregnant women, resulting in improved Hb and sTfR levels. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 243-6Keywords: pregnant women, anemia, iron deficiency, high protein crackers

Faisal Anwar

2003-11-01

206

Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy. PMID:24966855

Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C; Cheung, Mary Mae M; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A

2014-01-01

207

Knowledge and Practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2,598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents’ general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%, completed secondary level of education (51.7%, in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%, non parous (36.6% and had no history of abortion (90.4. Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4% and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%. There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses towards prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P<0.05. Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy.

HemahAndiappan

2014-06-01

208

HIV/AIDS prevalence and behaviour in drug users and pregnant women in Kashgar Prefecture: Case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed method drug users and pregnant and postnatal women. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the epidemic is shifting from a concentrated stage to a more generalised epidemic. One hundred and forty two (142 exclusively injecting drug users (66 and mixed method drug users (injecting and non-injecting-76 participated in this survey. Eight hundred and two (802 pregnant and postnatal women participated in the survey. In Kashgar City and Shache County the serum prevalence of HIV amongst injecting drug users was 56.06%, for mixed method drug users 48.68% and 0.38% in pregnant women. In Shache County HIV infection rates were significantly lower in drug user groups and amongst pregnant and post-natal women, at 2.22% and 0% respectively. The behavioral survey indicated that 15% of injecting drug users have shared needles (however sero prevalence and knowledge in relation to access to clean needles and syringes suggests that this may not reflect the actual situation. Knowledge of prevention of transmission strategies (not sharing needles and condom utilisation is similar between both groups at 60–70%. However it appears that this knowledge has not significantly impacted on behavior such as needle sharing and condom utilisation. In Kashgar City and Shache County there have been very few interventions to support HIV/AIDS prevention, care and control. The results from this survey will inform future directions and the development and implementation of targeted interventions including targeted information dissemination and harm reduction strategies. This survey was funded by the Xinjiang HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project, a bilateral project jointly implemented by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of Australia.

Fitzwarryne C

2006-02-01

209

Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping  

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Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant and HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant, who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143, with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50, of whom 60.4% (29/48 were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51 of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51 of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45 of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant, characterising its distribution in this setting.

Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra Brandão

2009-08-01

210

Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant an [...] d HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant), who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau) and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143), with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50), of whom 60.4% (29/48) were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51) of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51) of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45) of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant), characterising its distribution in this setting.

Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra, Brandão; Heloisa Ramos, Lacerda; Norma, Lucena-Silva; Ricardo Arraes de Alencar, Ximenes.

2009-08-01

211

Prevalence of malaria parasitemia amongst asymptomatic pregnant women attending a Nigerian teaching hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: Malaria parasitemia among pregnant women is associated with complications to mother and the unborn fetus. There is paucity of data on asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, particularly in the northwest region of Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in asymptomatic pregnant women and to estimate the packed cell volume (PCV of this group of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of only well pregnant women recruited consecutively at the time of booking for antenatal care. Thick film microscopy and qualitative immunoassay test for malaria parasite (MP were performed for all the women. PCV estimation was also done using the micro-centrifuge method and comparison was made for women with parasitemia with those without MP. Some socio-demographic variables were also analyzed. Chi-square test was used to test for significance and a P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Two hundred and twenty-five healthy pregnant women were studied. Seven women (3.1% had MP by direct microscopy while 11 (4.8% were MP positive with the qualitative immunoassay test. One hundred and eighty-five (82% of the women were literate while 128 (57% used insecticide treated mosquito nets in their homes. The mean PCV of the women with positive MP was 30.57 ± 2.26 as against 32.89 ± 2.45 for those without parasitemia (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia in the study group was low but there was associated anemia in those with parasitemia. The use of intermittent preventive treatment is recommended for all pregnant women including those who are asymptomatic to forestall complications like maternal anemia.

Isah Aliyu

2011-06-01

212

Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/?L was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/?L were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt antimalarial treatment resulted in normalization of platelet counts within a week.

Moo Yoe

2008-10-01

213

Understanding pregnant women's attitudes and behavior toward influenza and pertussis vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Internationally, pregnant and postpartum women have been the focus of influenza and pertussis immunization campaigns, with differing levels of vaccine acceptance. We used semistructured interviews to explore pregnant women's perspectives on influenza vaccination during pregnancy and postpartum pertussis vaccination. Many women saw pregnancy as a busy time filled with advice on what they "should" and "should not" do to ensure the health of their fetus, and vaccinating themselves was regarded as just one of these tasks needing consideration. Women were more concerned about potential risks to their infants' health before their own. They saw influenza as a disease affecting the mother, whereas they viewed pertussis as a threat to the baby and therefore comparatively more risky. They were thus more likely to intend to vaccinate against pertussis to protect their infant. Framing of vaccination information toward protection of the baby might help increase vaccine uptake among pregnant women. PMID:25246330

Wiley, Kerrie E; Cooper, Spring C; Wood, Nicholas; Leask, Julie

2015-03-01

214

Assessment of the Cardioankle Vascular Index in Pregnant Women Complicated with Hypertensive Disorders  

OpenAIRE

It was previously reported that the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is elevated in preeclamptic women. However, baPWV is strongly affected by blood pressure. Recently, a new index of vascular stiffness, the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), was developed. CAVI is thought to be an index independent of blood pressure. We assessed CAVI in normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. We studied a total of 109 Japanese women consisting of 23 nonpregnant healthy women (group A), 45 nor...

Norimasa Sagawa; Takashi Sugiyama; Atsushi Yoshida

2011-01-01

215

Risk factors on hypertensive disorders among Jordanian pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373

Suleiman, Amal K

2014-03-01

216

Risk Factors on Hypertensive Disorders among Jordanian Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper­tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Ammn city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium. A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher’s exact test, chi-square, Student’s t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care.

Amal K. Suleiman

2013-11-01

217

Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ?70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

Roth Daniel E

2012-12-01

218

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among immigrant and native pregnant women in Eastern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. For each immigrant woman, one Spanish pregnant woman of the same age cared for in the same day was recruited (Spanish control group). A total of 1,627 migrant pregnant women participated in this study. The adherence to screening among migrants was 91.9% (95% CI, 90.5-93.1%), similar than that found in Spaniards (92.2%; 95% CI, 90.8-93-4%). Among migrant women, 619 were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies (41.4%; 95% CI, 38.9-43.9%), compared with 12.0% (95% CI, 10.5-13.8%) among Spaniards (odds ratio (OR), 5.2 (95% CI, 4.3-6.3). Seroprevalence in pregnant women from Latin America, northern Africa, Eastern Europe, Africa Sub-Saharan and Western Europe was higher than in the Spanish control group (OR, 5.4, 5.8, 6.5, 5.4, and 2.4, respectively; p age in migrant pregnant women: 15-25 years, 38.2%; 26-35 years, 40.7%; and 36-45 years, 52.8%. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in migrant pregnant women living in Spain was higher than in the native population. However, no cases were found in Asian immigrants, highlighting the importance of primary prevention of this infection in pregnant women coming from that geographic region. PMID:21541753

Ramos, José M; Milla, Afredo; Rodríguez, Juan C; Padilla, Sergio; Masiá, Mar; Gutiérrez, Félix

2011-11-01

219

The cytological diagnosis and prognosis of malignization of cervical epithelium of uterus in pregnant women.  

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Full Text Available The investigation is dedicated to the study of the pathological alterations of cervical epithelium of uterus, proliferative activity in the lesion focuses and the improvement of cytological diagnosis of the state of cervical epithelium of uterus. The correlation between the proliferative processes in abnormal epithelium of uterine cervix and some pathological factors of the pregnant women organism was studied. The criteria for prognosis of the cervical epithelial dysplasia in pregnant women were elaborated on this basis of our data. The pathological processes in cervical epithelium were revealed in 309 pregnant women in the first trimester (mean age of women was 26,17±0,83 years. The hormonal state of pregnant women was studied on the basis of colpocytological picture and the colpocytological types which indicate the unfavorable prognosis with a certain degree of validity were determined. The mathematic model for all cytological groups of pregnant women for prognosis of inflammatory processes, epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was created. The simple and comprehensible prognostic scheme for diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was developed.

Sumenko V.V.

2007-01-01

220

CORRELATION OF PROGRESSION RISK OF FETOPLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY WITH VEGETATIVE STATUS DISTURBANCE IN PREGNANT WOMEN  

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Full Text Available

Research Goal was to compare probability of risk progression of chronic fetoplacental insuffciency with various disturbances of vegetative nervous system (VNS in pregnant women. Materials. Basic group consisted of 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; control group included 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Status of VNS was determined with the purpose to estimate initial vegetative tone in various functional systems and forming concept of general vegetative status in the sample. Results. Presence of fetoplacental insuffciency in pregnant women was extensively associated with increase of sympathetic section tone and VNS lability. Occurrence frequency of critical indices of hemodynamics disturbances in the system mother- placenta-fetus revealed reliable correlation dependence on VNS lability and index of vegetative supply of activity. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency had 25?–?30?% increased tone and lability indices of VNS sympathetic section in contrast to physiological course of pregnancy. Progression of fetoplacental insuffciency was more often revealed in pregnant women in case of replacement of sympathicotonia by vagotonia, and against a background of high VNS lability and reactivity.

Chernyshkova E.V.

2012-06-01

221

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiologic [...] al questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2%) and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2%) showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8%) pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

FMR, Lopes; R, Mitsuka-Breganó; DD, Gonçalves; RL, Freire; CJT, Karigyo; GF, Wedy; T, Matsuo; EMV, Reiche; HK, Morimoto; JD, Capobiango; IT, Inoue; JL, Garcia; IT, Navarro.

2009-03-01

222

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2% and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2% showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8% pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

FMR Lopes

2009-03-01

223

Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy. PMID:21438700

Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie

2011-05-01

224

Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae. Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.011. Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p?p?=?0.005. Conclusions There was no difference in generic QOL of pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women were especially impaired by striae gravidarum and it is considered important to prevent or reduce the severity of striae gravidarum of the multiparae group.

Yamaguchi Kotomi

2012-08-01

225

The consequences of malaria infection in pregnant women and their infants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Preliminary results are presented from this study which indicate that 84.8 of pregnant women present at first antenatal visit with anemia (Hb 11g/dl) an 8.7 of their infants (n = 230) have a hemoglobin at birth below 14g/dl. There is an association between pregnancy anemia and malaria. A case contro [...] l study in pregnant women and an infant cohort study to 18 months of age, are employed to study the cause and effects of anemia and malaria on women and their infants health.

L., Chimsuku; F. H., Verhoeff; S. M., Maxvell; R. L., Broadhead; A., Thomas; H. J., Van der Kaay; W., Russell; B., Brabin.

226

Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status were measured, and PbB was measured. RESULTS: The mean PbB was 14.3 micrograms/dl and 19.2% of women had PbB > ...

Awasthi, S.; Awasthi, R.; Pande, V. K.; Srivastav, R. C.; Frumkin, H.

1996-01-01

227

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for un...

Aa, Mingle Julius; Obed Samuel; Adu-Gyamfi Clement; Aviyase John T; Tettey Yao; Adjei Andrew A; Ayeh-Kumi Patrick F; Adiku Theophilus K

2009-01-01

228

The Association of Serum Zinc Levels with Socio Demographic Factors, Red and White Blood Cells Count in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

This study was done to identify the relation of demographic factors , Zn > 70 and < 70 mg dL-1 in pregnant women with, red and white blood cells count (RBC, WBC) in 22 weeks of gestation. The pregnant women selected from Reproductive Research Center, Imam Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The subjects selected were recruited into the study after obtaining informed consent. A questionnaire was filled by participant in this study. Sixty five pregnant women were randomly selected after analyze...

Hanachi, P.; Golkho, S.; Norrozi, M.

2008-01-01

229

Evaluation of a portable hemoglobin photometer in pregnant women in a high altitude area: a pilot study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in pregnant women. This study examined the agreement between a portable hemoglobin photometer and a laboratory analyzer in determining hemoglobin level in pregnant women. Methods This study recruited 69 pregnant women in Tibet, China. Capillary blood samples were taken to measure hemoglobin concentration using the hemoglobin photometer and the laboratory an...

Zhuoma Bianba; Dang Shaonong; Xing Yuan; Yan Hong; Zhou Xiaoyan; Wang Duolao

2009-01-01

230

Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes Estado nutricional de gestantes: prevalência e desfechos associados à gravidez  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, see...

Luciana Bertoldi Nucci; Maria Inês Schmidt; Bruce Bartholow Duncan; Sandra Costa Fuchs; Eni Teresinha Fleck; Maria Margarida Santos Britto

2001-01-01

231

Frequency and Associated Factors for Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

OpenAIRE

Antepartum anxiety and/or depression is a major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of antepartum anxiety and/or depression among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital among pregnant women. A total of 165 pregnant women were interviewed by a clinical psychologist using HADS for assessing anxiety and/or depression and also collected information regarding sociodemographic, obstetric, family relation...

Ali, Niloufer S.; Azam, Iqbal S.; Ali, Badar S.; Tabbusum, Ghurnata; Moin, Sana S.

2012-01-01

232

Comparative Molecular and Microbiologic Diagnosis of Vaginal Colonization by Group B Streptococcus in Pregnant Women during Labor  

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Full Text Available Objective(sRapid tests for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (GBS at the onset of labor are needed to permit early intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to evaluate the PCR assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA for detection of the GBS in comparison with a specific culture method. Materials and MethodsTwo swabs were used to obtain vaginal specimens from the 330 pregnant women attended delivery room at Hedayat hospital, Tehran, Iran. One swab was analyzed by direct plating onto selective GBS agar medium (ISLAM and the other swab was used for a PCR assay, which amplified the 16S rDNA of S. agalactiae. Comparative study between the selective culture and the PCR assay was done among the 330 tested women.ResultsThe GBS colonization rate based on the culture results was 20.6% (68/330. Both culture and PCR methods were positive for 56 and negative for 253 women. The culture method was positive and PCR was negative in 12 women. The culture was negative and the PCR positive for 9 women. Sensitivity of the PCR assay was 82.3% and specificity was 96.5%. The positive predictive value was 86.15% and negative predictive value was 95.4%. ConclusionISLAM diagnostic procedure and PCR are rapid and reliable analyzing methods, which might be useful for accurate diagnosis of GBS colonization in pregnant women at the time of delivery.

Farnaz Fatemi

2010-09-01

233

Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987

Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

2014-01-01

234

Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36?years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n?=?837. Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing. Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05 for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66 if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR?=?0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63 or binged (OR???0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31 and were higher for those who abstained (OR?=?45.09; 95% CI 8.63-235.49 prior to pregnancy. Conclusion Most pregnant women did not comply with alcohol guidelines promoting abstinence. Prior alcohol behaviour was the strongest predictor of compliance during pregnancy, suggesting alcohol use should be addressed in women of child-bearing age. The study is limited by the relatively short timeframe between the official introduction of the 2009 guidelines and the date the surveys were sent out. Widespread dissemination of the guidelines may be necessary to help increase guideline compliance by pregnant women.

Anderson Amy E

2012-09-01

235

Utilization Patterns of Antenatal Services Among Pregnant Women: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Area of North Karnataka.  

