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Sample records for targeting pregnant women

  1. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    ... Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Pregnant Women On this Page When should I be ... to give up my cat if I'm pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant? No. You should ...

  2. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    ... GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Vaccines for Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... and your growing family healthy. If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, the specific vaccinations you ...

  3. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend ... flu vaccine . The Flu Shot is Safe for Pregnant Women The risk of premature labor and delivery ...

  4. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    ... breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more ... Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) . Is it safe for pregnant women and their developing babies to get a ...

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade; Patience Emiolu Izekor; Nosakhare Odeh Eghafona; Onaiwu Idahosa Enabulele; Endurance Ophori

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjec...

  6. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    Samad Hazhir

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria in pregnant women referred to the medical centers of Tabriz, Iran, for prenatal care. Materials and Methods: A total of 1100 healthy pregnant women who were referred to 50 medical centers in Tabriz for a regular prenatal care were evaluated for bacteriuria. Results: The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.1%. Maternal age was lower in the women with a positive urine culture (P = .02). Asymptomatic bact...

  7. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  8. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a...

  9. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  10. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis in Kosovo pregnant women.

    Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Putoto, Giovanni; Ramadani, Naser; Bertinato, Luigi; Berisha, Merita; Schinaia, Nicola; Quaglio, Gianluca; Maggi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the initial results of a collaborative project aimed at the evaluation of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a population of Kosovar pregnant women. The serum samples of 334 pregnant women were tested to detect IgG, IgM, IgG avidity for toxoplasmosis. Data regarding age, occupation, area of origin and education were also obtained for the pregnant women examined; 97/334 (29.4%) resulted positive for IgG antibodies, four of whom (4.1%) were also positive for IgM, (1.2% of the total population examined). All four IgM-positive pregnant women also demonstrated low avidity tests. The rate of IgG seroprevalence found in our study was lower than that observed in various European countries, especially those of western Europe. Conversely, the percentage of recent infections was higher than expected. The higher rate of infections could be the result of a recent toxoplasmosis epidemic in Kosovo, most likely due to the altered hygienic conditions caused by the forced transfer of the ethnic-Albanian population from an area of low (Serbia) to high (Kosovo) toxoplasmosis prevalence. PMID:21617833

  12. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an injectable form (the flu shot) and a nasal spray. The nasal spray (or LAIV) ... pregnant women. Pregnant women should receive the flu shot. The nasal spray is for use in healthy ...

  13. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  14. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  18. Preoperative preparation of pregnant women

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated with the highest risks since it may lead to a life-threatening complication - eclampsia. As for other coexisting diseases, urinary tract infections and gestational diabetes are the most common as well as hyperthyroidism and other diseases that may also develop. The type and severity of the acute surgical disease, extensiveness of the planned surgery as well as the type of planned anesthesia to be applied, occasionally necessitate, depending on the gestational age, termination of pregnancy to be considered. Gynecological-obstetric consultations are mandatory in all surgical interventions planned in pregnant women.

  19. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H.; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Stu...

  20. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh; Neda Falsafi; Zahra Sarraf; Mohammad Shahbazi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD) have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related servic...

  1. Assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women.

    Boylan, S. M.; Cade, J E; Kirk, S. F.; Greenwood, D.C.; White, K. L.; Shires, S.; Simpson, N. A.; Wild, C P; Hay, A W

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the effects of caffeine on health, while numerous, have produced inconsistent results. One of the most uncertain and controversial effects is on pregnancy outcome. Studies have produced conflicting results due to a number of methodological variations. The major challenge is the accurate assessment of caffeine intake. The aim of the present study was to explore different methods of assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women. Twenty-four healthy pregnant women from the UK city of ...

  2. Hazards of radiation exposure for pregnant women

    Levels of radiation pregnant women may receive are discussed and a table is presented to show radiation doses for a number of common procedures. Radioinduced congenital anomalies and carcinogenesis are discussed with regard to dose-effect realationships. Although there is no level of radiation that does not have some probability of causing a mutation, the genetic risk to any one person is small. Practical guidelines for exposing pregnant women to radiation are presented

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women

    Jerant-Patić Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of seropositive pregnant women, i.e. of pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii in order to provide an insight into the risk of developing congenital toxoplasmosis in our community. Material and Methods. In the period of two years, 662 pregnant women from Vojvodina were examined serologically. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests were performed to determine IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and the complement fixation test was done to detect total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Results and Discussion. Seropositivity was determined in 180 pregnant women (27.19%. Of 135 pregnant women examined in the routine control in pregnancy, 16.30% were seropositive and out of five proven, completely new Toxoplasma gondii infections, three were detected in pregnant women who had undergone the routine check-up for no specific symptoms. A detailed analysis of the frequency of seropositive findings in relation to clinical diagnoses and the place of residence of pregnant women (urban and rural areas was performed. At the same time, the results from the serological reactions were presented, commented and interpreted, and recommendations were given for the implementation of additional examinations (eg, IgG antibody avidity test in order to make the accurate diagnosis. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis is still a problem in our community and that the best prevention is the prompt and adequate examination of pregnant women for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

  4. Incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant Swiss women.

    Purde, Mette-Triin; Baumann, Marc Ulrich; Wiedemann, Ute; Nydegger, Urs E.; Risch, Lorenz; Surbek, Daniel; Risch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY The epidemiology of preeclampsia in Switzerland is known only from a retrospective registry study. This analysis aimed to prospectively determine the incidence of preeclampsia in a cohort of pregnant women in Switzerland. METHODS Pregnant women presenting at gestational week 11-14 at their obstetrician's office were consecutively included and prospectively followed-up until the end of pregnancy. Ultrasound characteristics, blood pressure measurements, body mas...

  5. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women of Lahore

    To know extent of iodine deficiency (ID), role of thyroid enlargement (goiter) as marker of ID and current status of iodized salt intake in pregnant women of Lahore. A cross sectional study was carried out at Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, during March 2002 to September 2005. Pregnant women (n = 254) during first trimester attending antenatal clinic participated voluntarily. Iodine intake status was determined by urinary iodine (UI) excretion. UI excretion ranged from 34 to 142 >g/L and median value was 67>g/L. According to international criteria, 202 (79.5%) pregnant women were iodine deficient (UI <100 mu g/L) mostly (68.8%) of mild (UI: 50-99 mu g/L) degree. Moderate iodine deficiency (MID; UI <50 mu g/L) was found in 63 (24.8%) pregnant women. Among all pregnant women 80 (31.5%) had slightly visible goiter and only 87(34.2%) were currently taking iodized salt. The difference in UI excretion between goitrous and non-goitrous pregnant women was not significant. Among iodized salt users percentage of women with MID was less, though not significant, as compared to non-users (20.7% Vs 26.9%). About one-fourth of pregnant women screened in this study are moderately iodine deficient in Lahore. These women and their neonates are at increased risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Goiter is not a good indicator of low iodine intake while iodized salt consumption is beneficial in this regard (JPMA 59:741; 2009). (author)

  6. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  7. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Pregnant Women

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  8. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  9. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  10. Iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency...... iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding women after introduction of iodine fortification in a region of Denmark with previously moderate iodine deficiency. Additionally, thesis addressed mechanisms of iodiden transport to the fetus across the placenta and...... methodological challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in prengnant and breastfeeding women....

  11. Perception of Male Gender Preference Among Pregnant Igbo Women

    Ohagwu, CC; Eze, CU; Eze, JC; Odo, MC; Abu, PO; Ohagwu, CI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenien...

  12. Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses from Malaria in Study

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157683.html Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses From Malaria in Study Findings suggest ... used to treat malaria in adults also protects pregnant women and their fetuses from the disease, according ...

  13. Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women in Iran

    Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh; Mina Soleymani; Elham Ebrahimi; Fatemeh Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS)...

  14. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  15. Advising pregnant women on miminising travel risks.

    Tucker, Rosemary

    Pregnant women may face additional risks when travelling overseas, which must be considered with assessment and travel health advice before they decide to travel. A careful risk assessment should be completed to identify the key risks and strategies for staying safe while travelling. PMID:24772798

  16. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde; Phil, Richard Omoregie M.; Mitsan Olley; Joshua A. Anunibe

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration ...

