WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

van Teijlingen Edwin R

2010-02-01

2

Lymph Drainage in Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women. PMID:24251034

Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, Jose Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fatima

2013-01-01

3

Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. was used to measure the difference between the initial and the final angle. The median repositioning error in the pregnant group was 11.6 (7.6, 12.4 degrees and the median repositioning error in the non-pregnant group was 4.2 (2.1, 6.3 degrees. There was a statistically significant difference in ankle joint proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women.

Preetha R

2011-07-01

4

Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Guías Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Pregnant Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

5

Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

2010-06-01

6

Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses. PMID:15670325

Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

2005-01-01

7

Dietary intake in immigrant Arabian pregnant women.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Our findings suggest that apart from iron and folic acid supplementation, no further changes would be necessary in the dietary patterns of immigrant Arabian pregnant women, since their traditional nutritional habits seem to provide all micronutrients in sufficient quantities.

Alevizos G. Alevizos

2006-07-01

8

Perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract We examined the perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women who had impaired 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) results, but normal 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Our study group included 70 pregnant women who had increased 50 g OGCT results, but normal 100 g OGTT results, and a control group of 122 pregnant women with normal 50 g OGCT results. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia and neonatal birth weight were significantly higher in the study group. After adjusting the results for possibly affecting variables, the risk of polyhydramnios remained significant, while the risk of macrosomia and neonatal birth weight was not significant between the groups. The results from the study group were similar to the control group, when adjusted for other risk factors. Increased 50 g OGCT results in pregnant women can be accepted as a benign state if the 100 g OGTT results are normal. PMID:24911521

Yesildager, E; Koken, G; Gungor, A N C; Demirel, R; Arioz, D; Celik, F; Yilmazer, M

2014-11-01

9

Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-11-17

10

Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of seropositive pregnant women, i.e. of pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii in order to provide an insight into the risk of developing congenital toxoplasmosis in our community. Material and Methods. In the period of two years, 662 pregnant women from Vojvodina were examined serologically. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests were performed to determine IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and the complement fixation test was done to detect total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Results and Discussion. Seropositivity was determined in 180 pregnant women (27.19%. Of 135 pregnant women examined in the routine control in pregnancy, 16.30% were seropositive and out of five proven, completely new Toxoplasma gondii infections, three were detected in pregnant women who had undergone the routine check-up for no specific symptoms. A detailed analysis of the frequency of seropositive findings in relation to clinical diagnoses and the place of residence of pregnant women (urban and rural areas was performed. At the same time, the results from the serological reactions were presented, commented and interpreted, and recommendations were given for the implementation of additional examinations (eg, IgG antibody avidity test in order to make the accurate diagnosis. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis is still a problem in our community and that the best prevention is the prompt and adequate examination of pregnant women for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

Jerant-Pati? Vera

2013-01-01

11

Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease.

Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G

1991-01-01

12

High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ?104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (?² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U. urealyticum ? 104 is more frequent in pregnant women with risk pregnancy than in pregnant women with normal term delivery. High-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization should be observed as a possible etiological factor for PROM.

Ran?elovi? Gordana

2006-01-01

13

Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy. PMID:25070097

Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

2014-10-01

14

Quality of Life among Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Objective: However, pregnancy is a common event among reproductive-age women, it is often stressful. Physical and emotional changes can alter the ability of women to carry out their usual roles. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life in pregnant women and its related factors. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 600 pregnant women referred to the prenatal clinics of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were selected randomly. Then they were asked to complete the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36 to assess the quality of life. The results were analyzed using t-test, c2, and ANOVA in SPSS. Results: Results showed that the mean of quality of life in pregnant women was 61.18 13.21 (27.96-92.62. A higher score represented a better health status. Statistically significant differences were found in all of the quality of life dimensions in pregnant women except for social functioning (P<0.005. Quality of life was correlated with age (P=0.002, gestational age (P=0.017, gravidity (P<0.001, number of deliveries (P<0.001, income (P<0.001, husband's support (P=0.017 and life satisfaction (P=0.011. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the quality of life in pregnant women was low. Thus, it is important for primary care providers to be aware of the changes in health status of pregnant woman to help them to promote their quality of lives.   Key words: quality of life, pregnancy, correlation factors

F Abbaszadeh

2009-08-01

15

Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis. PMID:18327108

Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

2008-01-01

16

Pregnant women's attitudes towards alcohol consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is uncertainty as to whether there is a safe threshold for drinking alcohol during pregnancy. We explored pregnant women's attitudes towards drinking alcohol in pregnancy and their attitudes towards sources of information about drinking in pregnancy following recent changes in UK government guidance. Methods A qualitative study involving individual, semi-structured interviews with 20 pregnant women recruited from community organisations in the UK. Interview transcripts were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results Most women found information and advice about safe levels of drinking in pregnancy confusing and lacking in evidence and detail. Although most women considered that there were risks involved with drinking in pregnancy and these perceptions influenced their behaviour, only six women reported abstinence. Women reported being influenced by advice from family and friends and their experiences of previous pregnancies. Many had received no individual advice from general practitioners or midwives relating to drinking during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women wished to take responsibility for their own health and make choices based on informed advice. In order to do so, they require clear and consistent advice about safe levels of drinking from policy makers and health professionals. This is an important issue as women might drink socially during their pregnancy.

Raymond Neil

2009-06-01

17

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS...

Elham Ebrahimi; Mina Soleymani; Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh; Fatemeh Hosseini

2013-01-01

18

Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age.

Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

2010-01-01

19

Clinical malaria in African pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. Results In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129 were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129 of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4% presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27–30, 29% (28–31, and 33% (31–35, respectively]. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown safety profiles for pregnancy. Accessibility to malaria diagnostic tools needs to be improved for pregnant women and drugs with a safety profile in all gestational ages are urgently needed.

Aponte John

2008-01-01

20

Contesting "Silhouettes of a Pregnant Belly": Young Pregnant Women’s Discursive Constructions of the Body  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we draw on a feminist poststructuralist perspective to explore how young pregnant women discursively construct the pregnant body in the context of the dominant obesity discourse and other prevailing bodily discourses. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 15 pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 28 coming from various socioeconomic and educational backgrounds in the Ottawa region. The poststructralist discourse analysis reveals that, overall, the participants are interpellated by the dominant obesity discourse and other bodily discourses surrounding beauty, femininity, and heterosexuality. Paradoxically, they also recite alternative discourses that resist dominant bodily discourses. The young pregnant women seem to constitute themselves as conflicted subjects simultaneously reproducing dominant and subversive discourses. This leads us to conclude with a discussion surrounding the need for more realistic and inclusive subject positions within pregnancy discourses.

GENEVIÈVE RAIL

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available T. gondii is a worldwide zoonosis. Children of women who acquire the infection during gestational period can develop congenital infection. In this study our aim was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 455 pregnant women with an age range of 17-45 years. In this retrospective study, pregnant women applied to Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Ad?yaman 82’nd Year State Hospital between January 2007 and December 2008 were evaluated in order to find the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Seropositivity rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were found to be 48.4% and 0.65%, respectively. In conclusion, due to the high seroprevalence rate of anti-T gondii antibodies we believe that taking measures related to the hygiene of the foods consumed and determining T. gondii serological markers of pregnant women in our region is essential.

Servet Kölgelier

2009-01-01

22

Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ?26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

Safieh Jamali

2013-06-01

23

Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-11-17

24

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.Results: A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.Conclusion: It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

Elham Ebrahimi

2013-03-01

25

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved...Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant...

2010-10-01

26

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131... § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required...accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who seeks...

2010-10-01

27

Massage therapy effects on depressed pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-four depressed pregnant women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy and randomly assigned to a massage therapy group, a progressive muscle relaxation group or a control group that received standard prenatal care alone. These groups were compared to each other and to a non-depressed group at the end of pregnancy. The massage therapy group participants received two 20 min therapy sessions by their significant others each week for 16 weeks of pregnancy, starting during the second trimester. The relaxation group provided themselves with progressive muscle relaxation sessions on the same time schedule. Immediately after the massage therapy sessions on the first and last days of the 16-week period the women reported lower levels of anxiety and depressed mood and less leg and back pain. By the end of the study the massage group had higher dopamine and serotonin levels and lower levels of cortisol and norepinephrine. These changes may have contributed to the reduced fetal activity and the better neonatal outcome for the massage group (i.e. lesser incidence of prematurity and low birthweight), as well as their better performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment. The data suggest that depressed pregnant women and their offspring can benefit from massage therapy. PMID:15715034

Field, T; Diego, M A; Hernandez-Reif, M; Schanberg, S; Kuhn, C

2004-06-01

28

[Children and pregnant women at high altitude].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, high altitude resorts have become popular destinations for family vacations. Based on a limited number of publications and international guidelines, this article summarizes the effects of high altitude on children and pregnant women. Children also suffer from high altitude-related diseases, however their presentation and clinical significance are different from their adult counterparts. Careful planning of the itinerary with respect to altitude of the overnight stays, access to medical services and potential evacuation routes is the cornerstone of a successful vacation. PMID:24908748

Rehakova, P; Rexhaj, E; Farron, F; Duplain, H

2014-05-01

29

Recurrent gingival swelling in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this case report is to present a rare case which has been reported with the history of small nodule like growth on mandibular buccal and lingual area. Thirty year old pregnant women reported a nodule on left mandibular buccal and lingual region. The lesion was surgically excised and sent for biopsy to differentiate from kimura's disease, pyogenic granuloma, epithelioid angiosarcoma (EH). Histologically lesion shows proliferation of endothelial cells along blood vessels suggesting epithelioid hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to discuss and differentiate EH and other vascular rare entities occurring in the oral cavity. PMID:23723608

Kumar, Mukesh; Goyal, Niti; Dahiya, Parveen; Gupta, Rajan

2013-01-01

30

Food safety: correct information for pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

Maria Ausilia Grassi

2013-04-01

31

137Cs metabolism in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137Cs intake. For the first woman 137Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

32

Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

Marnoch Gordon J

2011-10-01

33

Suicide Attempts with Drug Intoxication in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Insufficient data are available comparing medical costs, hospitalization or admission rate, and drugs used for the treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant women admited to the emergency department (ED due to suicide attempts following drug intoxication. We sought to evaluate these differences in our ED. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study; hence we attempted to follow all pregnant and non-pregnant women who were admitted in our ED at Ataturk University, Erzurum-Turkey, due to suicide attempt with drug intoxication. We have obtained records of management plans, estimated costs and hospital admission rate in the ED from 2008 to 2011 and compared in both groups. Results: A total of 309 women were registered as suicide attempts with drug intoxication. Out of these, 23 (7.4% were pregnant and 286 (92.6% were non-pregnant. The pregnant women had lower rate of past history of psychiatric illness as compared to non-pregnant women (4.3% vs. 26.2%; p=0.019. Comparison of drug intoxication revealed a higher rate of intake of organophosphate (39.1%; vs. 34.8% p<0.001 and paracetamol (39.1% vs. 19.9%; p=0.031, but a lower rate of multidrug ingestion (39.1% vs. 67.8%; p=0.005 in pregnant women. Furthermore, pregnant women have a lower rate of hospitalization in ED (56.5% vs. 77.6%, but higher rates of hospitalization in internal services (13% vs. 6.3%, and intensive care units (13% vs. 3.1%; p=0.039 compared to non-pregnant women. Consequently, the cost of therapy was also higher in pregnant (2553.5±6206.7 TL vs. 581.3±490.3 TL; p<0.001. Conclusions: Though pregnant women were admitted less frequently compared to non-pregnant women, suicide attempts with drug intoxication among pregnant women have increased consequences in terms of hospitalization rate and cost. Thus there is an urgent need to incorporate a special screening program to measure suicide risk followed by counseling for pregnant women during post-conceptual care.

Mustafa UZKESER

2012-01-01

34

Breastfeeding knowledge among working pregnant women in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. PMID:24702681

Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban

2014-04-01

35

Pregnant Women’s View on Their Relationship: A Comparison With Nonpregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The positive effects of partner support on pregnancy outcomes and maternal (mental health are well established in the literature. Less is known about pregnant women’s perceptions of their partner and relationship, and whether these differ from those of nonpregnant women. Therefore, in the current study, data were collected through an online questionnaire among pregnant (n = 66 and nonpregnant (n = 59 women with similar demographic profiles. The results show that pregnant women reported feeling significantly more happy with both their partner and their relationship than nonpregnant women. Importantly, we did not find any differences in self-esteem or mate value between groups. Although the present study is mainly exploratory, we suggest that pregnant women may show a positive bias in the way they view their partner and their relationship, which in turn may be beneficial to her own as well as her child’s mental and physical health.

Karlijn Massar

2013-12-01

36

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not...

2010-10-01

37

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects...26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

2010-07-01

38

Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

Feijen-de Jong Esther I

2013-01-01

39

Evaluation of Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs in Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Based on the latest researches it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm delivery low birth weight babies and the effects of socioeconomic status on periodontal condition. The aim of this study, evaluation of periodontal condition of pregnant and non-pregnant women based on CPITN index and relation between the demographic and clinical variables. Subjects and Methods: A cross–sectional descriptive study was carried out among 540 pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data collection was carried out with a questionnaire with demographic and clinical variables. Examinations were performed with WHO probes and dental mirrors. Data were analyzed by the means on Chi-square T-test and Anova. SPSS Software was used.Results: The results of study showed that 66.7% pregnant women had periodontal disease and 92% pregnant women in third trimester had periodontal disease. There was a significant relation between CPITN and gestational age, education level, economic level and frequency of tooth brushing. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pregnant women had higher CPITN than non pregnant women, then it might be suggested that simple preventive oral hygiene program help to maintain healthy periodontium during pregnancy. Sci Med J 2011; 10(3:309-316

Golpasand Hagh Leila

2011-07-01

40

Pregnant Women Life Quality Concept & Phenomenology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life quality is a multi-lateral concept which should be analyzed from different aspects and angles. The present research is a study of the life quality concept and phenomenology of pregnant women visiting Sari-based health & treatment center in 2010. This research was performed with a phenomenological approach on 25 pregnant ladies in their 4th month to 9th month of pregnancy, during 51 sessions visiting health & treatment center in Sari. Data was collected via semi- structured interviews. Upon verification and correction of extracted data, thematic codes were drawn. Besides, the health & treatment centers excerpter’s comments during two discussion sessions with the experts from head-quarters were obtained and family health suggestions were given afterwards. Participants considered special meanings for appropriate care, having enough information, physical health, psychological health, social health, accessing facilities and resources sufficiency regarding their experiences. Life quality is a subjective assessment & people themselves are the best judges about their living quality. But sometimes there are conditions that make this judgment difficult. In these special cases, health care providers & experts group are able to give all meaning a unique termination.

Rostami F

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Prenatal nutrition among rural Bangladeshi pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expected outcome of pregnancy is a healthy mother with a healthy child. The single most important care which could prevent the negative outcomes of pregnancy is Antenatal Care (ANC). Proper and timely antenatal care can significantly reduce the risks of maternal mortality. In pregnancy, total cost is about 80,000 Kcal, and above normal energy requirements. To find out prenatal nutrition an exploratory study was carried out in seven villages of the Ward-2 of Jamtoil Union of Kamarkhand Upazila under Sirajganj District. Thirty pregnant women of different trimesters, gravida and parity had been studied employing the methods and techniques of "Ethnographic Field Work." Mean daily calorie consumption of the Key Informants (KIs) was 1480.49 Kcal without reference to their religious affiliation, family resource base, education, occupation, gravidity, parity and duration of pregnancy. This is indicated that the mean calorie intake of the Key Informants did not meet not only their prenatal nutritional need but also their requirement during pre-pregnancy period. It was observed that food intake was in no way different from that of the non-pregnant status. Antenatal care of rural inhabitants analyzed almost exclusively from biomedical perspectives, its cultural, socio-economic, gender, ecological and other relevant perspectives are mostly ignored. In order to have safe motherhood up through compliance of prenatal advice, nutritional one in particular, these factors should be taken into consideration. PMID:22081169

Basher, M S; Kabir, S; Ahmed, S; Miah, M A; Kamal, M S

2011-10-01

42

Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10 were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks, together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before and 10 and 20 minutes after the test, and stored for later radioimmunoassay of cortisol. Results The control group showed a highly significant response to the test. The pregnant group showed no response, and the postpartum group a variable but non significant one Conclusions This shows that the HPA axis becomes hypofunctional to a natural stressor at the end of pregnancy. It is suggested that one possible evolutionary function for this is to protect the fetus from the stress responses of the mother.

Glover Vivette

2002-11-01

43

The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

Zahraei M

1993-04-01

44

Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

45

Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smoking-related consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty women, selected to constitute four subgroups formed by pregnant vs. non-pregnant and trying vs. not trying to quit smoking, rated times at which they would expect smoking-related consequences to occur given continuing ...

Per Näsman; Bo Simonsson; Monica Ortendahl; Alf Uttermalm

2009-01-01

46

Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

A.V. Lepilin

2010-06-01

47

[Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and puerperal women].  

Science.gov (United States)

The most frequently occurring pre- and postpartum psychiatric disorders are depression and, to a lesser degree, panic disorder and psychosis. Apart from the negative effects on the psychological well-being of the mother, these psychiatric disorders may also result in obstetric complications and an impaired mother-infant relationship. In order to prevent these negative effects, mothers who are at risk for major psychiatric disorders need to be identified early, preferably before or during pregnancy. The most important risk factor is a history of psychiatric disorders. Obstetric risk factors for depression are unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, pregnancy-related hypertension, emergency caesarean section and early discharge from the hospital. Other factors are low socioeconomic status, recent life event, negative self-image, little social support, immigration in the last 5 years, feelings of loss of control during pregnancy and feeding problems with the child. For treatment, pregnant or puerperal women with a possible psychiatric disorder based on the presence of a serious risk factor, such as a previously experienced psychiatric disorder (related to pregnancy or not), serious current psychiatric symptoms or long-time use of psychoactive drugs, should be referred preferably to a combined psychiatric/obstetric clinic or, if unavailable, to a psychiatrist in a general hospital. PMID:16503019

Wewerinke, A; Honig, A; Heres, M H B; Wennink, J M B

2006-02-11

48

FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLIANCE WITH IRON SUPPLEMENTATION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor compliance with iron supplementation has been reported as one cause for the continuing increase in prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. This study was conducted to determine the influence of selected factors on the compliance of pregnant women with iron supplementation. A cohort of 105 pregnant women from the City of Muntinlupa were followed up for three months of iron supplementation. Compliance with the intervention was measured through self-reporting of the number of iron capsules missed to have taken and by actual pill counting. From these two compliance indicators, a compliance index was formulated to differentiate good compliers from not good compliers. Findings showedthat 54% (57 of the participants were considered good compliers. Of the 14 socio-demographic factors investigated, educational attainment (p=.003 and the number of instructions received by the pregnant women on ironsupplementation (p=.050 were found to be significantly associated with the participants’ compliance index.

Maria Ana C. Ordenes

2006-12-01

49

Study Suggests Why Pregnant Women Get Sicker from Flu  

Science.gov (United States)

... Study Suggests Why Pregnant Women Get Sicker From Flu An aggressive immune system response may worsen symptoms, ... Dallas Monday, September 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Infections and Pregnancy MONDAY, Sept. 22, 2014 (HealthDay ...

50

Plasma copper and zinc levels in pregnant women in Gaziantep, Turkey.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Plasma copper was higher in all trimesters of gestation when compared to normal range of non-pregnant women. The zinc levels of pregnant women were mostly within normal range. It decreased significantly in the pregnant women >35 years of age and in those whose education was literacy and less. Therefore, zinc supplementation in pregnant women is recommended in these groups.

Iclal Meram

2003-10-01

51

NUTRITION INTAKE BY PREGNANT WOMEN THROUGH DIFFERENT PERIODS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With a balanced nutrition pregnant women prevent eventual complications during pregnancy and childbirth. An additional intake of vitamin and mineral preparations reduces the risk for different kinds of innate defects. The purpose of this specialist work is to state the avarage energy intake and the average intake of albumin, carbon hydrates, lipids, nutrition fibrins, vitamins and minerals by pregnant women during the first, second and third three months as well as to define the nutritious st...

Bandalo, Urs?ka

2012-01-01

52

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Ch...

Helle Margrete Meltzer; Marianne Hope Abel; Margaretha Haugen; Anne Lise Brantsæter

2013-01-01

53

Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles andrelated factors in pregnant women.Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan.Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceivedhealth status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or peers’health-promoting behaviors, and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP?...

Te-Fu Chan; Fan-Hao Chou; Eing-Mei Tsai; Yu-Hua Lin; Yu-Ling Lin

2009-01-01

54

Daily versus intermittent iron supplementation in pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women. Method The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n =...

2011-01-01

55

The Quality of Pregnant Women Life with Nausea and Vomiting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: About 50-90% of pregnant women at the first trimester of the pregnancy experience nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting has deep impact on well being and daily living activities. The aim of this study has been to explore the quality of pregnant women life with nausea and vomiting.

 

Methods: This cross-sectional descrip...

Jouybari, L.

2012-01-01

56

Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n...

Stankovi? Aleksandra; Mitrovi? Vladimir; Živadinovi? Radomir

2011-01-01

57

Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p3Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

58

Relationship Between Quality of Life and Depression in Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Quality of life is affected by health status. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnant women in Kashan city. Patients and Methods: A Case - control study was performed on 112 depressed pregnant women (Case Group) and 353 Non-depressed pregnant women (Control Group) who referred to the prenatal health care centers of Kashan University of Medical Sciences .They completed Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) to assess the quality of life and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the level of depressive symptoms. T-test, chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests were used for data analysis. Results: The findings showed that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnancy (P = 0.0001). Average scores in all eight domains of quality of life were significantly lower in depressed pregnant women compared to non- depressed women. The strongest relationship was observed between depression and vitality (r =-0.52, P = 0.0001), mental health (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and social functioning (r =-0.38, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Depressed pregnant women had a lower quality of life. The proper management of depression during pregnancy can improve the quality of life in women. It is recommended that antenatal services integrate screening for depression into routine antenatal care.

Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Kafaei Atrian, Mahboobe; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Bagheri, Azam; Sadat, Zohreh; Karimian, Zahra

2013-01-01

59

Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social, as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members. The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against pregnant women, a study in which consisted of 250 women from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Salt in Jordan, was used package Statistical Social Sciences (SPSS.The study was applied at statistical methods and simple statistics advanced test, to analysis of variance T-test and F-test, to show the differences and implications of statistical variables, the results revealed that the actions stressful work, being forced to have sex, and beating, is one of the most prevalent forms of physical violence.  A Study also demonstrated that questioning the sex of the baby, neglecting, and the carelessness of the husband to towards the health status, was one of the most common forms of psychological violence known. The exposure of pregnant women to smoke, and the neglect of her husband because of being pregnant with a female and not allowing seeing the doctor was one of the forms of social violence. Also showed that stress, the anxiety and depression is the psychological effects of violence, also the slackness to perform house duties, and isolation forms other social impacts. The results also showed the presence of statistically significant relationships between forms of violence against a pregnant woman due to the variable places of residence, and monthly income. And there are no statistically significant differences to forms of violence attributed to the educational level.

Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh

2013-01-01

60

Immunization Issues: Vaccines for Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... vaccine (nasal spray) Oral poliovirus vaccine (no longer distributed in the United States) Measles-containing vaccines Mumps- ... not been associated with adverse outcomes. A pregnant household member is not a contraindication for varicella immunization ...

 
 
 
 
61

School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

Rudoe, Naomi

2014-01-01

62

Consumer Reports Advises Pregnant Women to Avoid Tuna  

Science.gov (United States)

... commonly eaten seafood in the United States. We encourage pregnant women to avoid all tuna," Jean Halloran, director of ... the FDA and Environmental Protection Agency say that women of childbearing age and young children should not eat the four types of ...

63

Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blood lead among pregnant women, even at modest levels, may impair offspring cognitive development. We examine whether blood lead levels (BLLs result from current versus historic exposures, among a cohort of pregnant women. Cumulative logit models were used to characterize the relationship between maternal risk factors and higher BLLs. Maternal blood lead levels more likely result from lead remobilization from historic versus contemporaneous exposures. Even if all lead sources were abated immediately, women and their fetuses would experience lead exposure for decades. This work emphasizes the importance of addressing sources of environmental lead exposure in the United States and internationally.

Marie Lynn Miranda

2010-04-01

64

Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ?3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

Hilda Razzaghi

2014-06-01

65

Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

2014-04-01

66

Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

67

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria amongst pregnant women in Abakaliki was investigated using culture techniques. Out of the 150 subjects screened 118 (78.7% had asymptomatic bacteriuria while 32 (21.3% had none. Thirty (20% of the subjects had mixed bacterial growth while 88 (58.6% had one type of bacteria. The frequency of isolation of organism was Staphylococcus aureus (27.1%, Escherichia coli (25.4% Klebsiella species (23.7%, Proteus species (10.2%; Streptococcus species (8.5% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.1%. Pregnant women in their third trimester had the highest prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (36.4%. The age group 31-35 years had the highest prevalence with respect to age while farmers had the highest (90% with respect to occupation. This study emphasizes the need for routine screening of the urine of pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria.