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Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To study the profile of antenatal care received 2. To know the factors influencing the utilization Study Design: Longitudinal study.Setting: Shindolli village of Belgaum District Participants: All women (n =130 in this village who were pregnant at the start of the study and who became pregnant during the study. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square Test Results: Most of the pregnant women (92.31% were registered for antenatal care, but only 30.00% of them were registered in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. As regards to TT immunization, 70.77% of the pregnant women had received 2 doses or 1 booster dose. Iron and Folic Acid supplementation was taken by 59.68% of the pregnant women. Nearly 39.52 % of pregnant women were provided with full antenatal care. The main antenatal care provider for pregnant women was doctor (64.52%. The provision of full antenatal care package was found to be significantly higher among the pregnant women belonging to social classes I and II and in those who have studied above SSLC. Conclusion: The study shows early and wide spread use of antenatal care, but it also reveals that the antenatal visits occur late in the pregnancy. The literacy of women has significant bearing on utilization of antenatal care by the pregnant women.

C.S.Metgud

2009-05-01

236

Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88 200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression. About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. Multiparity, a normal or less good self-rated health, smoking, and a less health conscious diet were the strongest predictors of not doing exercise. Women of 25 years or older, with metabolic or psychiatric disorders, or who had received subfecundity treatment were more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups.In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target activities that may fit their needs, and, for research purposes, to identify adjustment variables or guide sensitivity analyses when data on confounders are lacking.

Juhl, Mette; Madsen, Mia

2012-01-01

237

Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions  

OpenAIRE

Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical act...

Sui Z; Jm, Dodd

2013-01-01

238

Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus status of pregnant women and their newborns in west iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women and in cord blood of their newborns. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH) Vit D, were measured in 193 pregnant subjects between 16-45 years of age in third trimester admitted in Be'sat hospital. Same were measured in the cord blood of 193 newborns belonging to them. Mean maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D was 16.5+-14.2 ng/mL, and cord blood was 12+-0.2 ng/mL. Fifty-seven percent of pregnant women had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Seventy six percent of newborns had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D correlated positively with cord 25(OH) Vit D (r=0.77, P<0.05). Mean maternal serum calcium was 8.89+-0.73 mg/ml and mean newborn serum calcium was 9.46+-0.93. Mean maternal serum calcium correlated with mean newborn serum calcium (r= 0.38, P<0.05). Twenty six percent of women and 37.8% of newborns had hypocalcemia. There was a high prevalence of significant hypovitaminosis D among pregnant women and their newborns. Our study emphasize the need of majority of pregnant women and their newborns to supplemental vitamin D and has significant public health implications. (author)

239

The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p FSH was in the second week of Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p < 0.1). Leptin decreased significantly 2 weeks after Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

2014-10-01

240

Levels of neopterin and C-reactive protein in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pregnant women with fetal growth restriction (FGR) have higher plasma neopterin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations compared with those with uncomplicated pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant women with FGR and 62 patients with uncomplicated pregnancy were included. Neopterin and CRP levels were measured at the time of diagnosis. The primary outcome of this study was to compare the neopterin and CRP levels in pregnant women with FGR and those with uncomplicated pregnancies. The secondary outcome of our study was to evaluate the correlation between fetal birth weight and maternal neopterin levels. The serum neopterin levels were significantly elevated in pregnant women with FGR (22.71 ± 7.70 vs 19.15 ± 8.32). However, CRP was not elevated in pregnant women with FGR (7.47 ± 7.59 vs 5.29 ± 3.58). These findings support the hypothesis that pregnancy with FGR is associated with a marked increase in macrophage activation and the natural immune system. PMID:25140392

Erkenekli, K; Keskin, U; Uysal, B; Kurt, Y G; Sadir, S; Cayci, T; Ergün, A; Erkaya, S; Dani?man, N; Uygur, D

2014-08-20

241

Iodine insufficiency in pregnant women from the State of São Paulo / Insuficiência iódica em gestantes paulistas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo : O consumo de quantidade adequada de iodo durante a gestação é de fundamental importância para o desenvolvimento neurológico do feto. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional iódico em gestantes do estado de São Paulo, Brasil.Material e métodos : Analisamos a concentração u [...] rinária de iodo (UIC) em 191 gestantes e em 58 mulheres não gestantes de mesma faixa etária. Foram utilizados os critérios da OMS para definir suficiência iódica (mediana de UIC: 150-249 µg/L entre as gestantes e 100-199 µg/L para as não gestantes).Resultados : A mediana de UIC das gestantes estudadas esteve abaixo da recomendada (mediana = 137,7 ?g/L; 95% IC = 132,9 – 155,9) enquanto a das mulheres não grávidas se mostrou na faixa adequada (mediana = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159,3 – 200,1). Entre as gestantes, 57% apresentaram UIC Abstract in english Objective : The intake of adequate amounts of iodine during pregnancy is essential for the neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in pregnant women from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Material and methods : We analyzed urinary iodine concen [...] tration (UIC) in 191 pregnant and 58 non-pregnant women matched by age. We used the World Health Organization criteria to define sufficient iodine supply (median UIC: 150-249 µg/L among pregnant women, and 100-199 µg/L for non-pregnant women).Results : Median UIC of the pregnant women studied was lower than the recommended value (median = 137.7 µg/L, 95% CI = 132.9 – 155.9), while non-pregnant women had UIC levels within the appropriate range (median = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159.3-200.1). UIC was below 150 µg/L in 57% of the pregnant women.Conclusions : Although a larger sample is needed to consolidate these findings, these results raise concerns about the adequacy of the iodine supply of pregnant women in Brazil, especially considering the new determinations of the Brazilian government, which have recently reduced the concentrations of iodine in table salt to 15-45 mg/kg of salt. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):282-7

Sabrina Maria Saueia, Ferreira; Anderson Marliere, Navarro; Patrícia Künzle Ribeiro, Magalhães; Léa Maria Zanini, Maciel.

2014-04-01

242

A Changing Landscape: Implications of Pregnant Women's Internet Use for Childbirth Educators  

OpenAIRE

Internet use among pregnant women is common and frequent, while attendance at childbirth education classes appears to be on the decline. This article explores why women turn to the Internet in pregnancy and how Internet use may affect their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It suggests strategies for engaging women's interest in the Internet and describes how doing so may help increase the effectiveness of “traditional” childbirth education while mitigating the potentially overwhelming...

Romano, Amy M.

2007-01-01

243

Risk factors for recent toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Naples.  

OpenAIRE

Effective primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis requires up to date information on locally relevant risk factors for infection in pregnant women. In Naples, risk factors for toxoplasma infection were compared in recently infected women (as assessed by detection of specific IgM in serum) and susceptible, IgG negative women. Recent infection was strongly associated with frequency of consumption of cured pork and raw meat. Eating cured pork or raw meat at least once a month increased th...

Buffolano, W.; Gilbert, R. E.; Holland, F. J.; Fratta, D.; Palumbo, F.; Ades, A. E.

1996-01-01

244

Risk factors for recent toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Naples  

OpenAIRE

Effective primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis requires up to date information on locally relevant risk factors for infection in pregnant women. In Naples, risk factors for toxoplasma infection were compared in recently infected women (as assessed by detection of specific IgM in serum) and susceptible, IgG negative women. Recent infection was strongly associated with frequency of consumption of cured pork and raw meat. Eating cured pork or raw meat at least once a month increased th...

Buffolano, W.; Gilbert, R.; Holland, F.; Fratta, D.; Palumbo, F.; Ades, A. E.

1996-01-01

245

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women in Northern Turkey  

OpenAIRE

Background and Aims: Prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is extremely important because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier state. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBV markers among pregnant women in the Middle Black Sea Region in Turkey.Methods: Between March 2003 and May 2004, 2654 women in the first trimester of pregnancy who attended the Samsun Maternity and Women's Disease and Pediatrics Hospital pregnancy...

Yavuz Uyar; Cevat Cabar; Alaadin Balci

2009-01-01

246

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana  

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Full Text Available The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean catch urine was cultured on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar aerobically at 37oC . Isolates were identified to the species level using standard proto-col. Antibiotic sensitivity test were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Of the 200 women examined, 19 had significant bacteriuria representing a prevalence of 9.5% in the study population. Pregnant women in their second trimester from the study had the highest prevalence of significant bacteriuria (52.6% with age ranges between 30-34 years having the highest prevalence (36.8%. Nulliparous women were 35 (17.5% with 3 (8.6% testing positive for bacteriuria and 165 (82.5% were multiparous with 16 (9.7% testing positive for bacteriuria. E. coli (36.8% was the common bacteria isolate from this study. From this study, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among antenatal women in the population studied. It is therefore recommended that periodic test-ing of pregnant women is advocated and those found to be infected need to be treated to avoid complications.

Acheampong, I.

2012-01-01

247

Nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women  

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Full Text Available introduction and objective. Teaching pregnant women behaviours connected with care for one’s health condition and a healthy lifestyle is crucial in perinatal care. Desired health behaviours, including nutritional habits, play an important role in the health of the mother, as well as the proper development of the foetus. The aim of the presented study was to analyse the subjective assessment of nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women. materials and method. Research was conducted on a sample of 81 women in Szczecin. The methodological basis for investigation was Juczy?ski’s Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI. General index of intensity of health behaviours (GIIHB was calculated by adding the results for all the 24 statements included in the HBI. Four categories of health behaviours were analysed separately: proper nutritional habits, preventive behaviours, positive thinking and health practices. The study presents the analysis of proper nutritional habits (PNH in the light of GIIHB of women attending antenatal classes. results. Results indicate that the PNH of pregnant women displays a positive correlation with their GIIHB (r=0.654; p<0.05. It is also shown that the PNH (r=0.26, p<0.05 and GIIHB (r=0.35; p<0.05 are related to the age of pregnant women participating in antenatal classes. conclusions. Research indicates the need for education of pregnant women, initiatives and campaigns aimed at propagating and promoting proper health behaviours, including nutritional behaviours. There is a positive relationship between the PNH of women participating in antenatal classes and their GIIHB. Such measures should be addressed to women regardless of whether they participate in antenatal classes or not, and regardless of their age or level of education.

Justyna Krzepota

2014-06-01

248

Smoking and health care patterns among pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

A population-based hospital survey of 3628 women in the postpartum period was conducted in the Ottawa-Carleton region in 1983 to determine the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy, the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women who smoke during pregnancy and the use of health care services by these women. Of the 3628 women 91% completed a full-length questionnaire and 4% completed a shorter questionnaire. Before pregnancy 37.4% of the women smoked cigarettes. Overall,...

Stewart, Paula J.; Dunkley, Geoffrey C.

1985-01-01

249

Epidemiological and clinical reasons for vaccination against pertussis and influenza in pregnant women.  

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Vaccinations in pregnancy are an important aspect of prenatal care for improving both maternal health and neonatal outcomes. Despite the fact that protection against some infectious diseases for pregnant women can be easily provided through immunizations, current coverage rates are low. Two vaccines are notably recommended during pregnancy: influenza and the combined tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. In this review the authors discuss current recommendations for vaccination against pertussis and influenza in pregnant women in terms of epidemiological, clinical, and immunological reasons, taking into account safety and effectiveness. Promoting patients' awareness about pertussis and influenza and encouraging general practitioners, nurses and obstetricians to recommend the pertussis booster and influenza vaccine will hopefully increase the number of pregnant women who choose to become vaccinated. PMID:25398316

Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gawlak, Maciej; ?yci?ska, Katarzyna; Wardyn, Kazimierz; Kuchar, Ernest

2015-01-01

250

Pulmonary Emboli Manifestation during Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section in two Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy causes a small increase in risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE, but a large increase in concern upon presentation during cesarean section with symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE. Pulmonary embolism clinical manifestations during spinal anesthesia could be misleading. We have presented 2 interesting cases of pregnant women underwent spinal anesthesia for cesarean section and manifested with non-specific clinical symptoms of PE during spinal anesthesia mistaken for high spinal scenarios.Cases Report: Two young pregnant women candidate for cesarean section underwent spinal anesthesia. During surgery, patient grows chest discomfort and dyspnea. Anesthesiologist misleaded for high spinal but observed patients during surgery and in recovery. Further investigation detected pulmonary embolism which was further treated in ICU and patients were discharged subsequently.Conclusion: Anesthesiologists cannot safely rule out pulmonary embolism during spinal anesthesia in cesarean section without additional testing, at least not in pregnant women with a relatively high risk of PE.

Mastaneh Dahi

2015-02-01

251

MR imaging of the lumbosacral spine in asymptomatic pregnant and nonpregnant women  

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Back discomfort is a common complaint during pregnancy. In the past, back discomfort was commonly attributed to exaggeration of the normal lumbar lordosis. Recently, however, claims have been made that there is an increased incidence of lumbar disk disease during pregnancy. To evaluate this claim and determine its significance, we compared MR images of the spines of pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women. Sagittal MR images (0.35 T, spin-echo technique) of the lumbosacral spines of 50 pregnant and 50 nonpregnant women were evaluated for intervertebral disk desiccation, bulge, and herniation. The nonpregnant subjects were divided into two groups: nulliparous and parous. The authors found no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Thus, there is no evidence for an increased prevalence of disk disease in pregnant women

252

The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance  

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To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

253

Antibodies Frequency Against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella Virus and Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available      Aim: Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus (CMV infections can be seen in all age groups and they are usually asymptomatic infection diseases, but it is important seeing them in pregnant women especially in first trimester because they compose congenital malformations in fetus.In this study, I aimed at the seroprevelance of IgM and IgG type antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV infections according to the age groups 14-24, 25-34 and 35-44 of pregnant women who applied for routine examination in Usak region. Material and Method: 1465 pregnant women who applied for examination in Usak State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between the dates of July 1st 2010 - June 30th 2011 during 1 year period were seperated in to 3 age groups of 14-24, 25-34 and 35- 44. These patient’s laboratory results of IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV were analysed retrospectively. Results: 588 pregnant women (40.1% between the ages 14-24, 758 (51.8% between 25-34, 119 (8.1% between 35-44, total 1465 pregnant women examined. The results are Toxoplasmosis IgM positivity 3.0%, Toxoplasmosis IgG positivity 18.3%, Rubella virusIgM positivity 1.0%, Rubella virus IgG positivity 92.2%, CMV IgM positivity 1.0%, CMV IgG positivity 99.4% according to the all age groups. Discussion: In this study, Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus, and CMV seroprevalence were determined in pregnant women who admitted to Usak State Hospital. As there is no similar datas of Usak City in the past, I believe this study provide constributes to the literature.

Güliz Doðan Toklu

2013-01-01

254

Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City  

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Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) ?g/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized ? = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized ? = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard ? = 0.086–0.096, Phigh BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

2015-01-01

255

Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding  

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... can a woman still be pregnant? Yes. A urine pregnancy test may not be able to detect a very early pregnancy. In addition, sometimes a test performed on dilute (watered-down) urine may not be able to detect a pregnancy. ...

256

HIV testing of male partners of pregnant women in Porto Alegre, Brazil: a potential strategy for reduction of HIV seroconversion during pregnancy.  