  17. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

    Aponte John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. Results In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129 were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129 of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4% presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27–30, 29% (28–31, and 33% (31–35, respectively]. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be

  18. Correlates of anemia in pregnant women

    Ranjana Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a global public health challenge facing the world today. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in all the age groups is higher in India as compared to other developing countries. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the magnitude and to explore the socio-demographic and other correlates of anemia among pregnant women. Methodology: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant who were attending antenatal clinic for a period of one year were comprised the study material. Correlation between variables was analyzed using the chi-square and odd ratio. Results: Three hundred and thirty eight pregnant women were registered for the present study, whose age ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.08 years. Majority (81.95% participants were found to be anemic. It was observed that anemia was more prevalent in pregnant women age groups i.e. 25-29 years and 30+years i.e. 86.67% and 86.21% respectively. Anemia was 82.92% in women were belonging to Hindu and others religion and 82.24% in women having vegetarian diet. Maximum prevalence (83.93% of anemia was observed in women who were booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia is higher (>85% in women having parity two or more, but this association was not statistically significant. Very few (6.21% were found to be severely anemic as compared to women who were moderately anemic (43.19%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that possibility of anemia is less in women who belong to rural area and it is highly significant. Analysis further showed significant association between anemia and type of diet and other factors like women having parity 1 and 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst the pregnant participants was very high. The socio-demographic and obstetrics factors were found to be associated with anemia. To prevent

  19. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Seyhan Çankaya; Sema Dereli Yılmaz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions des...

  20. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  1. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  2. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Kamini Tyagi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The safety and tolerability of CART in pregnant and non-pregnant women did not differ by class of ARV, but there were differences among individual drugs. Zidovudine, efavirenz and nevirapine were substituted more commonly in pregnant women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 730-734

  3. Domestic violence against pregnant women in iran.

    Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

  4. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Galjautdinova S. I.; Kutusheva R. R.; Gumerova R. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component ...

  5. Validity of the vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya

    Fonck, K; Kidula, N; Jaoko, W; Estambale, B; Claeys, P.; Ndinya-Achola, J; Kirui, P; Bwayo, J; Temmerman, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the validity of different algorithms for the diagnosis of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among pregnant and non-pregnant women consulting health services for vaginal discharge in Nairobi, Kenya.

  6. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  7. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  8. Suicide Attempts with Drug Intoxication in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Uzkeser, Mustafa; Saritemur, Murat; Ayhan AKÖZ; Bayramoğlu, Atıf; EMET, Mücahit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insufficient data are available comparing medical costs, hospitalization or admission rate, and drugs used for the treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant women admited to the emergency department (ED) due to suicide attempts following drug intoxication. We sought to evaluate these differences in our ED. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study; hence we attempted to follow all pregnant and non-pregnant women who were admitted in our ED at Ataturk University, Erzurum-T...

  9. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  10. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous...

  11. Evaluation of selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Mohammadzadeh Vatanchi, Atieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Pourali, Leila; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications during pregnancy with considerable maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hypercoagulability due to thrombophilic factors is discussed as the etiology involved in this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 pregnant women at third trimester of pregnancy between 2012 and 2013. 100 pregnant women admitted to Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals of Mashhad, due to preeclampsia, were selected as case group and 100 pregnant women without preeclampsia referred to OB/GYN clinic of these hospitals as control group. Blood samples were taken from two groups for evaluation of the coagulation factors including factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Results: Two groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal age and parity (p>0.05). Levels of factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant antibodies were compared between two groups. The number of patients with abnormal factor V Leiden and protein C was significantly higher in case group than in the control group (p<0.01 respectively), but other factors were not significant different between two groups. Thrombophilia disorders were significantly more in case group compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The risk of thrombophilia disorders is higher in preeclamptic patients than normal pregnant women. PMID:25709635

  12. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Ashley Harris; Nymisha Chilukuri; Meredith West; Janice Henderson; Shari Lawson; Sarah Polk; David Levine; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospi...

  13. Plasma of pregnant and preeclamptic women activates monocytes in vitro

    Faas, M.M.; Donker, R.B.; van Pampus, M.G.; Huls, A.M.; Salomons, J.; de Vos, P.; Aarnoudse, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that factors circulating in the plasma of pregnant women and women with preeclampsia activate monocytes. STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples were taken from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia (n = 9), healthy pregnant women (n = 9),

  14. Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders

    Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy – as a treatment of choice – clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  15. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Siziya Seter; Dusabeyezu Fidens; Masaisa Florence; Muula Adamson S; Ntaganira Joseph; Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic...

  16. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137Cs intake. For the first woman 137Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  17. Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe

    Marnoch Gordon J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

  18. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005–2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n = 20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding/pregnant (NBP), and pregnant women (n = 3,409) matched within households and five-year age bands. We tested whether breastfeeding women had greater advantages in the 18 high-focus states of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Results Vegetarianism, caste, and religion were the strongest predictors of breastfeeding women's nutrition. Breastfeeding women had no nutritional advantage compared to NBP women, and were disadvantaged in their consumption of milk (b = −0.14) in low-focus states. Pregnant women were similarly disadvantaged in their consumption of milk in low-focus states (b = −0.32), but consumed vegetables more frequently (b = 0.12) than NBP women in high-focus states. Conclusions Breastfeeding women do not receive nutritional advantages compared to NBP women. Targeted effort is needed to assess and improve nutritional adequacy for breastfeeding Indian women. PMID:26826049

  19. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247. The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025 higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 - 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006. Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004 affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

  20. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  1. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  2. The observation of serum CG levels in pregnant women

    The authors determined the levels of the CG contained in serum by RIA in 83 normal pregnant women and in 53 pregnant patients with ICP. The result showed that CG levels of ICP patients increased significantly as compared with that of normal middle and late pregnancy (P < 0.01). The routine examination of the serum CG levels in pregnant women is of great value of the earlier diagnosis to ICP and treatment as well as health care of perinatal period

  3. Comparison of real-time PCR and microscopy for malaria parasite detection in Malawian pregnant women

    Maleta Kenneth; Mbewe Bernard; Luntamo Mari; Trottman Paul A; Taylor Steve M; Rantala Anne-Maria; Kulmala Teija; Ashorn Per; Meshnick Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background New diagnostic tools for malaria are required owing to the changing epidemiology of malaria, particularly among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Real-time PCR assays targeting Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfldh) gene may facilitate the identification of a high proportion of pregnant women with a P. falciparum parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy. These molecular methods will enable further studies on the effects of these submicroscopic infect...

  4. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  5. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish...... session was weakly associated with more knowledge. CONCLUSION: The majority of the pregnant women correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. The pregnant women were found less knowledgeable on test accuracy and drawbacks. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John...

  6. Are pregnant women prioritized for bed nets? An assessment using survey data from 10 African countries

    Ricotta, Emily; Koenker, Hannah; Kilian, Albert; Lynch, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health concern, contributing to roughly 11% of neonatal deaths and to 25% of all maternal deaths in some parts of the world. The World Health Organization has recommended priority interventions for malaria during pregnancy, including use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), but net distribution has shifted recently to a universal coverage paradigm rather than one targeting vulnerable populations. Methods: To determine whether and to what extent pregnant women are prioritized within the household for ITN use, we assessed national survey data from 2009–2013 in 10 African countries. Proportion of pregnant women who slept under an ITN the previous night and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared between countries. Within-country logistic regression examined whether pregnancy was significantly associated with ITN use the previous night compared with other risk groups, and the predicted probability of net use for each risk group was calculated holding other covariates constant. Results: A median 58% of households reported owning at least 1 ITN. On average, across all 10 countries, 35% of pregnant women in households with at least 1 ITN used a net. Households with universal coverage (at least 1 ITN per 2 people) had higher levels of net use among all family members; for example, 79% of pregnant women, on average, used a net in such households. In all countries, the predicted probability of ITN use by pregnant women was significantly higher than the probability of net use by most other household members except non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Conclusion: These findings suggest that both pregnant women and non-pregnant women of reproductive age are being prioritized within the household for net use. However, behavior change communication strategies are needed to achieve ITN use goals for pregnant women. PMID:25276574

  7. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  8. Gastroesophagial reflux disease and asthma in pregnant women with dyspnea.