E.S. Amadi

2007-01-01

68

Mechanisms of diminished natural killer cell activity in pregnant women and neonates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because alterations in natural killer (NK) activity in the perinatal period may be important in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, the mechanisms by which these alterations are mediated in neonates and in pregnant and postpartum women was examined. NK activity, as measured in a 4-hr /sup 51/Cr-release assay and compared with adult controls, is significantly diminished in all three trimesters of pregnancy and in immediately postpartum women. In postpartum women, NK activity appears to be higher than in pregnant women, although this does not reach statistical significance. Pregnant and postpartum women have normal numbers of large granular lymphocytes and normal target cell binding in an agarose single cell assay but decreased lysis of the bound target cells. NK activity of mononuclear cells from postpartum women, in addition, demonstrate a shift in distribution to higher levels of resistance to gamma-irradiation. Further, sera from postpartum women cause a similar shift to increased radioresistance in mononuclear cells from adult controls. Because radioresistance is a property of interleukin 2-stimulated NK, the shift to radioresistance may represent lymphokine-mediated stimulation occurring during parturition. In contrast, cord blood cells have a more profound decrease in NK activity as determined by /sup 51/Cr-release assay and decreases in both binding and lysis of bound target cells in the single cell assay. The resistance of NK activity in cord cells to gamma-irradiation is also increased, as seen in postpartum women. Cord blood serum, however, did not alter radioresistance or inhibit NK activity. The results suggest that the observed diminished NK activity in pregnant women and neonates arise by different mechanisms: an absence of mature NK cells in the neonate and an alteration of the NK cell in pregnancy leading to decreased killing.

Baley, J.E.; Schacter, B.Z.

1985-05-01

69

The Quality of Pregnant Women Life with Nausea and Vomiting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background and Objectives: About 50-90% of pregnant women at the first trimester of the pregnancy experience nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting has deep impact on well being and daily living activities. The aim of this study has been to explore the quality of pregnant women life with nausea and vomiting.

 

Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study has been conducted on 120 pregnant women that referred to medical & health centers in Gorgan (North of Iran during 2008. The data sampling method was purposeful. For assessing quality of life, SF-36 questionnaire and for evaluation nausea and vomiting "Rhodes scale" were applied. The data analyzed with SPSS using T-test, Chi-square, and Spearman test.

 

Results: Quality life of 60 % of women with the average higher than 50, showed a high performance. 40% of women with the average lower than 50 had lower performance too. In terms of intensity, nausea and vomiting for 21.7% of the women were severe, 59.2% moderate, and 32.5% mild. According to Spearman test, there was a significant relationship between quality of life and severity of nausea and vomiting (r=0.04. The relationships among the quality of life, age of mother (p=0.04, education of mother (p=0.04, and academic education of husband (p=0.01 were significant.

 

Conclusion: The quality of life only in a small percentage of the women is desirable and also the relationship between quality of life with nausea and vomiting is significant. It is essential that health care workers consider the impact of nausea and vomiting on quality of the pregnant women life and provide appropriate interventions to support pregnant mothers.

 

L Jouybari

2012-07-01

70

The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS (Hillan, 1999 also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba’s method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328

JM Mathibe-Neke

2008-09-01

71

Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 ?Sv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units

72

Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Table 2.4 presents summary data from several epidemiologic surveys collecting food and supplement intake data from pregnant or lactating women. More details on the specific surveys are included in Table 2.5. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess diet and supplement intake. Neither survey included a sizable number of pregnant or lactating women.

73

Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

2013-10-01

74

Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...

Hamissi, J.; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Davalloo, A.

2010-01-01

75

Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smoking-related consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty women, selected to constitute four subgroups formed by pregnant vs. non-pregnant and trying vs. not trying to quit smoking, rated times at which they would expect smoking-related consequences to occur given continuing or quitting smoking. Results: Somatic health consequences were estimated to occur later than consequences related to mood and social relations. All consequences were estimated to occur later given quitting smoking. Pregnancy had an effect on the estimated time that consequences would occur, with pregnant women estimating earlier occurrence of consequences related to mood and social relations than non-pregnant women did. Conclusion: Health messages should stress consequences for somatic health in quitting smoking, since outcomes later in time might have too low a value to exert a positive effect on decisions to quit smoking.

Tuula Wallsten

2009-05-01

76

Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

Nana Philip N

2008-07-01

77

34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section...Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must...Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? A State shall...

2010-07-01

78

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects...with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The...

2010-07-01

79

34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82...Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what...Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? The...

2010-07-01

80

45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved...in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates....

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that higher AS doses would be required to maintain similar DHA levels in pregnant women as achieved in non-pregnant controls.

Bose Carl

2011-05-01

82

Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

83

Information on neonatal hearing screening from pregnant women of different social classes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To verify how well pregnant women and mothers users of public and private healthcare know about neonatal hearing screening (NHS, and also to verify behaviors related to such knowledge. Methods: Eighty-seven pregnant women were interviewed during prenatal medical care at a Primary Healthcare Unit (Group A and 83 pregnant women under prenatal medical care at a private practice. A questionnaire was applied to investigate whether the studied sample was aware of NHS and, in case of a positive answer, they were asked about its purposes. They were also questioned on how they found out about the test, which children should be tested and, in case they already had children, it was asked if those children had also been tested (if not, for what reason. Moreover, they were asked about where NHS can be performed in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Rresults: It was verified that none of the 87 pregnant women from Group A knew about NHS. Of the 83 pregnant women of Group B, only 13.25% (n = 11 had previous information on NHS; ten of them knew the purpose of the test; eight were able to tell its target-population; four knew where NHS could be performed in Santa Maria and nine said none of their children had been tested. Cconclusions: It is concluded that, regardless of social class, the pregnant women studied did not have enough information about NHS, which could compromise communication of their children. We suggest a systematic NHS campaign within both public and private healthcare networks.

Luciane da Costa Pacheco

2009-03-01

84

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32 and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE, resting (REE, and physical activity (PAEE energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007 and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002. Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity.

Wright Antony

2011-06-01

85

Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction-isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005-2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (pparaben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. PMID:24529000

Mortensen, Mary E; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Wright, David J; Pirkle, James L; Merrill, Lori S; Moye, John

2014-02-01

86

Partner notification of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of this study was to determine the factors associated with partner notification (PN) of sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure among pregnant, low income, Mexican-American (MA) and African-American (AA) women and their male sexual partners. We used a cross-sectional analysis of 166 pregnant women with an STI, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of behavioural intervention to prevent recurrent STIs. The primary outcome, PN, is notification of, or intent to notify male sexual partner(s) of STI exposure. Pregnant women with one (n = 136) versus multiple (n = 30) partners reported PN for 88.2% and 54.5% of male partners, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated three variables that independently predicted PN: a steady relationship, with one male sexual partner and recent (<30 days) intercourse with the partner. Among the low income, pregnant MA and AA women, the three relationship variables predicted 81.6% of PN and correctly classified 78.5% of males notified and 65.7% of males not notified. PMID:18482960

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle; Perdue, Sondra; Piper, Jeanna

2008-05-01

87

Epidemiology and risk factors HTLV virus infection in pregnant women.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

Adriella Silva Oliveira

2014-09-01

88

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

2003-01-01

89

Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). Gener...

Bae, Hyun Sook

2011-01-01

90

Cytomegalovirus infection in primiparous pregnant women and their neonates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cytomegaloviurs (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection in humans. In various parts of the world the prevalence of antibodies to CMV ranges from 40-100%. The prevalence of primary infection with CMV in pregnant Iranian women and risk of congenital CMV infection in their neonates are unknown. To Determine the prevalence of CMV infection in primiparous pregnant (youner women and incidence rate of cangenital CMV infection among preterm and full-term infants borned from these women, in serum of 164 primigravid women before delivery, CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were measured by ELISA method and CMV-DNA detection by PCR in ~10% of their infants. 100% of women were immune to CMV infection (CMV-IgG positive were detected in mothers and newborns. Therefore, we can not compare gestational age and weight of infants in seropositive and serongegative mothers. Probably, in Iranian pregnant women, CMV screening test is not recommended.

"Siadati A

2002-07-01

91

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

92

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

2010-10-01

93

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage...termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

2010-10-01

94

Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Epidemiological Determinants in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia in pregnant women is one of the India’s major public health problems, despite the fact that this problem is largely preventable & easily treatable. Objectives: 1.To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women. 2. To assess the epidemiological determinants of anaemia in pregnancy. Methodology: A descriptive case series study was conducted among the pregnant women from second trimester onwards from urban field practice area from 1st March 2010 to 31st July 2010 by using pre-designed, pre-tested, structured schedule. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method & anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analyses were done by percentages and proportions, Mean and Standard Deviation (S.D, Chi-square test. Results: A high prevalence (82.9% of anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 11.0gm/dl was observed among 228 pregnant women. Majority (50.4% had moderate degree of anaemia (Haemoglobin - 7.0 to 10.0 gm/dl and 7.0% had severe anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 7.0 gm/dl. Severity of anaemia was more in 26 years of age, from nuclear families, educated upto secondary level, having vegetarian diet, parity two or more & those in third trimester with two or more abortions, although statistically not significant. However, anaemia prevalence was significantly higher among those subjects from below Class IV socio-economic status, those with less than two years of spacing between previous and index pregnancies & with less than two months IFA tablet consumption. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women from 4th month onwards till 3-6 months post-partum along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.

R.G.Viveki

2012-07-01

95

First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge. Both participants and non-participants in the screening programme were included. The results are based on 4,095 responders (64%). Differences between sub-groups were examined by chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis. Estimates are stated with 95% CI. RESULTS: The majority of the participants (87.6% (86.6-88.6) to 92.6% (91.7-93.3)) correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. Fewer participants (16.4% (15.3-17.6) to 43.3% (41.8-44.8)) correctly recognised test accuracy and the potential risk of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session was weakly associated with more knowledge. CONCLUSION: The majority of the pregnant women correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. The pregnant women were found less knowledgeable on test accuracy and drawbacks. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone

2010-01-01

96

Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.

Gross Karin

2012-03-01

97

[Pollution and smoking in pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

For nine months the pregnant woman, and indirectly her fetus, is exposed to an aerosol composed of different pollutants. With some of these, as for smoking, it has been possible to define objectively and statistically an alteration of the health status and of the satisfactory outcome of pregnancy; with others it has not been possible at present to define a dose relation effect or a threshold of risk. In this study, known connections were studied between pregnancy and smoking (specific risks, perinatal mortality, childhood cancer and breastfeeding), industrial pollution and particularly those related to lead, fertilisers and pesticides, opiates and cannabis derivatives (in particular their effect on reproductive function), radioactivity and its correlation with the genetic code and the risk of cancer and pollution by micro-organisms. If these risks exist, even it they are not all assessable objectively, the short term action of the most benefit is certainly a change in individual behaviour, for example with tobacco consumption. PMID:2840722

André, E

1988-01-01

98

Quality of Life in Pregnant Women with Sleep Disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Sleep disorders are common complaints of women during pregnancy. These disorders are the result of physiological, hormonal, physical changes, affecting before, during, and right after pregnancy. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of pregnant women with sleep disorders in the second trimester.Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, data was collected with continuous sampling method. A total of 100 pregnant women with sleep disturbances in their second trimesters were recruited in this study. The participant referred to two elected health centers in West Azerbaijan University of Medical Science (One and three numbers of health care centers in order to get prenatal care in the city of Maku, West Azerbaijan, Iran. The data was gathered using the personal information forms and the questionnaires, prepared by the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL: BREF. To analyze the collected data, different statistical methods, like frequency tables, Pearson, Spearman and ANOVA were applied.Results: The results indicate that the mean sleep quality is 8.62 ± 2.81 in pregnant women with sleep disorders or poor quality of sleep in the second trimester. Quality of life (p ? 0.03 and one of domains, including psychological health (p ? 0.02 related to quality of sleep.Conclusion: Given that a large percentage of women suffer from sleep disorders in pregnancy, we hope during this period, in addition to usual care, codified programs is done to evaluate,detection and Diagnosis of this disorder.

Elham Rezaei

2013-06-01

99

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

H Keshavarz

2008-04-01

100

Hepcidin and iron status among pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, is considered a major regulator of iron metabolism and anemia in chronic inflammation, its role in anemia during pregnancy has not been characterized. Our objective was to characterize the role of hepcidin in anemia during pregnancy. We examined the relationships between urinary hepcidin, iron status indicators, hemoglobin, erythropoietin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and C-reactive protein in a cross-sectional study conducted among 149 pregnant rural Bangladeshi women with biospecimens obtained during home visits. Urinary hepcidin was measured using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Urinary hepcidin, as log(intensity per mmol/L creatinine), was correlated with log ferritin (r = 0.33, p women selected for low iron stores (n = 41). Among pregnant women in a community-based study in rural Bangladesh, urinary hepcidin levels were related to iron status and AGP but not hemoglobin, erythropoietin, or C-reactive protein. PMID:18818166

Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ray, Amanda L; Nath, Avindra; Wu, Lee S-F; Semba, Richard D

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Survey of lactation suppression in HIV-positive pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of HIV transmission via breastfeeding is well reported. We conducted a national survey in the UK to look at the current knowledge and postpartum practice of HIV physicians caring for HIV-positive pregnant women. In total, 167 questionnaires were distributed, 85 (51%) questionnaires were returned. All the respondents advised their patients against breastfeeding, 17 (23%) respondents routinely prescribed drugs for postpartum lactation suppression and 32 (43%) detailed awareness of interactions between antiretroviral therapy and dopaminergic lactation suppression agents. Thirteen respondents reported awareness of guidance on lactation suppression. The knowledge and use of lactation suppression agents appears to be low. However, its use will not only reduce postnatal mastitis and breast engorgement but will also help women deal with social pressures to breastfeed. Increased use in specific circumstances will improve the postnatal care of HIV-positive pregnant women in the UK. PMID:22581953

Pammi, M; Carlin, E M

2012-04-01

102

Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UTI is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy together with anemia and hypertension and it occurs approximately in 5-10% of all pregnancies. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of uropathogens isolated from pregnant women. During the study period, 255 pregnant women urine samples were analysed. Urinary tract infection was diagnosed by growth of at least 105 colony-forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter in a culture of a midstream urine sample. After 24-48 h incubation organisms verified by biochemical tests. The results show that the 10.58% of pregnant women have UTI and most agent of UTI in these group was E. coli. UTIs may be more serious during pregnancy because they are more likely to travel to the kidneys. If a UTI is not treated promptly in a pregnant woman, she may be more likely to have problems like high blood pressure or premature delivery of her baby.

2008-01-01

103

Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent. PMID:15572482

Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

2004-12-01

104

Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

2001-01-01

105

Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Vellore region.  

Science.gov (United States)

All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a large hospital in Vellore, India (Christian Medical College Hospital) were screened for HIV infection between October 1987 and June 1992. A total of 36,953 blood samples were thus screened and 20 infected women were identified. Among these 18 women had acquired HIV infection from their husbands, who were also detected to be HIV infected. While these 18 women were monogamous, all the husbands had multiple sex partners. Two of the 20 women in this series were commercial sex workers. Among the 20, 17 (85%) women belonged to low socio-economic status, while three were from well-to-do families, with the husbands being businessmen or teachers. As the overall prevalence (0.054%) of HIV infection among pregnant women was relatively high and equal to or higher than many States in the USA and in areas outside London in the UK, the authors recommend that strict universal precautions be instituted in all obstetric practice in India. PMID:8144202

John, T J; Bhushan, N; Babu, P G; Seshadri, L; Balasubramanium, N; Jasper, P

1993-11-01

106

Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies amongst normal pregnant women in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Akinsegun Abduljaleel Akinbami1, Kabiru Afolarin Rabiu2, Adeniyi Abiodun Adewunmi2, Kikelomo Ololade Wright3, Adedoyin Owolabi Dosunmu1, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo4, Adewumi Adediran4, Oluseye Vincent Osunkalu41Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Department of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, 4Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, NigeriaObjective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV, a ubiquitous virus belonging to the herpes family, is known to be transmitted frequently to developing fetuses in pregnancy. In an immunocompromised state like pregnancy, primary infection through blood transfusion or reactivation of a latent CMV infection can cause severe illness. The study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of the immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody to cytomegalovirus amongst pregnant women in correlation with previous exposure to blood transfusion.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out amongst 179 HIV negative pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH, Ikeja, Nigeria. Five mL of blood was collected and stored in a plain bottle, centrifuged on the same day and the serum stored at -20°C. All samples were screened for anti-CMV IgG antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Consenting participants were instructed to fill a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain demographic and other related information. Statistical analysis of the results was done using Pearson's chi squared test for analytical assessment.Results: A total of 97.2% of the pregnant women recruited for this study were anti-CMV IgG positive. Out of the 179 recruited for the study 174 responded to the question on previous history of blood transfusion, 14.9% of the respondents (26 of 174 had a previous history of blood transfusion and all tested positive to the anti-CMVIgG antibody. However, past history of blood transfusion and educational level were found to be insignificant to the risk of acquiring CMV infection.Conclusion: The seroprevalence of the CMV antibody amongst pregnant women in this environment is high in relation to findings in other developing countries. There is the need to assess anti-CMV immunoglobulin M antibodies in pregnant women, which is a determinant of active infection.Keywords: CMV, IgG, pregnant women

Akinbami AA

2011-12-01

107

Serum zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, and magnesium levels in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women in developing countries are vulnerable to multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Studies assessing serum levels of the micronutrients and magnitude of their deficiencies are very scarce in African subjects. This study was aimed at determining serum levels of micronutrients in 375 pregnant (42 HIV seropositive) and 76 non-pregnant women (20 HIV seropositive) who visited the University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Serum concentrations of zinc,\\ copper, selenium, calcium, and magnesium were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Irrespective of HIV serostatus, pregnant women had significantly higher serum concentrations of copper and copper/zinc ratio and significantly lower magnesium compared to those in non-pregnant women (P Ethiopia warrants the need for strategies on prevention and control of the deficiencies. PMID:18202835

Kassu, Afework; Yabutani, Tomoki; Mulu, Andargachew; Tessema, Belay; Ota, Fusao

2008-05-01

108

Immunisation Status Of Pregnant Women In Bihar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research Question: What is the coverage level of immunization and other maternal services by a modified technique developed by IRMS (ICMR Delhi in comparison to standard WHO technique. Objectives: To study the â€"Coverage level for immunization, antenatal care and IFA tablets â€"Relationship of caste and education with the coverage levels. â€"Place and persons conducting deliveries. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Both in rural and urban areas of Bihar. Participants: 375 mothers having children up to one year of age selected by a stratified random sampling technique developed by IRMS Delhi. Study variables: Immunisation status, antenatal care, Use of IFA tabs, Education of the female, Education of husband, place and person conducting the delivery. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: Overall immunization coverage was 42% for pregnant females. Coverage was high (60% in urban areas compared to rural areas (40%. Coverage was low among females from SC/ST category, also when females and their husbands were illiterates. Similar trend was observed for antenatal care and IFA tabs. 90% deliveries took place at home and were mainly attended by village dais. Majority of mothers received immunization from some. Govt. agency lack of, awareness and lack of motivation were more commonly found as reasons for non-immunisation among SC/ST as compared to others. Lack of awareness was also found as a common reason for non-immunisation among illiterate females.

Yadav R. J

1998-01-01

109

The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n?=?32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n?=?22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Lamont, Ronald F

2014-01-01

110

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

Helle Margrete Meltzer

2013-02-01

111

Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant women. Materials and Method: The study involved a control group of 60 apparently healthy pregnant women matched with a test group of 60 pregnant women with GDM. Data were obtained through a questionnaire, proper examination, including anthropometric measurements, and laboratory evaluation for glycaemic control. Results: The age (mean (M ± standard deviation (SD = 32.8±7.4 years and body mass index (BMI (M±SD = 27.9±4.9 Kg/m2 were significantly higher in pregnant ladies with GDM compared with the control group (M±SD = 29.7±6.0 years, 25.1±3.1 Kg/m2 respectively (P < 0.02 for both. There were significant associations between presence of GDM and age ? 30 years (relative risk (RR = 1.28, P = 0.016, BMI ? 25 Kg/m2 (RR = 1.48, P = 0.001, family history of diabetes mellitus (DM (RR = 1.8, P = 0.002, glucosuria (RR = 2.39, P = 0.000, proteinuria (RR = 1.98, P = 0.008. In contrast, parity and urinary tract infections failed to demonstrate significant associations with GDM. Conclusion: The strongest predictor of GDM in Sudanese women is glucosuria, followed by proteinuria, family history of DM, BMI ? 25 Kg/m2 and age ? 30 years in a descending pattern.

Mardi T.G

2012-01-01

112

[Therapeutic regimens for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study comprises 128 pregnant women examined at different gestational weeks. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was made using: a) the complex clinical criteria--vaginal discharge, vaginal pH, amine test and "clue cells" b) Nugent scoring system c) Spiegel criteria. Two therapeutic regimens were compared--intravaginal 2% clindamycin creme (Dalacin V) 5 g three consecutive days and intravaginal metronidazole (Flagyl) 500 mg once daily for 5 consecutive days. Control examination was carried out 5-7 days after completion of therapy using the same protocol. 28 women from the first group and 31 women from the second group had the control examination. Bacterial vaginosis was eradicated in 93% of women using intravaginal clindamycin and in 87% of women using intravaginal metronidazole. Both regimes were more effective compared to treatment with oral ampicillin for 7 days, where the cure rate was 62%. PMID:10734670

Borisov, I; Dimitrova, V; Mazne?kova, V; Shopova, E

1999-01-01

113

Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, eng...

Shipton Debbie; Eadie Douglas; Bauld Linda; MacAskill Susan; Tappin David M; Galbraith Linsey

2010-01-01

114

First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

Modh Carin

2011-04-01

115

Epidemiology and Risk Analysis of Malaria among Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nMalaria remains a complex problem during the pregnancy, which threatens > 35 millions pregnant women every year. Malaria pathogenesis in pregnancy results in accumulation of infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces causing severe alterations leading to the reduced materno-foetal exchanges. In this article we have revisited the current evidences of clinical implications and overall burden of malaria in pregnancy. Many adverse aftermaths including, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, stillbirth and anemia were found associated with malaria in pregnant women. Despite of worldwide comprehensive control programmes for malaria in pregnancy, the disease control has been a daunting task everywhere. Socio cultural, economical, lack of awareness and various logistic problems compound the disease in developing countries. Thorough evidence based information and estimates, education and awareness and strengthening of prevention programmes are needed urgently to achieve success in malaria control in pregnancy.

I Baruah

2012-01-01

116

Epidemiology and Risk Analysis of Malaria among Pregnant Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria remains a complex problem during the pregnancy, which threatens > 35 millions pregnant women every year. Malaria pathogenesis in pregnancy results in accumulation of infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces causing severe alterations leading to the reduced materno-foetal exchanges. In this article we have revisited the current evidences of clinical implications and overall burden of malaria in pregnancy. Many adverse aftermaths including, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, stillbirth and anemia were found associated with malaria in pregnant women. Despite of worldwide comprehensive control programmes for malaria in pregnancy, the disease control has been a daunting task everywhere. Socio cultural, economical, lack of awareness and various logistic problems compound the disease in developing countries. Thorough evidence based information and estimates, education and awareness and strengthening of prevention programmes are needed urgently to achieve success in malaria control in pregnancy. PMID:23113116

Dhiman, S; Yadav, K; Goswami, D; Das, Ng; Baruah, I; Singh, L

2012-01-01

117

Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. PMID:23830308

de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

2014-01-01

118

Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. PMID:22789395

Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

2013-01-01

119

Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.

Anne M. Riederer

2012-09-01

120

Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSmoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS.There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion,reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten yearsago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. Duringthe last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around 20%.

Kjell Haug

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Depressive symptoms predict smoking status among pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study assessed self-reported psychopathology in women who spontaneously quit or continued smoking after learning that they are pregnant and examined whether any potential differences remained after control for confounding variables. All participants (77 smokers and 50 spontaneous quitters) completed 3 assessments of psychological functioning prior to enrollment in either smoking cessation or relapse prevention studies. Assessments included the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); the Be...

Linares Scott, Teresa J.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Badger, Gary J.; Bernstein, Ira M.

2009-01-01

122

Role of dyslipidemia in preeclamptic overweight pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is an independent risk factor of preeclampsia with unknown mechanism and hyperlipidemia might be a probable case of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hyper-triglyceridemi in association with high prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted this case-control study of 42 preeclamptic and 41 normotensive overweight pregnant women. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gestation...

Seyede Hajar Sharami; Azita Tangestani; Roya Faraji; Ziba Zahiri; Azam Amiri

2012-01-01

123

Adherence to antiretroviral treatment for hiv positive pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to adherence to antiretroviral therapy by pregnant women living with HIV / AIDS and its determinants advantages and constraints. Method: this is about an exploratory descriptive study, from qualitative approach, using socioeconomic data collection questionnaire and open interviews in depth, content analysis to establish the themes. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research of the Mother and Child Hospital (protocol number 023/07). Results: the material was sorted and grouped...

Paula Saraiva Duailibe Barbosa, Loise Dantas Fonseca Ribeiro

2010-01-01

124

Prevalence of Smoking in Pregnant Women in Berlin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Smoking during pregnancy is a serious sanitary and socio-political problem. To accurately quantify it, over a period of one year interviews of pregnant women in Berlin were linked to a clinical trial with laboratory-chemical analyses. This trial was affiliated to another survey dealing with the consumption of alcohol. Through the decrease of intrauterine growth and an increase of premature birth, smoking during pregnancy leads to higher foetal and neonatal mortality. While grow...

Schumann, Susann

2010-01-01

125

Surveying Infections among Pregnant Women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab), Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-A)and antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: Thi...

Buseri F; Seiyaboh E; Jeremiah Z

2010-01-01

126

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been...