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Pregnant women have a significantly higher risk of HIV acquisition during gestation than their non-pregnant counterparts due to behavioral and biological factors. Acute seroconversion during gestation results in increased HIV mother-to-child transmission rates and has been identified as a major public health challenge. In order to address potential HIV seroconversion in our pregnant patients, we conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate the acceptability of offering HIV testing to sexual partners of HIV-negative pregnant women receiving antenatal care at two hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Over a 14-month study period, HIV-negative pregnant women at two hospital-based clinic sites were encouraged to bring their stable sexual partner for HIV voluntary counseling and testing during prenatal care. Women were re-interviewed following delivery to measure success of the intervention. Of the 1223 HIV-negative pregnant women enrolled in the study, 663 (54%) of their male sexual partners received HIV testing during antenatal care and 4 (0.6%) were diagnosed with HIV infection. A total of 645 women were interviewed at the time of delivery, with 620 (97%) confirming that HIV testing was suggested to their partner. The most common reason provided by women as to why partners did not come for testing was work (69%) and lack of perceived risk (14%). Independent predictors of successful partner testing included being white (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.12), married (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.08-2.94), having an older age of sexual debut (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98), and being recruited at Hospital Conceiçao (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.52-2.88). We conclude that HIV partner testing during prenatal care is acceptable, rendering this intervention attractive to public health programs targeting prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24200084

Yeganeh, Nava; Simon, Mariana; Dillavou, Claire; Varella, Ivana; Santos, Breno Riegel; Melo, Marineide; Fonseca, Rosana; Lira, Rita; Gorbach, Pamina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

2014-01-01

257

Clinical significance of combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol and human lactogen in pregnant women  

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To evaluate the clinical significance of combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol (FE3) and human lactogen (HPL) for determination of intrauterine fetal growth and development. The serum FE3 and HPL in pregnant women were measured by chemiluminescence and RIA respectively. The results showed that the E3 and HPL levels in pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension were lower than the normal controls (P0.05). The combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol and human lactogen has important clinical significance in determination of fetus-placenta function and high risk pregnancy. (authors)

258

Effects of a guided imagery intervention on stress in hospitalized pregnant women: a pilot study.  

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Using repeated-measures pre-/posttest design, the effects of guided imagery on maternal stress in 19 hospitalized pregnant women were examined. Mean stress and systolic blood pressure measurements postintervention were significantly lower than mean levels before listening to the guided imagery CD. All participants identified benefits of this holistic intervention. The study provides preliminary evidence that a guided imagery intervention may be effective in reducing maternal stress in hospitalized pregnant women and supports the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to further support incorporating this intervention into care. PMID:23580099

Jallo, Nancy; Cozens, Roberta; Smith, Melanie W; Simpson, Rachael I

2013-01-01

259

Homocysteine in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR: a comparison with normotensive pregnant women with isolated IUGR and healthy pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze homocysteine levels in maternal serum in women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and/or IUGR. Patients and methods: The study was carried out on 49 pregnant patients with normotensive pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction (group IUGR), 31 patients with preeclampsia complicated by IUGR (group PRE-IUGR), and 35 preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight fetuses (group PRE). The control g...

Marzena Laskowska; Jan Oleszczuk

2011-01-01

260

Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.  

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Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 ± 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

2015-03-01

261

Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25644204

Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

2015-04-01

262

Musculoskeletal problems among pregnant women: a facility based survey in Odisha  

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Full Text Available Background: Chronic medical conditions are in focus for the development of strategies aimed at improving population health worldwide. This is also true for chronic pain conditions leading to impaired or non-existent ability to exercise, as physical inactivity is associated with the development of chronic diseases. Musculoskeletal disorders constitute an estimated 90% of all chronic pain, of which back pain contributes to a high extent. During the time of pregnancy many hormonal and anatomical changes that affect the musculoskeletal system in the female body, which may cause various musculoskeletal complaints, predispose to injury, or alter the course of pre-existing conditions. Though Obstetric physiotherapy is an essential part of maternal health care and promotion; still it is not well known in developing countries like India. So this current study aimed to address common musculoskeletal complaints arising among the women during prenatal period in Odisha. Methodology: A cross sectional study was designed in rural & urban area health facilities targeting the pregnant women of Odisha. Total of 410 pregnant women from selected facilities of two different regions of Odisha- Eastern (Urban and Western (Rural were interviewed with a structured validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis compared the independent variables of participants with Musculoskeletal Pain using independent sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square for ordinal/nominal variables has been reported considering null hypothesis to be significant if p-value is <0.05 which is level of significance. Results: About half (50.7% of the participants reported symptoms at least in one part of their bodies, over the pregnancy period. Among these, acute Low back pain was the highest of 55.6% and 35.4% of chronic, followed by acute ankle pain (25.9% and knee pain (16.6%. Neck pain (4.9%, Shoulder pain (4.4% were the least reported among all participants. The MSDs pain is more among the urban population (54.4%, compared to rural community (45.6%, which shows statistically significant with p-value of 0.003.Conclusion:Low back pain is the commonest of all, prevailing around more than half of subjects from our sample. A mixed research method strongly recommended to conduct, including both pre and post-natal period women, for generalizability and other facilities from all over the globe should be focused.

Yasobant S, Nibedita S, Saswata S, Arnansu M, Kirti S

2014-04-01

263

[The role of vegetative tone in the pregnant women in the development of vasomotor rhinitis].  

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the state of the vegetative nervous system in pregnant women both healthy and presenting with vasomotor rhinitis. The initial vegetative tone was determined based on the table for its instant diagnostics. The state of the vegetative nervous system was assessed in 116 pregnant women with vasomotor rhinitis (29 in the first trimester, 33 in the second trimester, and 54 in the third trimester) and in 48 healthy pregnant women (21 in the first trimester, 14 in the second trimester, and 13 in the third trimester). It was shown that the prevailing activity of the parasympathetic component of the vegetative nervous system appears to be the leading risk factor responsible for the development of vasomotor rhinitis in pregnant women in I, II, and III trimesters. It accounts for the occurrence of this disease in 85.2% of the women during the first trimester, in 72.7% and 70.4% during the second and third trimesters respectively). PMID:23528468

Dolina, I V; Butsel', A Ch

2013-01-01

264

Clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the change of serum TRAb and changeable regularity of thyroid function and clinical significance of pregnant women with Graves' diease treated by propylthiouracil. Methods: Detecting the serum TRAb, FT3, FT4, TSH levels of pregnant women with Graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil using radioreceptor assay and electro chemiluminescence. Results: The serum TRAb level of the pregnant women with Graves' disease in early gestation treated by propylthiouracil descended much more than that in the initial diagnosis (P<0.01). The positive rates of TRAb in the women before treated by propylthiouracil and treated 3 months, 6 months, 8 months were 90.2%, 82.9%, 68.2% and 21.9% separately. The activity of TRAb descended slightly 3 months latter after treated. The activity of TRAb descend obviously and the positive rates changed largely 8 months after treated. Conclusion: There is very important clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with Graves' disease in diagnosis and differential diagnosis and observation of therapeutic effects. Also, a favourable prognosis judgement. Meanwhile, provides significant reference index of pathogenetic condition judgement and drug discontinuance whether or not for the clinician. (authors)

265

Toxoplasma prevalence among pregnant women in Norway: a cross-sectional study.  

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Infection by Toxoplasma gondii may lead to complications in the foetus if the mother suffers from primary infection during pregnancy. Previously infected women have produced toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies. The most recent study on prevalence of toxoplasma IgG in the Norwegian pregnant population was conducted 20 years ago. The present study is part of a research programme initiated by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We aimed to update the knowledge regarding the prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway. In this cross-sectional study, sera from 1922 pregnant women in Buskerud (992) and Sør-Trøndelag counties (930) in Norway were collected consecutively. The presence of toxoplasma IgG was identified by values ?8 IU/mL using an ELISA test. The overall prevalence of toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was 9.3% (95% CI 8.1-10.7); Sør-Trøndelag 10.4% (95% CI 8.6-12.6) and Buskerud 8.3% (95% CI 6.7-10.2). There was no difference between the counties (p = 0.13), and the result did not differ from prevalences found in 1974 (12.1%) and 1994 (10.7%). We found a higher prevalence among women ?40 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.30-5.42). The prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway is low and has been stable during the last decades. PMID:25628065

Findal, Gry; Barlinn, Regine; Sandven, Irene; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Nordbø, Svein A; Samdal, Helvi H; Vainio, Kirsti; Dudman, Susanne G; Jenum, Pål A

2015-04-01

266

Prevalence of parvovirus b19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.  

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Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions. PMID:25796023

Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

2015-03-01

267

Use of antimicrobials by pregnant women in the public health care  

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Full Text Available Objective: To identify and classify, according to the risk, the antimicrobials prescribed to pregnant women assisted by the National Program of Prenatal and Postpartum Follow-up in a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: Analytical and retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in 2011 based on the registers of 87 pregnant women assisted in 2010 using an instrument with questions about the dispensed drugs. The prescribed antimicrobials were identified and classified as topical and systemic use and according to the risk of using it during pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The pregnant women had a mean age of 28.01 years and attended 5.3 consultations. There was an average prescription of 6.52 drugs/pregnant woman. Of the 568 drugs prescribed, 85 (14.96% had an antimicrobial activity, 29 (34.1% were for topical use and 56 (65.9% for systemic use, and 46 (52.9% pregnant women received at least one antimicrobial. There were 13 different products with a prevalence of antifungals of gynecological / topical use, 16 (18.82%, 30 (35.3% were prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy, 30 (35.3% in the second and 25 (29.4% in the third trimester. According to the classification of the risk to the fetus, nine (61.54% antimicrobials belonged to the B category and four (30.77% to the C category. Conclusion: It was verified the prescription of antimicrobials for systemic use and B category risk for pregnancy to 52.9% of pregnant women in prenatal follow-up in the place where the study took place. Miconazole and metronidazole vaginal cream, cephalexin 500 mg, azithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 500 mg were the most prescribed drugs.

Janaína Soder Fritzen

2014-06-01

268

Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community  

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Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

Okwu GN

2008-01-01

269

Influenza vaccination of pregnant women: attitudes and behaviors of Oregon physician prenatal care providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of increased risk of influenza complications during pregnancy, only half of US pregnant women get influenza vaccination. We surveyed physician prenatal care providers in Oregon to assess their knowledge and behaviors regarding vaccination of pregnant women. From September through November 2011, a state-wide survey was mailed to a simple random sample (n = 1,114) of Oregon obstetricians and family physicians. The response rate was 44.5 %. Of 496 survey respondents, 187 (37.7 %) had provided prenatal care within the last 12 months. Of these, 88.5 % reported that they routinely recommended influenza vaccine to healthy pregnant patients. No significant differences in vaccine recommendation were found by specialty, practice location, number of providers in their practice, physician gender or years in practice. In multivariable regression analysis, routinely recommending influenza vaccine was significantly associated with younger physician age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.13] and greater number of pregnant patients seen per week (AOR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.25-3.06). Among rural physicians, fewer obstetricians (90.3 %) than family physicians (98.5 %) had vaccine-appropriate storage units (p = 0.001). Most physician prenatal care providers understand the importance of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. To increase influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women, it will be necessary to identify and address patient barriers to receiving influenza vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:25034358

Arao, Robert F; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; McWeeney, Shannon; Hedberg, Katrina

2015-04-01

270

Sociodemographic profile and habits of life of pregnant women for conducting the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care

Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

2014-01-01

271

Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use. PMID:25205417

Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

2014-09-10

272

Iron status and its determinants in a nationally representative sample of pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron-deficiency anemia is associated with adverse neonatal health outcomes. Iron status and its determinants were assessed in a representative sample of Belgian pregnant women. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell volume were measured using a Beckman Coulter Hematology Analyzer and serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentrations by immunoassay. In total, 55 obstetric clinics and 1,311 pregnant women were included. Approximately 40% of third-trimester and 6% of first-trimester women had SF levels less than 15 ?g/L. Approximately 21% of third-trimester and 4% of first-trimester women had anemia (Hb sTfr >8.5 mg/L). The median body iron stores were 8.1 mg/kg among first-trimester women, but only 3.6 mg/kg among third-trimester women. SF levels were significantly positively associated with age and education level, and were higher among nulliparous women and lower among North-African women. sTfr concentrations were significantly negatively associated with age and were lower among smokers, nulliparous women, and women who planned their pregnancy. Despite the fact that two thirds of Belgian pregnant women took iron-containing supplements, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia were frequent in third-trimester women. The World Health Organization regards this as a moderate public health problem. National iron supplementation guidelines are needed in Belgium to optimize iron status during pregnancy. PMID:23352090

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Egli, Ines; Ines, Egli; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2013-05-01

273

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT. Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

2012-04-01

274

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria.Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT.Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

2012-05-01

275

Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract There is now considerable evidence for the involvement of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO induced relaxation of smooth muscles including the myometrium. In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO – induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of specific blockers of these channels on the relaxation of myometrium from non-pregnant women. In vitro isometric contractions were recorded in uterine tissues from non-pregnant premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy. Apamin (10 nM and scyllatoxin (10 nM did not alter spontaneous myometrial contractions. However, 15-min pretreatment of the myometrium strips with apamin completely inhibited relaxation caused by diethylamine-nitric oxide (DEA/NO. The pretreatment with scyllatoxin significantly reduced (about 2.6 times maximum relaxation of the strips induced by DEA/NO (p 2+ and voltage dependent charybdotoxin-sensitive (CTX-sensitive K+ channels, apamin-sensitive K+ channels are also present in the human non-pregnant myometrium. These channels offer an additional target in the development of new tocolytic agents.

Kleszczewski Tomasz

2003-02-01

276

Comparative Molecular and Microbiologic Diagnosis of Vaginal Colonization by Group B Streptococcus in Pregnant Women during Labor  

OpenAIRE

Objective(s)Rapid tests for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (GBS) at the onset of labor are needed to permit early intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to evaluate the PCR assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) for detection of the GBS in comparison with a specific culture method. Materials and MethodsTwo swabs were used to obtain vaginal specimens from the 330 pregnant women attended delivery room at Hedayat hospital, Tehran, Iran...

Farnaz Fatemi; Parviz Pakzad; Hojjat Zeraati; Saeed Talebi; Soheila Asgari; Mohammad-Mehdi Akhondi; Leili Chamani-Tabriz

2010-01-01

277

Folate intake and markers of folate status in women of reproductive age, pregnant and lactating women: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (?) and SE(?) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40-0.72, P level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22-0.38, P homocysteine it was -0.10 (95% = -0.17 to -0.04, P = 0.001), that is, -7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; Van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

2012-01-01

278

Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Taiwan: Comparison between women born in Taiwan and other southeast countries  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Taiwan's national vaccination program has successfully decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B infection after twenty years of implementation and might be indirectly beneficial to the second generation. In this study, we compared the hepatitis B infection status of two groups: pregnant Taiwanese women and other Southeast Asian women, who because they had immigrated later in life to Taiwan by marriage to a Taiwanese man, had not been exposed to that vaccination program to e...