    Katayoon Bidad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are two common problems in pregnancy and they affect pregnancy in several ways. In this study, we aimed to evaluate GERD and asthma in pregnant women who referred for prenatal care visits. One-hundred and seventy three pregnant women with a complaint of dyspnea were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled and lung function tests were performed. All patients were visited by a respiratory specialist and questionnaires were evaluated by a gastroenterologist. Out of the total number of women studied, 37% were diagnosed to have asthma and 36.4% were non-asthmatics. Twenty six percent of the pregnant women who had symptoms and signs of asthma with normal spirometry were classified as probable to have asthma. GERD was diagnosed in 80.9% of the pregnant women, but it was not significantly higher in asthmatic or probable asthmatic women compared to non-asthmatic ones. However, severity of GERD was significantly higher in asthmatic pregnant women compared to the others. In conclusion, the prevalence of GERD was quite high in pregnant women, irrespective of the fact that they were asthmatic or non-asthmatic. Further studies evaluating women throughout pregnancy will inform us more about this relationship.

  9. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  10. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  11. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  12. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  13. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among HIV positive pregnant women.

    Awolude, Olutosin A; Adesina, Olubukola A; Oladokun, Adesina; Mutiu, W B; Adewole, Isaac F

    2010-01-01

    The prognostic significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria resides in the observation that the prevalence is, relatively, high in persons with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and pregnancy. This prevalence might, even, be higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Hence, this study set out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among symptom free and newly enrolled HIV infected pregnant women attending PMTCT unit of Antiretroviral Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between 1st May and 30th September 2007.Information was obtained on the socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects, CD4 count and viral load. Microbial culture was carried out on aseptically collected urines from the patients. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 12 package. There were 161 analyzable samples from the participants. The mean age and gestational age at presentation of participants was 30.49 ± 4.3 years and 27.3 ± 3.2 weeks, respectively with modal parity of 2. Twenty-five (15.5%) of the urine samples significantly grew bacteria. The CD4 cells were significantly lower and the viral loads significantly higher(250.52 vs. 355.57 cells/mm3; 88,731 vs. 55,384 copies/ml; p = asymptomatic bacteriuria among PLWHAs is high. The microbial isolate from the urine samples were not different from those of HIV-negative patients. PMID:21178431

  14. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  15. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Information for Pregnant Women - Fact Sheet

    ... Social Media What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Emergency Preparedness and Response Information for Pregnant Women - Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preparing for Emergency Birth Many childbirth education classes ...

  16. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.;

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and Young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Design: Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Setting: Population...... Surveys and research studies. Subjects: Pregnant women and young infants. Results. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (mu g l(-1)) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (mu g per 24 h); 2...... to a mild iodine deficiency than in the mother. Conclusions: if the iodine status Of pregnant women and small children is not to be Misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account....

  17. Scientists Assess Risk to Pregnant Women Infected with Zika

    ... Scientists Assess Risk to Pregnant Women Infected With Zika A woman infected in 1st trimester has 1 ... there's more evidence supporting a link between the Zika virus and a serious birth defect. Researchers report ...

  18. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  19. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    Maral G. Nogayeva; Svetlana A. Tuleutayeva

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary trac...

  20. Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals

    Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

  1. Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Pedro Rifakis; Jesús Benitez; Gilberto Cabaniel; Elianet Araujo; Elizabeth Hernández; Magdary Colina; Blanco, Juan J.; Anna Viloria; Ymora Aguilera; Andrea Maldonado; Nestor Rubio; Gloria Gervasio; Oscar Urdaneta; Henry Perez; Marisela Ravelo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a...

  2. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Kashshapova, E. V.; Lopukhova, O. G.

    2015-01-01

    Fear of childbirth (FOC) is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC) in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e....

  3. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: external and internal factors

    LOPUKHOVA OLGA G.; KASHSHAPOVA ELENA V.

    2015-01-01

    Fear of childbirth (FOC) is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC) in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e....

  4. Health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in Banke District, Nepal

    Chhetri, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on pregnant women health seeking behavior and access opportunities to maternal health care service in Banke district, Nepal. Social structure, health delivery system, and barriers influence such behavior and opportunities. The objectives of this study are: to study the health seeking behavior of pregnant women; including their socio-demographic characteristics, their social structures, and influence to modern health care delivery system structure and to examine the barriers ...

  5. Seroprevalence of erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women

    Johargy, Ayman K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that range from mild to severe. The common clinical presentation of B19 virus (B19V) infection is erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, aplastic crisis, and fetal infection. Infection in seronegative pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Me...

  6. Pharmaceutical care to pregnant women carrying human immunodeficiency virus

    Geysa Aguiar Romeu; Larissa Varela de Paiva; Mariana Mota Moura Fé

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to know the pharmacoepidemiological profile of pregnant women carrying HIV, the prevention actions against vertical transmission, and evaluate the service respecting the patients' level of satisfaction. It was developed a quali-quantitative longitudinal study, with the sample being composed by pregnant women carrying HIV attended at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of a public hospital of Fortaleza - state of Ceará, during the period between January and Se...

  7. Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p3Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

  8. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  9. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  10. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    Preetha Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman’s body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%, low back pain (42%, and pelvic girdle pain (37%. Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  12. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  13. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  14. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the ...

  15. Half of U.S. Women Weigh Too Much Before Getting Pregnant

    ... of U.S. Women Weigh Too Much Before Getting Pregnant Excess weight puts mom and baby at risk, ... 4 percent of women were underweight before becoming pregnant. About 46 percent of women started their pregnancies ...

  16. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  17. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, ...

  18. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US.Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non...

  19. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  1. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  2. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis E Virus Among Pregnant Women

    Mamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is a major public health problem in developing countries, which could progress to an acute self-limited hepatitis. Young adults and middle-aged people are more likely to be infected than children and elderly persons. The disease is usually mild in general population; severe infection is more seen among pregnant women and leads to a high rate of mortality in this population. Objectives This study aimed to assess seroprevalence of HEV infection and related risk factors among pregnant women referred to Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 1050 pregnant women were included in this prospective cross-sectional study, conducted from 2010 to 2011. Anti-HEV specific IgG was measured with ELISA method. A questionnaire containing research purposes was also fulfilled for each participant. Results The mean age of pregnant women was 27.2 ± 5.6 years. The overall seroprevalence of anti-HEV was 7.4%. There was a significant association between anti-HEV seropositivity and age (P 0.05. Conclusions According to the results, 92.6% of pregnant women were anti-HEV negative. However, there is no available effective vaccine for its prevention in human yet. Therefore, education about environmental and personal hygiene before and during pregnancy may be helpful for decreasing the rate of HEV infection in this high risk population.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan, capable of infecting a wide range of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Infection with T. gondii can be life threatening in immunocompromised people. Moreover, infection with T. gondii during pregnancy can lead to severe problems for fetus. Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 156 serum samples were selected randomly from pregnant females and their anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were screened using routine commercial ELISA kits. The probable risk factors related to toxoplasmosis were asked and collected in pregnant women of Urmia. Results Of the 156 sera, 44 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 112 were negative. The mean age of women was 19.68 and the rate of IgM-positive cases for T. gondii infection was 2.6%. Conclusions According to our study, Toxoplasma regular screening program in pregnant women is strongly recommended, since a considerable number of pregnant women in our area are susceptible to infection with acute T. gondii over the course of pregnancy.

  4. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous...... abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women...... who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non-planners with...

  5. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  6. Multiple micronutrient supplementation and dietary energy intake in pregnant women

    Teresa González-Cossío; Juan Rivera; Reynaldo Martorell; Usha Ramakrishnan; María de Lourdes Flores; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary intake of women supplemented with multiple micronutrients (MM) or iron only during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. Design: Randomized, double-blind, controlled community-based trial. Setting: One semi-urban community in Central Mexico. Subjects: Pregnant women identified before week 13 of pregnancy, willing to provide informed consent. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation with MM or iron only from recruitment until delive...

  7. Pregnant Women after Physical and Sexual Abuse in Germany

    Jundt, Katharina; Haertl, Kristin; Knobbe, Angelika; Kaestner, Ralph; Friese, Klaus; Peschers, Ursula M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of abuse among pregnant women in Germany attending our antenatal outpatient clinic and to observe whether a history of abuse had consequences for women's feelings about their pregnancy. Methods: 455 women between the 35th and 42nd weeks of gestational age were included and were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire concerning their pregnancy, their actual psychological state, and their history of physical/sexual abuse...

  8. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  9. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    Romero, Roberto; HASSAN, Sonia S.; Gajer, Pawel; Tarca, Adi L.; Fadrosh, Douglas W; Nikita, Lorraine; Galuppi, Marisa; Ronald F Lamont; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Miranda, Jezid; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Ravel, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal flu...

  10. Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women

    Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

  11. [POLYGYNAX IN THE TREATMENT OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN--CLINICAL EXPERIENCE].