2010-10-01

127

Management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Japanese pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we evaluated the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in pregnant women and evaluated the postpartum prognosis. Methods: Twenty-four pregnant women, who were diagnosed with CIN at Ehime University Hospital between January 2008 and October 2012, were recruited. The mode of delivery and pathophysiological examination results in the postpartum period were evaluated. Results: Four patients were antenatally diagnosed with either CIN1 or CIN2. Of these patients, CIN regressed or remained stable during pregnancy, and there was no disease progression in the postpartum period. Nine patients were diagnosed with severe dysplasia (CIN3 and eleven patients had carcinoma in situ (CIS. Of these patients, 5/9 (55% and 4/11 (36%, respectively, had disease regression postnatally. No CIN lesion progressed to invasive carcinoma after delivery. Conclusions: We determined that many cases diagnosed antenatally with CIN regressed during the postpartum period, regardless of the grade of CIN. We recommend a conservative management strategy with careful ante- and postpartum examinations for pregnant women with CIN.

Akihiro Nawa

2013-05-01

128

Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

129

New generation of antidepressants in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nAlthough pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram and venlafaxine, the latest studies aren't necessarily reassuring. As researchers continue to learn more about antidepressants, the risks and benefits of taking the drugs during pregnancy must be weighed carefully on a case-by-case basis. This review discusses about the use of new generation of antidepressants in pregnancy

Ladan Kashani

2007-05-01

130

Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT) and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care. PMID:23226937

Douamba, Zoenabo; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Bazie, Valerie Jean Telesphore; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

2012-01-01

131

A comparative study of Zinc deficiency prevalence in pregnant and non pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Zinc is one of the elements necessary for growth and health in human. Some evidences indicate that zinc deficiency is one of real difficulties for the public health in both developed and developing countries. Since the pregnant women are more at risk of zinc deficiency, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of zinc deficiency in pregnant women in the 3 trimesters and to compare these data with that of the healthy controls."n"nMethods: This research was an analytic- descriptive study which was done on 677 pregnant women in 3 Trimesters and 140 non pregnant groups who referred to clinic of Tehran University. Blood sample were taken And serum zinc was assessed By Enzymatic technique."n"nResults: The prevalence of zinc deficiency is 16% in pregnancy and 0% in non pregnant women with a significant difference between two groups (p<0.001. Zinc deficiency had no relation to mother's age, gestational age, Iron supplementation, Parity and mothers BMI. Hemoglobin level showed a direct relation to zinc deficiency and was grossly found to be more prevalent in Hb levels less than 12 (CI: 1/36-4/26, OR=2/4."n"nConclusion: Acording to the finding of presented study, zinc deficiency is more prevalent in Hb<12 inspite of iron supplementation. Iron and zinc supplements in pregnancy period seem to be more effective for Hb repair in each case.

Borna S

2009-08-01

132

Proximate predictors of early antenatal registration among Nigerian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Provision of antenatal care (ANC is included in the pillars of maternal health care promoted as effective answers to maternal mortality. Early antenatal registration has been linked with optimal utilization and appreciable reduction of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the profile and possible predictors of pregnant women who presented early for antenatal registration. Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted among 796 women presented for antenatal registration at a tertiary hospital. Information was obtained by a self-administered open- and closed-ended questionnaire and analyzed with Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS 12.0 software. Results : The mean gestational age at booking was 20 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that first trimester booking was significantly with more educated women, professionals, women of lower parity and those who have had previous stillbirths (P < 0.05. Low parity (OR 1.76, 95% CI 2.79-1.11 and previous stillbirth (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.61-5.51 were significant predictors of early booking on multivariate analysis. Conclusion : Long-term advocacy and investment in female education will contribute significantly to primary prevention of late or non-attendance of ANC. Pre-conception clinics and community awareness campaigns would be necessary tools to reach these women and encourage them to register early when pregnant.

Oladokun Adesina

2010-12-01

133

Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

2012-08-01

134

Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women. PMID:25332259

de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

2014-01-01

135

Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women. (author)

136

Demographic and reproductive factors for high seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among pregnant women in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to elucidate demographic and reproductive factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity, serological screening and questionnaire survey were conducted on pregnant women in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Serum samples were taken from 1718 pregnant women between September and December, 1996, at the cooperative obstetric hospitals and clinics, and tested for the presence of antibodies to C. trachomatis using the enzyme immunoassay. A questionnaire was administered on a sub-sample (n -409), among whom 85 (20.8%) were seropositive. A multiple logistic analysis revealed that four characteristics showed a significant association with the seropositivity: (i) experience of premarital pregnancy, (ii) non use of condoms, (iii) short duration of education, and (iv) more frequent induced abortion. The unsafe sexual behavior of young people lacking proper knowledge of how to prevent STD is the most important intervention target for control of the C. trachomatis epidemic in Japan. PMID:10750735

Kusano, Y; Shibata, Y; Katamine, S; Yamamoto, T; Kurokawa, K; Moriuchi, R; Kubota, K; Masuzaki, H; Honda, S; Moji, K; Takemoto, T

2000-01-01

137

Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from the Clinical Microbiology Database. Maternal data were obtained from a local database at the RH. RESULTS: In our cohort, a total of 638 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with GBS, 517 (81%) from urine, 92 (14%) from vaginal swabs and 29 (5%) from both. The overall rate of women colonised with GBS rose from 3.3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p <0.0001). A total of 48 infants had early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS), 1.4 per 1,000neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: We found a low GBS colonisation rate in our pregnant cohort, but the rate followed an increasing trend over the study period. GBS during pregnancy was associated with a low birth weight and preterm delivery. More research on preventive measures is needed, but updated guidelines, screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of EOGBS disease prevention.

Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh

2014-01-01

138

Calorie Intake of Pregnant Women and Related Factors in Health Centers of Urban Areas Qom, 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a critical period during which good maternal nutrition plays a key role influencing the health of both mother and child. The present study aimed at determining the intakes of energy and related factors in pregnant women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1036 pregnant women were selected from health centers of urban areas in Qom. Personal interviews using the questionnaire of 24 -hour dietary recall were carried out to elicit information. Calorie intake efficacy was calculated based on nutrient substance intake. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software program. X2 test was used to determine the significance of differences (p<0/05.Results: Calorie intake of 50% of subjects was adequate. The majority of pregnant women who had reported higher intake of energy were illiterate (%56.4 and house holders (%51/1? and in the third trimester (%58.8 There was a significant difference between calorie intake, occupation, level of education and stage of pregnancy. The mean of energy from oil and fat was higher than that of other food groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the nutritional education is a component of programs targeted at working women and low income families.

Ahangari R

2011-03-01

139

Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non-planners with accepting planners and by comparing rejecting planners with rejecting non-planners. The variables studied comprise age, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economic situation and contraceptives. RESULTS: The characteristics of accepting non-planners and accepting planners were in accordance and in contrast to those of rejecting planners and in particular of rejecting non-planners. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was 15%. Among rejecting non-planners the same figure was 51%. CONCLUSION: Accepting non-planners seemed to be in a situation which could be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one.

Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B

2001-01-01

140

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values

 
 
 
 
141

Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Cesarean delivery is a surgery for deliver a baby. Women with previous cesarean delivery (CD) must often choose between a vaginal delivery (VD) and repeat CD. Our aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with preference for CD in Neyshabur pregnant women with previous CD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all pregnant women (who had previous caesarean delivery) from February 20, 2011 to March 20, 2011 in Northeast of Iran (Neyshabur). Logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The mean age of pregnant women was 29.95 ± 4.94 years. In this study of the 292 pregnant women, 235 (80.5%) said they prefer CD. There was a statistically significant relation between preference for CD and the following variables: pregnant women's educational level (P < 0.001; OR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.85-8.05) and doctor's advice (P = 0.021; OR = 3.55; 95% CI = 1.21-10.43). The pregnant women with a previous CD presented four-fold upper chance of choosing CD. Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor's advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type. PMID:25317304

Gholami, Ali; Faraji, Zahra; Lotfabadi, Pegah; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Rezaof, Mitra; Rajabi, Abdolhalim

2014-01-01

142

Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

2007-01-01

143

Does vaginal douching affect the risk of vaginal infections in pregnant women?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We found that vaginal douching tends pregnant women to genital tract the incidence of vaginal infections, especially those caused by Enterococcus spp. and GBS. As such infections may render such women to high risk in terms of perinatal mortality and morbidity, it would be appropriate to discourage vaginal douching in pregnant women.

Nermin Sakru

2006-02-01

144

Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n=189 and control group (n=178 during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. Results. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR=6.76; 95% CI=1.28-7.72, upper respiratory symptoms (OR=9.53; 95% CI=1.32-3.8 and bleeding (OR=20.5; 95% CI=2.03-6.97 was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=40.42; 95% CI=2.96-8.91 and bleeding (OR=53.21; 95% CI=4.3-15.73 was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=34.58; 95% CI=3.05-11.66.

Stankovi? Aleksandra

2011-01-01

145

Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before their clinic visit for a Pap test. Results With respect to socio-demographic factors, the stages of change in pregnant women were associated with level of education, marital status, and the presence of roommates, partners and friends who smoke. In pregnant women, there was no statistically significant difference in the processes used to stop smoking among the stages of change. Furthermore, behavioral processes were higher in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women, and the difference was statistically significant in the advanced stages of behavioral change. Both pregnant and non-pregnant women showed higher levels of acceptance towards smoking in the earlier stages of change, but the acceptability of smoking in the pre-contemplative stage was higher in non-pregnant women. Greater craving was detected in non-pregnant vs. pregnant women at all stages and reached a statistically significant level at the pre-contemplative stage. Conclusion Pregnancy is a favorable time to stop smoking since pregnant women are more likely to be in an advanced stage of behavioral change. Pregnant and non-pregnant women are distinct populations in the types and processes of change involved in smoking cessation. The intervention programs to promote smoking cessation and prevent relapses will need to take these differences into account. PMID:21261957

2011-01-01

146

Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before their clinic visit for a Pap test. Results With respect to socio-demographic factors, the stages of change in pregnant women were associated with level of education, marital status, and the presence of roommates, partners and friends who smoke. In pregnant women, there was no statistically significant difference in the processes used to stop smoking among the stages of change. Furthermore, behavioral processes were higher in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women, and the difference was statistically significant in the advanced stages of behavioral change. Both pregnant and non-pregnant women showed higher levels of acceptance towards smoking in the earlier stages of change, but the acceptability of smoking in the pre-contemplative stage was higher in non-pregnant women. Greater craving was detected in non-pregnant vs. pregnant women at all stages and reached a statistically significant level at the pre-contemplative stage. Conclusion Pregnancy is a favorable time to stop smoking since pregnant women are more likely to be in an advanced stage of behavioral change. Pregnant and non-pregnant women are distinct populations in the types and processes of change involved in smoking cessation. The intervention programs to promote smoking cessation and prevent relapses will need to take these differences into account.

Tognazzo Federica

2011-01-01

147

Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947) were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. ...

Mahé Antoine; Brun-Vézinet Francoise; Branger Michel; Njouom Richard; Makuwa Maria; Ndong-Atome Guy-Roger; Rousset Dominique; Kazanji Mirdad

2008-01-01

148

Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

Toher, C

2013-08-24

149

High prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in pregnant Egyptian women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically-transmitted cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH), is not fully understood. During outbreaks on the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere, HEV causes severe AVH with mortality rates around 20% during pregnancy. In Egypt, where prevalence of HEV antibodies (anti-HEV) in rural communities is very high, severe HEV-caused AVH in pregnant women has not been reported. This study examined a cohort of 2,428 pregnant women in the Nile Delta to assess prevalence of, and risk factors for, anti-HEV and correlated these with history of liver disease. Anti-HEV prevalence was 84.3%. Several risk factors associated with anti-HEV included older age, many siblings, not using soap to wash produce and frequent contact with cats. History of jaundice and liver disease was rare and not increased in those having anti-HEV. Our results confirm Egypt's high HEV endemicity and show that almost all women of childbearing age in these communities had prior HEV exposures without a history of liver disease. Reasons for the lack of clinical hepatitis remain unclear but could be the result of early childhood HEV exposures, producing long-lasting immunity and/or modify subsequent responses to exposure. Alternatively, the predominant HEV strain(s) in Egypt are less virulent than those in South Asia. PMID:16257426

Stoszek, Sonia K; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Saleh, Doa'a A; El Kafrawy, Sherif; Narooz, Shaker; Hawash, Yousry; Shebl, Fatma M; El Daly, Mai; Said, Ahmed; Kassem, Enas; Mikhail, Nabiel; Engle, Ronald E; Sayed, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Fix, Alan D; Emerson, Suzanne U; Purcell, Robert H; Strickland, G Thomas

2006-02-01

150

Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at [...] the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos, Piscoya; Ricardo Arraes de Alencar, Ximenes; Genivaldo Moura da, Silva; Sílvia Regina, Jamelli; Sonia Bechara, Coutinho.

151

Thrombocytopenia in plasmodium parasitized pregnant women in the Niger Delta of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O Erhabor1, Z A Jeremiah1, T C Adias2, M L Hart11Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Hematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Plasmodium parasitaemia on the platelet count of pregnant women in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.Methods: In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy (pregnant and nonpregnant and malaria-infected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 100 × 109/L was the threshold at two standard deviations below the mean for healthy Nigerian pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts were compared based on malaria species and parasitemia in matched nonpregnant and pregnant women. Blood smears from Quantitative Buffy Coat malaria-positive samples stained with Giemsa were used for determination of parasite load and specie identification by light microscopy.Study design: This case control study evaluated the effect of malaria parasitemia on the platelet count of 50 plasmodium parasitized pregnant subjects. Fifty nonmalaria parasitized pregnant women and fifty nonpregnant and nonmalaria-infected subjects served as control.Results: The mean platelet counts (×109/L were significantly lower in pregnant subjects with an episode of Plasmodium falciparum malaria 111.3 ± 9.3 × 109/L compared to nonparasitized and healthy nonpregnant controls (255.09 ± 24.10 and 270 ± 51.5 × 109/L respectively. Platelet count values were 112.5 ± 9.68 × 109/L and 126.3 ± 16.7 × 109/L for the primigravidae and multigravidae respectively. (?2 = 10.46; P = 0.05. Parasite density was significantly higher among Plasmodium parasitized primigravidae compared to multigravidae 2150 (1638–2662 parasites/µL in primigravidae women compared to 1826 (1430–2222 parasites/µL in multigravid women. The mean parasite count in Plasmodium falciparum parasitized subjects was 2650 ± 234 parasites/µL, 95% confidence interval (2092–3118. Malaria parasite was found to exert a significant reduction in platelet density in parasitized subjects. This reduction was more pronounced in primigravidae and multigravidae. An inverse relationship was established between parasite density and platelet count (y = -0.020 × +86.2, r = -0.3.Conclusion: There is need for a strengthened antenatal care system with increased awareness of the problem among communities most affected by malaria. Preventative strategies including regular chemoprophylaxis, intermittent preventative treatment with antimalarials and provision of insecticide-treated bed nets should be implemented as well as integration of malaria control tools with other health programmes targeted to pregnant women and newborns.Keywords: thrombocytopenia, malaria, pregnancy, Niger Delta, Nigeria

O Erhabor

2010-01-01

152

Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

Mette Rasmussen

2013-08-01

153

Listeria infection in Chinese pregnant women and neonates from Shandong  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study aims to investigate the characters of pregnant women and neonates with listeria monocytogenes infections (L. monocytogenes) in Shandong of China. Method: Pregnant women with premature delivery or prenatal fever were recruited in 2013. Bacterial culture was performed for the umbilical cord blood and placental swab after delivery. The strains isolated were then analyzed for the virulence factors and classified based on the serotype and MLST typing. Results: Four cases (0.34‰) of the neonates were identified with listeriosis. Prenatal fever was observed in mothers of all infected neonates. The pathological examination of placenta showed non-specific inflammatory manifestations and two serotypes including 1/2b and 4b were detected. Six kinds of virulence factors including hly, inlA, actA, plcB, prfA and iap were all identified in the inflected neonates. Conclusion: The results suggested that mother-to-infant was an important transmission mode for listeria. Antibiotic treatment, bacterial culture and placenta pathological examination were highly recommended in the diagnosis and treatment of listeriosis. PMID:25356132

Lv, Jun; Qin, Zhenli; Xu, Yanhua; Xie, Qiurong

2014-01-01

154

[Metafolin--alternative for folate deficiency supplementation in pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper folate supplementation is required in order to ensure proper folate concentration in the organism, and consequently to prevent the development of numerous complications in general population and pregnant women. Metafolin (stable calcium salt of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate acid, L-5-MTHF) is the most active form of reduced folate circulating in plasma, which directly enters the metabolic process of folate. After administration metafolin shows optimum absorption, comparable or higher bioavailability as well as physiological activity when compared to folic acid. Metafolin supplementation is effective in decreasing plasma homocysteine, as well as increasing folate in plasma and erythrocytes, in pregnant and breastfeeding women or those who wish to conceive. In addition, metafolin administration omits the multistage process of reduction before entering the folate cell cycle, as well as a possible deficiency of activity of enzymes participating in the reduction of folate process in the intestine epithelium (DHFR and MTHFR enzymes). So far no potential adverse and toxic effects of metafolin management have been reported. The published findings require confirmation in larger groups of patients and an additional analysis of the presence of particular genotypes of 677C > T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene. Analysis of the recent literature reposts suggests that metafolin could be an effective and safe alternative to folic acid supplementation and could effectively prevent complications in pregnancy and series birth defects in fetuses and newborns. PMID:24032278

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-07-01

155

Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 ?g m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability in PM2.5 could be explained.

Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

2013-01-01

156

Violence against woman from the perspective of pregnants women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the kinds of violence suffered in gestational period based on Ecological Model of Violence from Pan American Health Organization and to discuss the violence concept under point of view from pregnant women. Methods: descriptive study from qualitative approach conducted in a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro city. One hundred interviews were conducted with mothers in the Rooming-in Care. Results: among women who have suffered some kind of violence there is a greater proportion of physical aggression (67%, and the aggressor is, in most cases (33%, a person close to the woman. The victims did not seek a specialized help service (79%. The socio-demographic profile showed that the predominant age range was 20-29 years (56%, with a low level of schooling, less than six years of study, with a predominant family income of more than two minimum salaries and residents, most of them (27% from A.P.3.1 Méier. Conclusions: it’s important to ensure human rights and enhance the full care to women victims of violence. The existance of a regular training is essential to take care of these women, facing this violence phenomenon, offering then a careful, ethical and humane nursing.

Gabriela Fernandes e Silva, Maíra Domingues Bernardes Silva, Leila Rangel da Silva, Inês Maria Meneses dos Santos

2009-07-01

157

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending a Hospital in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic violence is an important risk factor for pregnancy complications. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related factors in a population of pregnant women. A cross sectional study was done on 426 women who were attended to an obstetrics ward of a hospital in Iran. A 35 item questionnaire was completed by the respondents. The life time prevalence of domestic violence was 42% and it was 19.3% during pregnancy. There was no relation between socioeconomic status, women`s education and employment and age of marriage with domestic violence. Unemployment, addiction and alcohol use among husbands were related to domestic violence. Slapping and punching were the most common kinds of violent behavior. The prevalence of domestic violence even during pregnancy is high in Iran, so there is a need to increase the awareness of the community and empower the health workers and professionals in order to prevent and control this problem.

2008-01-01

158

Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

159

[The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-05-01

160

Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Plasma fibronectin concentration in obese/overweight pregnant women: a possible risk factor for preeclampsia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma fibronectin (FN) levels in obese/overweight and non-obese pregnant women were evaluated as a possible risk factor for preeclampsia. A total of one hundred and sixty three pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital participated in the study and sixty non-pregnant women served as control. About 77 (47.24%) of the pregnant women were followed up for any subsequent development of preeclampsia during the pregnancy. Fibronectin levels in plasma were measured by ELISA assay and serum total protein, urea and creatinine were determined spectrophotometrically. The mean plasma FN concentration of non-obese pregnant women in first trimester was lower than those of the non-pregnant women by 24%, but however, increased to the non-pregnant level in second and third trimesters. Obese/overweight pregnant women had significantly (P 330 ?g/ml and MAP > 90, the predictive value increased to 66.7%. We therefore conclude that elevated FN may be regarded as a risk factor of preeclampsia especially among the obese women. PMID:22468048

Ekaidem, Itemobong S; Bolarin, Debayo M; Udoh, Alphonsus E; Etuk, Saturday J; Udiong, Christopher E J

2011-04-01

162

Prevention of supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with major depressive disorder, two subjects had an episode of supine hypotensive syndrome and one subject had an episode of dizziness without hypotension. Prevention of the supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation is described. PMID:24768354

Kim, Deborah Rubin; Wang, Eileen

2014-08-15

163

The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

FN Dube

2008-09-01

164

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

165

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimeste [...] r of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Fernanda Campos, Machado; Dionéia Evangelista, Cesar; Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho, Assis; Cláudio Galuppo, Diniz; Rosangela Almeida, Ribeiro.

166

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Fernanda Campos Machado

2012-10-01

167

Spectrum of anemia in pregnant Indian women and importance of antenatal screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anemia is a common health problem but control of anemia in pregnant women is less well studied. The purpose was to study prevalence of anemia in young pregnant women, correlate with indices and study significance of identification of hemoglobinopathies. Of the 120 pregnant women, Hb was less than 8 g% in 58 (44.2%). Seventy-eight (65%) had iron deficiency, 22 (18.3%) had dimorphic anemia, and 14 (11.6%) had hemolytic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia was present in 6 (5%). Of hemolytic anemia, 50% were thalassemia trait. MCVanemia had RDW value in normal range (p valueanemia was observed in most pregnant women. Hemoglobinopathies should be screened in antenatal clinics to identify the couples that would need a prenatal test. A lower MCV/RBC with RDWin the normal range may be useful in screening for thalassemia trait in pregnant women. PMID:17001888

Sinha, Madhu; Panigrahi, Inusha; Shukla, Jyoti; Khanna, Anuradha; Saxena, Renu

2006-07-01

168

Monitoring seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes surveillance systems used for assessing influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women in the United States. Coverage estimates and factors associated with maternal vaccination are reviewed for internet panel surveys of pregnant women and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS); new estimates are reported from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and Internet panel surveys. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women improved from 11% during the 2001-2002 influenza season to approximately 38% measured by BRFSS and 50% measured by Internet panel surveys during the 2010-2011 influenza season. Coverage varied by state, ranging from 26% to 68% among the states participating in PRAMS in 2009-2010. Provider recommendation increased a woman's likelihood of vaccination nearly 6-fold. Despite increases in influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women, approximately half remain unvaccinated. Continued efforts are needed to ensure pregnant women receive recommendations and offers of vaccination from their health care providers. PMID:22920065

Kennedy, Erin D; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Ding, Helen; Lu, Peng-Jun; Singleton, James A; Bridges, Carolyn B

2012-09-01

169

A population pharmacokinetic model of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing a malaria infection and a higher risk of developing severe malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarials are also altered during pregnancy, often resulting in a decreased drug exposure. Piperaquine is a promising anti-malarial partner drug used in a fixed-dose combination with dihydroartemisinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Method Symptomatic patients received a standard dose regimen of the fixed dose oral piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin combination treatment. Densely sampled plasma aliquots were collected and analysed using a previously described LC-MS/MS method. Data from 12 pregnant and 12 non-pregnant women were analysed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. A Monte Carlo Mapped Power (MCMP analysis was conducted based on a previously published study to evaluate the power of detecting covariates in this relatively small study. Results A three-compartment disposition model with a transit-absorption model described the observed data well. Body weight was added as an allometric function on all clearance and volume parameters. A statistically significant decrease in estimated terminal piperaquine half-life in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women was found, but there were no differences in post-hoc estimates of total piperaquine exposure. The MCMP analysis indicated a minimum of 13 pregnant and 13 non-pregnant women were required to identify pregnancy as a covariate on relevant pharmacokinetic parameters (80% power and p=0.05. Pregnancy was, therefore, evaluated as a categorical and continuous covariate (i.e. estimate gestational age in a full covariate approach. Using this approach pregnancy was not associated with any major change in piperaquine elimination clearance. However, a trend of increasing elimination clearance with increasing gestational age could be seen. Conclusions The population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine were well described by a three-compartment disposition model in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. The modelling approach showed no major difference in piperaquine exposure between the two groups and data presented here do not warrant a dose adjustment in pregnancy in this vulnerable population.

Hoglund Richard M

2012-11-01

170

Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

kes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential dose to their conceptus or children. The calculations are based on the data from ICRP Publications 88and 95.