Huang Yu-Jie; Hsieh Hsiu-Shu; Lin Ching-Chiang; Huang Yeou-Lih; Ku Ming-Kun; Hung Hsin-Chia

2008-01-01

279

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

280

Salivary cortisol response to infant distress in pregnant women with depressive symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential underlying biological mechanism linking prenatal depression with adverse offspring outcomes. However, it is unknown whether the reactivity of this system to stress is altered in pregnant women experiencing depression. The objective of this study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol response to a distressed infant film is enhanced in pregnant women with symptoms of depression compared with non-depressed controls. Salivary cortisol and subjective mood responses to the film were measured in 53 primiparous women, between 11 and 18 weeks gestation. Both groups showed similar increases in state anxiety in response to the film, but there was a significantly increased cortisol response in women experiencing symptoms of depression. Depression during pregnancy is associated with increased reactivity of the HPA axis. This is consistent with altered HPA axis functioning being a key mechanism by which prenatal mood disturbance can impact upon fetal development. PMID:25352317

Murphy, Susannah E; Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Hubbard, Isabelle; Williams, Kate V; Tindall, Elizabeth; Holmes, Emily A; Ramchandani, Paul G

2015-04-01

281

Recommendations of ICRP-60 for occupationally exposed pregnant women. Compliance evaluation in six health centres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decrease in the limits of dose equivalent at the entry of the abdomen of occupationally exposed pregnant women, as recommended by ICRP-60, necessitates to evaluate with dosimeter the various professional positions in different services existing in a health care centre, to guarantee that such limits cannot be exceeded, and thus ensure the protection of the foetus. The results obtained in this work, related exclusively to external radiation dose, show that the radiation protection system currently in force is in compliance with the regulation in the majority of the professional positions evaluated, though stricter criteria for pregnant women workers must be established with the aim of obtaining a better dose optimization. The fact that pregnant operators are working in Nuclear Medicine requires an additional effort to ensure that doses in excess of the limits stated are prevented

282

Health Problems and APN Interventions in Pregnant Women with Diabetes  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to compare health problems and advanced practice nursing (APN) interventions in two types of APN care provided to 41 childbearing women with diabetes. The study’s design involved content analysis of interaction logs containing the process of APN care during two clinical trials: 1) APN care was added to physician care (n = 22); and, 2) half of physician care was substituted with APN care (n = 19). Women’s’ health problems and APN interventions were classifie...

Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, Joanne M.; Hannan, Jean; Guido-sanz, Frank; Neff, Donna Felber; Deoisres, Wannee

2012-01-01

283

Nasal and vaginal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pregnant women in Cartagena, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The host niche for Staphylococcus aureus (SA are the anterior nares; however, vaginal colonizationrates between 14% and 17.1% in pregnant women have been recently reported, raising interest about the potentialrisk in postpartum women and in neonates from colonized mothers.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nasal and vaginal colonization of SA and the antibiotic susceptibilityof the isolates in pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Cartagena, Colombia.Methods: Nasal and vaginal swabs were obtained from participants and subjected to microbiological and molecular assays. A post discharge follow-up was performed for up to four weeks.Results: From 100 pregnant women enrolled in the study, 34 were colonized with SA; 29 only in the nares, three only in the vagina, and two at both sites. Colonization of pregnant women with SA was more common in the nares than in the vagina or at both sites [29/34 (85.3% vs 3/34 (8.8% and 2/34 (5.9%; p<0.05]. We obtained 36 SA isolates,nine (25% of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, one was from the vagina; thus, the overall MRSA colonization rate among pregnant women was 9%. Molecular analysis showed that Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes were carried by the vaginal MRSA, seven of the nasal MRSA, and two of the MethicillinsensitiveStaphylococcus aureus (MSSA isolates. Two MRSA isolates carried SCCmec type I and seven carried SCCmec type IV.Conclusions: Nasal colonization rate for SA in the study population was similar to previous reports. However, the frequency of nasal colonization of MRSA was higher while vaginal colonization of SA was lower than previously reported in other studies for similar populations. The MRSA isolates obtained showed a community profile.

Oscar Correa

2012-02-01

284

Mixed infections with distinct cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotypes in Polish pregnant women, fetuses, and newborns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this investigation was to describe a distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) single and multiple genotypes among infected pregnant women, their fetuses, and newborns coming from Central Poland, as well as congenital cytomegaly outcome. The study involved 278 CMV-seropositive pregnant women, of whom 192 were tested for viral DNAemia. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genotyping was performed for 18 of 34 pregnant women carrying the viral DNA and for 12 of their 15 offspring with confirmed HCMV infections. Anti-HCMV antibodies levels were assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) tests. Viral DNA loads and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the UL55 gene. In the pregnant women, we identified HCMV gB1, gB2, gB3, and gB4 genotypes. Single gB2, gB3, or gB4 genotypes were observed in 14 (77.8 %) women, while multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes were observed in four (22.2 %). Maternal HCMV genotypes determined the genotypes identified in their fetuses and newborns (p???0.050). Half of them were infected with single HCMV gB1, gB2, or gB3 genotypes and the other half with multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes. Single and multiple genotypes were observed in both asymptomatic and symptomatic congenital cytomegaly, although no gB3 genotype was identified among asymptomatic cases. In Central Poland, infections with single and multiple HCMV strains occur in pregnant women, as well as in their fetuses and neonates, with both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. HCMV infections identified in mothers seem to be associated with the viral genotypes in their children. PMID:25348608

Rycel, M; Wujcicka, W; Zawili?ska, B; Paradowska, E; Suski, P; Gaj, Z; Wilczy?ski, J; Le?nikowski, Z; Nowakowska, D

2015-03-01

285

Low pertussis toxin antibody levels in two regional cohorts of Canadian pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants under 6 months of age are at greatest risk of mortality and severe morbidity from pertussis disease. Interventions that increase pertussis protection in newborns are therefore a clear public health imperative. The objective of this study was to assess maternal pertussis toxin antibody (anti-PT) level as a potential source of mother-to-child transfer of pertussis-associated antibodies that may reduce neonatal risk of pertussis disease. Anti-PT level was assessed in a 2013 cohort of pregnant women from two regions in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Basic demographics, health, and pertussis immunization history were collected, along with blood specimens. Anti-PT levels were compared for self-reported vaccination status and prior pertussis disease. To assess secular trend, a parallel analysis was also undertaken, using anonymized residual sera from a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia. A total of 169 pregnant women participated in the study - 50 from Nova Scotia and 119 from British Columbia. The mean and median age of participants from both sites was 31 years of age (range 16-42 years). The lower limit of quantification of the anti-PT assay was 10 ELISA units per milliliter (EU/ml). Overall, 59% of women had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml and anti-PT level did not differ with time since last self-reported pertussis vaccination (?(2)(2)=3.166, p=0.205). Among a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia, 101 of 200 (51%) had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml. Our study found that most pregnant women in two geographically disparate health regions in Canada have low residual anti-PT levels, may be vulnerable to pertussis infection themselves, and would unlikely be a source of passive ante- or postnatal transfer of anti-PT to their newborn. PMID:25269092

Bigham, Mark; Konrad, Stephanie; Van Buynder, Paul; Van Buynder, Jan; Isaac-Renton, Judy; ElSherif, May; Halperin, Scott A

2014-11-12

286

Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ? secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ? 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ? 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

Rayis, Duria A

2010-12-06

287

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA, respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1% women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84, residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49, and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44. Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection.

Díaz-García Juan

2006-07-01

288

Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures.

Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Kloster, Stine

2012-01-01

289

Gestational diabetes mellitus : experiences of pregnant women, midwives, and obstetricians and the performance of screening  

OpenAIRE

In Sweden, there is currently no consensus addressing the screening, diagnostics and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition, there is little knowledge on the impact of GDM on the daily life of pregnant women and the experiences of health care professionals providing maternal health care to women with GDM. Using different perspectives, this thesis examines the experiences of GDM and the performance of screening for GDM in a regional context in Sweden. The studies used qu...

Persson, Margareta

2009-01-01

290

Does Rubella Immunity Predict Measles Immunity? A Serosurvey of Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Background. This study was undertaken to determine whether rubella immunity infers measles immunity in pregnant women. Methods. Stored serum samples were obtained from the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory for evaluation of rubella and measles immunities with IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Nine hundred serum samples were obtained for testing. The average age of the women at the time of antepartum serum collection was 28 (range, 14 to 44) years. Measles and ...

Ault, Kevin A.; Burns, Barbara A.; Kennedy, Colleen M.

2006-01-01

291

Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment in Pregnant Women with a Mechanical Heart Valve Prosthesis  

OpenAIRE

No definitive recommendation is available concerning optimal antithrombotic therapy in pregnant women with a mechanical heart valve. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the clinical results of nadroparin treatment with respect to pregnancy outcome and maternal complications. From 1997 to 2005, 31 pregnancies were reviewed in 25 women. Nadroparin (7,500 U, twice daily) was used in 23 pregnancies between 6 and 12 weeks of gestation and close-to-term only, and coumarin derivatives w...

Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Choi, Sae Young; Kwon, Ki Young; Cho, Chi Heum

2007-01-01

292

Prevalence of Dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolate from pregnant women in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation that is associated with antifolate drug resistance among P. falciparumisolates obtained from pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study included 179 women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who have been exposed to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine. Thick and thin blood films and PCR were used for malaria parasite detection. Blood gr...

Olusola Ojurongbe; Kun, Juergen F.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Tijani, Bukola D.; Fawole, Adegboyega A.

2011-01-01

293

Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

Hamdela, Belayneh; G Mariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Tizta

2012-01-01

294

Smoking habits in Italian pregnant women: any changes after the ban?  

OpenAIRE

A reduction in the prevalence of smoking and tobacco consumption was noted after the enactment in 2005 of new smoking regulations in Italy. To determine the impact of the smoking ban on pregnant women, we compared the results of two retrospective studies on two samples of 300 women, who recently delivered, conducted before and after the regulations went into effect. The comparison showed a marked drop in passive exposure to smoke in the workplace but not in the family environment; however, pa...

Zotti, Carla Maria; Charrier, Lorena

2010-01-01

295

Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples wer...

Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz; Emine Sen; Osman Sevket; Yusuf Polat; Aysun Karabulut; Omer Uysal

2012-01-01

296

Prevention and management of excessive gestational weight gain: a survey of overweight and obese pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Background - Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with adverse infant, childhood and maternal outcomes and research to develop interventions to address this issue is ongoing. The views of women on gestational weight gain and the resources they would consider helpful in addressing this are however largely unknown. This survey aimed to determine the views of newly pregnant women, living in areas of social disadvantage, on 1) their current body weight and potential gestational weight ...

Leslie, W. S.; Gibson, A.; Hankey, C. R.

2013-01-01

297

Guided Imagery for Stress and Symptom Management in Pregnant African American Women  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided imagery (GI) intervention for stress reduction in pregnant African American women beginning early in the second trimester. This prospective longitudinal study of 72 women used a randomized controlled experimental design with two groups conducted over 12 weeks. The intervention was a CD with 4 professionally recorded tracts designed and sequenced to influence study variables. Participants in both GI and usual care (UC) complete...

Nancy Jallo; Jeanne Ruiz, R.; Elswick, R. K.; Elise French

2014-01-01

298

Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during pregnancy in the overweight and obese population. There is a need for a detailed description of physical activity patterns during pregnancy in women who are overweight or obese, and more randomized trials evaluating exercise interventions for women who are overweight or obese, with a focus on clinical outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, exercise, physical activity, overweight, obesity

Sui Z

2013-07-01

299

Methadone and Metabolites in Hair of Methadone-Assisted Pregnant Women and Their Infants  

OpenAIRE

Methadone is the recommended pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. The primary aims of this study were to determine whether a dose-concentration relationship exists between cumulative maternal methadone dose, methadone and metabolite concentrations in maternal hair during pregnancy and whether maternal hair methadone and metabolite concentrations predict neonatal outcomes.

Himes, Sarah K.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Rock, Colleen M.; Jones, Hendre?e E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

300

Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

Ayed H. Ziadat

2010-01-01

301

Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy.

Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens

2012-01-01

302

A psychiatric medication decision support guide for social work practice with pregnant and postpartum women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In their work in human services organizations and community agencies across service sectors, social workers encounter pregnant and postpartum women experiencing mental health challenges. This article offers an evidence-informed Decision Support Guide designed for use by social workers working with pregnant and postpartum women who are struggling with complicated decisions about psychiatric medication use. The guide is built on contemporary notions of health literacy and shared decision making and is informed by three areas: (1) research into the lived experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and health care providers around psychiatric medication decision making, (2) a critical review of existing decision aids, and (3) feedback on the strategy from social work practitioners who work with pregnant and postpartum women. Emphasizing the relational nature of social work in supporting effective health-related decision making, the guide relies on maintaining a collaborative practice milieu and using a decision aid that engages clients in discussions about mental health during and around the time of pregnancy. The guide offers social workers a practice tool to support responsive and compassionate care by embracing their roles in problem solving and decision making, providing emotional and psychosocial support, and making appropriate referrals to prescribers. PMID:25365831

Bentley, Kia J; Price, Sarah Kye; Cummings, Cory R

2014-10-01

303

Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

Hayes, Catherine B

2013-05-01

304

Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

2008-01-01

305

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

306

PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

Giuseppina Messina

2010-01-01

307

Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants. : Complex physiology with a risk of misinterpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and Young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Design: Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Setting: Population Surveys and research studies. Subjects: Pregnant women and young infants. Results. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (mu g l(-1)) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (mu g per 24 h); 2) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cordblood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine deficiency than in the mother. Conclusions: if the iodine status Of pregnant women and small children is not to be Misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account.

Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.

2007-01-01

308

Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women in Abha General Hospital  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI in pregnant women, to identify infectious agents causing the infection, and to explore relationship of specific socio–cultural factors with UTI. This study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Abha General Hospital, Saudi Arabia from September 2012 to January 2013 on 402 pregnant Saudi women. Midstream urine sample was obtained. A urine analysis test and culture were done as well as socio-demographic data sheet was completed. Among the 402 studied pregnant women, 12.7% were affected with UTI. The main causative agent was escherichia coli(e-coli followed by staphylococci. It was found that UTI was strongly affected by the presence of previous history of reproductive tract inflammation, history of previous UTI attacks, the presence of UTI related complaints, washing and drying the perineum area, the direction of washing and drying the perineum area, frequency of changing diaper during menstruation and the average of cleaning the bathtub (P= 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.05, 0.000 and 0.002 respectively. Our study showed a significant percentage on prevalence of UTI among Saudi pregnant women.

Mona Abdullah Almushait

2013-06-01

309

Iodine in urine of pregnant women after augmentation of iodine in salt in Macedonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The iodination of salt with 20-30 m gr iodine /Kg NaCl substantially raised the level of iodine in the urine of pregnant women from a total of 6.9 (median value in 1994) to 12.77 micro g iodine/dl (median value). The iodine metabolism in Macedonia is dependent on salt iodination. (Original)

310

Micronized progesterone as a neuroprotector in pregnant women with post-trauma brain syndrome  

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Full Text Available The present article is concerned with the study of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP level in the blood serum of pregnant women  with post–trauma brain injury syndrome (post-TBI syndrome as the marker of  hematoencephalic barrier status and predictor of obstetric and perinatal complications development.

Irina Vasilivna Tsyganenko

2014-04-01

311

Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH) was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespecti...

Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee; Masoumeh Farahani; Ali Reza Abadi

2014-01-01

312

Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

Stokholm, Jakob; SchjØrring, Susanne

2012-01-01

313

Experiences of Low Gestational Weight Gain: A Phenomenological Study with Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Low maternal, gestational weight gain is associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age infants, neural tube defects, infant death, failure to initiate breastfeeding, and childhood asthma. The advantage of qualitative research is it can provide valuable insights for health care professionals into the experience and perceptions of low gestational weight gain from the vantage point of women with first-hand lived experience. In this Heideggarian interpretive phenomenological study, the meaning and experiences of weight gain for pregnant women with low gestational weight gain were explored. Data were collected through interviews with 10 pregnant women from Atlantic Canada. Conroy’s pathway for interpretive phenomenology was utilized. A hermeneutical spiral of interpretation identified six patterns or major themes: confronting one’s mortality; defending oneself against a permanent metamorphosis into a stranger; playing with fire and brimstone; slipping under the radar; trying to find peace; and riding an emotional roller coaster. The findings point to a war that is being waged over pregnant bodies with respect to weight that leaves pregnant women fending for themselves, apparently with little help from their health care providers. Implications of the findings for health practice, education, and research are discussed.