    Popovski, N; Popovski, K; Nedelkovski, V

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal infections /VI/ represent some of the most common diseases by infection of FGS. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Polygynax in the treatment of vaginal infections and to take into account the correlation between the results of microbiological controls and reduction of clinical symptoms. The study included 100 patients, including 50 pregnant and non-pregnant 50 for a period of 3 months. All of them was diagnosed with vaginitis clinical examination, taken material from vagina for microbiological testing. The studied women was conducted targeted therapy Polygynax 12 capsules, in the form of vaginal capsules for 12 days, after which the sample control microbiology. Behind the subjective complaints of the patient and to reduce them as a result of treatment. The effective implementation of Polygynax 12 capsules is equally good as in non-pregnant and pregnant women. In a summary of the survey data to make relevant analyzes and conclusions from the results. PMID:27509660

  12. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Simon Brooker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. METHODS: Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence. FINDINGS: One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with

  13. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    Maral G. Nogayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.

  14. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... risk of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information...

  15. Studies of dental and oral changes of pregnant diabetic women.

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G

    1987-01-01

    The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women. PMID:3497504

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C seropositivity in pregnant women

    Carla Natalina da Silva Fernandes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of hepatitis B and C seropositivity in pregnant women attended in a public maternity hospital located in Catalao-GO from 2005 to 2009. Descriptive, exploratory study conducted through patients` hospital records. For data analysis, we used SPSS version 18.0. The confidence interval (CI was calculated using the Person χ² test, considering a significance level of 5% (p <0.05. The prevalence of HBV was 5.64% and HCV 0.098%, predominantly in young pregnant women aged between 20 and 30 years old, single and in their first pregnancy.

  17. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  18. Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women

    J Hamissi; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; A Davalloo

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...

  19. Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs

    Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 μSv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units

  20. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  1. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  2. Acute aortic dissection in pregnant women.

    Yang, Zhaohua; Yang, Shouguo; Wang, Fangshun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic dissection occurring during pregnancy represents a lethal risk to both the mother and fetus. Management of parturient with acute aortic dissection is complex. We report our experience of two pregnancies with type A acute aortic dissection. One patient is a 31-year-old pregnant woman (33rd gestational week) with a bicuspid aortic valve and the other is a 32-year-old pregnant woman (30th gestational week) with the Marfan syndrome. In both cases, a combined emergency operation consisting of Cesarean section, total hysterectomy prior to corrective surgery for aortic dissection was successfully performed within a relatively short period of time after the onset. Both patients' postoperative recovery was uneventful, and we achieved a favorable maternal and fetal outcome. PMID:25085319

  3. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  4. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  6. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...

  7. Iodine status among pregnant women after mandatory salt iodisation.

    Anaforoğlu, İ; Algün, E; İnceçayır, Ö; Topbaş, M; Erdoğan, M F

    2016-02-14

    I is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development. Various changes occur in thyroid hormone metabolism during pregnancy and I requirements increase significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate I status among pregnant women in Trabzon, formerly a severely I-deficient area but shown to have become I sufficient following mandatory iodisation of table salt based on monitoring studies among school-age children (SAC) in the area. A total of 864 healthy pregnant women with a median age of 28 (25th-75th percentile 17-47) years participated in the study. None of them were using I-containing supplement. All of them were screened for use of iodised salt, obstetric history, thyroid function tests and urinary I concentrations (UIC), and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Median UIC was 102 (25th-75th percentile=62-143) μg/l. Median UIC of the patients according to trimesters were 122 µg/l at the 1st, 97 µg/l at the 2nd and 87 µg/l at the 3rd trimester. UIC in the 1st trimester was higher compared with the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (P<0·017). Nodules were present in 17·7% of women (n 153). The rate of iodised salt usage among pregnant women was 90·7%. Our study demonstrates that, although the I status among SAC has been rectified, I deficiency (ID) is still prevalent among pregnant women. Current knowledge is in favour of I supplementation in this group. Until the effects of maternal I supplementation in mild ID have been clarified by large-scale prospective controlled trials, pregnant women living in borderline defficient and I-sufficient areas, such as Trabzon city, should receive 100-200 µg/d of I-containing supplements in addition to iodised salt. PMID:26596695

  8. Perceived Social Support among Family in Pregnant Women

    Sedigheh Abdollahpour; Somayeh Ramezani; Ahmad Khosravi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Iran little attention has been paid to the important role of husband’s support in promoting maternal health. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived social support from family in pregnant women and pregnancy-related factors. Methods: The study included 358 postpartum women in the second half of the year 2014 in Fatemiyeh Hospital in Shahroud, North East of Iran. The data collection instruments included Perceived Social Support - Family Scale (PSSFa)...

  9. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  10. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  11. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico

    Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

  12. Seroprevalence of erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women

    Ayman K Johargy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erythrovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that range from mild to severe. The common clinical presentation of B19 virus (B19V infection is erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, aplastic crisis, and fetal infection. Infection in seronegative pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 364 blood (serum samples were tested for erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Results: Erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibodies were detected in 182/364 (50% of Saudi pregnant women of different age groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that B19V is clearly circulating in the community in a way that is similar to what is found in most nontemperate countries.

  13. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  14. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Epidemiological Determinants in Pregnant Women

    R.G.Viveki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia in pregnant women is one of the India’s major public health problems, despite the fact that this problem is largely preventable & easily treatable. Objectives: 1.To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women. 2. To assess the epidemiological determinants of anaemia in pregnancy. Methodology: A descriptive case series study was conducted among the pregnant women from second trimester onwards from urban field practice area from 1st March 2010 to 31st July 2010 by using pre-designed, pre-tested, structured schedule. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method & anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analyses were done by percentages and proportions, Mean and Standard Deviation (S.D, Chi-square test. Results: A high prevalence (82.9% of anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 11.0gm/dl was observed among 228 pregnant women. Majority (50.4% had moderate degree of anaemia (Haemoglobin - 7.0 to 10.0 gm/dl and 7.0% had severe anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 7.0 gm/dl. Severity of anaemia was more in 26 years of age, from nuclear families, educated upto secondary level, having vegetarian diet, parity two or more & those in third trimester with two or more abortions, although statistically not significant. However, anaemia prevalence was significantly higher among those subjects from below Class IV socio-economic status, those with less than two years of spacing between previous and index pregnancies & with less than two months IFA tablet consumption. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women from 4th month onwards till 3-6 months post-partum along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.

  15. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolm

  16. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  17. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  18. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  19. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447

  20. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

    Hussein Aqeely

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG and active toxoplasmosis (IgM was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195, whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195. Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.. The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.. Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  2. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Ewelina Gaszyńska; Justyna Klepacz-Szewczyk; Elżbieta Trafalska; Anna Garus-Pakowska; Franciszek Szatko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Det...

  3. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  4. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  5. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  6. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Ashley Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.

  7. A comparative study of static pulmonary function tests in Indian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Ameet Fadia; Manish Dhadse

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy represents one of the best examples of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. Objective of the study is to evaluate the changes in static pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in third trimesters of pregnancy (study group) and compare with non-pregnant women (control group). Methods: 65 subjects (study group 35 subjects and control group 30 subjects) from a tertiary care hospital of Mumbai were included in the study. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) was don...

  8. EXPERIENCES AND VIEWS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON SMOKING

    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  9. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection

    Rodrigo Batista Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitrosusceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli(Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus(Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coliand S. aureuswere the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  10. Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women

    To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

  11. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  12. Coagulation factors in whole blood collected from pregnant women and stored at 4°C

    Minatoguchi, Miki; ITAKURA, ATSUO; Miki, Akinori; Kajihara, Takeshi; Sasaki, Shiho; Takase, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kiyoko; Asada, Rumiko; IKEBUCHI, KENJI; Ishihara, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to measure the levels of coagulation factors in stored whole blood of pregnant women and to determine their usefulness in treating pregnant women who developed coagulopathy. A prospective study to measure coagulation factors in stored donated whole blood from pregnant and non-pregnant women was conducted. Fibrinogen, FV, FVII, FVIII, FXIII, and von Willebrand factor were measured in blood stored at 4°C for 0, 1, 3, and 5 weeks. All coagulation factors except f...

  13. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  14. Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders

    Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski; Katarzyna Cyranka; Bogna Smiatek-Mazgaj; Michał Mielimąka; Jerzy A. Sobański; Krzysztof Rutkowski

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecolo...