171

Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Manejar las complicaciones médicas en el embarazo es un reto para los clínicos. Objetivos: Este estudio delineó algunos patrones de enfermedades y prescripciones en embarazadas que visitan una clínica prenatal en Nigeria. Se determinó una clasificación de riesgo de los medicamentos. Métodos: Se inve [...] stigaron los historiales médicos de 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron las clínicas de preparto de tres centros en la ciudad de Benin , Nigeria. Los patrones de enfermedades se determinaron desde sus diagnósticos. Los patrones de prescripción se evaluaron utilizando los indicadores del a OMS y la clasificación de medicamentos de la Food and Drug Adminsitration de Estados Unidos según el riesgo para el feto. Resultados: Durante el periodo de revisión, se evaluaron 1897 prescripciones de las 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron. Los resultados indicaron que la malaria con 554 (38%) fue la enfermedad más prevalente, seguida de las infeccione respiratorias altas (IRA) con 13% y enfermedades gastrointestinales (GI) con 12%. La media de medicamentos prescritos por visita fue de 3,0 y 2434 (43%) fueron prescritas en genéricos. Minerales/vitaminas, con 2396 (42%) fueron los medicamentos mas prescritos, y los antibióticos aparecieron en 502 (8,8%). De todos los medicamentos prescritos, 984 (17%) se incluían en la categoría de riesgo fetal C y 286 (5%) en la categoría D. Conclusión: Este estudio concluyó que entre las mujeres embarazadas, la malaria era la enfermedad más frecuente, seguida de las IRA y las GI. Los minerales y vitaminas seguidos el os antibióticos encabezaron l alista de medicamentos prescritos. La media de medicamentos por visita fue mucho mayor que los estándares recomendados por la OMS. La aparición de medicamentos contraindicados era baja. Abstract in english Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files o [...] f 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38%) was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%). The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43%) of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8%) of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17%) were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5%) in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

Uchenna I., Eze; Adego E., Eferakeya; Azuka C., Oparah; Ehijie F., Enato.

172

Dietary recommendations for obese pregnant women: current questions and controversies.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity is now one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions. Obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are important modifiable risk factors for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Maternal obesity, associated with neonatal adiposity and high birthweight, has been implicated in increased risk of childhood obesity. Considerable effort has been directed towards improving clinical outcomes by lifestyle change in pregnant obese women, but there is at present no evidence-based intervention of adequate efficacy which can be recommended. The focus has been on preventing excessive weight gain, but studies have lacked the power to address effects on clinical outcomes; therefore preventing clinical practice translation. Adequately powered intervention studies devised to reduce neonatal adiposity by improvement of maternal glucose homeostasis, are needed to inform the optimal dietary and/or physical activity regimen. PMID:25230591

Poston, Lucilla; Patel, Nashita

2014-11-01

173

Oral Heath Conditions and Oral Hygiene Habits of Pregnant Women of Low Socio-Economic Status in Aracaju-SE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Mothers exert an important role in the stablishment of the dental care habits of their children and they are the major source from which infants acquire cariogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status in the city of Aracaju-SE. Method: One hundred and seventy pregnant women were randomly selected to be interviewed in accordance with a structured questionnaire about oral health, dental hygiene and socio-economic status. The oral conditions were evaluated by the DMFT, IHO-S e SI index. Results: In regard to oral hygiene habits, 58% of the interviewed women brushed their teeth three times a day. The majority (98% made use of toothpaste but only 33% made use of the dental floss. The mean DMTF was 10.43 and the mean value of the IHO-S was 1.93. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the gingival bleeding was low (10.1%. Conclusion: The pregnant women presented poor oral health conditions and undesirable oral hygiene habits justifying the necessity of a primary dental health preventive approach with targeted measures directed at the pregnant women.

Thaysa Monteiro RAMOS

2006-09-01

174

Analysis of clinical characteristics of viral hepatitis in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the clinical characteristics of viral hepatitis in pregnancy. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on 77 pregnant women with viral hepatitis who were admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to March 2013. Cause of hepatitis, serologic and virologic markers, degree of liver damage, and association with the stage of pregnancy were analyzed. Comparison of continuous data between groups was made by Kruskal-Wallis H test. ResultsThe main cause of viral hepatitis in pregnancy was HBV infection (72 cases, 93.51%, and 10.27% of patients were infected with hepatitis A, B or E virus. Moderate liver damage was detected in 64 patients (83.12%, severe liver damage in 7 patients (9.09%, and liver failure in 3 patients (3.90%. Sixteen patients (20.78% were diagnosed with hepatitis in the first trimester of pregnancy, 49 (63.64% in the second trimester, and 12 (15.58% in the third trimester. Liver function indices, including total bile acid (TBA, total bilirubin (TBil, albumin (Alb, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, and prothrombin activity (PTA, were compared between HBeAg (+ and HBeAg (- patients and between patients with HBV DNA ?106 IU/ml and ?106 IU/ml, and no significant differences were found in either comparison (P?0.05. ConclusionViral hepatitis in pregnancy is mainly caused by infection with hepatitis B virus. Liver damage is mostly moderate and severe liver damage and liver failure often occur in the middle or late stage of pregnancy. This study indicates that pregnant women should take precautions and active treatment for chronic hepatitis B.

LIU Huiyuan

2014-11-01

175

Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

2014-01-01

176

Assessment of blood and urine lead levels of some pregnant women residing in Lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of lead in blood (BLL) and lead in urine (ULL) of some non-occupationally exposed, nonsmoking 214 pregnant Nigerian women, aged 17 to 49 years, and resident in Lagos was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with control subjects consisting of 113 nonpregnant women. From results, the mean BLL and ULL (?g/dL) for pregnant women (59.5±2.1; 29.4±1.1) were significantly (p0.10). Study is a contribution to blood and urine lead status of Nigerian pregnant women, being relevant for healthcare management purposes, public health decision making, and possible primary prevention activities. PMID:19915952

Adekunle, Iheoma M; Ogundele, Joseph A; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Akinloye, Oluseyi A

2010-11-01

177

Calorie Intake of Pregnant Women and Related Factors in Health Centers of Urban Areas Qom, 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a critical period during which good maternal nutrition plays a key role influencing the health of both mother and child. The present study aimed at determining the intakes of energy and related factors in pregnant women.

 

Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1036 pregnant women were selected from health centers of urban areas in Qom. Personal interviews using the questionnaire of 24 -hour dietary recall were carried out to elicit information. Calorie intake efficacy was calculated based on nutrient substance intake. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software program. X2 test was used to determine the significance of differences (p<0/05.

 

Results: Calorie intake of 50% of subjects was adequate. The majority of pregnant women who had reported higher intake of energy were illiterate (%56.4 and house holders (%51/1? and in the third trimester (%58.8 There was a significant difference between calorie intake, occupation, level of education and stage of pregnancy. The mean of energy from oil and fat was higher than that of other food groups.

 

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the nutritional education is a component of programs targeted at working women and low income families.

Z Abedini

2012-05-01

178

Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

2009-01-01

179

Older pregnant women and adolescents: nutrition data after enrollment in WIC.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there has been an increase in pregnancy in women over 35 years of age, the literature contains no information on dietary intakes of older pregnant women. Several studies have reported the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents who are considered to be at nutritional risk. This study investigated the energy, nutrient, and food intake patterns of 63 low-income pregnant women over 35 compared with 526 pregnant adolescents. Nutrient intake was assessed using a standardized 24-hour dietary recall protocol. Energy values for both groups were below recommended levels, and neither group gained the recommended amount of weight. Obesity may have been the reason for the lack of weight gain by the older pregnant women, since more than 50% of the older pregnant women were calculated to be obese prior to pregnancy. The younger women reported consuming less milk but more snack foods with lower nutrient densities, which significantly increased their energy values over those of the older group. In comparison with diets reported in other studies, the diets of the older pregnant women were more nutrient dense for most nutrients. Although all participants were enrolled in WIC, an equal number of women from both groups stated that they did not have the supplemental foods in their households at the time of interview. PMID:3611546

Endres, J; Dunning, S; Poon, S W; Welch, P; Duncan, H

1987-08-01

180

Compliance to Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low compliance has been linked to the ineffectiveness of supplementation programme among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the compliance of vitamin and mineral supplementation among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in urban and rural areas. A total of 118 pregnant women aged 28±4 years (urban areas = 62; rural areas = 56 were recruited. Socio demographic data and compliance to supplementation were obtained through self-reported questionnaire. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was obtained from the antenatal records. More than two-thirds of the subjects (79.7% were in third trimester and less than a third (20.3% was in second trimester. Overall, 49.2% of subjects complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation. The mean of weight and haemoglobin concentration were 63.7±15.1 kg and 11.3±1.1 g d/L, respectively. The overall percentage of subjects who complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation was 49.2%. There was no significant difference in percentage of subjects who complied with the supplements in urban (46.8% and rural areas (51.8% (p = 0.587. The prevalence of anaemia among the subjects (Hb <11 g d/L was 42.3% (n = 50. Prevalence of anaemia was lower in the compliant group compared with the non-compliant group (34.5% vs 50%, p = 0.01. Pregnant mothers who did not comply to the supplementation had significantly lower haemoglobin concentration (11.0±1.0 g d/L compared with those who complied (11.5±1.2 g d/L (p = 0.01. Percentage of compliance in anaemic and non-anaemic subjects were 34.5 and 65.5%, respectively (p = 0.088. The main reasons for non-compliance reported by subjects in both areas were forgetfulness (33.9%, side effects (nausea and vomiting (11.9% and worry regarding big size of babies (5.1%. In summary, the incidence of anemia is still high while compliance to supplementation is still low. Comprehensive nutrition education and health promotion programme should be carried out targeting pregnant women in urban and rural to educate the importance of compliance with the vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy.

A.M. Zahara

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

1997-01-01

182

Trauma abdominal em grávidas Abdominal trauma in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores indicativos (parâmetros clínicos e índices de gravidade fisiológicos e anatômicos da evolução materna e fetal entre gestantes vítimas de trauma abdominal submetidas à laparotomia e discutir as particularidades do atendimento nesta situação. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 245 mulheres com trauma abdominal e tratamento operatório, atendidas entre 1990 e 2002. Foram identificadas 13 gestantes com lesão abdominal submetidas à laparotomia. Para registro e análise estatística dos dados foram utilizados o protocolo Epi-Info 6.04 e o teste exato de Fisher, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foram relacionados com a mortalidade fetal: escore na escala de coma de Glasgow, pressão arterial sistólica, índices de trauma (RTS, ATI, ISS e lesão uterina. RESULTADOS: a idade variou de 13 a 34 anos (média de 22,5. Seis mulheres (46,2% estavam no terceiro trimestre de gestação. O trauma penetrante correspondeu a 53,8% das lesões e em seis dessas pacientes o mecanismo de trauma foi ferimento por projétil de arma de fogo. Três pacientes tiveram lesões uterinas, associadas com óbito fetal. Não houve óbito materno e a mortalidade fetal foi de 30,7%. Não houve associação entre os índices de trauma e a mortalidade materna e fetal. A lesão uterina foi o único fator preditivo de risco para perda fetal (p=0,014. CONCLUSÕES: apesar da casuística pequena e de se tratar de estudo retrospectivo de gestantes com trauma grave, os achados deste estudo mostram que não há indicadores com boa acurácia para indicação da evolução materna e fetal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the predictors (clinical findings and physiological and anatomical scores of the maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women victims of abdominal trauma who were submitted to laparotomy and to discuss particularities of assessment in this situation. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the medical records of 245 women with abdominal trauma and surgical treatment, from 1990 to 2002. Thirteen pregnant women with abdominal injury were identified. All cases were registered in the Epi-Info 6.04 protocol and data were analyzed statistically by the Fisher exact test, with confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: ages ranged from 13 to 34 years (mean of 22.5. Six women (46.2% were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Penetrating trauma accounted for 53.8% of injuries and in six of these patients the mechanism of trauma was gunshot wounds. Three patients had uterine injuries associated with fetal death. There were no maternal deaths and fetal mortality was 30.7%. The use of trauma scores was not associated with maternal and fetal mortality. Uterine injury was the only predictive risk factor for fetal loss (p=0.014. CONCLUSIONS: this is a retrospective study analyzing a small number of pregnant women victims of severe trauma. However, the results show that there are no predictive accuracy scores to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes.

Gustavo Pereira Fraga

2005-09-01

183

Trauma abdominal em grávidas / Abdominal trauma in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores indicativos (parâmetros clínicos e índices de gravidade fisiológicos e anatômicos) da evolução materna e fetal entre gestantes vítimas de trauma abdominal submetidas à laparotomia e discutir as particularidades do atendimento nesta situação. MÉTODOS: análise retrospecti [...] va dos prontuários de 245 mulheres com trauma abdominal e tratamento operatório, atendidas entre 1990 e 2002. Foram identificadas 13 gestantes com lesão abdominal submetidas à laparotomia. Para registro e análise estatística dos dados foram utilizados o protocolo Epi-Info 6.04 e o teste exato de Fisher, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foram relacionados com a mortalidade fetal: escore na escala de coma de Glasgow, pressão arterial sistólica, índices de trauma (RTS, ATI, ISS) e lesão uterina. RESULTADOS: a idade variou de 13 a 34 anos (média de 22,5). Seis mulheres (46,2%) estavam no terceiro trimestre de gestação. O trauma penetrante correspondeu a 53,8% das lesões e em seis dessas pacientes o mecanismo de trauma foi ferimento por projétil de arma de fogo. Três pacientes tiveram lesões uterinas, associadas com óbito fetal. Não houve óbito materno e a mortalidade fetal foi de 30,7%. Não houve associação entre os índices de trauma e a mortalidade materna e fetal. A lesão uterina foi o único fator preditivo de risco para perda fetal (p=0,014). CONCLUSÕES: apesar da casuística pequena e de se tratar de estudo retrospectivo de gestantes com trauma grave, os achados deste estudo mostram que não há indicadores com boa acurácia para indicação da evolução materna e fetal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the predictors (clinical findings and physiological and anatomical scores) of the maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women victims of abdominal trauma who were submitted to laparotomy and to discuss particularities of assessment in this situation. METHODS: retrospective [...] analysis of the medical records of 245 women with abdominal trauma and surgical treatment, from 1990 to 2002. Thirteen pregnant women with abdominal injury were identified. All cases were registered in the Epi-Info 6.04 protocol and data were analyzed statistically by the Fisher exact test, with confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: ages ranged from 13 to 34 years (mean of 22.5). Six women (46.2%) were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Penetrating trauma accounted for 53.8% of injuries and in six of these patients the mechanism of trauma was gunshot wounds. Three patients had uterine injuries associated with fetal death. There were no maternal deaths and fetal mortality was 30.7%. The use of trauma scores was not associated with maternal and fetal mortality. Uterine injury was the only predictive risk factor for fetal loss (p=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: this is a retrospective study analyzing a small number of pregnant women victims of severe trauma. However, the results show that there are no predictive accuracy scores to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes.

Gustavo Pereira, Fraga; Mario, Mantovani; Ana Carla, Mesquita; Andrea Boldrin, Soares; Renato, Passini Júnior.

184

Vitamin A Status of Pregnant Women in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vitamin A status of 101 pregnant women attending clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH, Calabar, Nigeria was assessed based on 24 h dietary recall, serum retinol concentration, history of night blindness, physical appearance and clinical eye signs. The study revealed that the mean dietary vitamin A intake of the respondents (2645.31 ±188.91 ?g RE and their mean serum retinol concentration (31.18 ±2.94 ?g dL-1 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the FAO/WHO recommended intake and cutoff level for VAD. No case of night blindness, physical signs and symptoms, or clinical eye signs attributable to VAD was observed. There was a significant (p<0.01 correlation between the amount of 24 h vitamin A intake of the women and their serum retinol concentration (r = 0.31. Also, women who had above 50% of their vitamin A intake from provitamin A sources had a significantly (p<0.05 lower serum retinol concentration (23.10 ±21.12 ?g dL-1 than those who had above 50% intake from preformed sources (49.54 ±42.63 ?g dL-1 and those with about equal intake from both sources (55.75 ±30.80 ?g dL-1. There was a significant (p<0.05 and steady decline in serum retinol concentration in the women from the first trimester (37.79 ±6.65 ?g dL-1, through the second trimester (35.12 ±4.72 ?g dL-1, to the third trimester (21.54 ±1.46 ?g dL-1 of pregnancy.

Ima O. Williams

2008-01-01

185

Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregn...

2012-01-01

186

Demographic Characteristics and Reproductive Profile of Pregnant Women in Jamnagar District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Material and Methods: It was a community based cross-sectional study conducted among 300 pregnant women using pretested questionnaire. Sample size was calculated using the proportion of pregnant women having one or more living children. Results: Out of total 300 pregnant women studied, 6.00% of the total studied women were adolescents. Study revealed that 34.67% of the pregnant women were illiterate. More than three fourth i.e. 78.33% of the studied women got married by the age of 21 years and 16 % got married before legal age of marriage. Considering the age at first conception, 59 % women of the study group had their first pregnancy by 21 years of age and 5.00% of the study women conceived for the first time before 18 years of age. For 27.33% of the studied women, it was their third or more conception, while 17.33% of the studied pregnant women had two or more live children. Conclusion: Study revealed significant impact of area of resi-dence, literacy of the women and socio-economic class of the fam-ily over reproductive profile of women including interpregnancy interval and high parity.

Sumit V Unadkat, Sudha Yadav, J P Mehta, Dipesh V Parmar, Kishor M Dhaduk

2013-01-01

187

Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life.

Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

2013-01-01

188

Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation affects pregnancy outcomes and child growth, development and health. The European Commission charged the research project PERILIP, jointly with the Early Nutrition Programming Project, to develop recommendations on dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation. Literature reviews were performed and a consensus conference held with international experts in the field, including representatives of international scientific associations. The adopted conclusions include: dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation (energy%) should be as recommended for the general population; pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve an average dietary intake of at least 200 mg DHA/d; intakes of up to 1 g/d DHA or 2.7 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA have been used in randomized clinical trials without significant adverse effects; women of childbearing age should aim to consume one to two portions of sea fish per week, including oily fish; intake of the DHA precursor, alpha-linolenic acid, is far less effective with regard to DHA deposition in fetal brain than preformed DHA; intake of fish or other sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids results in a slightly longer pregnancy duration; dietary inadequacies should be screened for during pregnancy and individual counselling be offered if needed. PMID:17688705

Koletzko, Berthold; Cetin, Irene; Brenna, J Thomas

2007-11-01

189

Congenital Chagas disease: time to screen pregnant women?  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of: Bua J, Volta BJ, Velazquez EB et al. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: quantification of parasite burden in mothers and their children by parasite DNA amplification. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 106(10), 623-628 (2012). The congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has gained epidemiological importance because it is partially responsible for the spread of Chagas disease worldwide. The feasibility of a cure when infected children are treated early makes the detection of congenital infection a valuable goal toward the control of the disease. Here, the authors review and discuss the findings of Bua et al., who quantified the parasitemia of infected women and their newborns by quantitative PCR. The authors demonstrate that the maternal parasite burden is directly related to the risk of neonatal infection. This study points out the importance of a quantitative screen for T. cruzi in pregnant women who live in, or have traveled to, endemic areas for improving the diagnosis of infected newborns and providing prompt treatment. PMID:23241184

Sesti-Costa, Renata; Silva, João S; Gutierrez, Fredy R S

2012-11-01

190

Serum cytokine levels and T lymphocyte subsets in pregnant women with eclampsia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Eclampsia, defined as the occurrence during pregnancy of hypertension, oedema, proteinuria and/or other neurologic abnormalities, causes substantial morbidity and mortality for both mother and foetus. However, its aetiology is largely unknown. Genetic and immune factors may play a role including a reduced maternal response to paternal antigen and an altered adaptation of the maternal immune system to the foetus. Methods: Participants consisted of pregnant women with and without a diagnosis of eclampsia (N = 20, each group, and normal healthy nonpregnant controls (N = 18. Women with smear positive malaria or clinical infections were excluded. Serum levels of TNF? and IL-10 were assayed by ELISA. T lymphocyte subsets of pregnant patients with and without eclampsia were also studied by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies and compared with the control group of 18 normal healthy nonpregnant women (NHC. Results: Eclampsia was associated with significantly lower mean serum IL-10 levels compared to normal pregnant and nonpregnant controls. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? were higher in pregnant women with and without eclampsia, compared to control nonpregnant women. Further differences on serum cytokine levels were observed in the significantly increasing ratio of IL-10 to TNF? from nonpregnant controls to normal pregnant women and to pregnant women with eclampsia. The mean values of CD3+ and CD4+ positive lymphocytes was significantly decreased in patients with eclampsia (p < 0.05 in this study compared to pregnant controls. Similarly, CD3+ and CD4+ T cells were further decreased in eclampsia and pregnant controls compared to nonpregnant controls (p < 0.05. A decreasing CD4/CD8 ratio was observed from non-pregnant to pregnant controls and to patients with eclampsia buttressing an increase in CD8+ cells in eclampsia and pregnancy compared to controls. Conclusions: While a pro-inflammatory immune milieu during pregnancy complicated with eclampsia was demonstrated, the presence of eclampsia was not associated with further cytokine differences.

Bolanle O. P. Musa

2012-09-01

191

Role of dyslipidemia in preeclamptic overweight pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is an independent risk factor of preeclampsia with unknown mechanism and hyperlipidemia might be a probable case of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hyper-triglyceridemi in association with high prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted this case-control study of 42 preeclamptic and 41 normotensive overweight pregnant women. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gestational age, and body mass index. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis of preeclampsia, after 14 hour fasting to determine plasma lipid concentrations. Enzymatic photometric tests were used to determine lipid profile. Data was analyzed with independent “t-test”, Chi-square and one-way ANOVA and post HOC Tukey HSD test. The statistical significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results: In the subjects with preeclampsia, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased compared with the controls, (p<0.05, but plasma LDL cholesterol levels didn’t differ between the two groups. Women who developed severe preeclampsia had higher concentrations of TG and cholesterol and lower levels of HDL compared to noromotensive group. Mean TG: 375.16 vs. 202.85, p<0.001, Mean cholesterol: 245.64 vs. 214.32, p=0.04, Mean HDL: 40.80 vs. 48.95, p=0.03. Conclusion: We noted that dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia was highly correlated with prepregnancy high BMI in preeclamptic women. These findings continue to support a role for dyslipidemia in BMI related preeclampsia

Seyede Hajar Sharami

2012-01-01

192

Cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women, health care workers and persons with underlying illnesses in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk groups with increased vulnerability for influenza complications such as pregnant women, persons with underlying illnesses as well as persons who come into contact with them, such as health care workers, are currently given priority (along with other classic target groups) to receive seasonal influenza vaccination in Belgium. We aimed to evaluate this policy from a health care payer perspective by cost-effectiveness analysis in the three specific target groups above, while accounting for effects beyond the target group. Increasing the coverage of influenza vaccination is likely to be cost-effective for pregnant women (median €6589 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained [€4073-€10,249]) and health care workers (median €24,096/QALY gained [€16,442-€36,342]), if this can be achieved without incurring additional administration costs. Assuming an additional physician's consult is charged to administer each additional vaccine dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women depends strongly on the extent of its impact on the neonate's health. For health care workers, the assumed number of preventable secondary infections has a strong influence on the cost-effectiveness. Vaccinating people with underlying illnesses is likely highly cost-effective above 50 years of age and borderline cost-effective for younger persons, depending on relative life expectancy and vaccine efficacy in this risk group compared to the general population. The case-fatality ratios of the target group, of the secondary affected groups and vaccine efficacy are key sources of uncertainty. PMID:25239481

Blommaert, Adriaan; Bilcke, Joke; Vandendijck, Yannick; Hanquet, Germaine; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

2014-10-21

193

Colonization of pregnant women and their newborn infants with group-B streptococci  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As group B streptococci (GBS) prevalence varies from place to place and this organism is responsible for serious infections in newborns such as septicaemia and meningitis, the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS in pregnant women and their neonates. From June 1998 to April 1999 a total of 317 pregnant women and their neonates were examined for GBS. GBS colonization rate was 2.52% and 1.26% in pregnant women and their neonates respectively. Four sites - vi...

Kulkarni A; Pawar S; Dharmadhikari C; Kulkarni R

2001-01-01

194

Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

Ali Salah K

2011-01-01

195

Maternal and neonatal complications of substance abuse in Iranian pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals). Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines). The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital. PMID:22837120

Saleh Gargari, Soraya; Fallahian, Masoumeh; Haghighi, Ladan; Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi, Maryam; Dashti, Elahe; Dolan, Kate

2012-01-01

196

Evaluation of 24-Hour Urine Copper in Preeclamptic Vs.Normotensive Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate copper status in women with preeclampsia.Materials and Methods: Sixty preeclamptic, sixty normotensive pregnant and sixty healthy nonpregnantwomen were enrolled in a cross sectional study. The 24-hour urine copper was comparedamong the women.Results: There was significant difference in the copper concentration of 24-hour urine amongthe three groups due to the difference between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women(12.19±3.71 vs. 5.69±2.05, p<0.001.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the level of urine copper increases preeclampticpregnancy. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether observed alternation in copperprecede preeclampsia or the difference may be attributed to preeclampsia-related alternations inmaternal trace metal metabolism.

Saeideh Ziaei

2008-01-01

197

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1% of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5% were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR?=?5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p? Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was high among the pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women.