Cynthia L. Murray

2014-11-01

314

HIV testing for pregnant women: A rights-based analysis of national policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical and human rights concerns have been expressed regarding the global shift in policies on HIV testing of pregnant women. The main purpose of this research was to conduct a policy analysis using a human rights-based approach of national policies for HIV testing of pregnant women. We collected HIV testing policies from 19 countries including: Cambodia, China, Guyana, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Moldova, Papua New Guinea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We analysed the HIV testing policies using a standardised framework that focused on government obligations to respect, protect and fulfil. Our results highlight the need for more attention to issues of pregnant women's autonomy in consenting to HIV testing, confidentiality in antenatal care settings and provision of counselling and care services. We conclude with a discussion about potential implications of the current testing policies and provide recommendations for ways that HIV testing policies can more effectively uphold the human rights of pregnant women. PMID:23181608

King, Elizabeth J.; Maman, Suzanne; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Pierce, Matthew W.; Groves, Allison K.

2015-01-01

315

Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine against malaria and anemia in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June-August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana. PMID:21734118

Wilson, Nana O; Ceesay, Fatou K; Obed, Samuel A; Adjei, Andrew A; Gyasi, Richard K; Rodney, Patricia; Ndjakani, Yassa; Anderson, Winston A; Lucchi, Naomi W; Stiles, Jonathan K

2011-07-01

316

Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

2007-01-01

317

Study on the relationship between the levels of serum cholylglycine (CG) and blood lipids in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis during pregnancy and the relationship between levels of serum CG and blood lipids. Methods: Serum CG, blood lipid and liver function profile were examined in 2040 women with pregnancy during the second or third trimester. Among these pregnant women, 57 were diagnosed as with intrahepatic cholestasis. Blood lipids (TG, cholesterol, HDL, LDL) and ALP levels in 50 of the 57 pregnant women were studied and compared with those in 50 otherwise normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Serum CG levels were above normal range in 372 of the 2040 pregnant women (18.5%). Fifty seven of these 372 pregnant women were confirmed to be with intrahepatic cholestasis (2.8% of the 2040 pregnancies). The TG, cholesterol, LDL contents and ALP levels in the pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis were significantly higher (P0.05) than those in controls. Conclusion: Intrahepatic cholestasis developed in a substantial proportion of pregnant women (2.8% in this study) and should be carefully monitored due to possible damage to the fetus. Serum CG was shown to be an early and sensitive marker for the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis. Changes of blood lipid and ALP levels were related to disease status. (authors)

318

LABOUR TERMINATION AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PLACENTA ABRUPTION WITH PPROM AND PROM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Placenta abruption is an obstetric accident which endangers life and health of both mother and embryo. It is one of the most serious obstetric complications, whose incidence ranges from 4.9-12.9 per 1,000 labours, and according to frequency, it represents the second cause of perinatal death. Retrospective analysis included the interval from 1996 to 2005. Total number of labours was analyzed and it was 32358. In addition, the number of labours complicated by placenta abruption was analyzed, and it was 119 or 0.37%. It analyzed the incidence of placenta abruption according to age of pregnancy and the integrity of embryonic membranes. It is established that there is no statistically significant difference in the incidence of placenta abruption appearing in pregnant women, with and without the disruption of embryonic membranes. The age of pregnant women was also analyzed, and it was found out that the pregnant women with placenta abruption and PPROM were 5 years older than those with placenta abruption without PPROM, and that this difference was very significant. Disruption duration was analyzed as well as the time from the first uterus bleeding to labour. The difference between PPROM and PROM duration was statistically significant, as well as the difference in duration between spontaneous and artificial rupture of embryonic membranes. The way of labour termination was analyzed in pregnant women with verified placenta abruption. In 80% of pregnant women, the labour was terminated by Caesarian section, and only 20% by vaginal labour. Also, the perinatal outcome was analyzed, according to Apgar score in the first and fifth minute. Apgar score showed that out of the total number of abruptions, 7 neonatuses was born dead (11.66%, 13 (21.66% was born in good condition (Apgar score>7, 26 (43.33% was marked with 4-7, while 14 (23.33% was in hard asphyxia (Apgar score 1-5.

Ranko Kutlesic

2007-10-01

319

Correlates of vaginal colonization with group B streptococci among pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. Setting and Design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Three high vaginal swabs were obtained from all the pregnant women admitted at term and in preterm labor. Two swabs were used for aerobic culture and the third one for gram staining. The first set of swabs was cultured on 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The second set of swabs were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth and then subcultured in 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The main outcome measures were the presence of GBS infection in comparison to the age group, gravida, gestational age, premature rupture of membrane (PROM, preterm labor and association with febrile spells of the present pregnancy. Results: The culture positivity rate of GBS was 4.77% and coexistent organisms isolated were Candida species (36%, Staphylococcus aureus (8% and Enterococcus species (8%. Culture positivity in the age group of 18-25 years was 5.71%, of which 5.74% were in their first pregnancy. The correlation between age group and gravida with GBS culture positivity was statistically insignificant. The culture positivity in <36 weeks of gestational age was 6.93%. This relation was statistically significant. Twenty-eight percent developed PROM. Sixty-four percent of culture positives had preterm labor. Conclusion: GBS infection among pregnant women was significantly correlated with the gestational age, PROM and preterm labor. In pregnancy GBS colonization causes asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI. It is a well known cause of puerperal infections with amnionitis,endometritis and sepsis being the most commonly reported infections. [5

Dechen Tsering

2010-01-01

320

Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels. - Highlights: • We assessed exposure of heavy metals to pregnant mothers who consume geophagic soil. • We analyzed 100 samples of soil originated in Tanzania. • The technique used was energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent. • Essential and toxic elements were detected in concentrations above WHO limits. • Hence, geophagy is exposing pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity

321

Placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b antibodies in malnourished pregnant women  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the vaccination response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib in malnourished pregnant women (MN, cord blood (CB and in infants at two and six months of age for comparison with a control group (C. Twenty-eight malnourished pregnant women and 29 pregnant controls were immunized with conjugated Act-HIB® in the third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all before the immunization, during labor (post immunization, and from CB. All infants were immunized with Hib vaccine according to normal vaccine schedule and sera were collected at two and six months of age. Antibody levels to polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP were similar for both groups. Preimmunization: MN 1.94 µg/mL, C 1.68 µg/mL; post-vaccination: MN 18.53 µg/mL and C 17.55 µg/mL; in CB from MN 14.46 µg/mL and from C 17.04 µg/mL. Infants from MN and C mothers presented respectively at two months: 5.18 µg/mL and 8.60 µg/mL and at six months: MN 3.42 µg/mL and C 2.18 µg/mL. Antibody levels were similar in both groups studied (p = 0.485, however the vertical transmission rate was 14% lower in the MN pregnant group. Levels of antibodies > 0.15 µg/mL were found in all newborns from the MN pregnant group. Pregnant MN presented an immunological response to Hib vaccine similar to group C, however, vertical transmission rate of antibodies to PRP in the MN pregnant group was 14% lower than that in C, suggesting a less efficient passage of antibodies within this group.

Rejane S. Cavalcante

2008-02-01

322

Placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b antibodies in malnourished pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the vaccination response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in malnourished pregnant women (MN), cord blood (CB) and in infants at two and six months of age for comparison with a control group (C). Twenty-eight malnourished pregnant women and 29 pregnant controls were immuni [...] zed with conjugated Act-HIB® in the third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all before the immunization, during labor (post immunization), and from CB. All infants were immunized with Hib vaccine according to normal vaccine schedule and sera were collected at two and six months of age. Antibody levels to polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were similar for both groups. Preimmunization: MN 1.94 µg/mL, C 1.68 µg/mL; post-vaccination: MN 18.53 µg/mL and C 17.55 µg/mL; in CB from MN 14.46 µg/mL and from C 17.04 µg/mL. Infants from MN and C mothers presented respectively at two months: 5.18 µg/mL and 8.60 µg/mL and at six months: MN 3.42 µg/mL and C 2.18 µg/mL. Antibody levels were similar in both groups studied (p = 0.485), however the vertical transmission rate was 14% lower in the MN pregnant group. Levels of antibodies > 0.15 µg/mL were found in all newborns from the MN pregnant group. Pregnant MN presented an immunological response to Hib vaccine similar to group C, however, vertical transmission rate of antibodies to PRP in the MN pregnant group was 14% lower than that in C, suggesting a less efficient passage of antibodies within this group.

Rejane S., Cavalcante; Benjamin I., Kopelman; Beatriz T., Costa-Carvalho.

2008-02-01

323

Thinking About Inducing Your Labor: A Guide for Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... start contracting and the cervix to open up. Oxytocin (Pitocin®) is one medicine used to get contractions ... high blood pressure, is not an elective induction. Oxytocin (Pitocin®) is sometimes given to women who are ...

324

Homocysteine concentration, related B vitamins, and betaine in pregnant women recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Study.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Both folate and betaine are important predictors of total homocysteine (tHcy) during pregnancy. However, studies to date have only been undertaken in populations with Western dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictors of tHcy in pregnant women recruited in the Seychelles, a population where access to fortified foods is limited and where women habitually consume diets rich in fish, eggs, rice, and fruit. DESIGN: Pregnant women (n = 226) provided blood samples at en...

Molloy, Anne Marie; Scott, John Martin

2008-01-01

325

The effect of food intake during labor on pain and anxiety in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The policy of fasting of pregnant women during labor is probably an unnecessary medical intervention. It may cause adverse consequences to mother and fetus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assessthe effect of food intake on pain and anxiety of low risk pregnant women.Materials and Method: This is a semi-experimental study on 175 pregnant low risk women was elected at central hospital of Gonabad during1387-88. Women in the intervention group (n=87 got dates, orange juice and water; and women in the control group (n=88 underwent fasting. The investigators used visual analogue scale (VAS and (PBI. Data was analyzed using t and chi-squared tests. P-value of less than 0.05 was determined significant.Results: Anxiety levels in 7-6 cm cervical dilatation and transition as well as pain during delivery in the intervention group were lower than control group (p 0.05.Conclusion: We concluded that intake of food during labor could decrease pain and anxiety level during labor

Roghaieh Rahmani-Bilandi

2012-01-01

326

Preoxygenation of pregnant and nonpregnant women in the head-up versus supine position.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of preoxygenation in the supine (n = 10) versus the 45 degrees head-up (n = 10) position on the duration of apnea leading to a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation to 95%, as monitored by pulse oximetry, was investigated in 20 women undergoing elective cesarean section at term of pregnancy. The results were compared with those obtained in a control group of 20 nonpregnant women. In the supine position, the average time to desaturation to 95% was significantly shorter in the pregnant group (173 +/- 4.8 s [mean +/- SD]) than in the control group of nonpregnant women (243 +/- 7.4 s). Using the head-up position resulted in an increase in the desaturation time in the nonpregnant group (331 +/- 7.2 s) but had no significant effect in the pregnant group (156 +/- 2.8 s). We conclude that pregnant women desaturate their arterial blood of oxygen more rapidly than do nonpregnant women. Furthermore, the head-up position extends the duration of apnea that can take place before desaturation occurs in nonpregnant patients. PMID:1416130

Baraka, A S; Hanna, M T; Jabbour, S I; Nawfal, M F; Sibai, A A; Yazbeck, V G; Khoury, N I; Karam, K S

1992-11-01

327

Analysis of pregnancy and childbirth course in pregnant women with excessive weight  

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Full Text Available Under supervision there were 233 pregnant women with excessive weight aged 18-43 years. Patients were under observation and gave birth on the basis of obstetric units of municipal establishment "Dnepropetrovsk regional perinatal center with in-patient unit of" Dnepropetrovsk regional council". When performing research 2 groups were formed: 120 (51,5% pregnant women with miscarriage threat against excessive weight being at in-patient treatment since early terms of pregnancy. They underwent in-depth study. 113 (48,5% pregnant women with obesity with gestation course estimated retrospectively at the time of delivery. As a result of the obtained data in women of prospective group treatment algorithm was developed. This algorithm represented a complex treatment including antiagregant and anticoagulant therapy, co-factor vitamin therapy. Despite a more mature age of women of prospective group, adverse anamnesis by missarriage, high frequency of miscarriage in its first half, low placentation level, this complex allowed to improve course of the second half of pregnancy and to reduce number of gestational complications and perinatal losses.

Duka Yu.M.

2015-03-01

328

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Pregnant Women in Zanjan, Northwest of Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: In the last two decades the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs are dramatically increased and remain a major public health problem in developing countries. Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis which is a flagellated protozoon associated with vaginitis, cervicitis and urethritis. Researchers believed that pregnancy is one of the influencing factors of the genital trichomoniasis in women.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis in pregnant women in Zanjan, Iran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 pregnant women were examined for diagnosis of trichomoniasis based on direct microscopic examination and culture method. They referred to the treatment and health centers of Zanjan, Northwest Iran, Demographic and personal information of the subjects were collected and evaluated with questionnaires.Results: Thirty-three out of one thousand examined individuals (3.3% presented vaginal infection with T. vaginalis. Infection in women with lower gestational age, higher mothers’ age, higher parity and living in city were significantly associated with increased risk of vaginal trichomoniasis (P < 0.05. Other variables were not significantly associated with parasite infection.Conclusions: The present study found that the infection with T. vaginalis is a health problem in pregnant women correlated with some epidemiological variables and can be considered with microbiological screening tests during pregnancy.

Abbasali Nourian

2013-09-01

329

Malaria associated symptoms in pregnant women followed-up in Benin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally agreed that in high transmission areas, pregnant women have acquired a partial immunity to malaria and when infected they present few or no symptoms. However, longitudinal cohort studies investigating the clinical presentation of malaria infection in pregnant women in stable endemic areas are lacking, and the few studies exploring this issue are unconclusive. Methods A prospective cohort of women followed monthly during pregnancy was conducted in three rural dispensaries in Benin from August 2008 to September 2010. The presence of symptoms suggestive of malaria infection in 982 women during antenatal visits (ANV, unscheduled visits and delivery were analysed. A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between symptoms and a positive thick blood smear (TBS. Results During routine ANVs, headache was the only symptom associated with a higher risk of positive TBS (aOR = 1.9; p Conclusion The majority of pregnant women were symptomless during routine visits when infected with malaria in an endemic stable area. The only suggestive sign of malaria (fever was associated with malaria only on the occasion of unscheduled visits. The prevention of malaria in pregnancy could be improved by reassessing the design of IPTp, i.e. by determining an optimal number of doses and time of administration of anti-malarial drugs.

Massougbodji Achille

2011-03-01

330

Does Rubella Immunity Predict Measles Immunity? A Serosurvey of Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to determine whether rubella immunity infers measles immunity in pregnant women. Methods. Stored serum samples were obtained from the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory for evaluation of rubella and measles immunities with IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Nine hundred serum samples were obtained for testing. The average age of the women at the time of antepartum serum collection was 28 (range, 14 to 44 years. Measles and rubella immunity were 88% and 98%, respectively; there was no effect of immunity status by age identified. Eighty eight percent of those with rubella immunity were also measles immune. There was no association between paired rubella and measles immunity identified, P<.0001. Discussion. Known rubella immunity did not infer measles immunity in our population. Thus, we recommend that pregnant women exposed to measles be tested and appropriately treated if they are found to be nonimmune.