  15. Getting Older Women Pregnant: Contemporary Thoughts.

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-10-01

    For women of advanced age with abnormally increased FSH levels, standardized hormonal stimulation often represents a cost-intensive procedure with a low success rate. It is well established now that with mild ovarian stimulation, there is a greater percentage of good-quality eggs (although a smaller number) than with higher-dose conventional stimulation. Mild stimulation protocols reduce the mean number of days of stimulation, the total amount of gonadotropins used and the mean number of oocytes retrieved. The proportion of high-quality and euploid embryos seems to be higher compared with conventional stimulation protocols, and the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer is comparable. Moreover, the reduced costs, the better tolerability for patients and the less time needed to complete an IVF cycle make mild approaches clinically and cost-effective over a given period of time. The low number of embryos available for transfer poses a great challenge in the management of older women going in for IVF. A potential management of these older women is to create a sufficient pool of embryos by accumulating vitrified good-grade embryos over several minimal stimulation and natural cycles. At the end of the accumulation process, these embryos can be subjected to a preimplantation genetic screening using next-generation sequencing and then the pool would have only chromosomal normal embryos with maximal chances of implantation. This would potentially make the chances of success for older women similar to normal responders. This management, however, is unthinkable without an outstanding vitrification program. The option of accumulating embryos has become a promising reality with the advent of vitrification technologies. PMID:27486273

  16. The use of radioisotopes in pregnant women

    This outline review concludes that pregnancy is a major contra-indication for any diagnostic procedures. The only exception is a perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs, when a pulmonary embolism is suspected. Accidental exposures of the embryo should be guarded against by implementing the ten day rule for diagnostic examinations of fertile women at risk of pregnancy. In the event of clinical emergencies resulting in radiation of an early developing embryo, reconstruction of the received dose is essential. A foetal dose of 10 rads or more is usually considered as an indication of a therapeutic abortion, while doses below 1 rad can probably be neglected. (U.K.)

  17. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial of...... 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary...... hypocaloric Mediterranean-style diet. Instruction was given by a dietician every 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure was GWG, and the secondary outcome measures were complications of pregnancy and delivery and neonatal outcome. RESULTS: The study was completed by 389 patients (92%). Median values of GWG...

  18. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  19. Acute coronary syndrome in pregnant women.

    El-Deeb, Mohammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Gehani, Abdulrazzak; Sulaiman, Kadhim

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the available information on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) during all stages of pregnancy. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus and EBSCO host research databases from 1980 through to August 2010 using the indexing terms 'pregnancy', 'ante-,peri-, and postpartum', 'acute coronary syndrome', 'myocardial infarction', 'STEMI' and 'NSTEMI'. Symptomatic coronary artery disease is still infrequent in women of childbearing age, but the recent increase in its prevalence in pregnancy has been attributed to the modern trend of childbearing in older years because many young working women are postponing having children. Although rare, acute pregnancy-related MI is a devastating event that may claim the life of a mother and her fetus. The incidence of MI is estimated at 0.6-1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The case fatality rate has been reported to be 5-37%. Owing to the rarity of the event, information related to MI in pregnancy is derived from case reports and, therefore, is subject to considerable reporting bias. Treatment needs to be prompt and urgent because of the very high mortality rate. Current guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MI should be expanded to include pregnancy-related MI. Screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors should be achieved before pregnancy. PMID:21517733

  20. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx), and catalase (CAT) levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and...

  1. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Wagey Freddy Wagey; Prof. R. D. Kandou

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx), and catalase (CAT) levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this stud...

  2. Risk Factors on Hypertensive Disorders among Jordanian Pregnant Women

    Amal K Suleiman

    2013-01-01

    Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients ...

  3. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  4. Quality of Life of Pregnant Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; Müller, Cristina Heloisa

    2016-05-01

    Objective to evaluate the quality of life of HIV positive (HIV+) pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS Target Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. Methods cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015, with HIV+ pregnant women selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected through interviews, and the HAT-QoL questionnaire was applied. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from medical records. Results twenty-seven pregnant women participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years (standard deviation - SD: 7.3). The majority (59%) had up to 8 years of education, 52% identified themselves as white, 56% were unemployed, and 59% had a household income higher than the minimum wage. The mean infection time by the virus was 68.4 months (5.7 years). The majority (74%) were contaminated with HIV through sexual intercourse, and 67% declared not having a HIV+ relative. Regarding the use of condoms, 41% reported using them sporadically, and the same number did not have proper knowledge about them. Only 23 patients (85%) reported having been prescribed antiretrovirals. Fourteen (64%) had a CD4 count higher than 500 cells/mm(3), and 13 pregnant women (59%) had an undetectable viral load. The scores from the quality of life questionnaire dimensions that were more affected are: infection "disclosure concerns" (mean: 39.8; SD: 27.1), followed by "financial concerns" (mean: 49.1; SD: 36), and "HIV acceptance" (mean: 49.1; SD: 35.8). The dimension with the best score was "medication concerns" (mean: 80.8; SD: 26.5). Conclusion quality of life has been increasingly used as a clinical outcome evaluation parameter. The results of this study contribute to the establishment of interventions based on the needs of HIV+ pregnant women. PMID:27187928

  5. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  6. Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India

    Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

  7. New generation of antidepressants in pregnant women

    Ladan Kashani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Although pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram and venlafaxine, the latest studies aren't necessarily reassuring. As researchers continue to learn more about antidepressants, the risks and benefits of taking the drugs during pregnancy must be weighed carefully on a case-by-case basis. This review discusses about the use of new generation of antidepressants in pregnancy

  8. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the...

  9. Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Subchorionic Hematoma

    Victoria V. Barinova; Anna V. Kovaleva; Maria P. Dmitrieva

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of subchorionic hematoma (SCH) in the first trimester of pregnancy remains open for discussion. Some authors claim that SCH does not affect the pregnancy; others have found that it is a serious risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. The objective of the present study was to explore the outcomes of pregnancy in patients with SCH diagnosed in the first trimester. Methods and Results: The study involved 194 pregnant women who were in terms of 6 to12 weeks: 115 women w...

  10. Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Subchorionic Hematoma

    Victoria V. Barinova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of subchorionic hematoma (SCH in the first trimester of pregnancy remains open for discussion. Some authors claim that SCH does not affect the pregnancy; others have found that it is a serious risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. The objective of the present study was to explore the outcomes of pregnancy in patients with SCH diagnosed in the first trimester. Methods and Results: The study involved 194 pregnant women who were in terms of 6 to12 weeks: 115 women with SCH (Group 1 and 79 apparently healthy pregnant women (Group 2. A missed miscarriage was observed in 27/23% women of Group 1 and in 4/5% of Group 2 (P<0.05, recurrent threat of miscarriage in 27/23% and in 4/5%, recurrent bleeding in 14/12% and 2/3%, and the short cervix syndrome in 22/19% and 5/6% women, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the presence of SCH adversely affects the first half of pregnancy, leading to recurrent threatened abortion, recurrent threat of miscarriage, missed miscarriage until 12 weeks of gestation, and the short cervix syndrome.

  11. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  12. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank. PMID:9718543

  13. "Rubella seroprevalence in pregnant women in Shariatti hospital, Tehran, Iran "

    Eslamian L

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubella a benign viral and modestly contagious illness in children, becomes a very dangerous story when acquired by pregnant women. The potential of its teratogenicity is obvious. Since prevention is preferred to treatment, diagnosis of rubella infection syndrome being difficult in early stages of pregnancy, the uncertainly about fetuses being really infected and therapeutic abortion because of fetal indication being prohibited by law in our country in a descriptive study, the rubella antibody titer (IgG-HI assay was measured in 500 pregnant women referred to the prental clinic, shariatti Hospital. 76% of women were immune. The immune status improved with advancing age (P<0.01. More than half of these women had no information regarding their previous vaccination status. Only 25 percent reported of being vaccinated, of which, 40 percent was done at 1.5 years of age. No one had been vaccinate in postpartum period. With regard to the results , it is proposed to immunize all children in the second year of life, at preschool ently or high school, screen women in prepubertal, premarried, prenatal period, in the family planning centers and health care places and vaccinate them at appropriae time.

  14. TROPHOBLASTIC β1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588

  15. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  16. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico

    Díaz-García Juan; Estrada-Martínez Sergio; Narro-Duarte Sergio; Sifuentes-Álvarez Antonio; Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme; Liesenfeld Oliver; Martínez-García Sergio; Canales-Molina Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in...