Zemene Endalew

2012-12-01

198

Prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in pregnant women varies widely between industrialized and developing countries. There is a lack of information about the status of HIV-infected pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk at the Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Leon, Mexico, from December 18, 2003, through February 28, 2006. In a cross-sectional study, 2,257 pregnant women with at least one risk factor for AIDS were recruited. In these women, a sample of blood to determine HIV antibodies was taken. There were two women with positive HIV antibodies; therefore, the HIV seroprevalence was 0.8 per 1,000. Of the two HIV-positive women, one of them had a history of chronic sexually transmitted diseases; she was married to a man who was working outside of our country for about 10 months, and also he had tattoos. The other HIV-positive woman had a history of chronic sexually transmitted diseases, and her husband had intercourse with different women. The risk factors of use of tattoos, migration to foreign countries, and use of injectable drugs were more frequent among the male partners than in the pregnant women (P < .001). We concluded that in our country as well as in other developing countries, the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with risk factors is low but still present. Because a significant number of risk factors for AIDS also were found in their male partners, HIV testing should be performed in all pregnant women as well as in their male partners. PMID:19575323

Romero-Gutiérrez, Gustavo; De Luna-Ortega, Fátima Rocío; Horna-López, Alejandra; Ponce-Ponce De Léon, Ana Lilia

2009-08-01

199

Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers among pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

As there is a risk of MTCT of HTLV-1, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT was organized in 2011. To determine how many pregnant women are infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido, which is the northernmost and the second largest island in Japan with a population of 5,467,000 and 39,392 newborns in 2011, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT asked all facilities that may care for pregnant women in Hokkaido in July 2013 to provide information on the number of pregnant women who underwent screening for anti-HTLV-1 antibody using particle agglutination or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, and the numbers of those with positive, equivocal, and negative test results in the screening and confirmation tests using western blotting or PCR methods in 2012, respectively. A total of 111 facilities participated in this study and provided information on 33,617 pregnant women who underwent screening in 2012, corresponding to approximately 85% of all pregnant women who gave birth in Hokkaido in 2012. Of 81 candidates for a confirmation test because of positive (n?=?77) or equivocal (n?=?4) results on screening, 63 (78%) underwent the confirmation test and, finally, 34 (0.1%) and 33,563 (99.8%) women were judged to be HTLV-1 carriers and non-carriers, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 carriers was low, one per 1000 pregnant women in Hokkaido. Approximately 40 infants are born yearly to mothers infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido. PMID:24909551

Yamada, Takahiro; Togashi, Takehiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi; Okabe, Mihiro; Takamuro, Noriko; Tashiro, Kunio; Yano, Koichi; Yamamoto, Nagafumi; Hirakawa, Yukiko; Minakami, Hisanori

2014-08-01

200

A qualitative study of pregnant women's choice of nuchal translucency measurement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: In 2004, The Danish National Board of Health introduced new guidelines for prenatal screening and diagnosis. Subsequently, all pregnant women in Denmark have been offered a maternal serum screening and a nuchal translucency measurement (NTM). The results are combined to a single risk estimate of carrying a Down syndrome child. All pregnant women are also offered a late second trimester scan for fetal abnormalities. Pregnant woman should be fully informed to enable them to make an informed choice. We explored the role of information in the pregnant women's understanding and decision-making for the NTM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 26 consenting pregnant women were interviewed after their first visit to their GP and again after the late ultrasound scan. Our results are mainly based on the first interviews and the 24 participants who chose to have a NTM. RESULTS: The pregnant women consider a fetal scan as an attractive routine procedure during pregnancy. Apart from the information about prenatal examinations given by the GP, the pregnant women do not subsequently seek further information. The most important motives for wanting to have the NTM are 1) assurance, 2) choice, 3) expectations of the scan being a happy event, and 4) the idea that the examinations are approved by the Danish health care system. DISCUSSION: The decision to have a NTM is motivated by expectations that exceed the specific medical aim of the examination and the content of the information provided. The pregnant women believe in a link between knowledge and anxiety, and therefore do not wish to "know too much". Our results show that the pregnant woman's conception of the information provided and her motives for having a NTM are based on strategies and rationales that hinder an informed choice.

Lou, S; Dahl, K

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Calcium and magnesium status is not impaired in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficiencies in calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are associated with various complications during pregnancy. To test the hypothesis that the status of these minerals is inadequate in pregnancy, a cross-sectional study was conducted of the dietary intake and status of Ca and Mg in pregnant women (n = 50) attending a general public university hospital in Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed from 4-day food records; levels of plasma Mg, erythrocyte Mg, and urinary Ca and Mg excretion were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy; and type I collagen C-telopeptides were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Probabilities of inadequate Ca and Mg intake were exhibited by 58 and 98% of the study population, respectively. The mean levels of urinary Ca and Mg excretion were 8.55 and 3.77 mmol/L, respectively. Plasma C-telopeptides, plasma Mg, and erythrocyte Mg were within normal levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed positive relationships among urinary Ca excretion, Ca intake (P = .002) and urinary Mg excretion (P < .001) and between erythrocyte Mg and Mg intake (P = .023). It is concluded that the Ca and Mg status of participants was adequate even though the intake of Ca and Mg was lower than the recommended level. PMID:22901563

Rocha, Vivianne S; Lavanda, Ivana; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Ruano, Rodrigo; Zugaib, Marcelo; Colli, Célia

2012-07-01

202

Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

2010-07-01

203

Serodiscordance and disclosure among HIV-positive pregnant women in the Southwestern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women in relationships with HIV-negative men in the United States is unclear. The purpose of this study was to calculate the prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women with a serodiscordant (HIV-negative) partner within a single clinic population, assess disclosure of their HIV status, and examine factors associated with disclosure. All HIV-positive pregnant women who received prenatal care at the Harris County Hospital District Women's Program at Northwest Health Center in Houston TX between 1/1/2006 and 4/1/2011 were identified. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure was calculated, and predictors of disclosure were evaluated. We identified 212 HIV-positive pregnant women. About 40% had a serodiscordant partner, and 34% had a partner with an unknown HIV status. Disclosure occurred in over 90% of women with a serodiscordant partner and in 68% of women with partners whose HIV status was unknown. Among pregnant women who knew their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and had a serodiscordant partner, 92% reported disclosing their status prior to conception. Our data indicated that serodiscordant relationships are common in our clinic population. Suboptimal disclosure rates were observed, especially among women who have a partner with an unknown HIV status. Further research is needed to evaluate the prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure in other United States populations. PMID:23565927

Nacius, Lori A; Levison, Judy; Minard, Charles G; Fasser, Carl; Davila, Jessica A

2013-04-01

204

The Comparison of the Anemia in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in the Villages of the South-East of Caspian Sea-Gorgan-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is the comparison due to Iron deficiency in the villages of Gorgan city. Forty eight and 361 non-pregnant women were be classified in two groups for comparing among 415 women of 18-35 years old were chosen by compound sampling. After sampling, hematological examination was done by using Coulter counter in 9000 model and measuring of the serum iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC were performed by using spectrophotometery. In the pregnant women, serum Iron less than 30 mic g dL-1, Hemoglobin less than 11 g dL-1, Transferrin Saturation (TS less than 16% were be consider as anemia point and in non-pregnant women, this point is the serum iron less than 40 mic g dL-1, hemoglobin less than 12 g dL-1 and TS less than 16%. In pregnant women, the prevalence of the anemia on the basis of serum iron index, TS and Hb in seen 24.2, 42.4, 18.2%, respectively and in non-pregnant women is 21.2, 34.55 and 20.98%. In pregnant and non-pregnant women, the Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV is 83.48 and 85.34 Flit. There is a significant statistical differences on base of mean of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH and MCV among non-pregnant and pregnant women in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester (p<0.005. On the time of the sampling, 33% of pregnant and 8.4% of non-pregnant women have used Iron compounds. The results of this study shows in pregnancy period, supplement of the iron is necessary and person`s need must be evaluated before prescribing drug.

G.R. Veghari

2007-01-01

205

Knowledge, attitude and belief of pregnant women towards safe motherhood in a rural Indian setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about safe motherhood practices amongst pregnant women residing in the urban slum of the city of Jaipur, India.The study recruited 100 pregnant women from one of the urban slums of a selected district. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered on the selected sample. Overall, the results show low levels of awareness among rural pregnant women. Two major axes of investigation were used - age and education. In both instances, no significant differences for knowledge levels was found amongst pregnant women.The findings indicate that appropriate communication strategies should be designed and implemented amongst the most vulnerable section of society, especially through health education campaigns, in order to have a constructive outcome in the near future.

Sudhanshu Sharma

2012-09-01

206

Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women.

Parenti, David M.; Young, Heather A.; Bathgate, Susanne L.; Sklar, Peter A.

2001-01-01

207

Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected pregnant women.

David M. Parenti

2001-01-01

208

Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--United States, 2013-14 influenza season.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women and infants are at increased risk for influenza-related complications and hospitalization. Influenza vaccination among pregnant women can reduce their risk for respiratory illness and reduce the risk for influenza in their infants aged Internet panel survey conducted March 31-April 11, 2014. Among 1,619 survey respondents pregnant at any time during October 2013-January 2014, 52.2% reported vaccination before or during pregnancy (17.6% before and 34.6% during pregnancy), similar to the coverage in the preceding season. Overall, 65.1% of women reported receiving a clinician recommendation and offer of influenza vaccination, 15.1% received a clinician recommendation but no offer of vaccination, and 19.8% received no clinician recommendation or offer. Vaccination coverage among these women was 70.5%, 32.0%, and 9.7%, respectively. Continued efforts are needed to encourage clinicians to strongly recommend and offer influenza vaccination to their pregnant patients. PMID:25233283

Ding, Helen; Black, Carla L; Ball, Sarah; Donahue, Sara; Izrael, David; Williams, Walter W; Kennedy, Erin D; Bridges, Carolyn B; Lu, Peng-Jun; Kahn, Katherine E; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Sokolowski, John; DiSogra, Charles; Walker, Deborah K; Greby, Stacie M

2014-09-19

209

Chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and their infants in Shenyang, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The main transmission route of the hepatitis B virus (HBV is mother to child transmission and contributes significantly to chronic HBV infection. Even though immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine is administrated to neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive, about 10% of the neonates suffer from HBV infection in their early life. Objectives To survey chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and their infants and analyze the reason for immunoprophylaxis failure. Methods Serum HBsAg was tested in all pregnant women. HBVDNA and other serum HBV markers including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs were tested among HBsAg positive pregnant women. All infants whose mothers were HBsAg positive were vaccinated with a standard immunoprophylaxis. Serum HBV markers and HBVDNA were tested among these infants at 7 months of age. HBV genotypes were analyzed among the infants and pregnant women who were HBVDNA positive. Results The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs among 4,536 pregnant women was 5.49%, 29.65% and 58.55%, respectively. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs among pregnant women older than 20 years of age was significantly different compared to pregnant women younger than 20 years of age (4.54, 5.69 and 0.61 times, prevalence older vs. younger, respectively. P107 IU/ml. Among the infants whose mothers were HBsAg positive, 214 (85.94% infants were anti-HBs positive. There were 12 (4.82% infants who were HBsAg and HBVDNA positive, and all 12 of these infants mothers were HBeAg positive and had HBVDNA >107 IU/ml. Genotypes B and C were present among 165 pregnant women and genotype C was present in 85 pregnant women. There were 12 infants who were HBsAg positive and had the same HBV genotypes as their mothers. There was a significant difference in genotypes between the pregnant women whose infants were infected with HBV compared to those without HBV infection (P Conclusions There was a significant decline in HBsAg prevalence among pregnant women and their infants in Shenyang. Genotype C might be a risk factor for mother to child transmission of HBV.

Ding Yang

2013-01-01

210

Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

2012-01-01

211

Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

1986-11-01

212

Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis) among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated t...

Caron Mélanie; Bouscaillou Julie; Kazanji Mirdad

2012-01-01

213

Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly selected from the six divisions of Bangladesh. Socio demographic information and iodine nutrition knowledge, weight and height were collected. Salt samples were collected from the household and spot urine samples were collected from the respondents. The median urinary iodine concentration of adolescent girls and pregnant women were 135 and 133 ?g L-1, respectively. Among adolescent girls, 37% had UIC <100 ?g L-1 and among pregnant women, 56% had UIC < 150 ?g L-1. A significant correlation existed between the iodine concentration of the salt sample and UIC in both adolescent girls and pregnant women. Half of the households of both adolescent girls and pregnant women used inadequately iodized salt (<15 mg kg-1. Adolescent girls had better knowledge on cause and prevention of goitre than pregnant women. The odds ratio of adolescent girls and pregnant women to be iodine deficient were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.39 to 0.95 and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.98 when they used adequately iodized salt.The results show that sub-clinical iodine deficiency is still present in Bangladesh, specifically in the divisions of Dhaka and Rajshahi. Salt iodization, use of packed salt and nutrition education should consistently be stimulated, monitored and improved in order to establish adequate access to dietary iodine for all people in Bangladesh.

G. Ara

2010-01-01

214

Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day). In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± S...

Christian Mølgaard; Jensen, Camilla B.; Petersen, Sesilje B.; Charlotta Granström; Ekaterina Maslova; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

2012-01-01

215

Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly selected from the six divisions of Bangladesh. Socio demographic information and iodine nutrition knowledge, weight and height were collected. Salt samples were collected from the household and spo...

Ara, G.; Melse-boonstra, A.; Roy, S. K.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh F.; Ahmed, T.

2010-01-01

216

Dental Care Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States Reported in 1999 and 2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine national and state-specific estimates of dental care use among adult pregnant women in the United States using data from two 12-month periods. The study also determined person-level characteristics that may predict a lack of dental care use within this subgroup. Methods Responses were analyzed from 4619 pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years who participated in the 1999 and 2002 state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Dental care use was defined as having a dental visit or a dental cleaning in the 12 months preceding the interview. State-specific estimates were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. population distribution. Multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate person-level characteristics that may predict not obtaining dental care during this period. Results Overall, 70% of pregnant women in 1999 and 2002 had received dental care in the previous 12 months. Age-adjusted estimates ranged from 36% (Nevada to 89% (Vermont to 91% (Puerto Rico. In 19 states, 75% or more of pregnant women had obtained dental care in the previous 12 months (age-adjusted figure. Most pregnant women with dental care were non-Hispanic white and married, and they had a greater than high school education. Income and smoking status were significant predictors for not using dental care. Conclusion In several states, more than 70% of pregnant women reported a dental visit or dental cleaning during the previous 12 months. Relative to the general population, pregnant women are as likely to receive dental care, but certain subgroups need to do much better. However, these estimates may be biased toward a population with a higher socioeconomic status and may not represent dental care use among pregnant women in the general U.S. population.

Peggy Timothé, DDS, MPH

2005-01-01

217

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women Referring to the Reference Laboratory of Zahedan, Iran (2011)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. Contamination of pregnant women with toxoplasmosis may cause fetal death, preterm delivery and congenital toxoplasmosis. Due to importance of congenital Toxoplasmosis and the need of further study, this research was accomplished in Zahedan. Material and Methods: The serum samples (N= 221) were collected from pregnant women referring to reference laboratory of Zahedan in 2011. The IgG and IgM a...

Ebrahimzadeh, A.; Mohammadi, S.; Davoodi, T.; Salimi Khorashad, A.; Jamshidi, A.

2013-01-01

218

Factors Associated with Pregnant Women’s Anticipations and Experiences of HIV-related Stigma in Rural Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1,777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose hus...

Cuca, Yvette P.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M.

2012-01-01

219

Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed ? = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

Lindemann Laura

2006-11-01

220

Prevalence of HIV among Rural Pregnant Women Attending PPTCT Services at KLE Hospital, Belgaum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of HIV infection among rural pregnant women? Objectives: To know the prevalence of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary Health Centres namely Kinaye, Vantamuri and Handiganur. Participants: 716 pregnant women residing in three Primary Health Centres and availing PPTCT services at KLE’s Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital & MRC, Belgaum. Results: The study revealed that, the prevalence rate of HIV infection in antenatal mothers was 0.70%. Out of 716 pregnant women studied, 508 (70.95% were anaemic and 208 (29.05% were not anaemic. Among 508 anaemic pregnant women, 211 (41.54% had mild anaemia, 211 (41.54% had moderate anaemia and 86 (16.92% had severe anaemia. About 17.73% of the pregnant women belonged to high-risk group. Conclusion: The economic and demographic consequences of the spread of HIV/AIDS are inexorable and awesome. Development of programmes with an integrated approach to inducing behavioral change, promoting use of condoms and controlling STD’s may reduce the infectivity of HIV transmitters and the susceptibility of HIV exposed persons. In this era of AIDS, there is a need to express care and compassion rather than fear, hostility or alienation.

G.S. Ashtagi *, C.S. Metgud, P.R. Walvekar and V.A. Naik

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

Gad Yahia

2011-01-01

222

HIV/AIDS prevalence and behaviour in drug users and pregnant women in Kashgar Prefecture: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed method drug users and pregnant and postnatal women. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the epidemic is shifting from a concentrated stage to a more generalised epidemic. One hundred and forty two (142 exclusively injecting drug users (66 and mixed method drug users (injecting and non-injecting-76 participated in this survey. Eight hundred and two (802 pregnant and postnatal women participated in the survey. In Kashgar City and Shache County the serum prevalence of HIV amongst injecting drug users was 56.06%, for mixed method drug users 48.68% and 0.38% in pregnant women. In Shache County HIV infection rates were significantly lower in drug user groups and amongst pregnant and post-natal women, at 2.22% and 0% respectively. The behavioral survey indicated that 15% of injecting drug users have shared needles (however sero prevalence and knowledge in relation to access to clean needles and syringes suggests that this may not reflect the actual situation. Knowledge of prevention of transmission strategies (not sharing needles and condom utilisation is similar between both groups at 60–70%. However it appears that this knowledge has not significantly impacted on behavior such as needle sharing and condom utilisation. In Kashgar City and Shache County there have been very few interventions to support HIV/AIDS prevention, care and control. The results from this survey will inform future directions and the development and implementation of targeted interventions including targeted information dissemination and harm reduction strategies. This survey was funded by the Xinjiang HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project, a bilateral project jointly implemented by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of Australia.

Fitzwarryne C

2006-02-01

223

Systemic and structural analysis of morbidity of pregnant women and newborns on the radionuclide contaminated territories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the work, systemic and structural analysis of causes and dynamics of the morbidity of pregnant women and newborns in the Gomel, Mogilov and Brest area during the period from 1986 to 2001 has been made. The pregnant morbidity rate of anemias, urogenital system diseases, late gestosis, as well as of newborn morbidity rate of acute viral infections, intrauterus hypoxia and asphyxia, respiratory distress-syndrome, birth traumas and inborn pneumonias was higher on the radionuclide contaminated territories. The main directions for improvement of medical care to pregnant women and the ways of their realization have been determined (authors)

224

Knowledge and Practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2,598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents’ general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%, completed secondary level of education (51.7%, in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%, non parous (36.6% and had no history of abortion (90.4. Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4% and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%. There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses towards prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P<0.05. Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy.

HemahAndiappan

2014-06-01

225

Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy. PMID:24966855

Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C; Cheung, Mary Mae M; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A

2014-01-01

226

Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant and HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant, who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143, with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50, of whom 60.4% (29/48 were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51 of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51 of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45 of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant, characterising its distribution in this setting.

Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra Brandão

2009-08-01

227

Prevalence of malaria parasitemia amongst asymptomatic pregnant women attending a Nigerian teaching hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Malaria parasitemia among pregnant women is associated with complications to mother and the unborn fetus. There is paucity of data on asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, particularly in the northwest region of Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in asymptomatic pregnant women and to estimate the packed cell volume (PCV of this group of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of only well pregnant women recruited consecutively at the time of booking for antenatal care. Thick film microscopy and qualitative immunoassay test for malaria parasite (MP were performed for all the women. PCV estimation was also done using the micro-centrifuge method and comparison was made for women with parasitemia with those without MP. Some socio-demographic variables were also analyzed. Chi-square test was used to test for significance and a P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Two hundred and twenty-five healthy pregnant women were studied. Seven women (3.1% had MP by direct microscopy while 11 (4.8% were MP positive with the qualitative immunoassay test. One hundred and eighty-five (82% of the women were literate while 128 (57% used insecticide treated mosquito nets in their homes. The mean PCV of the women with positive MP was 30.57 ± 2.26 as against 32.89 ± 2.45 for those without parasitemia (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia in the study group was low but there was associated anemia in those with parasitemia. The use of intermittent preventive treatment is recommended for all pregnant women including those who are asymptomatic to forestall complications like maternal anemia.

Isah Aliyu

2011-06-01

228

Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/?L was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/?L were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt antimalarial treatment resulted in normalization of platelet counts within a week.

Moo Yoe

2008-10-01

229

Numerical evaluation of SAR in pregnant women during MRI examinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) tomography, although among the safest diagnostic techniques presently exploited, presents some risks for patients. Among the major causes of risk is heating of tissues elicited, through the Joule effect, by the electric currents induced by the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field used in MRI. International guidelines from radiation protection organizations such as the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA (IRPA/INIRC) have been published in order to protect the patients from RF electromagnetic fields during MRI examinations: limits are given in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), i.e. the power absorbed per unit mass, which is regarded as the most suitable physical quantity to describe the thermal load induced in the body by RF fields. Special caution in the use of this technique is recommended by IRPA/INIRC in the case of pregnant women: the MRI examinations should be postponed until after the first trimester, and limited to cases in which the diagnostic information cannot be obtained by ecography. This caution results from the scarce available information on the safety of MRI during pregnancy. An important step to obtain more information on this subject is the theoretical determination of SAR in the mother and in the fetus. To evaluate the SAR distribution in the different tissues of models that we have developed on the basis of information from ecographic scanning, we have employed a numerical technique, the impedance method, previously used to determine SAR in a model of the human torso subject to different procedures of MRI tomography. Preliminary results on SAR distribution are presented and discussed. (author)

230

Risk Factors on Hypertensive Disorders among Jordanian Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper­tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Ammn city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium. A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher’s exact test, chi-square, Student’s t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care.

Amal K. Suleiman

2013-11-01

231

Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ?70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

Roth Daniel E

2012-12-01

232

Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

233

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiologic [...] al questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2%) and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2%) showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8%) pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

FMR, Lopes; R, Mitsuka-Breganó; DD, Gonçalves; RL, Freire; CJT, Karigyo; GF, Wedy; T, Matsuo; EMV, Reiche; HK, Morimoto; JD, Capobiango; IT, Inoue; JL, Garcia; IT, Navarro.

2009-03-01

234

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiologic [...] al questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2%) and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2%) showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8%) pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

FMR, Lopes; R, Mitsuka-Breganó; DD, Gonçalves; RL, Freire; CJT, Karigyo; GF, Wedy; T, Matsuo; EMV, Reiche; HK, Morimoto; JD, Capobiango; IT, Inoue; JL, Garcia; IT, Navarro.

235

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

Rosvold Elin

2007-11-01

236

Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

2011-01-01

237

Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

2013-01-01

238

Comparative Molecular and Microbiologic Diagnosis of Vaginal Colonization by Group B Streptococcus in Pregnant Women during Labor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective(sRapid tests for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (GBS at the onset of labor are needed to permit early intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to evaluate the PCR assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA for detection of the GBS in comparison with a specific culture method. Materials and MethodsTwo swabs were used to obtain vaginal specimens from the 330 pregnant women attended delivery room at Hedayat hospital, Tehran, Iran. One swab was analyzed by direct plating onto selective GBS agar medium (ISLAM and the other swab was used for a PCR assay, which amplified the 16S rDNA of S. agalactiae. Comparative study between the selective culture and the PCR assay was done among the 330 tested women.ResultsThe GBS colonization rate based on the culture results was 20.6% (68/330. Both culture and PCR methods were positive for 56 and negative for 253 women. The culture method was positive and PCR was negative in 12 women. The culture was negative and the PCR positive for 9 women. Sensitivity of the PCR assay was 82.3% and specificity was 96.5%. The positive predictive value was 86.15% and negative predictive value was 95.4%. ConclusionISLAM diagnostic procedure and PCR are rapid and reliable analyzing methods, which might be useful for accurate diagnosis of GBS colonization in pregnant women at the time of delivery.

Farnaz Fatemi

2010-09-01

239

The consequences of malaria infection in pregnant women and their infants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Preliminary results are presented from this study which indicate that 84.8 of pregnant women present at first antenatal visit with anemia (Hb 11g/dl) an 8.7 of their infants (n = 230) have a hemoglobin at birth below 14g/dl. There is an association between pregnancy anemia and malaria. A case contro [...] l study in pregnant women and an infant cohort study to 18 months of age, are employed to study the cause and effects of anemia and malaria on women and their infants health.

L., Chimsuku; F. H., Verhoeff; S. M., Maxvell; R. L., Broadhead; A., Thomas; H. J., Van der Kaay; W., Russell; B., Brabin.

240

The consequences of malaria infection in pregnant women and their infants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preliminary results are presented from this study which indicate that 84.8 of pregnant women present at first antenatal visit with anemia (Hb 11g/dl an 8.7 of their infants (n = 230 have a hemoglobin at birth below 14g/dl. There is an association between pregnancy anemia and malaria. A case control study in pregnant women and an infant cohort study to 18 months of age, are employed to study the cause and effects of anemia and malaria on women and their infants health.

L. Chimsuku

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The consequences of malaria infection in pregnant women and their infants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preliminary results are presented from this study which indicate that 84.8 of pregnant women present at first antenatal visit with anemia (Hb 11g/dl) an 8.7 of their infants (n = 230) have a hemoglobin at birth below 14g/dl. There is an association between pregnancy anemia and malaria. A case control study in pregnant women and an infant cohort study to 18 months of age, are employed to study the cause and effects of anemia and malaria on women and their infants health.

Chimsuku, L.; Verhoeff, F. H.; Maxvell, S. M.; Broadhead, R. L.; Thomas, A.; Kaay, H. J.; Russell, W.; Brabin, B.

1994-01-01

242

Modern practice in preparation of pregnant women to maternity (from interview with gynecologists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article issue is the formation of maternity readiness as one of the main aims in the work of a gynecologist. The results of introduction of birth certificates and dynamics in the field of quality of medical aid have been analyzed. The necessity evaluation of pregnant women in professional social and psychological assistance has been revealed. Types of women who are ready for maternity have been obtained. The complete representation of the importance, the maintenance and the ways of realization of social and psychological help to pregnant women has been clearly identified by gynecologists

Novokreschenova I.G.