Kevin A. Ault

2006-07-01

331

Characteristics of pregnant women in Mozambique--parity, child survival and socioeconomic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a basis for improvement of maternal health care programmes in Mozambique, 1051 pregnant women were interviewed at 10 sites in 8 of the country's 10 provinces. Two-thirds of the women lived in rural areas. The average number of previous births ranged from 2.4 to 4.7 and was significantly correlated to the proportion of children lost before 5 years of age. Child survival was significantly higher when the woman had received some education, possessed a radio, or the woman or her husband had paid employment. In the most underprivileged rural area, 56% of the children had died before the age of 5 and 35% of the pregnant women had undergone 6 childbirths or more. It is concluded that in order to improve maternal and child health it is necessary to increase socioeconomic development as well as improve maternal and child health care. PMID:6464241

Lijestrand, J; Bergström, S

1984-01-01

332

Report on results of seventeen years in consultations of radiation exposed pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a survey it will be given results of consultations of pregnant women exposed during the pregnancy in the period of 1976 to 1992 formerly in the National Board of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR and since 1990 in the Clinic-diagnostical Division of the Federal Health Office. The report includes dose estimations of the embryo and medical assessments of 430 pregnant women. The radiation exposure were mainly received by X-ray diagnostic (n = 406 cases) and the others by applications of radiation in nuclear medicine, research and vocational training (n = 24 cases). Results of dose and risk estimation were summarized in tables. Women having incurred fetal doses in excess of 100 mGy were recommended to interrupt pregnancy. A fetal dose above 100 mGy occured in 9 cases. The anatomico-pathological and embryological findings of the embryo or fetus showed only in one case a reference of teratogenic radiation damage. (orig.)

333

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 28.89 ± 5.76 years (range 13–42 years. Of the 157 women tested, HEV seroprevelance was 28.66% (45/157. Among the seropositive women, 64.40% (29/45 tested positive for anti-HEV IgM while 35.60% (16/45 tested positive to HEV IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was highest (46.15% among women 21–25 years of age, followed by 42.82% in = 20 year group, then 36.84% in = 36 year group. Of the 157 women, 75.79% and 22.92% were in their third and second trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Anti-HEV antibodies detected in women in their third trimester of pregnancy (30.25% was significantly higher, P Conclusion Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in pregnant women.

Mingle Julius AA

2009-07-01

334

Escherichia coli bacteraemia in pregnant women is life-threatening for foetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve knowledge on Escherichia coli bacteraemia during pregnancy, we studied clinical data and performed molecular characterization of strains for 29 E. coli bacteraemia occurring in pregnant women. Bacteraemia mostly occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy (45%) and was community-acquired (79%). Portals of entry were urinary (55%) and genital (45%). E. coli strains belonged mainly to phylogroups B2 (72%) and D (17%). Four clonal lineages (i.e. sequence type complex (STc) 73, STc95, STc12 and STc69) represented 65% of the strains. The strains exhibited a high number of virulence factor coding genes (10 (3-16)). Six foetuses died (27%), five of them due to bacteraemia of genital origin (83%). Foetal deaths occurred despite adequate antibiotic regimens. Strains associated with foetal mortality had fewer virulence factors (8 (6-10)) than strains involved in no foetal mortality (11 (4-12)) (p 0.02). When comparing E. coli strains involved in bacteraemia with a urinary portal of entry in non-immunocompromised pregnant vs. non-immunocompromised non-pregnant women from the COLIBAFI study, there was no significant difference of phylogroups and virulence factor coding genes. These results show that E. coli bacteraemia in pregnant women involve few highly virulent clones but that severity, represented by foetal death, is mainly related to bacteraemia of genital origin. PMID:24979689

Surgers, L; Bleibtreu, A; Burdet, C; Clermont, O; Laouénan, C; Lefort, A; Mentré, F; Carbonne, B; Bingen, E; Meynard, J-L; Denamur, E

2014-12-01

335

A qualitative interview study exploring pregnant women’s and health professionals’ attitudes to external cephalic version  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11 and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11 recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs. To address these challenges a number of approaches will be required.

Say Rebecca

2013-01-01

336

Hyperhomocysteinaemia, vascular related pregnancy complications and the response to vitamin supplementation in pregnant women of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elaborate the relationship between serum homocysteine (hcy) levels and vascular related pregnancy complications in pregnant women as well as to assess the homocysteine lowering effects of folate, vitamin B12 and B6. The secondary objectives were to establish a link between serum homocysteine levels and maternal age, parity, gestational age, foetal birth weight, mean arterial pressure and albuminuria. Methods: A total of 332 pregnant women (gestational age: >24 weeks) attending Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, Pakistan, were enrolled. Of these 112 were healthy normal pregnant women; 61 pregnant women had pre-eclampsia, 49 with eclampsia and 110 with placental abruption. A cohort of 30 patients with elevated hcy levels (>8.2 mu mol/liter), were given folate, vitamin B12 and B6 as supplements for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected, centrifuged and stored at 2 to 8 deg. C. Hcy levels were determined by IMx immunoassay. Results: Higher serum hcy levels, higher mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), pre-term deliveries and low foetal birth weights were noted in women with pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and eclampsia as compared to control and those with placental abruption. Significant hcy lowering effects of folate, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation were observed. Significant and positive correlation was found between hhcy and MAP (r = 0.001; p<0.001), albuminuria (r = 0.004; p< 0.01) and low birth weights (r= 0.05; p<0.06). Conclusion: Higher hts (r= 0.05; p<0.06). Conclusion: Higher hcy levels in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and eclampsia have been noted. Data support the hypothesis that folate, vitamin B12 and B6 lower hcy levels in hyperhomocysteinaemic women. (author)

337

Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

Hjorth Mads F

2012-12-01

338

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

We determined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among 963 pregnant women attending an obstetric hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. Seroprevalences of IgG and IgM against T. gondii were 68.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 65.6–71.6%) and 0.5% (95% CI = 0.06–1.0%), respectively. Seroprevalence of IgG was high in women less than 25 years of age (91.7%) and in low-income women (odds Ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.02–1.90). Multivariate regression analysis show...

Sroka, Susann; Bartelheimer, Nina; Winter, Andreas; Heukelbach, Jo?rg; Ariza, Liana; Ribeiro, Heliane; Oliveira, Fabi?ola Araujo; Queiroz, Ajax Jose Nogueira; Alencar, Carlos; Liesenfeld, Oliver

2010-01-01

339

Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Pregnant Women without Vector Exposure Have Higher Parasitemia Levels: Implications for Congenital Transmission Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Congenital transmission is a major source of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections, and as vector and blood bank control continue to improve, the proportion due to congenital infection will grow. A major unanswered question is why reported transmission rates from T. cruzi-infected mothers vary so widely among study populations. Women with high parasite loads during pregnancy are more likely to transmit to their infants, but the factors that govern maternal parasite load are largely unknown. Better understanding of these factors could enable prioritization of screening programs to target women most at risk of transmission to their infants. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened pregnant women presenting for delivery in a large urban hospital in Bolivia and followed infants of infected women for congenital Chagas disease. Of 596 women screened, 128 (21.5%) had confirmed T. cruzi infection; transmission occurred from 15 (11.7%) infected women to their infants. Parasite loads were significantly higher among women who transmitted compared to those who did not. Congenital transmission occurred from 31.3% (9/29), 15.4% (4/26) and 0% (0/62) of women with high, moderate and low parasite load, respectively (?x2 for trend 18.2; p<0.0001). Twin births were associated with higher transmission risk and higher maternal parasite loads. Infected women without reported vector exposure had significantly higher parasite loads than those who had lived in an infested house (median 26.4 vs 0 parasites/mL; p<0.001) with an inverse relationship between years of living in an infested house and parasite load. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that sustained vector-borne parasite exposure and repeated superinfection by T. cruzi may act as an immune booster, allowing women to maintain effective control of the parasite despite the down-regulation of late pregnancy. PMID:25807498

Rendell, Victoria R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Valencia, Edward; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Leny; Acosta, Janet; Sanchez, Gerardo; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; LaFuente, Carlos; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Colanzi, Rony; Bern, Caryn

2015-01-01

340

Toxoplasmosis: an examination of knowledge among health professionals and pregnant women in a municipality of the State of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of toxoplasmosis among professionals and pregnant women in the public health services in Paraná, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional observational and transversal study of 80 health professionals (44 nurses and 36 physicians) and 3 [...] 30 pregnant women [111 immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and IgG-non-reactive and 219 IgG-reactive] was conducted in 2010. An epidemiological data questionnaire was administered to the professionals and to the pregnant women, and a questionnaire about the clinical aspects and laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was administered to the professionals. Results The participants frequently provided correct responses about prophylactic measures. Regarding the clinical and laboratory aspects, the physicians provided more correct responses and discussed toxoplasmosis with the pregnant women. The professionals had difficulty interpreting the avidity test results, and the physicians stated that they referred pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies to a county reference center. Of the professionals, 53 (91.4%) reported that they instructed women during prenatal care, but only 54 (48.6%) at-risk pregnant women and 99 (45.2%) women who were not at risk reported receiving information about preventive measures. The physicians provided verbal instructions to 120 (78.4%) women, although instructional materials were available in the county. The pregnant women generally lacked knowledge about preventive measures for congenital toxoplasmosis, but the at-risk pregnant women tended to respond correctly. Conclusions This study provides data to direct public health policies regarding the importance of updating the knowledge of primary care professionals. Mechanisms should be developed to increase public knowledge because prophylactic strategies are important for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.

Ana Paula, Contiero-Toninato; Helenara Osorio, Cavalli; Ariella Andrade, Marchioro; Érika Cristina, Ferreira; Marcela Caleffi da Costa Lima, Caniatti; Regina Mitsuka, Breganó; Italmar, Navarro; Ana Lucia, Falavigna-Guilherme.

2014-04-01

341

Increased neopterin level and chitotriosidase activity in pregnant women with threatened preterm labor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objectives: To determine whether the cellular inflammatory markers of activated macrophages, neopterin (NEO), chitotriosidase activity and the acute-phase inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated in pregnancy with threatened preterm labor (TPL). Methods: Thirty-two pregnant women with TPL and 32 women with uncomplicated pregnancy (UP) were included this study. The primary aim was to compare the NEO, chitotriosidase activity and CRP levels between women with TPL and women with UP. Results: NEO levels were all significantly elevated in patients with TPL compared to UP (median 25-75%; 9.61 [8.47-12.29] versus 4.46 [3.59-6.92], respectively; p?pregnant women with TPL compared to UP (median 25-75%; 59.00 [38.00-87.25] versus 43.50 [23.25-65.25], respectively; p?=?0.036). However, CRP levels were not different in women with TPL compared to UP (p?=?0.573). Furthermore, a significant moderate negative correlation was found between delivery week and NEO level (r?=?-0.557, p?=?0.001). However, a significant correlation was not seen between delivery week and chitotriosidase activity (r?=?-0.042, p?=?0.741). Conclusions: Inflammatory markers such as NEO and chitotriosidase activity, which are markers of macrophages, are more elevated in pregnant women with TPL than in women with UP. These data suggest that there are striking increases in inflammation and cellular immune activation in TPL. PMID:25005858

Keskin, U?ur; Ulubay, Mustafa; Kurt, Yasemin Gülcan; Fidan, Ula?; Koçyi?it, Yahya Kemal; Honca, Tevfik; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Ergün, Ali

2014-07-28

342

HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behaviour among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan, 2007  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Central Asia has one of the most rapidly increasing HIV prevalence in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate current knowledge, risk behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing concerning HIV/AIDS among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. Methods We collected 226 questionnaires in a consecutive sample from a population on 520 pregnant women. The results were related to ethnicity, age and education level. Results Ninety-six percent had heard about HIV. Positive findings were that 89% and 86% of the women were aware of the two main routes of transmission: sexual intercourses without a condom and sharing needles while injecting drugs. The women had first heard about HIV/AIDS through the media with, 52%, and at school with 40%. Only 46% and 68% of the women pointed out breastfeeding and mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy or delivery as routes of transmission. Eighty-three percent were prepared not to breastfeed their baby if they were found to be HIV positive. Slightly more, 86%, accepted the need to take medicine, but fewer women, 68%, were positive to Caesarean section. Negative findings were that only 28% answered that there are ways to protect oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS and specified that this was condom use. Conclusion The pregnant women in Semey have poor knowledge about specific mother-to-child HIV transmission and do not know about the means of reducing mother-to-child HIV infection. The information in the public health program needs to be improved. However, most of the women in Semey were positive to prevention strategies for mother-to-child transmission after hearing about it.

Sandgren Sofia

2008-08-01

343

Determinants of 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Among Pregnant Women in Hong Kong  

OpenAIRE

During the 2009-2010 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic, pregnant women infected with the virus experienced excess morbidity and mortality when compared with other groups. Once a vaccine was available, pregnant women were a priority group for vaccination. Only a few studies have reported on the uptake of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine among pregnant women during the pandemic and none were from Asia. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine uptake am...

Tarrant, Marie; Wu, Kendra M.; Yuen, Carol Yuet Sheung; Cheung, Ka Lun; Chan, Vincci Hiu Sze

2012-01-01

344

Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

Lindsay, K L

2014-07-01

345

Health Problems and APN Interventions in Pregnant Women with Diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare health problems and advanced practice nursing (APN) interventions in two types of APN care provided to 41 childbearing women with diabetes. The study's design involved content analysis of interaction logs containing the process of APN care during two clinical trials: 1) APN care was added to physician care (n = 22); and, 2) half of physician care was substituted with APN care (n = 19). Women's' health problems and APN interventions were classified using the Omaha System's Problem Scheme and Intervention Scheme. The women, in the study, had a mean age of 30, and were predominantly Black, high school graduates, with a low income. The findings identified 61,004 health problems and 60,980 APN interventions from the interaction logs. APNs provided significantly more interventions antenatally to the women in the substitution group than to those in the additive group. However, the overall categories of problems were the same in both groups. Surveillance and health teaching/counseling were the top APN interventions antenatally and postpartum. Case management interventions were third most common for both groups, while treatments and procedures constituted the least number of APN interventions in each group before and after birth. When APNs shared care more equally with physicians, they intervened differently in type and number of interventions. Their broad range of skills and depth of understanding in clinical practice, health systems, family and personal issues allowed them to intervene early and effectively. PMID:24660041

Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, Joanne M; Hannan, Jean; Guido-Sanz, Frank; Neff, Donna Felber; Deoisres, Wannee

2012-04-01

346

Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

Lindsay, K.L

2014-07-01

347

Clinical needs of in-treatment pregnant women with co-occurring disorders: implications for primary care.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated social vulnerability and behavioral health clinical profiles (symptom severity) of pregnant women with co-occurring disorders, defined as substance abuse, mental illness, and trauma at treatment entry compared to their nonpregnant counterparts and the role of interpersonal abuse in clinical presentation among pregnant women. Our objective was to provide primary health care providers with insight into the needs of pregnant patients with high behavioral health risks to serve them better during the critical window of opportunity for long-term impact. We conducted cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from women enrolled in treatment programs in the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study from nine sites across the United States. We used analysis of variance and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical analyses to compare means and frequencies of social vulnerability indicators and baseline Addiction Severity Index, Brief Symptom Inventory of mental health, and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale scores between 152 pregnant and 2,577 nonpregnant women, and between pregnant women with and without current interpersonal abuse. Compared to nonpregnant women, pregnant women evidenced more social vulnerability but better behavioral health clinical profiles at treatment entry. Current interpersonal abuse was associated with increased mental health and trauma symptomatology but not with alcohol or drug abuse severity among pregnant women. The prenatal period is an important time for screening and intervention for factors such as social vulnerability and co-occurring disorders, known to affect pregnancy and infant outcomes; social and behavioral health services are particularly essential among pregnant women with co-occurring disorders. PMID:24770992

Lee King, Patricia A; Duan, Lei; Amaro, Hortensia

2015-01-01

348

Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodelling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from 7 months to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated and later analyzed following four dream categories: 1 Dreamed MMR, 2 Quality of baby/child representations, 3 Pregnancy-related themes, 4 Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p?0.006. Baby/child representations were less specific in late 3rd than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.005 and than in non-pregnant women (p=0.01. Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p?.01. Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.01. Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p<.05. Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodelling MMR of the woman as a mother and of the unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content.