  17. Induction of labour in postdates pregnant women

    Objective: To differentiate the effect of gestation on the mode of delivery by analysing the difference in the mode of induction, length of labour and the difference in parity or Bishop score and their effect on the mode of delivery of postdates women. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad, from July 2006 to July 2008. Methodology:Patients were induced at 41 weeks (Group B) and > 40 weeks (Group A) of gestation. Tab misoprostol and PGE2 tablets were administered according to amniotic fluid index (AFI) and parity . Study variables included duration of gestation, mode of induction, length of labour, difference in parity and Bishop score assessed before induction in each group. The outcome was assessed by applying Chi-square test by comparing mode of delivery with the study variables in both groups. Results: A total of 78 patients were inducted in the study. They were divided in group B (n = 39) induced 41 weeks and group A (n = 39) induced at 40 weeks. Eighty four percent (n = 35) patients in group B delivered vaginally as compared to 71% (n = 28) in the 40 weeks group (p < 0.0001). The higher number of vaginal deliveries in 41 weeks group was independent of association between the induction agent, parity and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The mean length of gestation was the single most important factor among the studied variables in predicting a vaginal delivery. (author)

  18. Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography

    To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women

  19. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  20. Obstetric MR imaging: Experience with 75 pregnant women

    Seventy-five pregnant women underwent MR imaging at 0.35 T. The subjects fell into two broad categories: women with suspected medical or surgical disease (n = 37), and women with abnormal gestations, as determined by prior US studies (n = 38). In the first group, MR imaging depicted a wide variety of maternal ailments, including abnormalities in the brain, chest, liver, adrenals, kidneys, and pelvis. There were no false-positive MR imaging studies. There were two true-negative studies in this group. The only false-negative examination occurred in a patient with a tubal ectopic pregnancy. In the second group, MR imaging depicted fetal anomalies in all 24 cases identified on US. However, in every instance, US provided equivalent or more morphologic information and also physiologic information not available from MR imaging. MR imaging may be useful for evaluating pregnant women with medical or surgical diseases, but currently it provides only limited morphologic data on the fetus, in comparison to US

  1. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  2. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OHD] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml. Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5% were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OHD <30 ng/ml, 44.6% (95%CI = 41.9-47.3% were vitamin D deficient (25-(OHD <20 ng/ml, while 12.1% (95%CI = 10.3-13.8% were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OHD <10 ng/ml. Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OHD <20 ng/ml was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OHD <10 ng/ml decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in

  3. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  4. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  5. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  6. Status of pandemic influenza vaccination and factors affecting it in pregnant women in Kahramanmaras, an eastern Mediterranean city of Turkey.

    Ali Ozer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 314 of 522 (60.2% pregnant women who attended to the antenatal clinics of the Medical Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University's Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between December 23, 2009, and February 1, 2010. We developed a 48-question survey which was completed in a face-to-face interview at the clinic with each pregnant woman. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 314 pregnant women, 27.4% were in the first trimester, 33.8% were in the second trimester, and 38.8% were in the third trimester. Twenty-eight pregnant women (8.9% got vaccinated. Of all the women interviewed, 68.5% stated that they were comfortable with their decisions about the vaccine, 7.3% stated they were not comfortable, and 24.2% stated that they were hesitant about their decisions. The probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was 3.46 times higher among working women than housewives, 1.85 times higher among women who have a child than those who do not, and 1.29 times higher among women with a high-school education or higher than those with only a secondary-school education and below. Correct knowledge about the minimal risks associated with receipt of influenza vaccine were associated with a significant increase in the probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of pregnant women in the study group who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was very low (8.9% and two-thirds of them stated that they were comfortable with their decisions concerning the vaccine. Our results may have implications for public health measures to increase the currently low

  7. Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department

    Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

  8. [Herpes zoster in immunocompetent pregnant women and their perinatal outcome].

    Casanova Román, Gerardo; Reyna Figueroa, Jesús; Figueroa Damián, Ricardo; Ortiz Ibarra, Javier

    2004-02-01

    A prospective and descriptive study was done in pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster, to know the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations as well as maternal and/or neonatal complications to cause by this viral infection during pregnancy. The study included all pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia México, between 1994 and 2002. A total of 17 women were included in the study. All were given clinical and ultrasound follow-up to discard any maternal or fetal complications also at the moment of birth. A review in the newborn was made to establish the demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics; also the data collected included mother's age, gestational age at the moment of diagnosis with herpes zoster, anatomical lesion site, treatments administered, ultrasound characteristics, newborn's gestational age, weight, height, Apgar at birth and type of delivery. The most frequent site (58.8%) for herpes zoster lesions on the mother was the intercostal area, followed by the scapular region, the lumbar region and the limbs. None of the patients experienced complications during pregnancy, including post-herpetic pain. Sixteen of the newborns had no complications and one was a stillborn due to 60% of placental separation. These findings suggest a benign evolution of herpes zoster during pregnancy, supporting similar findings in the literature. No complications during pregnancy are suggested, and no phenotypical alterations occurred in the child at the moment of birth. PMID:15216903

  9. Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Zimmermann, Ivan R.; Lopes, Luiz Antonio B.; Bernardo, Eneida F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. We included eight studies out of 1,967 retrieved records. Influenza vaccination in pregnant women significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness in mothers and their infants when compared with control groups (high-quality evidence) and reduced the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants (moderate-quality evidence). No difference was found with regard to influenza-like illness with fever higher than 38°C (moderate-quality evidence) or upper respiratory infection (very-low-quality evidence) in mothers and infants. Conclusions. Maternal vaccination against influenza was shown to prevent influenza-like illness in women and infants; no differences were found for other outcomes. As the quality of evidence was not high overall, further research is needed to increase confidence and could possibly change these estimates. PMID:24971194

  10. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  11. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. PMID:27088708

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran

    Kalantar Enayat; Farhadifar Fariba; Nikkho Bahram

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI) among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9%) had bacteriuria. The mean age of...

  13. Correlates of vaginal colonization with group B streptococci among pregnant women

    Tsering Chomu Dechen; Kar Sumit; Pal Ranabir

    2010-01-01

    Background: A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS) was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. Setting and Design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: ...

  14. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    Sharma, Sapna; Ashley, Justin M.; Hodgson, Alexandra; Nisker, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal cl...

  15. Pregnant Women’s View on Their Relationship: A Comparison With Nonpregnant Women

    Karlijn Massar; Abraham P. Buunk; Stefan L. K. Gruijters

    2013-01-01

    The positive effects of partner support on pregnancy outcomes and maternal (mental) health are well established in the literature. Less is known about pregnant women’s perceptions of their partner and relationship, and whether these differ from those of nonpregnant women. Therefore, in the current study, data were collected through an online questionnaire among pregnant (n = 66) and nonpregnant (n = 59) women with similar demographic profiles. The results show that pregnant women reported fee...

  16. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  17. Ondansetron Pharmacokinetics in Pregnant Women and Neonates: Towards a New Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Elkomy, Mohammed H.; Sultan, Pervez; Carvalho, Brendan; Peltz, Gary; Wu, Manhong; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffery L.; Drover, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Ondansetron is the drug of choice to prevent nausea in women undergoing cesarean surgery and can be used to prevent neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Pharmacokinetics of ondansetron has not been characterized in pregnant women or in newborns. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was used to analyze plasma samples obtained from 20 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant women following single administration of 4 or 8 mg ondansetron, from umbilical cord blood at delivery, and from neonates after ...

  18. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    Yamaguchi Kotomi; Suganuma Nobuhiko; Ohashi Kazutomo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact ...

  19. DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    Ifesanya, Joy U.; Adeleke O Ifesanya; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and preg...

  20. Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women

    Tognazzo Federica; Forza Giovanni; Guarnieri Emanuela; Buja Alessandra; Sandonà Paolo; Zampieron Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smo...

  1. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  2. Urinary organophosphate metabolite levels in Palestinian pregnant women: results of the Middle East Regional Cooperation Project.