2011-03-01

243

Risk factors of development of inflammatory diseases of parodentium in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affect inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. Material and methods: The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 240 women with physiological pregnancy and 360 with pregnancy complicadet by gestosis. Re-sults: Freguency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnancy were defined. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Conclusion: Violations of immune homeostasis at the pregnancy, complicated gestosis, authentically are more expressed that contributes to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease. The imbalance of cytokines can serve in oral liquid as additional diagnostic and predictive marker of severity of a course of inflammatory periodontal disease.

Dubrovskaya M.V.

2013-09-01

244

Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

2014-01-01

245

Frequency and Associated Factors for Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antepartum anxiety and/or depression is a major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of antepartum anxiety and/or depression among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital among pregnant women. A total of 165 pregnant women were interviewed by a clinical psychologist using HADS for assessing anxiety and/or depression and also collected information regarding sociodemographic, obstetric, family relation...

Ali, Niloufer S.; Azam, Iqbal S.; Ali, Badar S.; Tabbusum, Ghurnata; Moin, Sana S.

2012-01-01

246

Effectiveness of Comprehensive Nursing Care Relieving Problems of Hospitalized High-Risk Pregnant Women in Bed Rest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that bed rest at home or in hospital has many physical and psychosocial effects on pregnant women. Objective: This study is type of an intervention study which has been conducted to determine bed rest related physical and psychosocial problems of hospitalized high-risk pregnant women and effectiveness of a comprehensive nursing care plan in solving to those problems. Material and Method: The sample group was selected among high-risk pregnant women who were hospitalized in per...

Umran Yesiltepe Oskay; Anahit Coskun

2012-01-01

247

Dietary Patterns among Pregnant Women in the West-North of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the food consumption pattern and nutrient intakes of pregnant women residing in Maku-the west north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women (142 from urban area and 142 from rural areas participated. Subjects were interviewed privately, face-to-face. Dietary intake data was collected using two 24 h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire for 3 months. Mean consumption of grains and dairies was higher in rural women compared to their counterparts in urban areas. Women in urban areas consumed 140 g fruits compared to 248 g consumed by rural women. There were no significant differences regarding consumption of vegetables, pulses, fat and oils between these two groups. All women consumed adequate amount of energy, protein, thiamin and niacin (>75% RDA. Intake of vitamin B6, folate, vitamins A and D, iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and zinc was not sufficient in these women. Inadequate intake of vitamin C and riboflavin was also reported in urban women. Percentage of energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein was 66, 23 and 11% for urban women, respectively and 68, 20 and 12% for rural women, respectively. Iron intake was lower in urban women compared to rural women. The findings indicated that rural women have better nutritional status than urban women. Future studies should determine factors associated with food consumption pattern in these women.

Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

2008-01-01

248

The latent symptom structure of the Beck depression inventory: second edition in Latina pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnancy represents a unique period of time when women are at an increased risk of developing depression. Although the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of depression symptomology, its psychometric properties and underlying factor structures have not been determined for antenatal women and among Latinas. The current study evaluated the latent symptom structure of the BDI-II in a community-based sample of Latina pregnant women (N = 217) identified to be at high risk for depression. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify underlying salient individual item loadings for two- and three-factor models. Confirmatory factor analyses then examined several different indices to determine the best model fit. Examination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supports a three-factor oblique structure of the BDI-II composed of Cognitive-Affective, Somatic, and Pregnancy Symptoms. The three-factor model provides clinicians with the ability to target specific constellations of depressive symptoms instead of relying on the BDI-II total score that represents the overall severity of depression in this population. PMID:23929560

Alexander, Lisa A; de la Fey Rodríguez Muñoz, Maria; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu

2014-07-01

249

Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88 200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression. About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. Multiparity, a normal or less good self-rated health, smoking, and a less health conscious diet were the strongest predictors of not doing exercise. Women of 25 years or older, with metabolic or psychiatric disorders, or who had received subfecundity treatment were more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups.In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target activities that may fit their needs, and, for research purposes, to identify adjustment variables or guide sensitivity analyses when data on confounders are lacking.

Juhl, Mette; Madsen, Mia

2012-01-01

250

Knowledge and Attitude of Urban Pregnant Women of Bangladesh Toward Nutrition, Health Care Practice and Delivery Place  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports an investigation about knowledge and attitude of urban pregnant women on nutrition and delivery place and an attempt has also been made to identify factors that are closely related to these behaviors based on primary data. The analysis shows that educational status of pregnant women, their occupation, their husband`s occupation, monthly family income have significant influence on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward nutrition and health care practice. The result also shows that opinion about place of delivery depends on educational status and occupation of pregnant women and monthly family income.

M.N. Islam

2005-01-01

251

Utilization Patterns of Antenatal Services Among Pregnant Women: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Area of North Karnataka.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To study the profile of antenatal care received 2. To know the factors influencing the utilization Study Design: Longitudinal study.Setting: Shindolli village of Belgaum District Participants: All women (n =130 in this village who were pregnant at the start of the study and who became pregnant during the study. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square Test Results: Most of the pregnant women (92.31% were registered for antenatal care, but only 30.00% of them were registered in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. As regards to TT immunization, 70.77% of the pregnant women had received 2 doses or 1 booster dose. Iron and Folic Acid supplementation was taken by 59.68% of the pregnant women. Nearly 39.52 % of pregnant women were provided with full antenatal care. The main antenatal care provider for pregnant women was doctor (64.52%. The provision of full antenatal care package was found to be significantly higher among the pregnant women belonging to social classes I and II and in those who have studied above SSLC. Conclusion: The study shows early and wide spread use of antenatal care, but it also reveals that the antenatal visits occur late in the pregnancy. The literacy of women has significant bearing on utilization of antenatal care by the pregnant women.

C.S.Metgud

2009-05-01

252

Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947 were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1% were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004 and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05, being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c. Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed.

Mahé Antoine

2008-06-01

253

The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p < 0.05). The lowest value of FSH was in the second week of Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p < 0.1). Leptin decreased significantly 2 weeks after Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

2014-10-01

254

[Incidence of gestational diabetes in pregnant women at diabetic risk in Santiago, Chile].  

Science.gov (United States)

A study conducted from 1982 to 1984 in Santiago, Chile, examined the frequency of gestational diabetes in 580 pregnant women at high risk for diabetes and 100 controls receiving prenatal checkups at a primary care center in the western area of the city. The purpose of the study was to establish recommendations for early detection in developing countries. The risk factors for the disease were studied and their frequency and distribution were calculated in 911 pregnant women in the general population of the area. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes was based on the results of the oral glucose tolerance test. The disease was diagnosed in 13.8% of the pregnant women with risk factors for diabetes and in 1% of the controls. Three risk factors were statistically significant: chronological age (OR = 1.14), nutritional status (OR = 1.01), and basal blood glucose level (OR, 25-36 years = 4.03; OR, greater than 36 years = 4.84). The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 4.27%. It was concluded that the frequency of gestational diabetes is significantly higher in pregnant women at risk for diabetes than in those not at risk. In developing countries it is recommended that testing for the disease be limited to pregnant women over 25 years of age, those who are obese, and those with a fasting blood glucose level above 4.4 mmol/l. PMID:2149636

Mella, I; López, G; Durruty, P; García de los Ríos, M

1990-10-01

255

T cell mediated immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate T cell immunity to Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) in pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis. This issue has never been addressed before in humans and available information derives from murine models. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from pregnant women with primary Tg infection were stimulated with Tg tachyzoites, excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) or recombinant surface antigen-1 (rSAG-1), and tested for proliferation, immunophenotype, cytokine production and antigen specific cytotoxic activity. Pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis displayed a significant decrease of the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and a significant increase of circulating T cell receptor (TCR) gammadelta+ cells as compared to their uninfected counterparts. T cells from Tg infected pregnant women proliferated to Tg tachyzoites, ESA or rSAG-1. Most tachyzoite and ESA specific T cell blasts were CD4+, whereas SAG-1 specific blasts were CD4+ and CD8+. ESA and tachyzoite specific T cell blasts displayed a Th1 or Th0 cytokine profile with overexpression of IFN-gamma. This pattern was unchanged upon in vitro exposure of T cells to progesterone, tested at a concentration close to that reached in vivo at the maternal-fetal interface. Finally, tachyzoite or ESA specific T cell blasts lysed, through a granule exocytosis dependent mechanism, autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines presenting Tg antigens. In conclusion, pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis mounted in vitro Tg-specific Th1/Th0 responses whose impact on neonatal infection warrants further investigation. PMID:16324868

Prigione, Ignazia; Chiesa, Sabrina; Taverna, Paola; Ceccarelli, Roberto; Frulio, Rosanna; Morandi, Fabio; Bocca, Paola; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Pistoia, Vito

2006-02-01

256

Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus status of pregnant women and their newborns in west iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women and in cord blood of their newborns. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH) Vit D, were measured in 193 pregnant subjects between 16-45 years of age in third trimester admitted in Be'sat hospital. Same were measured in the cord blood of 193 newborns belonging to them. Mean maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D was 16.5+-14.2 ng/mL, and cord blood was 12+-0.2 ng/mL. Fifty-seven percent of pregnant women had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Seventy six percent of newborns had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D correlated positively with cord 25(OH) Vit D (r=0.77, P<0.05). Mean maternal serum calcium was 8.89+-0.73 mg/ml and mean newborn serum calcium was 9.46+-0.93. Mean maternal serum calcium correlated with mean newborn serum calcium (r= 0.38, P<0.05). Twenty six percent of women and 37.8% of newborns had hypocalcemia. There was a high prevalence of significant hypovitaminosis D among pregnant women and their newborns. Our study emphasize the need of majority of pregnant women and their newborns to supplemental vitamin D and has significant public health implications. (author)

257

[Contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in pregnant women with obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in obese pregnant women depending on the obesity class as well as its effect on the progression of pregnancy. 36 pregnant women of I and II obesity classes and 21 pregnant women with normal body mass participated in the study. Concentrations of insulin, leptin and C-reactive protein in blood serum were measured with immunoenzymatic assays. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined with the Caro index. Contribution of leptin to development of IR was assessed with the ratio "leptin/Caro index". An increase of leptin concentration in blood serum was found in pregnant women with obesity compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the ratio "leptin/Caro index" increased with IR progression and reached maximum in the group with obesity class II, where it was 5.8 times higher than in the control group. An increased frequency of gestoses and placentary dysfunction were manifestations of weakening of adaptive mechanisms of the organism associated with the IR progression and increased role of leptin in its development. Therefore, activation of adipocyte function through the increased leptin secretion and increased ratio "leptin/Caro index" reflects the important role of leptin in pathogenesis of IR in pregnant women with obesity. PMID:24743124

Tarasenko, K

2014-03-01

258

Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women. PMID:11302356

Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

2001-01-01

259

Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which is associated with serious adverse effects on pregnancy. The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the level of transmission in the area. Our study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors for malaria (age, parity and gestational age among pregnant women of eastern Sudan, which is characterized by unstable malaria transmission. Methods The prevalence and possible risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria were investigated in 744 pregnant Sudanese women attending the antenatal clinic of New Haifa Teaching Hospital, eastern Sudan, during October 2003-April 2004. Results A total 102 (13.7% had P. falciparum malaria, 18(17.6% of these were severe cases (jaundice and severe anaemia. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that, age and parity were not associated with malaria. Women who attended the antenatal clinic in the third trimester were at highest risk for malaria (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02–2.4; P Women with malaria had significantly lower mean haemoglobin (9.4 g/dl, 95% CI 9.1–9.7 versus 10.7, CI 10.6–10.8, P Conclusion The results suggest that P. falciparum malaria is common in pregnant women attending antenatal care and that anaemia is an important complication. Preventive measures (chemoprophylaxis and insecticide-treated bednets may be beneficial in this area for all women irrespective of age or parity.

Khamis Amar H

2005-04-01

260

Teenage pregnancy, attachment style, and depression : a comparison of teenage and adult pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this portuguese study is to compare the experience of pregnancy in teenage years and later adulthood and to examine insecure attachment style as a risk factor for depression during pregnancy. The Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Bernazzani, 2002) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) were administered to 66 pregnant adolescents and 64 adult women. Pregnant teenagers were found to be nearly three times more likely t...

Figueiredo, Ba?rbara; Bifulco, A.; Pacheco, Alexandra P.; Costa, Raquel A.; Magarinho, Rute

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated-Herpes Virus (KSHV) Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Methods We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant ...

Malope-Kgokong Babatyi I; MacPhail Patrick; Mbisa Georgina; Ratshikhopha Edith; Maskew Mhairi; Stein Lara; Sitas Freddy; Whitby Denise

2010-01-01

262

Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Akinsegun A Akinbami,1 Sarah O Ajibola,2 Kabiru A Rabiu,3 Adeniyi A Adewunmi,3 Adedoyin O Dosunmu,1 Adewumi Adediran,4 Vincent O Osunkalu,4 Bodunrin I Osikomaiya,5 Kamal A Ismail,51Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 2Department of Haematology and Blood, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 4Department of Haematology and Blood, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 5Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy.Subjects and methods: This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed.Results: Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 109, 7.88 ± 2.33 × 109, and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 109, respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 109, 227.57 ± 63 × 109, and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 109, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296.Conclusion: These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria.Keywords: anemia, thrombocytopenia, hematology, normal pregnancy, trimester

Akinbami AA

2013-05-01

263

Iodine insufficiency in pregnant women from the State of São Paulo / Insuficiência iódica em gestantes paulistas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo : O consumo de quantidade adequada de iodo durante a gestação é de fundamental importância para o desenvolvimento neurológico do feto. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional iódico em gestantes do estado de São Paulo, Brasil.Material e métodos : Analisamos a concentração u [...] rinária de iodo (UIC) em 191 gestantes e em 58 mulheres não gestantes de mesma faixa etária. Foram utilizados os critérios da OMS para definir suficiência iódica (mediana de UIC: 150-249 µg/L entre as gestantes e 100-199 µg/L para as não gestantes).Resultados : A mediana de UIC das gestantes estudadas esteve abaixo da recomendada (mediana = 137,7 ?g/L; 95% IC = 132,9 – 155,9) enquanto a das mulheres não grávidas se mostrou na faixa adequada (mediana = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159,3 – 200,1). Entre as gestantes, 57% apresentaram UIC Abstract in english Objective : The intake of adequate amounts of iodine during pregnancy is essential for the neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in pregnant women from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Material and methods : We analyzed urinary iodine concen [...] tration (UIC) in 191 pregnant and 58 non-pregnant women matched by age. We used the World Health Organization criteria to define sufficient iodine supply (median UIC: 150-249 µg/L among pregnant women, and 100-199 µg/L for non-pregnant women).Results : Median UIC of the pregnant women studied was lower than the recommended value (median = 137.7 µg/L, 95% CI = 132.9 – 155.9), while non-pregnant women had UIC levels within the appropriate range (median = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159.3-200.1). UIC was below 150 µg/L in 57% of the pregnant women.Conclusions : Although a larger sample is needed to consolidate these findings, these results raise concerns about the adequacy of the iodine supply of pregnant women in Brazil, especially considering the new determinations of the Brazilian government, which have recently reduced the concentrations of iodine in table salt to 15-45 mg/kg of salt. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):282-7

Sabrina Maria Saueia, Ferreira; Anderson Marliere, Navarro; Patrícia Künzle Ribeiro, Magalhães; Léa Maria Zanini, Maciel.

2014-04-01

264

Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We used routine medical records to follow-up pregnant women initiating ART within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Cape Town, South Africa. Outcomes assessed through six months postpartum were (1) disengagement (no attendance within 56 days of a scheduled visit) and (2) missed visits (returning to care 14–56 days late for a scheduled visit). Results A total of 358 women (median age, 28 years; median gestational age, 26 weeks) initiated ART during pregnancy. By six months postpartum, 24% of women (n=86) had missed at least one visit and an additional 32% (n=115) had disengaged from care; together, 49% of women had either missed a visit or had disengaged by six months postpartum. Disengagement was more than twice as frequent postpartum compared to in the antenatal period (6.2 vs. 2.4 per 100 woman-months, respectively; p<0.0001). In a proportional hazards model, later gestational age at initiation (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00–1.07; p=0.030) and being newly diagnosed with HIV (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33; p=0.022) were significant predictors of disengagement after adjusting for patient age, starting CD4 cell count and site of ART initiation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that missed visits and disengagement from care occur frequently, particularly post-delivery, among HIV-positive women initiating ART during pregnancy. Women who are newly diagnosed with HIV may be particularly vulnerable and there is an urgent need for interventions both to promote retention overall, as well as targeting women newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy. PMID:25301494

Phillips, Tamsin; Thebus, Elizabeth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mcintyre, James; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

2014-01-01

265

Comparison of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in the Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available - To Compare colonization of group B streptococcus (GBS in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. In this prospective study 50 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (both pregestational and gestational and 43 pregnant women without diabetes between 33 and 37 weeks' gestation were evaluated. Three samples for Group B streptococcal culture detection were obtained from each subject in the following order: perinea sample, vaginal sample, and an anorectic sample. All had singleton gestations, negative tests for human immunodeficiency virus, and intact membranes at enrollment. Pearson chi-square and fisher, Exact test were used when appropriate. Most common site of GBS colonization in all women was vagina (11.8%. Colonization of group B streptococcus in control group included vagina (7% perineum (0.3% and rectum 0.3% and in diabetic group included vagina (16% perineum (16% and rectum (16%. Although comparison was shown higher vaginal colonization rate in diabetic group (16% versus 7% but difference was not significant (P=0.154.The prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization in gestational diabetes was 20% and higher than pregestational diabetic women. Among women with pregestational diabetes, the prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization was 15% in non-insulin dependent diabetic women and 10% in insulin dependent diabetic women (P> 0.05. Comparison between two groups showed high rectal colonization in diabetic group and difference was significant (P= 0.027. Pregnant diabetic patients have higher carriage rates of group B streptococcus (GBS in rectum than non-diabetic pregnant women and diabetes is a risk factor for group B streptococcus colonization during pregnancy.

Akhlaghi Farideh

2009-05-01

266

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean catch urine was cultured on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar aerobically at 37oC . Isolates were identified to the species level using standard proto-col. Antibiotic sensitivity test were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Of the 200 women examined, 19 had significant bacteriuria representing a prevalence of 9.5% in the study population. Pregnant women in their second trimester from the study had the highest prevalence of significant bacteriuria (52.6% with age ranges between 30-34 years having the highest prevalence (36.8%. Nulliparous women were 35 (17.5% with 3 (8.6% testing positive for bacteriuria and 165 (82.5% were multiparous with 16 (9.7% testing positive for bacteriuria. E. coli (36.8% was the common bacteria isolate from this study. From this study, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among antenatal women in the population studied. It is therefore recommended that periodic test-ing of pregnant women is advocated and those found to be infected need to be treated to avoid complications.

Acheampong, I.

2012-01-01

267

Nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available introduction and objective. Teaching pregnant women behaviours connected with care for one’s health condition and a healthy lifestyle is crucial in perinatal care. Desired health behaviours, including nutritional habits, play an important role in the health of the mother, as well as the proper development of the foetus. The aim of the presented study was to analyse the subjective assessment of nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women. materials and method. Research was conducted on a sample of 81 women in Szczecin. The methodological basis for investigation was Juczy?ski’s Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI. General index of intensity of health behaviours (GIIHB was calculated by adding the results for all the 24 statements included in the HBI. Four categories of health behaviours were analysed separately: proper nutritional habits, preventive behaviours, positive thinking and health practices. The study presents the analysis of proper nutritional habits (PNH in the light of GIIHB of women attending antenatal classes. results. Results indicate that the PNH of pregnant women displays a positive correlation with their GIIHB (r=0.654; p<0.05. It is also shown that the PNH (r=0.26, p<0.05 and GIIHB (r=0.35; p<0.05 are related to the age of pregnant women participating in antenatal classes. conclusions. Research indicates the need for education of pregnant women, initiatives and campaigns aimed at propagating and promoting proper health behaviours, including nutritional behaviours. There is a positive relationship between the PNH of women participating in antenatal classes and their GIIHB. Such measures should be addressed to women regardless of whether they participate in antenatal classes or not, and regardless of their age or level of education.

Justyna Krzepota

2014-06-01

268

Modern Possibilities of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Pregnant Women with Anemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, the number of anemia cases has increased more than 6-fold. Unfortunately, the treatment of pregnant women with anemia using an iron supplement gives unsatisfactory results. However, the data from the present study can change situation for the better. This conclusion was derived from a comparative analysis of the treatment of 65 pregnant women suffering from anemia, divided into two groups: the study and control groups. Patients of the study group received, along with standard therapy, courses of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO. Evaluation of treatment efficiency was based on data from laboratory methods, Doppler, and cardiotocography before and after treatment, as well as a morphological study of the placenta. The received results show that the use of HBO in the complex treatment of pregnant women with anemia may take place in clinical practice both for treatment of anemia during pregnancy, and for the prevention of complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

Agamurad A. Orasmuradov

2014-06-01

269

The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

270

MR imaging of the lumbosacral spine in asymptomatic pregnant and nonpregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Back discomfort is a common complaint during pregnancy. In the past, back discomfort was commonly attributed to exaggeration of the normal lumbar lordosis. Recently, however, claims have been made that there is an increased incidence of lumbar disk disease during pregnancy. To evaluate this claim and determine its significance, we compared MR images of the spines of pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women. Sagittal MR images (0.35 T, spin-echo technique) of the lumbosacral spines of 50 pregnant and 50 nonpregnant women were evaluated for intervertebral disk desiccation, bulge, and herniation. The nonpregnant subjects were divided into two groups: nulliparous and parous. The authors found no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Thus, there is no evidence for an increased prevalence of disk disease in pregnant women

271

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AMID ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of monitoring of pregnant women with hypertension against the background of pharmacotherapy. A comparative evaluation of the clinical efficacy of treatment of hypertension in pregnancy, the drug metoprolol tartrate (Egilok retard, Egis, Hungary and methyldopa (dopegit, Egis, Hungary. The positive effect of metoprolol tartrate in pregnant women with hypertension in the kidney, heart, psychological profile, as well as safety for the fetus. Purpose:To evaluate the psychological profile of pregnant women with essential hypertension on antihypertensive therapy. The method and methodology of work: We observed 43 pregnant women with pre-existing hypertension of pregnancy. Surveyed women were divided into 2 groups by open randomized trial. The first group was assigned to metoprolol tartrate (Egilok retard at a dose of 50-75 mg / day, once in monotherapy, the second - methyldopa (dopegit at a daily dose of 500-1000 mg as a single agent. The first group included women aged 24 to 40 years, mean age was 30,1 ± 4,15 years, the second from 23 to 36 years with a mean age of 28,5 ± 3,55 years. The groups were matched for age, presence of somatic diseases, gynecological diseases, the presence of harmful habits. The area of ??application of the results: medicine.

Petrova Marina Mikhaylovna

2013-05-01

272

Factors contributing to the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore and describe the factors that influence the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV. This was achieved through a qualitative research study that was exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. A sample of 13 pregnant women participated. Data obtained from semi-structured interviews was analysed according to a protocol based on a combination of methods of analysis. The three main themes, namely factors that contribute to the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV, factors that contribute to the decision by pregnant women not to be tested for HIV and organisational factors that influence the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV, were divided into nine subthemes. Conclusions and recommendations to promote counselling to pregnant women being tested for HIV are provided. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die faktore wat die besluit van swanger vroue om vir MIV getoets te word, te verken en beskryf. Dit is gedoen deur middel van verkennende, beskrywende, kontekstuele kwalitatiewe navorsing. ’n Steekproef van 13 swanger vroue het deelgeneem. Inligting is verkry deur middel van semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude. Hierdie inligting is ontleed aan die hand van ’n protokol gebaseer op ’n kombinasie van ontledingsmetodes. Die drie hooftemas, naamlik faktore wat bydra tot swanger vroue se besluit om vir MIV getoets te word, faktore wat bydra tot swanger vroue se besluit om nie vir MIV getoets te word nie en organisatoriese faktore wat swanger vroue se besluit beïnvloed om vir MIV getoets te word, is in nege subtemas onderverdeel. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings ter bevordering van berading van swanger vroue vir MIV-toetsing, word verskaf.

Hester Klopper

2008-12-01

273

Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9% had bacteriuria. The mean age of the all the pregnant women included in the study was 28.40 years with a standard deviation of 6.16. Age ranged from 15 to 45 years of age. The urine culture of the asymptomatic pregnant women (1505 cases showed growth in only 134 cases (8.9%. Escherichia coli was the commonest organism 79 (58.96% followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8% and S aureus 18 (13.43%. Escherichia coli, which comprised 58.96% (79 of the isolates, were 88.62%, 87.35%, and 83.55% sensitive to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and cefotizoxime respectively. Similarly, E. coli were 89%, 70%, and 20% resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin respectively (OR 1.57 95% CI 1.01, 2.44. After analyzing, four variables, hemoglobin levels seem to be independently associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (OR = 9.41 (1.65-50.38. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women was 8.9%. The predominant organisms were Escherichia coli 79 (58.96%, followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%. Most strains of Escherichia coli showed that they were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin.