JessicaLara-Carrasco

2013-08-01

349

Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy. PMID:3047164

Davis, O K; Hawkins, D S; Rubin, L P; Posillico, J T; Brown, E M; Schiff, I

1988-10-01

350

Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy

351

Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

1988-10-01

352

Non-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction in pregnant Iranian women  

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Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infection. In 75% of women and 50% of men infection is asymptomatic. According to World Health Organization reports, the number of new genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis reaches 100 million annually. The sensitivity and specificity of nacid amplification tests are 95% and 99%, respectively. Urine samples can provide a non-invasive method of testing for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women referred to a teaching hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Urine samples were obtained from 210 pregnant women and investigated microscopically and macroscopically by urinalysis. Precipitants were also used for DNA extraction and PCR test for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. Among 210 urine specimens from women aged 15-39 years, none were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR. In spite of the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR, and the elimination of inhibitory effects on PCR test, no pregnant woman was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. Here, we suggest that a larger sample should be studied and other sensitive methods could also be used in the future.

Amir Emami

2012-01-01

353

Dietary aspects of pregnant women in rural areas of Northern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to document the current dietary profile of pregnant women in rural areas of Delhi. In order to explore the diet the combination of quantitative (24-h recall method) and qualitative methods (food frequency method) were used. The mean intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, namely, iron, folic acid and Vitamin C which play an important role in the pathophysiology of nutritional anaemia during pregnancy was calculated from the foodstuffs, using Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. The preferences and avoidance of various foods by the pregnant women were also elicited. The data were analysed using Epi Info 3.4. The intake of calories, protein, iron, folic acid and Vitamin C was found to be less than the recommended dietary allowance in 100%, 91.2%, 98.2%, 99.1% and 65.8% of pregnant women respectively. Folic acid intakes were significantly lower in younger, primiparous and poorly educated women from low-income families. Vitamin C intake was lower among non-Hindus only. The overall data suggested the presence of food gap rather than isolated deficiency of any particular nutrient. PMID:18336642

Gautam, Virender P; Taneja, Devender K; Sharma, Nandini; Gupta, Vimal K; Ingle, Gopal K

2008-04-01

354

Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

2012-12-01

355

Interference factors in digoxin analysis, especially in the serum of pregnant women, by RIA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of false digoxin concentrations measured in pregnant women by RIA were gone into; 103 sera of healthy women in their last trimester of pregnancy were analyzed by 4 different RIA methods. In 6 cases, falsepositive digoxin levels above 1.0 ng/ml were found; 4 of the measured digoxin levels were above 2.0 ng/ml, i.e. a clinically toxic concentration. No pseudodigoxin was detected post partum; however, the author was only able to make control measurements of 2 of the 3 positive sera between the 6th and 12th week post partum. The causes of this phenomenon remain unclear. It cannot be excluded that these pregnant women may have a still unknown hormone metabolite, resulting from a possible enzymatic defect, which cross-reacts with the digoxin antiserum and thus causes false-positive results. In those rare cases where pregnant women receive digitalis treatment, digoxin serum measurements by RIA must be analyzed very critically due to the possibility of false-positive results. (orig.)

356

Relationship between blood lead levels and hematological indices in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have revealed a negative association between blood lead levels and hematological impairment. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between blood lead levels and hematological indices in 292 pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. Apparently healthy pregnant women, aged 14-41 years and at 3-41 weeks of gestation, were recruited between June 2007 and May 2008. Blood lead and hematological indices were measured. The mean blood lead was 2.79 ± 2.16 ?g/dL, and lead levels ?5 ?g/dL were detected in 25 women (8.6%). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells count were significantly higher in pregnant women with a blood lead concentration of ?5 ?g/dL than the group with lower blood lead levels (p red blood cell count and blood lead levels was statistically significant (r = 0.185, p = .002). The findings suggest that a positive association between blood lead and some hematological indices may occur at relatively low blood lead concentration (mean < 5 ?g/dL). PMID:25531188

La-Llave-León, Osmel; Lugo-Soto, Rodrigo; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Salas-Pacheco, José-Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Barraza-Salas, Marcel; Vázquez-Alanís, Fernando; García-Vargas, Gonzalo

2015-01-01

357

Adherence to the screening program for HBV infection in pregnant women delivering in Greece  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B infection (HBV is a major Public Health Problem. Perinatal transmission can be prevented with the identification of HBsAg(+ women and administration of immunoprophylaxis to their newborns. A national prevention programme for HBV with universal screening of pregnant women and vaccination of infants is in effect since 1998 in Greece. Methods To evaluate adherence to the national guidelines, all women delivering in Greece between 17–30/03/03 were included in the study. Trained health professionals completed a questionnaire on demographic data, prenatal or perinatal screening for HBsAg and the implementation of appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Results During the study period 3,760 women delivered. Prenatal screening for HBsAg was documented in 91.3%. Greek women were more likely to have had prenatal testing. HBsAg prevalence was 2.89% (95%CI 2.3–3.4%. Higher prevalence of HBV-infection was noted in immigrant women, especially those born in Albania (9.8%. Other risk factors associated with maternal HBsAg (+ included young maternal age and absence of prenatal testing. No prenatal or perinatal HBsAg testing was performed in 3.2% women. Delivering in public hospital and illiteracy were identifiable risk factors for never being tested. All newborns of identified HBsAg (+ mothers received appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Conclusion The prevalence of HBsAg in Greek pregnant women is low and comparable to other European countries. However, immigrant women composing almost 20% of our childbearing population, have significant higher prevalence rates. There are still women who never get tested. Universal vaccination against HBV at birth and reinforcement of perinatal testing of all women not prenatally tested should be discussed with Public Health Authorities.

Cassimos Dimitrios

2006-05-01

358

HIV PREVALENCE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN EIGHT PROVINCIAL CAPITALS IN INDONESIA IN 2003-2010  

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Full Text Available This study has aims to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV among pregnant women in the communityand to estimate the number of babies born with HIV, using secondary data of 11.693 pregnant women from Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT program conducted the Pelita Ilmu Foundation during 2003-2010 in eight provincial capitals in Indonesia. The HIV diagnosis was based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The HIV prevalence was calculated from those who participated in the post-test counseling. Mantel HaenszelChi-square test was performed to see the trend. Of all pregnant women, 98% expressed their desire for HIV testing. The women, then, were given pre-test counseling. Of the pre-test counseled respondents, 95% were willing to do HIV test and of the HIV tested respondents 88% followed the post-test counseling to get the test result, and as much as 0.41% are HIV positive. HIV prevalence quite vary and there is an increasing trend from 2003 to 2009, from 0.36% in 2003-2006, rose to 0.52% in 2008, rose to 0.54% in 2009, then fell to 0.25% in 2010. An estimated 8.604 infants were born with HIV every year. However, if PMTCT program was implemented there will be 8.112 babies averted with HIV and will save around 42 billion rupiah per year. It is concluded that the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in the community were still low and vary in five-time observations. It is recommended that the government should implement a PMTCT program and integrated it with maternal & child health and family planning program.

Toha Muhaimin

2011-12-01

359

Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption. PMID:20655095

Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

2010-09-15

360

Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome. DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective study, Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-six consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Twenty-five healthy pregnant controls. METHODS: At 8, 14, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, the diabetic women self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) (8/day) for 3 days and had blood samplings obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (T4), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), anti-TPO, pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Anti-TPO was detected in 31 (32%) of the pregnant diabetic women compared with two women (8%) in the healthy controls (p=0.015). The presence of anti-TPO was associated with higher TSH at 8 (p2.5 mIU/l), most prevalently among anti-TPO positive women. Sixteen women (17%) were treated for thyroid disorder during pregnancy. No differences were detected between the diabetic women with and without anti-TPO regarding HbA1C, insulin dose, median SMPG or pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TPO was present in one-third of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and associated with slightly higher TSH, but not poorer glycemic control or adverse birth outcome. A total of 17% of women with type 1 diabetes were treated for thyroid disorder during pregnancy Udgivelsesdato: 2008

Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

2008-01-01

361

Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP, especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW, and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC or delivery units (DU, or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12?months in high (Bastar and low (Rajnandgaon transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696 among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025. Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8% than in Rajnandgaon (0.1% (p? Conclusions Given the overall low prevalence of malaria, a strategy of enhanced anti-vector measures coupled with intermittent screening and targeted treatment during pregnancy should be considered for preventing malaria-associated morbidity in central India.

Singh Neeru

2012-08-01

362

Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15–24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. v [...] aginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7–10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs OR = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.63–13.56, p = 0.004)] and not attending antenatal care OR = 5.15 (95% CI: 1.15–23.25, p = 0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil.

Angelica E., Miranda; Valdir M., Pinto; Charlotte A., Gaydos.

2014-12-01

363

Malaria and anemia prevention in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are a major risk group for malaria in endemic areas. Only little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women with malaria and anaemia preventive drug regimens in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. In this study, we collected information on malaria and anaemia prevention behaviour in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso. Methods Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative survey among 225 women of eight villages in rural northwestern Burkina Faso. Four of the villages had a health centre offering antenatal care (ANC services while the other four were more than five kilometers away from a health centre. Results Overall ANC coverage (at least one visit was 71% (95% in health centre villages vs 50% in remote villages. Malaria and anaemia were considered as the biggest problems during pregnancy in this community. ANC using women were quite satisfied with the quality of services, and compliance with malaria and anaemia prevention regimens (chloroquine and iron/folic acid was high in this population. Knowledge on the benefit of bed nets and good nutrition was less prominent. Distance, lack of money and ignorance were the main reasons for women to not attend ANC services. Conclusions There is an urgent need to improve access of rural SSA women to ANC services, either through increasing the number of rural health centres or establishing functioning outreach services. Moreover, alternative malaria and anaemia prevention programmes such as intermittent preventive treatment with effective antimalarials and the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets need to become implemented on a large scale.

Jahn Albrecht

2004-08-01

364

Change of seizure frequency in pregnant epileptic women.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of pregnancy on seizure frequency was monitored prospectively in 136 pregnancies of 122 epileptic women. Pregnancy did not influence the seizure frequency in 68 pregnancies (50%). In 50 pregnancies (37%) the number of seizures increased during pregnancy or puerperium. The seizure frequency decreased in 18 pregnancies (13%). In 34 out of 50 pregnancies (68%) the increase was associated with non-compliance with the drug regimen or sleep deprivation. In seven out of 18 pregnancies (39...

Schmidt, D.; Canger, R.; Avanzini, G.; Battino, D.; Cusi, C.; Beck-mannagetta, G.; Koch, S.; Rating, D.; Janz, D.

1983-01-01

365

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

...preference. This may be done by means of street outreach programs, ongoing public service announcements (radio/television), regular advertisements in local/regional print media, posters placed in targeted areas, and frequent notification...

2010-10-01

366

What models of maternity care do pregnant women in Ireland want?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The introduction of new models of care in the Irish maternity services has been recommended by both advocacy groups and strategic reports. Yet there is a dearth of information about what models of care pregnant women want. We surveyed women in early pregnancy who were attending a large Dublin maternity hospital. Demographic and clinical details were recorded from the hospital chart. Of the 501 women, 351 (70%) (352 (70.3%) of women wanted shared antenatal care between their family doctor and either a hospital doctor or midwife. 228 (45.5%) preferred to have their baby delivered in a doctor-led unit, while 215 (42.9%) preferred a midwifery-led unit. Of those 215 (42.9%), 118 (55%) met criteria for suitability. There was minimal demand (1.6%) for home births. Choice was influenced by whether the woman was attending for private care or not. Safety is the most important factor for women when choosing the type of maternity care they want. Pregnant women want a wide range of choices when it comes to models of maternity care. Their choice is strongly influenced by safety considerations, and will be determined in part by risk assessment.

Byrne, C

2012-02-01

367

Homocysteine in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR: a comparison with normotensive pregnant women with isolated IUGR and healthy pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze homocysteine levels in maternal serum in women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and/or IUGR. Patients and methods: The study was carried out on 49 pregnant patients with normotensive pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction (group IUGR, 31 patients with preeclampsia complicated by IUGR (group PRE-IUGR, and 35 preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight fetuses (group PRE. The control group consisted of 47 healthy normotensive pregnant patients with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies and with proper intrauterine fetal growth. Results: We revealed higher levels of maternal serum homocysteine in the group of pregnant patients with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction in comparison with the control subjects. The concentrations of homocysteine were also higher in both groups of patients with pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR. The highest levels of homocysteine were observed in preeclamptic women with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetal growth. The mean values were 9.004 +/– 2.820 umol/L in the IUGR group, 10.815 +/– 3.785 umol/ L in the group PRE, 9.808 +/– 2.543 umol/L in the group PRE-IUGR and 7.639 +/– 2.728 umol/L in the control group. Conclusions: Increased levels of homocysteine are involved in pathogenesis IUGR and preeclampsia and may contribute to endothelial cells activation or dysfunction observed in these pregnancy disorders. Further studies are needed to explain these aspects in order to improve the management and therapeutic strategies for pregnancies complicated by IUGR and/or preeclampsia.