    Abdeen, Ziad; Berman, Tamar; Azmi, Kifaya; Abu Seir, Rania; Agha, Hazem; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Göen, Thomas; Stein, Yael; Richter, Elihu; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure urinary organophosphate (OP) metabolites in Palestinian pregnant women, and to compare levels with those in pregnant women in Jerusalem and women from the general population in Israel. We measured six dialkyl phosphates in urine samples collected from 148 pregnant women from the West Bank area. Median total dimethyl phosphate (DMtotal) levels were significantly lower in Palestinian women compared to Jerusalem pregnant women and women in Israel (p = 0.041). In Palestinian women reporting that their place of residence was near an agricultural field, DMtotal levels were significantly higher (p = 0.037). Lower urinary excretion of dimethyl phosphate pesticide metabolites in Palestinian women compared to Israeli women may result from lower consumption of fruits and vegetables in the Palestinian population. Our findings highlight differences in OP pesticide exposure in populations with close geographical proximity but with differences in culture, diet, lifestyle, and regulatory oversight of pesticides. PMID:26578062

  3. Priporočila za telesno dejavnost nosečnic: Recommendations for physical activity in pregnant women:

    Hadžić, Vedran; Karpljuk, Damir; Meško, Maja; Šćepanović, Darija; Štihec, Jože; Videmšek, Mateja; Videmšek, Naja; Vrtačnik-Bokal, Eda; Žgur, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Properly selected and prescribed physical acti - vity during pregnancy has a favorable effect on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the war - ning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically ac - tive pregnant women and for exercise professio - nals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women sh...

  4. The Haemostatic Effects of Mifepristone in Early Pregnant Women

    贺昌海; 范倩; 顾江; 桂幼伦; 汪荣卿; 李盛华; 陈俊康

    1994-01-01

    The paper reported the effects of four different regimens of mifepristone on clotting and fibrinolytic systems in pregnant women. Nine parameters (PT,KPTT,Ⅶ: C, Ⅷ: C, VWF , AT Ⅲ = C, AT Ⅱ = Ag , α2-macroglobulin and plasminogen antigen levels) were determined. All the data were analysed on VAX-Ⅱ using SAS software package, The results showed that among the four groups there was no significant.difference in pretreated values of each parameter, and in values of PT、KPTT、 AT

  5. Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in cervixes of pregnant women.

    Okuno, T; Oishi, H.; Hayashi, K; Nonogaki, M; Tanaka, K.; Yamanishi, K

    1995-01-01

    We looked for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 genomes in the cervixes of pregnant women in the late stages of their pregnancies. Of 72 samples collected with cervical swabs and amplified by nested PCR, we found that 14 (19.4%) and 2 (2.7%) contained detectable HHV-6 and HHV-7 genomes, respectively. The two samples in which HHV-7 DNA was detected also contained HHV-6 genomes. Hybridization of HHV-6 DNA amplified by PCR with variant-specific probes revealed that all of these DNA samples b...

  6. Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa

    C E Martin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The high burden of HIV and tuberculosis (TB among pregnant women in South Africa contributes to a high maternal mortality rate. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT is recommended for the prevention of active TB in HIV-infected individuals, including pregnant women. However, there are few data regarding IPT use in the latter, with concern regarding the concurrent use of IPT with nevirapine in pregnancy, as both treatments are hepatotoxic. The benefit and safety of IPT in HIV-infected pregnant women has not been established. We recommend a simplification of HIV and TB interventions by providing triple antiretroviral therapy to all HIV-infected pregnant women.

  7. Thrombocytopenia in plasmodium parasitized pregnant women in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    O Erhabor

    2010-01-01

    .5 ± 9.68 × 109/L and 126.3 ± 16.7 × 109/L for the primigravidae and multigravidae respectively. (χ2 = 10.46; P = 0.05. Parasite density was significantly higher among Plasmodium parasitized primigravidae compared to multigravidae 2150 (1638–2662 parasites/µL in primigravidae women compared to 1826 (1430–2222 parasites/µL in multigravid women. The mean parasite count in Plasmodium falciparum parasitized subjects was 2650 ± 234 parasites/µL, 95% confidence interval (2092–3118. Malaria parasite was found to exert a significant reduction in platelet density in parasitized subjects. This reduction was more pronounced in primigravidae and multigravidae. An inverse relationship was established between parasite density and platelet count (y = -0.020 × +86.2, r = -0.3.Conclusion: There is need for a strengthened antenatal care system with increased awareness of the problem among communities most affected by malaria. Preventative strategies including regular chemoprophylaxis, intermittent preventative treatment with antimalarials and provision of insecticide-treated bed nets should be implemented as well as integration of malaria control tools with other health programmes targeted to pregnant women and newborns.Keywords: thrombocytopenia, malaria, pregnancy, Niger Delta, Nigeria

  8. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  9. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  10. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    Heminger CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results: Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion: Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. Keywords: mHealth, smoking cessation, pregnancy, text messaging

  11. Prostasin and its regulatory proteins in human placentas from pregnant women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant controls

    Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Vogel, Lotte Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    preeclampsia is associated with low prostasin expression in placenta and spillover of prostasin into urine across the defect glomerular barrier. METHODS: This hypothesis was addressed in a cross-sectional design with 20 healthy pregnant women and 20 women with new onset of preeclampsia (hypertension and 1+ for...

  12. Leukocyte Esterase Activity in Vaginal Fluid of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women With Vaginitis/Vaginosis and in Controls

    Per-Anders Mårdh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the leukocyte esterase (LE activity in vaginal lavage fluid of women with acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC and RVVC respectively, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and in pregnant and non-pregnant women without evidence of the three conditions. Also to compare the result of LE tests in women consulting at different weeks in the cycle and trimesters of pregnancy.The LE activity was correlated to vaginal pH, number of inflammatory cells in stained vaginal smears, type of predominating vaginal bacteria and presence of yeast morphotypes.

  13. Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women

    J Hamissi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: 94.4% responded the questionnaire and participated in statistical procedure. 73.1% of the patients used to brush their teeth at least twice a day and also 70.3% used to brush their teeth after meal."nConclusion: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community- based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes. More importance must be given to oral health care center in family planning centers.

  14. Comparison of Lifestyles of Women With Gestational Diabetes and Healthy Pregnant Women

    Javid, Fatereh Momeni; Simbar, Masoumeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes is the most common medical condition in pregnancy and can be a predisposing factor in incidence of type II diabetes in future. Incorrect lifestyles can predispose people to various diseases, including diabetes, which is a serious health risk. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare lifestyles of women with gestational diabetes and healthy pregnant women attending the health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in 2...

  15. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective cas...... vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes....

  16. Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    F I Buseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab, Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg, Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-Aand antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in Yenagoa city, the heart of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies were detected by using "Determine" HIV-1/2 test strip (Abbott Laboratories, Japan; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and antibodies to T. pallidum were carried out using ACON rapid test strips (ACON Laboratories, USA. All positive samples for HIV, HBV and HCV were confirmed using the Clinotech diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kits (Clinotech Laboratories, USA, while all reactive samples to Treponema pallidum antibodies were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA test (Lorne Laboratories Ltd., UK. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data generated were coded, entered, validated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 12.0, and Epi info. The seroprevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV and HIV was expressed for the entire study group by age, sex and other demographic features using Pearson chi-square analysis. Values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,000 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 15 and 44 years with a mean of 27.34΁5.43 years were screened. In terms of percentage, 89.4% of the subjects were married, and 10.6% were without formal husbands. The overall

  17. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  18. Assessment of Iodine Status in Children, Adults, Pregnant Women and Lactating Women in Iodine-Replete Areas of China

    Meng, Fangang; Zhao, Rencheng; Liu, Peng; Liu, Lixiang; Liu, Shoujun

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI) in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. Design Six...

  19. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used to assess glucose control in diabetes. The objective was to examine how analysis of glucose data might improve our understanding of the role temporal glucose variation has on large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants born to women...... with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1...... 117 (46%) women developed LGA. LGA was associated with lower mean glucose (7.0 vs. 7.1 mmol/L; P < 0.01) in trimester 1, with higher mean glucose in trimester 2 (7.0 vs. 6.7 mmol/L; P < 0.001) and trimester 3 (6.5 vs. 6.4 mmol/L; P < 0.01). FDA showed that glucose was significantly lower midmorning...

  20. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City

    M. Fallah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ≥ 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

  2. Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin

    Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

  3. Diabetic Nephropathy and Microalbuminuria in Pregnant Women With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    Damm, Julie Agner; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Callesen, Nicoline Foged; Mathiesen, Jonathan Michael; Ringholm, Lene; Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol.......To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol....