Kalantar Enayat

2008-12-01

274

Antibodies Frequency Against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella Virus and Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available      Aim: Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus (CMV infections can be seen in all age groups and they are usually asymptomatic infection diseases, but it is important seeing them in pregnant women especially in first trimester because they compose congenital malformations in fetus.In this study, I aimed at the seroprevelance of IgM and IgG type antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV infections according to the age groups 14-24, 25-34 and 35-44 of pregnant women who applied for routine examination in Usak region. Material and Method: 1465 pregnant women who applied for examination in Usak State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between the dates of July 1st 2010 - June 30th 2011 during 1 year period were seperated in to 3 age groups of 14-24, 25-34 and 35- 44. These patient’s laboratory results of IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV were analysed retrospectively. Results: 588 pregnant women (40.1% between the ages 14-24, 758 (51.8% between 25-34, 119 (8.1% between 35-44, total 1465 pregnant women examined. The results are Toxoplasmosis IgM positivity 3.0%, Toxoplasmosis IgG positivity 18.3%, Rubella virusIgM positivity 1.0%, Rubella virus IgG positivity 92.2%, CMV IgM positivity 1.0%, CMV IgG positivity 99.4% according to the all age groups. Discussion: In this study, Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus, and CMV seroprevalence were determined in pregnant women who admitted to Usak State Hospital. As there is no similar datas of Usak City in the past, I believe this study provide constributes to the literature.

Güliz Doðan Toklu

2013-01-01

275

Glycemic Control among Pregnant Diabetic Women on Insulin Who Fasted During Ramadan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Ramadan fasting for pregnant women with diabetes remains controversial and underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the glycemic control in pregnant diabetic women on insulin who fasted during Ramadan.Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of three years including pregnant diabetic women, who were on short-acting, intermediate-acting, or a combination of them, and opted to carry out Ramadan fasting. Glycemic control was assessed before, middle and after Ramadan fasting.Results: Thirty seven women opted to fast with 24 (64.9% of them had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 83.8% of them required combined insulin (short- acting, intermediate-acting therapy. The age of the participants was 32.13±4.68 years, and the age of their pregnancies was 25.60±7.12 weeks when the study was performed. The median number of days fasted was 25 days, and most of the women were able to fast for more than 15 days. There was no difference between glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus women prior to fasting. In the middle of Ramadan, serum fructosamine decreased in both groups. However, only serum HbA1c reduced in gestational diabetes mellitus after Ramadan. Conclusion: the findings indicate that pregnant diabetic women on insulin were able to fast during Ramadan and that their glycemic control was improved during fasting period. They may also suggest that instead of absolute ban on fasting for pregnant diabetic women more practical approach and close consultation with health care providers might be more helpful.

Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail

2011-12-01

276

Misoprostol as a family planning drug : use in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Availability of comprehensive family planning services is fundamental in improving and ensuring women’s right to life and health. An estimated 222 million women have an unmet need for contraception, and 43.8 million pregnancies are terminated each year, of which 21.6 million are considered to be unsafe and one of the main contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity. Medical abortion using misoprostol alone, or preferably the combined regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol,...

Sa?a?v, Ingrid

2014-01-01

277

Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36 old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

278

Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

Cully, G

2010-09-01

279

Health-service utilization by pregnant women in the greater Mafikeng- Mmabatho district  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the implementation of free maternity services in South Africa from 1994, more maternity services were provided (SA, 1994: 73. These services are however inaccessible to many pregnant women in the rural areas, leading to sub-optimal antenatal health service utilization. Another problem that emerged, is deterioration in antenatal health service rendering throughout the country, as well as a lack of guidelines for the mobilization of pregnant women in order to promote optimal antenatal health service utilization (ANHSU in the North West Province. The mentioned problems were the reasons for undertaking this research.

C.F. Pretorius

2004-09-01

280

[Music dynamics: New methodological proposal at work with pregnant women during prenatal care].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is qualitative research, using and Creative and Sensible Method and Content Analysis. It aimed to find out how pregnant women experience the use of music to understand the gestational process. Participants were seven primiparous pregnant women, during the third trimester of pregnancy. The study happened in the Basic Health Center in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. For data collection, creativity and sensitivity dynamics were employed, called musical dynamics, as well as a semi-structured interviews and observation. Results have showed that music can be employed as a facilitating resource in the teaching/learning process, favoring educators/nurses in their educational activities. PMID:15712807

Ravelli, Ana Paula Xavier; da Motta, Maria Graça Corso

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Serum Copper, Zinc and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia in Gorgan  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

2014-01-01

282

[Changes in nutritional status of pregnant women assisted at the basic health network, Santo Andre, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutritional conditions in the pre-gestacional period and during pregnancy were evaluated in 372 pregnant women based on the body mass index and Rosso's Graph. Approximately half (51%) the pregnant women presented normal pre-gestacional weight; however, 17.7% were underweight and 31.3% overweight. In the third trimester, 18.8% were underweight and 28.2% overweight. The weight at birth increased as nutritional conditions during pregnancy improved. These results show the importance of appropriate anthropometric control in order to prevent a bad neonatal prognosis and reaffirms the importance of such activity during the whole routine of pre-natal control. PMID:12040792

Fujimori, E; de Cassana, L M; Szarfarc, S C; de Oliveira, I M; Guerra-Shinohara, E M

2001-05-01

283

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. Methods A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010–2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. Conclusion Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution of asymptomatic malaria, without temporal and spatial clustering, may have critical implications for malaria elimination strategies. PMID:24858193

Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Shields, Timothy; Sack, David A.; Sullivan, David J.; Nyunt, Myaing M.

2014-01-01

284

Pregnant women's interest in a website or mobile application for healthy gestational weight gain.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined pregnant women's interest in using a website or mobile application to help them gain a healthy amount of weight during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N?=?64) completed a short questionnaire during routine prenatal care at hospital-based obstetric clinics in central Massachusetts during April-August 2012. Eighty-six percent reported interest in using a website or mobile application to help them gain a healthy amount of weight; interest ranged from 67% to 100% across demographics, clinical characteristics, and technology use. The Internet is a promising modality for delivering interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and associated maternal and child health consequences. PMID:25433828

Waring, Molly E; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Xiao, Rui S; Lombardini, Lisa M; Allison, Jeroan J; Rosal, Milagros C; Pagoto, Sherry L

2014-12-01

285

Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ? 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

Caron Mélanie

2012-10-01

286

Comparison of oxidative stress in preeclampsia, normal pregnancy and non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Preeclampsia remains a disease of theories as its real etiology has remained elusive. Endothelial cell dysfunction may play a role in the pathobiology of preeclampsia. There is some evidence to suggest that endothelial cell damage result from oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to measure oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia. Material and Methods: Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lipid peroxidation (LPO and thiol groups was measured in 20 women with preeclampsia, 20 normal pregnant women and 20 nonpregnant women. All three women groups were matched with respect to age, BMI, parity and gestational age. Oxidative stress markers were measured by spectrophotometer methods. Results: Serum concentration of LPO was significantly higher in preeclampsia (17.7 + 3.8 nmol/ml as compared with nonpregnant women (10.4 + 0.48 nmol/ml, p< 0.0001. TAC in preeclamptic women was lower than those in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women, but not statistically significantly. There was no significant difference between the mean concentrations of thiol groups in the women groups. Conclusion: Increased levels of LPO products may cause peroxidative damage of vascular endothelium and result in clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. However, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

A. Ghazavi

2006-11-01

287

Comparison of real-time PCR and microscopy for malaria parasite detection in Malawian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background New diagnostic tools for malaria are required owing to the changing epidemiology of malaria, particularly among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Real-time PCR assays targeting Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfldh gene may facilitate the identification of a high proportion of pregnant women with a P. falciparum parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy. These molecular methods will enable further studies on the effects of these submicroscopic infections on maternal health and birth outcomes. Methods The pfldh real-time PCR assay and conventional microscopy were compared for the detection of P. falciparum from dried blood spots and blood smears collected from the peripheral blood of 475 Malawian women at delivery. A cycle threshold (Ct of the real-time PCR was determined optimizing the sensitivity and specificity of the pfldh PCR assay compared to microscopy. A real-time PCR species-specific assay was applied to identify the contribution to malaria infections of three Plasmodium species (P. falciparum P. ovale and P. malariae in 44 discordant smear and pfldh PCR assay results. Results Of the 475 women, P. falciparum was detected in 11 (2.3% by microscopy and in 51 (10.7% by real-time PCR; compared to microscopy, the sensitivity of real-time PCR was 90.9% and the specificity 91.2%. If a Ct value of 38 was used as a cut-off, specificity improved to 94.6% with no change in sensitivity. The real-time PCR species-specific assay detected P. falciparum alone in all but four samples: two samples were mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. malariae, one was a pure P. malariae infection and one was a pfldh PCR assay-positive/species-specific assay-negative sample. Of three P. malariae infections detected by microscopy, only one was confirmed by the species-specific assay. Conclusions Although microscopy remains the most appropriate method for clinical malaria diagnosis in field settings, molecular diagnostics such as real-time PCR offer a more reliable means to detect malaria parasites, particularly at low levels. Determination of the possible contribution of these submicroscopic infections to poor birth outcomes and maternal health is critical. For future studies to investigate these effects, this pfldh real-time PCR assay offers a reliable detection method.

Maleta Kenneth

2010-10-01

288

Musculoskeletal problems among pregnant women: a facility based survey in Odisha  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Chronic medical conditions are in focus for the development of strategies aimed at improving population health worldwide. This is also true for chronic pain conditions leading to impaired or non-existent ability to exercise, as physical inactivity is associated with the development of chronic diseases. Musculoskeletal disorders constitute an estimated 90% of all chronic pain, of which back pain contributes to a high extent. During the time of pregnancy many hormonal and anatomical changes that affect the musculoskeletal system in the female body, which may cause various musculoskeletal complaints, predispose to injury, or alter the course of pre-existing conditions. Though Obstetric physiotherapy is an essential part of maternal health care and promotion; still it is not well known in developing countries like India. So this current study aimed to address common musculoskeletal complaints arising among the women during prenatal period in Odisha. Methodology: A cross sectional study was designed in rural & urban area health facilities targeting the pregnant women of Odisha. Total of 410 pregnant women from selected facilities of two different regions of Odisha- Eastern (Urban and Western (Rural were interviewed with a structured validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis compared the independent variables of participants with Musculoskeletal Pain using independent sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square for ordinal/nominal variables has been reported considering null hypothesis to be significant if p-value is <0.05 which is level of significance. Results: About half (50.7% of the participants reported symptoms at least in one part of their bodies, over the pregnancy period. Among these, acute Low back pain was the highest of 55.6% and 35.4% of chronic, followed by acute ankle pain (25.9% and knee pain (16.6%. Neck pain (4.9%, Shoulder pain (4.4% were the least reported among all participants. The MSDs pain is more among the urban population (54.4%, compared to rural community (45.6%, which shows statistically significant with p-value of 0.003.Conclusion:Low back pain is the commonest of all, prevailing around more than half of subjects from our sample. A mixed research method strongly recommended to conduct, including both pre and post-natal period women, for generalizability and other facilities from all over the globe should be focused.

Yasobant S, Nibedita S, Saswata S, Arnansu M, Kirti S

2014-04-01

289

ACTIONS DEVELOPED BY THE HEALTH TEAM FAMILY FOR MAINTENANCE OF MEMBERSHIP OF PREGNANT WOMEN IS LINKED TO THE PROGRA M O F PROTECTION FOR PREGNANT WOMEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the need to capture pregnant women, and find a better way to have her support, the teamhas confronted many difficulties in the execution. This study objective is describe theactivities made with pregnant women at the program SISPRENATAL by the professionals inthe PSF units in Valparaiso deGoiáscity. The results show the professionals profile, thatwork on health family strategyconstituted by 29% of nurses, 4% of doctors, 15% of technicalnursing and 52% of community agents. Most of the staffdidn'treceive the necessary trainingto make a good work.Many aspects was mentioned about the facilities found in the program,especiallyspeed of results and the accessibility. The avoidance of pregnant women is a majordifficulty justifying the lack of time and distance from the unit to her house. The high staffturnover has hindered the development of the actions, demonstratingthe importance ofcontinuing education for the development of new skills for the professional, to implementtheir actions in the pursuit of excellence in customer service

Ezequiel Chaves Rondon

2013-05-01

290

Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre-eclampsia in Dakahlia, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Lead toxicity is a prevalent health problem in both developed and developing countries. One of the proposed mechanisms for lead-induced organ damage is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is well-associated with the pregnancy disorder, pre-eclampsia. Exposure to lead may be one of the sources of the oxidative stress that leads to development of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.Objective: To test if blood lead level of pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia is higher than the normal limit. Methods: Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood lead level was measured in 115 pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia and compared to its level in a comparison group of 25 healthy pregnant women in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.Results: The mean±SD blood lead level was 37.68±9.17 ?g/dL in women with pre-eclampsia; the value in the comparison group was 14.5±3.18 ?g/dL (p<0.001.Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia is significantly associated with a high blood lead level.

AM El-Mansoury

2013-01-01

291

Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus and rubella among pregnant women in western Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Basic epidemiological data concerning CMV and rubella is necessary for health planners and care providers. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at El-Rahad hospital, Sudan to investigate seroprevalence of CMV and rubella infections and associated possible risk factors among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and ELISA was used to detect CMV and rubella infections using IgG and IgM. Results Out of 231 pregnant women, 167 (72.2% and 151 (65.3% were CMV-IgG and rubella-IgG positive, respectively. Only 6 (2.5% and 8 women (3.4% were CMV-IgM and rubella-IgM positive, respectively. While, high parity (OR = 14.7, 95%CI = 1.7 - 123.6; P = 0.01] and illiteracy (OR = 3.0, CI = 1.4 - 6.5; P = 0.004 were significantly associated with seropostive CMV-IgG in multivariate analysis, none of the other obstetrical and medical characteristics were significantly associated with CMV or rubella infections. Conclusion CMV prevalence was 72.2% and rubella susceptibility among pregnant women was 34.6%. Rubella vaccine and routine screening for rubella and CMV should be introduced for pregnant women in this setting. Further research is needed.

Nasser Nasser M

2011-05-01

292

Neutralizing and IgG Antibodies against Simian Virus 40 in Healthy Pregnant Women in Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy. Methods Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples. Results Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123) and 12.7% (14/110), respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods. Conclusions SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines. PMID:25335106

Comar, Manola; Wong, Connie; Tognon, Mauro; Butel, Janet S.

2014-01-01

293

Clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the change of serum TRAb and changeable regularity of thyroid function and clinical significance of pregnant women with Graves' diease treated by propylthiouracil. Methods: Detecting the serum TRAb, FT3, FT4, TSH levels of pregnant women with Graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil using radioreceptor assay and electro chemiluminescence. Results: The serum TRAb level of the pregnant women with Graves' disease in early gestation treated by propylthiouracil descended much more than that in the initial diagnosis (P<0.01). The positive rates of TRAb in the women before treated by propylthiouracil and treated 3 months, 6 months, 8 months were 90.2%, 82.9%, 68.2% and 21.9% separately. The activity of TRAb descended slightly 3 months latter after treated. The activity of TRAb descend obviously and the positive rates changed largely 8 months after treated. Conclusion: There is very important clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with Graves' disease in diagnosis and differential diagnosis and observation of therapeutic effects. Also, a favourable prognosis judgement. Meanwhile, provides significant reference index of pathogenetic condition judgement and drug discontinuance whether or not for the clinician. (authors)

294

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (ppermethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

295

Seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in North India: a tertiary care hospital based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry outthis study at a tertiary care hospital in north India Methods Blood samples from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were collected after informed consent and pre-test counseling. The samples were tested for HIV antibodies as per the WHO guidelines, over a period of four years from January 2003 to December 2006. Results Of the 3529 pregnant women tested in four years, 0.88% (CI 0.5 – 1.24 women were found to be HIV seroreactive. Majority of the seroreactive pregnant women (41.9% were in the age group of 20–24 years followed by the 30–34 yrs (25.8% and 25–29 years (22.6% age group. The mean age of the HIV positive women was 24.9 years (SD ± 1.49 yrs. The HIV seroprevalence rates showed an increasing trend from 0.7% (CI 0.14 – 2.04 in 2003–2004 to 0.9% (CI 0.49 – 1.5 in 2005–2006. This prevalence rate indicates concern, as Delhi and its adjoining states are otherwise considered as 'low prevalence states'. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be increasing in the last four years amongst pregnant women of North India. These findings are in contrast to the national projections.

Singh Sarman

2007-11-01

296

Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa: Drug Use, Sexual Behavior, and the Need for Comprehensive Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The multiple risks associated with methamphetamine use are of serious concern for women. These risks and consequences are magnified during pregnancy. This secondary analysis of a parent study compared 26 pregnant to 356 nonpregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, on selected demographic, psychosocial, and HIV-risk domains to identify their treatment service needs. Proportionally, more pregnant than nonpregnant women are using methamphetamine, P = .01, although a very high rate of women us...

Jones, Hendr Amp E. E.; Browne, Felicia A.; Myers, Bronwyn J.; Tara Carney; Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson; Kline, Tracy L.; Winona Poulton; Zule, William A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

2011-01-01

297

Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

Okwu GN

2008-01-01

298

Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

2013-01-01

299

Sociodemographic profile and habits of life of pregnant women for conducting the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care

Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

2014-01-01

300

Detary Practices and Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women in Accra, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy, nutrient intakes of pregnant women and the effect of socio-demographic factors on nutrient intakes of pregnant women. The research design was cross-sectional. A systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 279 pregnant women from the antenatal clinic of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Osu Maternity Home in Accra. In-depth interviews were performed to assess perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption and dietary habits during pregnancy. In addition, an interactive 24-h recall repeated for three days was used to obtain data on food and nutrient intakes of the women. Information on foods consumed was converted into quantitative data of nutrients using Ghana Food Composition Tables and FOOD PROCESSOR PLUS Software. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, 17. The mean energy, vitamin B12, folate, iron and zinc intakes were found to be inadequate compared with the Recommended Intakes. There was also a significant difference (p<0.001 in the mean intake of protein across the different trimesters. On the average protein, fat and carbohydrate contributed 13.2, 34.7 and 52.1%, respectively to total calories. Significant differences were observed between educational level and mean intake of protein (p<0.001, as well as income levels and mean intake of protein (p<0.001 and zinc (p<0.02. Surprisingly women with larger household size had high intake of energy and nutrients. Most of the women (67.7% reported food craving, 57.3% practiced pica and 48.8% reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy. However no significant difference was found in nutrient intakes between women who reported food craving, food avoidance and pica and women who did not. In conclusion, pregnant women in the study had lower intake of energy and nutrients compared with the RNI. Food craving and aversion as well as pica practice are common dietary practices among pregnant women in the study. Protein and zinc are associated with income and educational levels of the pregnant women in the study. It is recommended that more attention should be focused on nutrition education and intervention programs during pregnancy as well as dietary approaches such as fortification of foods to increase both macronutrient and micronutrient intakes.

Alice Koryo-Dabrah

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

OA02.10. Influence of kalyani raga on fetus and pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Pregnant women are more alert to their environment which greatly influences them. Prenatal stimulation through music allows expectant mothers to connect with their unborn baby. This helps to lower the mother's anxiety level and neonatal stress too. Auditory system is the only one that establishes a connection between the foetus and the outer world. So this we can stimulate the most. The intension of the study is to see the efficiency of music on foetus as well as pregnant women. So it can be effectively used as a part of Garbhini paricharya. Method: Each pregnant lady will be explained about the influence of music especially the Kalyani raga and later they will be given a CD of Karnatic Music of Kalyani raga and is instructed to hear it for 20 minutes daily for a period of 20 days. Result: The study shows very good influence in both fetus and pregnant women. Conclusion: On the basis of pancha panchaka siddantha shabda is the attribute of akasha mahabhoota which is used in the form of music given through srothraindriya interacts with manas and giving message to the atma. By this perception the pregnant lady gets the prassannata of atma indriya and manas and this influence the fetus which is in her womb and even we can cultivate a srasta samskara.

Krishna, Deepthi

2013-01-01

302

Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract There is now considerable evidence for the involvement of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO induced relaxation of smooth muscles including the myometrium. In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO – induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of specific blockers of these channels on the relaxation of myometrium from non-pregnant women. In vitro isometric contractions were recorded in uterine tissues from non-pregnant premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy. Apamin (10 nM and scyllatoxin (10 nM did not alter spontaneous myometrial contractions. However, 15-min pretreatment of the myometrium strips with apamin completely inhibited relaxation caused by diethylamine-nitric oxide (DEA/NO. The pretreatment with scyllatoxin significantly reduced (about 2.6 times maximum relaxation of the strips induced by DEA/NO (p 2+ and voltage dependent charybdotoxin-sensitive (CTX-sensitive K+ channels, apamin-sensitive K+ channels are also present in the human non-pregnant myometrium. These channels offer an additional target in the development of new tocolytic agents.

Kleszczewski Tomasz

2003-02-01

303

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT. Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

2012-04-01

304

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria.Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT.Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

2012-05-01

305

Evaluation of Sexual Function Quality of Life and Mental and Physical Health in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate sexual function and its relationship with quality of life, and mental and physical health in pregnant women.Materials and methods: Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7 % women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3 % women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05.The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Results: Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7 % women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3 % women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05.The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Conclusion: Depression as same as environment heath had an important effect on sexual satisfaction in pregnant women and so assessment of depression and environment health in medical program for pregnant women is necessary. Also considering decrease in sexual satisfaction in aging training new methods for sexuality can be useful.

Mozhgan Rabani Bavojdan

2013-12-01

306

Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8% have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ? two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53, with ? secondary education (OR=1.96, had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88 and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08 as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is necessary to avert the potential toxoplasmosis related complications especially in the neonates.

Tarek Tawfik Amin

2013-05-01

307

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending the Hospital for Women & Children in Koutiala, Mali  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To establish the rate of seroprevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women in south-eastern Mali, and to decrease mother-to-child transmission. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional comparison study, 3 659 pregnant women attending a non-governmental hospital in Kout [...] iala, Mali, during 2008 and 2009 were screened for the hepatitis B surface antigen during antenatal clinic attendance or when admitted for delivery. A chart review compared the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive women to HBV-negative women used as controls to identify potential risk factors for HBsAg positivity. The variables compared were age, parity, type of genital excision, birthweight of baby and HIV status. RESULTS: A total of 293 (8.0%) pregnant women tested positive for HBsAg. Their average age was 27.6 years, average parity of 2.8 births, 90% had Type 2 genital excision, 21% had low-birthweight infants, and 14 (0.4%) women also tested positive for HIV. Infants born to HbsAg-positive women were immunised with the hepatitis B vaccine in the delivery room. Two hundred and eighty-four HBVnegative women were compared with the HBV-positive women. None of the differences of means or relationships was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: In view of the high endemicity and lack of easily identifiable risk factors, free maternal HBV screening should be provided to all women in Mali, and the infants born to HBsAgpositive women should be immunised within 12 hours of birth.

Brett, MacLean; Rosanna F, Hess; Edward, Bonvillain; Joseph, Kamate; Daoda, Dao; Amy, Cosimano; Shannon, Hoy.

2012-01-01

308

How do I manage tick bites and Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, we present basic data pertinent to the current understanding of borrelial infection in pregnancy, and propose a rationale for the management of Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women. We advocate early detection of attached ticks and their prompt removal. We do not recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in pregnant women but support the 'wait and watch' strategy, including early treatment with antibiotics if signs/symptoms of the disease arise. We encourage the approach that antibiotic treatment of pregnant patients is restricted to those having a reliable clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and propose intravenous antibiotic treatment with penicillin, or preferably ceftriaxone 2 g daily for 14 days, not only for patients with early disseminated disease but also for those with solitary erythema migrans. PMID:19367103

Maraspin, Vera; Strle, Franc

2009-01-01

309

Recommendations of ICRP-60 for occupationally exposed pregnant women. Compliance evaluation in six health centres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decrease in the limits of dose equivalent at the entry of the abdomen of occupationally exposed pregnant women, as recommended by ICRP-60, necessitates to evaluate with dosimeter the various professional positions in different services existing in a health care centre, to guarantee that such limits cannot be exceeded, and thus ensure the protection of the foetus. The results obtained in this work, related exclusively to external radiation dose, show that the radiation protection system currently in force is in compliance with the regulation in the majority of the professional positions evaluated, though stricter criteria for pregnant women workers must be established with the aim of obtaining a better dose optimization. The fact that pregnant operators are working in Nuclear Medicine requires an additional effort to ensure that doses in excess of the limits stated are prevented

310

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

311

Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300??g/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UICMatlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

2014-01-01

312

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to improved oral and dental health, and ultimately pregnancy outcomes.