Marzena Laskowska

2011-12-01

368

[Optimization of anesthetic service during abdominal delivery of pregnant women with gestosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential preoperative preparation of pregnant women with gestosis, by using calcium antagonists is an effective preventive measure against a circulatory hyperdynamic response to transportation to the operating suite. In pregnant women who had all hemodynamic types at baseline, the eukinetic type achieved during the preparation is retained. The patients with gestosis who did not receive calcium antagonists were found to have a circulatory hyperdynamic response with increased myocardial oxygen uptake (during surgery in particular). The use of calcium antagonists, ketonal, tranexamic acid, and hydroxyethyl starch-130/04 solution in the anesthetic appliance promoted the preservation of eukinetic hemodynamics in all those operated on, without increasing myocardial oxygen demands. The better reaction of the circulatory system and myocardial oxygen demands to surgical injury (the second mediatory wave of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome) correlated with higher neonatal Apgar scores in this category of puerperas with gestosis. PMID:18326252

Tiukov, V L; Pyregov, A V; Shepetovskaia, N L; Pivovarova, G M; Gur'ianov, V A

2007-01-01

369

The Condition of Thyroid and Fetoplacental Systems in Pregnant Women with Clinically Euthyroid Goiter  

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Full Text Available The aim is to study a condition of thyroid and fetoplacental systems at pregnant women with clinically euthyroid goiter. Materials and methods: 116 pregnant women have been included in the basic group with clinically euthyroid goiter. The control group was made by 60 pregnant women with physiologically proceeding pregnancy, not having anamnestic and the clinical data on diseases of the thyroid. Inspection included: definition of concentration thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (fT4 by a radio-immunologic method, sets “RIA-gnost” (France and the maintenance of antibodies to thyroid peroxydase (anti-TPO by a method hard phase immune-enzyme analysis; ultrasonic assessment of a thyroid with the help of device SONOACE 8800 “GAIA MT”; ultrasonic fetometry, placentography, measurement of amniotic fluid volume, doppler ultrasound examination of the blood flow, an estimation of a functional condition of a fetus on parameters of its biophysical profile (BP and cardiotocography (CTG, carried out on device “Oxford Sonicaid Team S8000”. Results: At studying hormonal function thyroid systems at 25 pregnant (21.6% with euthyroid goiter in the third trimester of pregnancy a level fT4 norms were lower and had values from 4.5 up to 6.9 ng/ml, therefore an average level fT4 at pregnant women of the basic group was authentically lower, than in control (8.26 ± 0.30 and 10.71 ± 0.52 ng/ml, accordingly. At the retrospective analysis it is established, that only at 5 of 116 (4.3% pregnant women with a goiter were not complications pregnancy, at the others — 111 (95.7% took place a combination various obstetric complications: an anemia — at 72 (62.0%, threat noncarrying of pregnancy — at 75 (64.6 %, an early toxicosis — at 45 (38.6%, a gestosis — at 47 (40.5% which frequency authentically is higher, than in control group: 20.0%, 25.0%, 16.6%. 20.0%, accordingly, ? < 0.05. Average Estimation CTG at patients of the basic group is authentically lower, than in control (7.2 ± 0.1; 7.9 ± 0.07 points accordingly, ? < 0.05. The expressed infringement of biophysical activity of a fetus in the basic group proved to be true lower average estimation BP (8.3 ± 0.12 a point, than in control group (9.8 ± 0.13 a point. With a goiter the arrest of development of an intra-uterine fetus is diagnosed for pregnant women — at 19 (16.4%, infringement placentation — at 14 (12.1%, hypamnions - at 27 (23.3%, that is authentically more often, than in control group (9.5%; 3.3%; 3.3%, accordingly, ? < 0.05. Conclusion: Thus, at pregnant women with euthyroid goiter decrease in thyroid function in second half of the pregnancy, resulting to development of hypothyroxinemia in 21,6 % of supervision is marked. Pregnancy at patients with euthyroid goiter frequently has the complicated character. At women with euthyroid goiter of change in fetoplacental system meet more often and in a significant greater measure that demands their duly revealing and correction.

V N Petrova

2007-03-01

370

34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...  

Science.gov (United States)

...what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...including area vocational education schools, and community-based...c), that serve single parents, displaced...C. 2335(b)) Sex Equity...

2010-07-01

371

Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood-and injection phobia  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Stress and/or anxiety during pregnancy affect maternal and fetal wellbeing and can cause premature delivery and postnatal pathology in the child. Women suffering from phobias related to blood and injections are prone to high levels of stress including anxiety and sometimes panic attacks during pregnancy. Cortisol is amongst the mediators through which the neurohormonal expressions of maternal psychological factors may be transduced to the fetus. The aim was to investigate if pregnant...

Lilliecreutz, Caroline; Theodorsson, Elvar; Sydsjo?, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

2011-01-01

372

Intersecting Epidemics Among Pregnant Women: Alcohol Use, Interpersonal Violence, and HIV Infection in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

A critical factor for understanding negative health outcomes is acknowledging the synergistic quality that clusters of health problems create. An important step in addressing clusters of health problems involves gaining an awareness of the contextual factors that connect them. This paper considers the intersection of three mutually reinforcing health problems: alcohol use, interpersonal violence (IPV), and HIV infection among pregnant women residing in South Africa. We explore how SAVA (subst...

Russell, Beth S.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Petersen-williams, Petal

2013-01-01

373

Economic evaluation of drug abuse treatment and HIV prevention programs in pregnant women: a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Drug abuse and transmission of HIV during pregnancy are major public health problems that adversely affect pregnant women, their children and surrounding communities. Programs that address this vulnerable population have the ability to be cost effective due to resulting cost savings for mother, child and society. Economic evaluations of programs that address these issues are an important tool to better understand the costs of services and create sustainable healthcare systems. This study crit...

Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Lazar, Christina M.

2011-01-01

374

Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns  

OpenAIRE

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiolog...

Didier Silveira Castellano-Filho; Vânia Lúcia da Silva; Thiago César Nascimento; Marcel de Toledo Vieira; Cláudio Galuppo Diniz

2010-01-01

375

Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort  

OpenAIRE

While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stresso...

Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

2010-01-01

376

Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center  

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Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

Raquel Guimarães Nobre

2014-06-01

377

An RCT protocol of varying financial incentive amounts for smoking cessation among pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to the unborn child. Few smoking cessation interventions have been successfully incorporated into standard antenatal care. The main aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of a personal financial incentive scheme for encouraging smoking cessation among pregnant women. Design A pilot randomised control trial will be conducted to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two varying financial incentives that increase ...

Lynagh Marita; Bonevski Billie; Sanson-Fisher Rob; Symonds Ian; Scott Anthony; Hall Alix; Oldmeadow Christopher

2012-01-01

378

A rapid questionnaire assessment of environmental exposures to pregnant women in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.  

OpenAIRE

Impaired fetal growth and preterm birth are the leading causes of neonatal and infant mortality worldwide and there is a growing scientific literature suggesting that environmental exposures during pregnancy may play a causal role in these outcomes. Our purpose was to assess the environmental exposure of the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) participants in the multinational INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. First, we developed a tool that could be used internationally to screen pregnant women...

Eskenazi, B.; Bradman, A.; Finkton, D.; Purwar, M.; Noble, Ja; Pang, R.; Burnham, O.; Cheikh Ismail, L.; Farhi, F.; Barros, Fc; Lambert, A.; Papageorghiou, At; Carvalho, M.; Jaffer, Ya; Bertino, E.

2013-01-01

379

Diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women, neonates and immunocompromised patients  

OpenAIRE

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii poses unique diagnostic problems like long-term persistence of specific IgM-antibodies, which makes it difficult to use the presence of Toxoplasma-specific IgM-antibodies alone as a sign of acute infection. The importance of determining the time of infection in pregnant women is also a unique diagnostic challenge in Toxoplasma diagnostics. The first paper in this thesis compares the performance of different enzyme immuno assays, immunofluores...

Petersen, Eskild

2005-01-01

380

Population pharmacokinetics of quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: Oral quinine is used for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria during pregnancy, but few pharmacokinetic data are available for this population. Previous studies have reported a substantial effect of malaria on the pharmacokinetics of quinine resulting from increased ?-1-acid glycoprotein levels and decreased cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria in Uganda...

Kloprogge, F.; Jullien, V.; Piola, P.; Dhorda, M.; Muwanga, S.; Nosten, F.; Day, Np; White, Nj; Guerin, Pj; Tarning, J.

2014-01-01

381

Role of Oxidative Stress on Vaginal Bleeding during The First Trimester of Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in many metabolic and physiologic processes. Antioxidative mechanisms remove these harmful species. Our aim was to assess whether serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status altered during first trimester pregnancies with vaginal bleeding. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, A group of pregnant women at less than 10 weeks of gestation with vaginal bleeding (n=25) and a control group of health...

Rüya Deveer; Mehmet Deveer; Yaprak Engin-Üstün; Eren Akbaba; Sema Uysal; Esma Sarikaya; Cavidan Gülerman; Leyla Mollamahmutoglu

2013-01-01

382

Correlation between Body Mass Index and Central Adiposity with Pregnancy Complications in Pregnant Women  

OpenAIRE

Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing throughout the world. Obesity assessed by body mass index (BMI) has shown to be associated with gestational complications while the relationship using waist circumference (WC) is not clear yet. The present study was aimed to determine the relationship be-tween WC and adverse pregnancy complications.Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 1140 nulliparous pregnant women at 1st trimester of pregnancy referred to health care centers in Tabri...

Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani; Esmat Mehrabi; Mahin Kamalifard; ParisaYavarikia

2013-01-01

383

Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this [...] infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319). A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998). Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

Ana Paula B. de, Borborema-Alfaia; Norma Suely de Lima, Freitas; Spartaco, Astolfi Filho; Cristina Maria, Borborema-Santos.

2013-10-01

384

Cardiac surgery and percutaneous intervention in pregnant women with heart disease  

OpenAIRE

In pregnant women with heart disease, complications can arise due to the haemodynamic burden of pregnancy and to hypercoagulation. Most problems can be managed medically, but sometimes cardiac surgery or percutaneous intervention is unavoidable. Cardiac surgery has similar maternal mortality to that outside pregnancy, but foetal mortality and morbidity are considerable. Measures to reduce the risk by adaptation of the management of cardiopulmonary bypass are described. When gestational age is...

Pieper, P. G.; Hoendermis, E. S.; Drijver, Y. N.

2012-01-01

385

Prevalência do uso de drogas de abuso por gestantes / Prevalence of drug abuse among pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência do uso de drogas de abuso por gestantes. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que incluiu 394 gestantes usuárias de serviço de atenção primária. A variável dependente foi o uso de drogas de abuso durante a gestação e as variáveis independentes foram: socioeconômicas e obstét [...] ricas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas entre gestantes foi de 18,28%. A regressão logística multivariada indicou como variáveis significativas: anos de estudo, participação em grupo de gestante e orientação de profissional de saúde quanto ao risco de usar drogas de abuso durante a gestação. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam a predominância de gestantes jovens, pardas, com baixa escolaridade e renda de até três salários mínimos e que faz uso de drogas de abuso, sendo que a mais utilizada o cigarro, seguido do álcool. As drogas ilícitas utilizadas foram a cocaína e seu derivado o crack e a maconha. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of drug abuse among pregnant women. METHOD: Cross-sectional study including 394 pregnant women who use the primary health care service. The dependent variable was the use of drugs during pregnancy and independent variables were: socioeconomic and obstetrics-relate [...] d data. RESULTS: The prevalence of drug abuse among pregnant women was 18.28%. Multivariate logistic regression indicates the following significant variables: years of education, participation in a pregnancy group and healthcare professional orientation as to the risk of using drugs during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the predominance of young mixed-race pregnant women, with low educational level, income of up to three minimum wages and who use drugs, the most common being cigarettes, followed by alcohol. Illegal drugs used were cocaine and its derivate, crack, as well as marihuana.

Danielle Satie, Kassada; Sonia Silva, Marcon; Maria Angélica, Pagliarini; Robson Marcelo, Rossi.

386

The ethics of anonymised HIV testing of pregnant women: a reappraisal  

OpenAIRE

Seroprevalence monitoring of HIV in pregnant women by anonymised unlinked testing has been widely adopted in the UK and other countries. The scientific rationale is to eliminate participation and selection bias. The ethical justification is that the public good outweighs any harm to individuals. The assumption has been that individuals have had their autonomy respected by the offer of informed consent. In the light of new scientific evidence, it is doubtful that the public good is best served...

Zulueta, P.

2000-01-01

387

A controlled evaluation of a health education programme for pregnant women in rural areas.  

OpenAIRE

A controlled evaluation of health education for pregnant women was implemented from 1983 to 1985 in the French north alpine rural area with a quasi-experimental design. Altogether 116 villages (88,983 inhabitants) constituted the pilot zone where the programme took place. This was matched with a control zone of 114 villages (78,800 inhabitants) where routine antenatal surveillance was not changed. The programme involved a large group of health and social workers and institutions and several e...

Zmirou, D.; Charrel, M.; Veyre, C.

1988-01-01

388

Factors Associated with Active Smoking, Quitting, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Pregnant Women in Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pregnant women are exposed to tobacco smoke through active smoking and contact with secondhand smoke (SHS), and these exposures have a significant impact on public health. We investigated the factors that mediate active smoking, successful quitting, and SHS exposure among pregnant women in Crete, Greece. Methods Using a cotinine-validated questionnaire, data were collected on active smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke from 1291 women who had successfully completed the first contact questionnaire of the prospective mother-child cohort (Rhea) in Crete during the 12th week of pregnancy. Results Active smoking at some time during pregnancy was reported by 36% of respondents, and 17% were current smokers at week 12 of gestation. Those less likely to quit smoking during pregnancy were those married to a smoker (OR, 1.76; P = 0.008), those who were multiparous (1.72; P = 0.011), and those with young husbands. Of the 832 (64%) nonsmokers, almost all (94%, n = 780) were exposed to SHS, with the majority exposed at home (72%) or in a public place (64%). Less educated women and younger women were exposed more often than their better educated and older peers (P < 0.001). Adjusting for potential confounders, parental level of education, age, and ethnicity were the main mediators of exposure to SHS during pregnancy. Conclusions Active smoking and exposure to SHS are very prevalent among pregnant women in Greece. The above findings indicate the need for support of population-based educational interventions aimed at smoking cessation in both parents, as well as of the importance of establishing smoke-free environments in both private and public places. PMID:20595782

Vardavas, Constantine I.; Patelarou, Evridiki; Chatzi, Leda; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Murphy, Sharon; Koutis, Antonis; Kafatos, Anthony G.; Kogevinas, Manolis

2010-01-01

389

Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this technology in busy inpatient settings. PMID:25622043

Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

2015-01-01

390

Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this technology in busy inpatient settings. PMID:25622043

Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

2015-01-01

391

Nursing diagnosis in pregnant women assisted at family’s health unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to elaborate the profile of nursing diagnoses in pregnant women assisted in a Family’s Health Unit based on NANDA-I’s Taxonomy II. Methods: this is about a retrospective study, analytic descriptive, regards to analysis from 20 pregnant women handbooks registered in the prenatal program from a family’s health unit. Data were collected in July 2008, with a form composed of three parts: partner-demographic data, obstetric data and referring data to defining characteristics and related factors (of risk of the nursing diagnoses. Diagnoses were analyzed based on the descriptive statistics and discussed according to obstetrics references. Results: 13 nursing diagnoses were elaborated: risk for infection of the genital tract, ineffective maintenance of the health, risk for infection of the urinary tract, prejudiced urinary elimination, nauseas, sharp pain (head, pelvis and lumbar, fatigues, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, risk of paternity or prejudiced maternity, volume of excessive liquid, constipation, anxiety. Conclusion: the objective of the study was researched and we hope from the nursing diagnoses elaborated, some nursing interventions specific be addressed to the problems identified in the pregnant women during the prenatal consultations.

Maria Clerya Alvino Leite, Maria Mirtes da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima da Nóbrega

2009-04-01

392

The necessity of HIV testing in Iranian pregnant women and its ethical considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A high number of HIV positive babies are born each year, whereas by highly effectivepreventive measures, the risk of mother-to-child transmission can be decreasedsignificantly. There are different methods (for example mandatory versus voluntary forHIV screening in pregnant women, but there are debates on conducting HIV testing bythese methods. One of the most important issues in this field is its ethical considerations.Also its limitations cannot be ignored. According to these facts several keywords weresearched by search engines such as Web of Sciences, Medline, Google scholar, WHOwebsite. The most relevant and recent articles were chosen.Concerning the importance of vertical transmission of HIV, the role of preventivemeasures, ethical considerations, and the limitations of HIV screening, we recommendHIV testing offer to every pregnant women at the first clinic visit by providing enoughinformation for patient and considering her autonomy. Also policy makers should providea guideline for this test according to the pregnant women's autonomy, confidentiality, anddignity.www.tums.ac.ir

Maryam Azizi

2009-01-01

393

Prenatal Care Behaviors Status among Pregnant Women Using by BASNEF Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the prenatal care behaviors status among pregnant women using by BASNEF model. Materials and Methods: This Descriptive-Analytical study was carried out on 360 pregnant women in their 28th-42th week of pregnancy, attending health care centers for the study using random sampling selection method. Data-gathering tools consisted of a 2-part questionnaire: demographic variables and one scales for measuring prenatal ca