Sunita Bamanikar

2013-07-01

313

[Prevalence of Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnant women in Yopougon (Côte d'Ivoire)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A transversal survey on 150 pregnant women was carried out at the P.M.I. center in Yopougon, in order to determine the prevalence of genital herpes and to estimate the frequency of asymptomatic excreting of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) in pregnant women. The viral isolation and the direct immuno-fluorescence (IF) assay of the genital secretions were found to have a prevalence of 12.7% Among the women who tested positive (the majority of whom were from modest socio-economic origin and young), 10% had antecedents of genital herpes, 2.7% showed an asymptomatic excretion and 36.8% had an acute episode during their pregnancy including a primary infection in the 20th week. In these women an unexpected recurrence will constitute the major risk for maternal transmission and an emergence of neonatal herpes. PMID:10214509

Akoua-Koffi, G C; Bakayoko, S; Tanoh, G; Tiéoulou, L; Angui, H; Kéita, D; Faye-Ketté, H; Dosso, M

1999-02-01

314

Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the safe use of medicinal plants in pregnancy may promote safer pregnancies and better health for mothers and their unborn infants in Mali. PMID:24041441

2013-01-01

315

Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

Zhang Xueli

2009-07-01

316

Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment in Pregnant Women with a Mechanical Heart Valve Prosthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No definitive recommendation is available concerning optimal antithrombotic therapy in pregnant women with a mechanical heart valve. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the clinical results of nadroparin treatment with respect to pregnancy outcome and maternal complications. From 1997 to 2005, 31 pregnancies were reviewed in 25 women. Nadroparin (7,500 U, twice daily) was used in 23 pregnancies between 6 and 12 weeks of gestation and close-to-term only, and coumarin derivatives w...

Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Choi, Sae Young; Kwon, Ki Young; Cho, Chi Heum

2007-01-01

317

Risk of first venous thromboembolism in pregnant women in hospital: population based cohort study from England  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To examine the potential for preventing venous thromboembolism during and after antepartum hospital admissions in pregnant women. Design: Cohort study using linked primary (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) and secondary (Hospital Episode statistics) care records. Setting: Primary and secondary care centres, England. Participants: 206 785 women aged 15-44 who had one or more pregnancies from 1997 up to 2010. Main outcome measure: Risk of first venous thromb...

Sultan, Alyshah A.; West, Joe; Tata, Laila J.; Fleming, Kate M.; Nelson-piercy, Catherine; Grainge, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

318

Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital ...

Aboud, S.; Msamanga, G.; Read, J. S.; Mwatha, A.; Chen, Y. Q.; Potter, D.; Valentine, M.; Sharma, U.; Hoffmann, I.; Taha, T. E.; Goldenberg, R. L.; Fawzi, W. W.

2008-01-01

319

Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ? secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ? 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ? 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

Rayis, Duria A

2010-12-06

320

Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures.

Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Kloster, Stine

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Paraná State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV in Brazil increases from South to North but moderate to elevated prevalence has been detected in the Southwest of Paraná State. The prevalence of serological markers of HBV was evaluated in 3188 pregnant women from different counties in Paraná State and relevant epidemiological features were described. The prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women for the state as a whole was 18.5% (95% CI = 17.2-19.9, ranging from 7.2% in Curitiba to 38.5% in Francisco Beltrão. The endemicity of HBV marker prevalence in pregnant women was intermediate in Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu, and Francisco Beltrão, and low in Curitiba, Londrina, Maringá, and Paranaguá. Multiple logistic regression showed that HBV marker prevalence increased with age, was higher among black women, among women of Italian and German descent, and among women who had family members in neighboring Rio Grande do Sul State. Univariate analysis showed that HBV marker prevalence was also higher among women with no education or only primary education, with a lower family income and whose families originated from the South Region of Brazil. Pregnant women not having positive HBV markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg or anti-HBs detected by ELISA corresponded to 73.7% of the population studied, implying that HBV vaccination needs to be reinforced in Paraná State. The highest prevalence was found in three counties that received the largest number of families from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, where most immigrants were of German or Italian ascendance. This finding probably indicates that immigrants that came to this area brought HBV infection to Southwestern Paraná State.

D.A. Bertolini

2006-08-01

322

Investigating the Choice of Delivery Method Type and Its Related Factors in Pregnant Women in Maragheh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: In recent years there has been an increase in the trend for cesarean section. Due to surgical complications financial costs and mothers long period of hospitalization vaginal delivery is preferred as a favorite procedure. However womens requests for and tendency toward cesarean is one of the main reasons for this increase. The aim of the present study was to study the choice of the delivery method type and its related factors in pregnant women in Maragheh. Method: In this deh1iv...

Asghar Mohammadpourasl; Parivash Asgharian; Fatemeh Rostami; Arezoo Azizi; Hossein Akbari

2009-01-01

323

Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples wer...

Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz; Emine Sen; Osman Sevket; Yusuf Polat; Aysun Karabulut; Omer Uysal

2012-01-01

324

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA, respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1% women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84, residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49, and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44. Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection.

Díaz-García Juan

2006-07-01

325

Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

Hayes, Catherine B

2013-05-01

326

Micronized progesterone as a neuroprotector in pregnant women with post-trauma brain syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article is concerned with the study of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP level in the blood serum of pregnant women  with post–trauma brain injury syndrome (post-TBI syndrome as the marker of  hematoencephalic barrier status and predictor of obstetric and perinatal complications development.

Irina Vasilivna Tsyganenko

2014-04-01

327

Immunity indexes at the system and local levels of pregnant women with mycoplasma infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examination of immunity disorders at the system and local levels in pregnant women with persistent mycoplasma infection has been carried out. The analysis has revealed depression of circulating in blood CD3+ and CD4+, increase of CD16+ and CD19+, decrease of activated CD25+ and ready to adaptation CD95+ lymphocytes. Studies of the concentration of cytokines at the local level (cervical mucus in pregnant women with mycoplasma infection showed a significant increase in concentrations of both proinflammatory (TNF-?, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 in 4.5 times cytokines compared with controls group (P <0.05 and P <0.01, which confirms the presence of an inflammatory process not only at the system level, but locally.That means that pregnant women with mycoplasma infection in comparison with healthy pregnant women were indicated with violations of the regulation system of cytokines in peripheral blood and locally in the cervical mucus. It is characterized by increased TH-1 cell response to the increasing fusion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-?, and pointed to the imbalance of their products, which may be a factor in this pregnancy complication.

Saule Issenova

2011-03-01

328

PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

Giuseppina Messina

2010-01-01

329

Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

Ziadat, Ayed H.

2010-01-01

330

Iodine in urine of pregnant women after augmentation of iodine in salt in Macedonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The iodination of salt with 20-30 m gr iodine /Kg NaCl substantially raised the level of iodine in the urine of pregnant women from a total of 6.9 (median value in 1994) to 12.77 micro g iodine/dl (median value). The iodine metabolism in Macedonia is dependent on salt iodination. (Original)

331

Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women in Abha General Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI in pregnant women, to identify infectious agents causing the infection, and to explore relationship of specific socio–cultural factors with UTI. This study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Abha General Hospital, Saudi Arabia from September 2012 to January 2013 on 402 pregnant Saudi women. Midstream urine sample was obtained. A urine analysis test and culture were done as well as socio-demographic data sheet was completed. Among the 402 studied pregnant women, 12.7% were affected with UTI. The main causative agent was escherichia coli(e-coli followed by staphylococci. It was found that UTI was strongly affected by the presence of previous history of reproductive tract inflammation, history of previous UTI attacks, the presence of UTI related complaints, washing and drying the perineum area, the direction of washing and drying the perineum area, frequency of changing diaper during menstruation and the average of cleaning the bathtub (P= 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.05, 0.000 and 0.002 respectively. Our study showed a significant percentage on prevalence of UTI among Saudi pregnant women.

Mona Abdullah Almushait

2013-06-01

332

Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

2008-01-01

333

Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE2 anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes

334

Impact of Maternal Factors on Birth Parameters in Urban Affluent Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal nutritional factors on birth parameters among urban affluent pregnant women. A cross sectional study was carried out in Pune city of Maharashtra state among 156 singleton healthy pregnant women. Face to face interview method was undertaken of the pregnant women who were visiting for their monthly check up. During each interview, information was sought concerning the demography background of pregnant women and 24 h diet recall and also food frequency questionnaire. Each 1gr increase in maternal protein intake is associated with a 31.47gr increase in birth weight (95% CI, 5.36-57.59gr and 0.158 cm increase in birth length (95% CI, 0.046-0.27 cm. Also there is positive contribution between percent of energy derived from protein and birth weight. In addition birth length predicted positively by % of energy derived from fat. In addition it exist the negative weakly association between energy intake with birth weight and also negative association between birth length and maternal carbohydrate intake. The study support that maternal dietary composition has an effect on fetal growth and pregnancy outcome.

K.A. Ahmadi

2011-01-01

335

Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

Ayed H. Ziadat

2010-01-01

336

Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy.

Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens

2012-01-01

337

Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

2012-01-01

338

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

339

Give Aspirin to All Pregnant Women At Risk of Preeclampsia: U.S. Experts  

Science.gov (United States)

... Aspirin to All Pregnant Women at Risk of Preeclampsia: U.S. Experts Daily, low-dose regimen cuts odds ... September 8, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Blood Thinners High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Pregnancy and Medicines MONDAY, Sept. 8, 2014 (HealthDay ...

340

A psychiatric medication decision support guide for social work practice with pregnant and postpartum women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In their work in human services organizations and community agencies across service sectors, social workers encounter pregnant and postpartum women experiencing mental health challenges. This article offers an evidence-informed Decision Support Guide designed for use by social workers working with pregnant and postpartum women who are struggling with complicated decisions about psychiatric medication use. The guide is built on contemporary notions of health literacy and shared decision making and is informed by three areas: (1) research into the lived experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and health care providers around psychiatric medication decision making, (2) a critical review of existing decision aids, and (3) feedback on the strategy from social work practitioners who work with pregnant and postpartum women. Emphasizing the relational nature of social work in supporting effective health-related decision making, the guide relies on maintaining a collaborative practice milieu and using a decision aid that engages clients in discussions about mental health during and around the time of pregnancy. The guide offers social workers a practice tool to support responsive and compassionate care by embracing their roles in problem solving and decision making, providing emotional and psychosocial support, and making appropriate referrals to prescribers. PMID:25365831

Bentley, Kia J; Price, Sarah Kye; Cummings, Cory R

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Elevated Levels of IL-10 and G-CSF Associated with Asymptomatic Malaria in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 30 million pregnant women are at risk of contracting malaria annually. Nearly 36% of healthy pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen in Ghana. We tested the hypothesis that asymptomatic HRP II positive pregnant women expressed a unique Th1 and Th2 phenotype that differs from healthy controls. Plasma from healthy (n=15 and asymptomatic (n=25 pregnant women were evaluated for 27 biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL- 17, Eotaxin, bFGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-?, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, PDGF-bb, RANTES, TNF, and VEGF associated with Th1 and Th2 cytokine homeostasis. IL-10 and G-CSF levels were elevated in the asymptomatic group when compared with the healthy group (P=.031 and .041, resp.. The median ratios of IL-1?:5, IL-1?:10, IL-1?:G-CSF, IL-1?:Eotaxin, IL-12:G-CSF, IL-15:10, IL-17:G-CSF, IL-17:Eotaxin, TNF:IL-4, TNF:IL-5, and TNF:G-CSF were significantly different among the two groups. Thus, asymptomatic malaria carriage may be linked to circulating levels of IL-10 and G-CSF.

Nana O. Wilson

2010-01-01

342

Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

Stokholm, Jakob; SchjØrring, Susanne

2012-01-01

343

Prioritizing Pregnant Women for Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets through Antenatal Care Clinics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jenny Hill and colleagues discuss the importance of antenatal care services in providing pregnant women with a long-lasting insecticide treated net for the prevention of malaria in both the mother and infant. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:25203846

Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Webster, Jayne; Steketee, Richard W

2014-09-01

344

RIGHTS OF PREGNANT WOMEN AND THE UNBORN CHILD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the diploma work the rights of a pregnant woman and her unborn child in the field of the Civil, Labour, Inheritance, Criminal, Humanitarian and Medical Law are presented. At first, the family in general, the differences in a family in the past and today and motherhood in the postmodern era are presented. From the field of the civil law, the position of a man before his birth, the legal presumption of paternity and the recognition of paternity, and representing the fetus are discussed...

C?eligoj, Vanja

2011-01-01

345

HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level <11years (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 2.4 [CI = 1.28-4.53]), who stayed in joint families (AOR = 1.89 [CI = 1.12-3.12]), who had experienced insult or hurt from the partner (AOR = 1.91 [CI = 1.11-3.27]) and whose partner were alcoholic (AOR = 2.19 [CI = 1.31-3.66]) were significantly more likely to perceive themselves at risk of HIV. Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples. PMID:24215183

Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

2014-01-01

346

Factors influencing acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV-testing among pregnant women in Northern Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guided by the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model, this study aimed to identify factors associated with pregnant women's expressed willingness to accept voluntary counselling and HIV-testing (VCT). A cross-sectional interview survey of 500 pregnant women, complemented by focus group discussions, was conducted in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Constructs derived from the Health Belief Model explained 41.7% of women's willingness to accept VCT. Perceived high personal susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, barriers related to confidentiality and partner involvement, self-efficacy regarding alternative feeding methods and religion were all shown to be associated with willingness to accept VCT. The women's acceptance of VCT seems to depend upon their perceiving that VCT and alternative feeding strategies provide clear benefits, primarily for the child. Whether a positive attitude to VCT and alternative feeding strategies are transformed into actual behaviour depends on a set of complicated decisions in which several potential psychological consequences are assessed. Sharing the diagnosis with partners may not have the intended effect if there is a lack of sensitivity to the women's fear of blame and rejection. If pregnant women are to fully participate in and benefit from mother-to-child-transmission prevention efforts, their partners must be committed and involved in the process. PMID:15203410

de Paoli, M M; Manongi, R; Klepp, K-I

2004-05-01

347

LABOUR TERMINATION AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PLACENTA ABRUPTION WITH PPROM AND PROM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Placenta abruption is an obstetric accident which endangers life and health of both mother and embryo. It is one of the most serious obstetric complications, whose incidence ranges from 4.9-12.9 per 1,000 labours, and according to frequency, it represents the second cause of perinatal death. Retrospective analysis included the interval from 1996 to 2005. Total number of labours was analyzed and it was 32358. In addition, the number of labours complicated by placenta abruption was analyzed, and it was 119 or 0.37%. It analyzed the incidence of placenta abruption according to age of pregnancy and the integrity of embryonic membranes. It is established that there is no statistically significant difference in the incidence of placenta abruption appearing in pregnant women, with and without the disruption of embryonic membranes. The age of pregnant women was also analyzed, and it was found out that the pregnant women with placenta abruption and PPROM were 5 years older than those with placenta abruption without PPROM, and that this difference was very significant. Disruption duration was analyzed as well as the time from the first uterus bleeding to labour. The difference between PPROM and PROM duration was statistically significant, as well as the difference in duration between spontaneous and artificial rupture of embryonic membranes. The way of labour termination was analyzed in pregnant women with verified placenta abruption. In 80% of pregnant women, the labour was terminated by Caesarian section, and only 20% by vaginal labour. Also, the perinatal outcome was analyzed, according to Apgar score in the first and fifth minute. Apgar score showed that out of the total number of abruptions, 7 neonatuses was born dead (11.66%, 13 (21.66% was born in good condition (Apgar score>7, 26 (43.33% was marked with 4-7, while 14 (23.33% was in hard asphyxia (Apgar score 1-5.

Ranko Kutlesic

2007-10-01

348

Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA is a major public health problem in developing countries especially among pregnant women. This study was done on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to IDA and so identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. IDA was assessed by measuring haemoglobin (Hb concentration and the pregnant women were considered anaemic for Hb less than 11g/dl according to World Health Organization Standards. Semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child-spacing etc. Results obtained showed that mean Hb of the rural subjects, 9.84±1.41g/dl was significantly (p<0.0001 lower than that of the urban subjects, 10.44±1.49g/dl. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0461 lower mean Hb and significantly (p<0.0332 higher percentage of anaemia while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0.0136 lower mean Hb and higher proportion of anaemia among the less educated (no formal and primary education. The pregnant women with child spacing of less than 1 year and 1-1.5 years had significantly (p<0.0223 lower mean Hb and significantly (p<0.0336 higher prevalence of anaemia while parity did not show any significant effect on both mean Hb and prevalence of Hb. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

G.N. Okwu

2008-01-01

349

Rubella immune status of pregnant and non-pregnant women in Istanbul, Turkey.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

All women tested were seropositive for rubella specific IgG antibodies suggestive of natural virus circulation within the community. Although the majority appeared to possess protective level of such antibodies, screening for protective immunity appears always to be a necessity for future protection against reinfection.

Sebahat Seker

2004-05-01

350

Pregnant women, body image and self-esteem according to the examination of some of the variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnancy is a natural life of women in crisis. Pregnant women, during pregnancy important psychological, physiological and emotional changes live. These changes also affect body perceptions and subsequent self-respect. The purpose of this study, pregnant women and their self-esteem according to some variables to examine the perceptions of the body. The study was carried out using cross-sectional method. Sample of the study, between 15 March 2009 to 15 June 2009 Mayis University Medical Faculty Hospital Outpatient Clinic on 126 pregnant women admitted constituted. Pregnant women in order to collect data, "Coppersmith Self Esteem Inventory ',' Body Image Scale 'and' Personal Information Form 'was applied. The data obtained, percentage ratings, the t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann Whitney test and correlation analysis were evaluated using one-way. Results, scores of young age, pregnant women's body image is higher than others (r =- 0,305, p = 0.001, educational level of the relationship between body image and self-esteem levels and significantly (p <0.05 that, with the body of pregnant women in marriage is a negative correlation between perceptions of pregnant women, body image scores decreased with increasing years of marriage (r =- 0,297, p = 0.001., pregnant women with high socio-economic level, a higher body image scores (p <0.01, non-pregnant body does not use perception scores were higher. In addition, women who want to become pregnant have a higher self-esteem and body perception, number of pregnancies is higher than others, at least the perception of the body of pregnant women (r =- 0,254, p = 0.01, pregnant women affected by perceptions of physical self-esteem, self-esteem is high pregnant women's body perceptions (those with high body image 139.8 ± 25.2 points, moderate (120.6 ± 30.9 points was higher than in those with a statistically significant difference (t =- 3,819, p = 0.000. was found. The results are discussed

Hatice Kumca??z

2012-08-01

351

Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels. - Highlights: • We assessed exposure of heavy metals to pregnant mothers who consume geophagic soil. • We analyzed 100 samples of soil originated in Tanzania. • The technique used was energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent. • Essential and toxic elements were detected in concentrations above WHO limits. • Hence, geophagy is exposing pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity

352

Poor Dietary Intake of Energy and Retinol among Pregnant Women: Implications for Pregnancy Outcome in Southwest Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of adequate intake energy and retinol on pregnancy outcome among selected pregnant women in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. Eight hundred and forty (840 pregnant and 250 non-pregnant women were involved in the survey conducted in 2006 which used a 24-hour diet recall to assess their dietary intake. Food models were used to assist memory and portion size of foods taken. The results indicate that dietary energy intake in this study was inadequate in about 75% of the pregnant women and 65% of the non-pregnant women. With the exception of protein intakes in Ife North, inadequate intake was less than 15% in all LGA. The structure of the menu, however, point to a preponderance of protein of plant origin. Compared with protein intake, the dietary intake of Vitamin A (Retinol was inadequate in all the LGA and among pregnant and non-pregnant women. The paucity of animal protein in the diet may be responsible for this. Almost 70% of the pregnant women also had inadequate Vitamin C intakes. The study therefore, reiterates that emphasis on dietary sources of energy, iron, vitamin A and folic acid during pregnancy should be the key discussion during antenatal visits. Food demonstration during the antenatal visits offers the best strategies.

E.O. Ojofeitimi

2008-01-01

353

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

...benefit from such services is given...to such women of services from the facilities...programs, ongoing public service announcements...television), regular advertisements in local/regional...State shall develop effective strategies...

2010-10-01

354

Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants  

Science.gov (United States)

... What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Unintended Pregnancy Contraception Contraceptive Guidance for Providers Medical ... Services Training for Providers US MEC US SPR Teen Pregnancy Prevention Women's Reproductive Health Common Reproductive Health Concerns ...

355

Placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b antibodies in malnourished pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the vaccination response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib in malnourished pregnant women (MN, cord blood (CB and in infants at two and six months of age for comparison with a control group (C. Twenty-eight malnourished pregnant women and 29 pregnant controls were immunized with conjugated Act-HIB® in the third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all before the immunization, during labor (post immunization, and from CB. All infants were immunized with Hib vaccine according to normal vaccine schedule and sera were collected at two and six months of age. Antibody levels to polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP were similar for both groups. Preimmunization: MN 1.94 µg/mL, C 1.68 µg/mL; post-vaccination: MN 18.53 µg/mL and C 17.55 µg/mL; in CB from MN 14.46 µg/mL and from C 17.04 µg/mL. Infants from MN and C mothers presented respectively at two months: 5.18 µg/mL and 8.60 µg/mL and at six months: MN 3.42 µg/mL and C 2.18 µg/mL. Antibody levels were similar in both groups studied (p = 0.485, however the vertical transmission rate was 14% lower in the MN pregnant group. Levels of antibodies > 0.15 µg/mL were found in all newborns from the MN pregnant group. Pregnant MN presented an immunological response to Hib vaccine similar to group C, however, vertical transmission rate of antibodies to PRP in the MN pregnant group was 14% lower than that in C, suggesting a less efficient passage of antibodies within this group.

Rejane S. Cavalcante

2008-02-01

356

Misdiagnosed HIV infection in pregnant women: implications for clinical care.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Out of nearly 900 women in a research study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in pregnancy, 8 were subsequently found not to be infected. Misdiagnoses could have resulted from (a) laboratory errors or specimen mixups; (b) failure to follow the testing algorithm recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to confirm results; (c) women perceiving they were infected by high-risk behavior in the absence of testing, despite the receipt of negative test results, or based o...

Sheon, A. R.; Fox, H. E.; Alexander, G.; Buck, A.; Higgins, A.; Mcdermott, S. M.; Moroso, G.; Moye, J.; Pacheco-acosta, E.

1994-01-01

357

Anticoagulation in pregnant women with mechanical heart valve prostheses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in women with mechanical heart valve prostheses in relation to the anticoagulant treatment used in the first trimester and the incidence of thrombotic and bleeding complications.?METHODS—92 pregnancies in 59 women were followed between 1986 and 1997. In 31 pregnancies, oral anticoagulants were discontinued when pregnancy was diagnosed and subcutaneous heparin was started (12 500 U every 12 hours) adjusted to prolong the adjusted partia...

Meschengieser, S.; Fondevila, C.; Santarelli, M.; Lazzari, M.

1999-01-01

358

Circulating levels of matrix proteases and their inhibitors in pregnant women with and without a history of recurrent pregnancy loss  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background We have recently shown that serum relaxin-2 levels are attenuated in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). We sought to determine whether a history of RPL is also associated with changes in serum matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMP) -1 and -2. Methods We obtained serum from 20 pregnant women with a history of RPL and 20 age-matched pregnant women with no history of RPL (NRPL)...

Li Tin C; Elliott Sarah L; El Gelany Saad; Oc, Anumba Dilly

2010-01-01

359

Nutritional and Psychological Implications of Low Micro-Nutrient Status of Pregnant Women in Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In this paper we examined the micro –nutrient status of pregnant women and its nutritional and psychological implications. Using rural women, we found that their micro nutrient status was low in the first and third trimesters: the nutritional and psychological implications ranging from high mortality and morbidity rate of pregnant women and infants, low birth weight to impaired cognitive and behavioral conditions were discussed.

Keywords:

Afam Anene Olivia. C.

2012-02-01

360

A Survey of Relationship Between Neonate and Mother Prognosis and Plasma Level of Blood Uric Acid in Preeclampsia Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was investigated that whether the measure of the uric acid in pregnant women has cause-effect relationship with severity of preeclampsia, biochemical and urine parameters. This study was targeted the preeclampsia women with uric acid levels = 6 mg dL-1 and -1 for comparing with healthy pregnant women. In order to survey of serum Hb, platelet, liver enzymes and renal function test findings, blood and urine samples of preeclampsia and healthy groups were taken before delivery and analyzed. There was significant differences in the gestational age and mean serum AST, ALT, BUN and urine albumin between preeclampsia groups and healthy women. Also the gestational age variable in preeclampsia women with uric acid levels = 6 mg dL-1 were lower than preeclamptic patients who have lower than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the both preeclampsia cases compared with control group. There was significant differences in Apgar scores in the first and fifth minutes of life between the preeclampsia groups and healthy women. Also Apgar score in the fifth minutes of life has a significant effect on the risk of preeclampsia with more than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid compared with preeclampsia with less than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid. Neonatal weight in the preeclampsia groups were lower than its levels in the control group. In conclusion our results declared that a cause-effect relationship between the secretion of serum uric acid and severity of preeclampsia, biochemical and urine parameters may in fact exist.

Afshan Amirshaghaghi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day. In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day. 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy.

Christian Mølgaard

2012-04-01

362

A fatal case of acute hepatitis E among pregnant women, Central African Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and more often fatal in the third trimester. The mortality rate due to HEV-induced hepatitis is as high as 15-20 per cent. The present study was designed to determine the potential factors responsible for high mortality rate among pregnant women. Findings Twenty one pregnant women attended the Maternity Center of Begoua in the Central African Republic during an outbreak of hepatitis E virus between July and October 2002 with symptoms of acute liver disease. Their mean gestational period was 29.9 (SD 8.3 weeks and they were aged from 15 to 39 years old. The serology IgM showed that seven women (33% had acute hepatitis E. Among them, one woman, aged 35 and her newborn died after an apparently normal preterm delivery. The 6 remaining young women, age 18 - 22, had preterm deliveries which included three live babies and three stillborn with one macerated. Conclusions These results suggest that maternal age, in addition to hormonal, immunological and environmental factors, may be a risk factor for fatal outcome.

Goumba Charles M

2010-04-01

363