  4. Perceived Social Support among Family in Pregnant Women

    Sedigheh Abdollahpour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iran little attention has been paid to the important role of husband’s support in promoting maternal health. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived social support from family in pregnant women and pregnancy-related factors. Methods: The study included 358 postpartum women in the second half of the year 2014 in Fatemiyeh Hospital in Shahroud, North East of Iran. The data collection instruments included Perceived Social Support - Family Scale (PSSFa. Results: Eleven (1.3% women had poor family support, 100 women (27.9% had moderate family support and 247 women (69% had good family support. There were no significant relationships between perceived support from family with mother’s BMI, family economic status and occupation of the mother, smoking and substance abuse by the mother, and husband’s education. But a significant relationship was found between mother’s score of family support and her age and education, so that mothers with high school diploma and higher education had scores which were significantly higher than the others. Also, women whose husbands were smoking or abused drug had lower support scores. The support had significant relationship with the number of pregnancies and pregnancy complications so that the more pregnancies a mother had, the lower the support was. Mothers with pregnancy complications also had lower support scores. Social support in unwanted pregnancies was significantly lower than wanted pregnancies..Conclusion: Family and social support is associated with pregnancy side effects and outcomes and in high-risk and unwanted pregnancies, it was lower.

  5. Magnetic resonance enterography in pregnant women with Crohn’s disease: case series and literature review

    Stern, Myriam D; Kopylov, Uri; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Apter, Sarah; Amitai, Marianne Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were perf...

  6. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  7. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  8. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    Hesse, D; Ekbom, P; Hesse, U; Damm, P; Hommel, E; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Mathiesen, E; Christiansen, MS

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  9. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Leon, Nicaragua

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Riedijk, Martiene; Matute, Armando J; Hak, Eelko; Delgado, Edgar; Alonso, Rosa E; Benavides, Maria D; van Loon, Anton M; Hoepelman, Ilja M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis and to identify risk factors among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics in León, Nicaragua. During February to April 2004, blood samples from pregnant women were collected after written consent had been obtained. Th

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

  11. Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study

    A.M. van Eijk; K.A. Lindblade; F. Odhiambo; E. Peterson; D.H. Rosen; D. Karanja; J.G. Ayisi; Y.P. Shi; K. Adazu; L. Slutsker

    2009-01-01

    Background: Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology: During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglob

  12. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  13. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    Nurshad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32 and in a suburban (n = 22 area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON

  14. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-10-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  15. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  16. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  17. Incidence and natural course of symptomatic central serous chorioretinopathy in pregnant women in a maternity hospital in Kuwait

    Khaled Said-Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: In pregnant women, CSR can present with or without retinal exudates and completely resolves in either case. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to investigate the risk factors in pregnant women.

  18. Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women

    Jones, Hendrée E.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Kline, Tracy L.; Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson; Browne, Felicia A.; Winona Poulton; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women w...

  19. Photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women

    YANG Yu-guang; ZOU Xian-biao; ZHAO Hua; ZHANG Yun-jie; LI Heng-jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an emerging technique for the treatment of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced benign and premalignant lesions.We report here in a case series of condyloma acuminata (CA) in pregnancy successfully treated with ALA-PDT.Methods Five pregnant patients with CA received three to four times treatment respectively.Patients were followed up for 6-23 months after treatment.Results The clearance rate of genital warts was 100%.No recurrence was found during the follow-up period.Major adverse events reported were mild erosion,pain,and local edema.All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications.Conclusions PDT with topical ALA seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of CA in pregnancy.It demonstrated high clearance rate of warts,was well-tolerated by patients,and showed no adverse effects on mothers or fetuses.ALA-PDT may be an ideal strategy of treatment for pregnant women with CA.

  20. Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women

    Chaitanya Tellapragada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%, Prevotella nigrescens (44%, Treponema denticola (32%, and Prevotella intermedius (24% were noted along with significant association with the disease (P<0.05.

  1. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  2. Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life.......Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....

  3. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05.  Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.  

  4. Development of stria gravidarum in pregnant women and associated factors

    Arzu Kılıç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Stria gravidarum is a cosmetically disfiguring condition that is commonly seen in pregnancy. Various parameters such as age of mother, genetical factors like family history, skin colour, various hormonal changes seen in pregnancy, weight gain and physical features of newborn are accused in the development. The studies reported primarily include primigravidas. In this study, the presence of stria gravidarum and associated risk factors are aimed to be investigated. Materials and methods: All attenders' gestastional week, prepregnancy and delivery weights, height, family history of stria, smoking habits and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, any use of cream and/or oil for preventing stria, delivery way, newborn's gender, height, weight and head circumference were recorded. In both primigravidas and multigravidas, factors that could be associated with stria gravidarum were investigated by Spearman'scorrelation analysis and risk factors in the development of stria gravidarum by logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty of 128 pregnant women were primigravidas and 78 were multigravidas. In primigravidas, a correlation was detected between family history of stria, non-usage of cream and/or oil during pregnancy,head circumference of newborn and development of stria gravidarum while in multigravidas, a correlation is detected between prepregnancy weight, delivery weight, smoking during pregnancy, not using of any cream and/or oil during pregnancy, family history of stria, head circumference of newborn, weight of newborn and stria gravidarum development. Presence of family history of stria and not using of any cream and/or oil were found to be risk factors in development of stria gravidarum in all pregnant women by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Both genetical and physical factors are thought to play a role in development of stria gravidarum; however, further broad scale studies with larger samples including both

  5. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  6. Correlates of in-law conflict and intimate partner violence against chinese pregnant women in Hong Kong

    Chan, KL; Tiwari, A.; Fong, DYT; Ho, PC; Leung, WC; Brownridge, DA

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete the Chinese Abuse Assessment Screen and a demographic questionnaire. About 9% of the pregnant women reported having been abused by their partners in ...

  7. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

    Acheampong, I.; N. Amidu; Bio, F.Y.; Quaye, L; Obirikorang, C.; Addo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean ca...

  8. Oral Heath Conditions and Oral Hygiene Habits of Pregnant Women of Low Socio-Economic Status in Aracaju-SE

    Thaysa Monteiro RAMOS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mothers exert an important role in the stablishment of the dental care habits of their children and they are the major source from which infants acquire cariogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status in the city of Aracaju-SE. Method: One hundred and seventy pregnant women were randomly selected to be interviewed in accordance with a structured questionnaire about oral health, dental hygiene and socio-economic status. The oral conditions were evaluated by the DMFT, IHO-S e SI index. Results: In regard to oral hygiene habits, 58% of the interviewed women brushed their teeth three times a day. The majority (98% made use of toothpaste but only 33% made use of the dental floss. The mean DMTF was 10.43 and the mean value of the IHO-S was 1.93. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the gingival bleeding was low (10.1%. Conclusion: The pregnant women presented poor oral health conditions and undesirable oral hygiene habits justifying the necessity of a primary dental health preventive approach with targeted measures directed at the pregnant women.

  9. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    Mortensen, Mary E., E-mail: MMortensen@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wright, David J. [Westat, Inc. Rockville, MD (United States); Pirkle, James L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Merrill, Lori S. [Westat, Inc. Rockville, MD (United States); Moye, John [NCS Program Office, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes for Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were

  10. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were

  11. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  12. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates

    Jeffrey W Eaton; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Andrea A Kim; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 year...

  13. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  14. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  15. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    2010-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i)...

  16. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae.

  17. HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women's perspectives about Option B+ in Malawi: a qualitative study

    Leila Katirayi; Hazel Namadingo; Mafayo Phiri; Bobrow, Emily A; Allan Ahimbisibwe; Aida Yemane Berhan; Nicole Buono; Karen Marie Moland; Thorkild Tylleskär

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The implementation of lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant women (Option B+) in Malawi has resulted in a significant increase in the number of HIV-positive pregnant women initiating treatment. However, research has highlighted the challenge of retaining newly initiated women in care. This study explores barriers and facilitators that affect a woman's decision to initiate and to adhere to Option B+. Methods: A total of 39 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group...

  18. SERUM MAGNESIUM LEVELS IN MILD AND SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA AND NORMAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Sujatha; Madhuri; Sudhamadhuri; Radha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare serum magnesium levels in women with mild, severe preeclampsia, and normal Pregnant women . MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study was conducted in Victoria Government hospital and King George Hospi tal Visakhapatnam during the period July 2010 - June 2011. The study consists of 50 cases of normotensive uncomplicated pregnant women taken as control and 40 cases of mild preeclampsia, 10 cases severe preecl...

  19. Was 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Mild Among Pregnant Korean Women?

    An, Joon Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na; Choi, Ok-Ja; Kim, Gwang-Sook; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Mi Ok; Kang, Seung Ji; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Sook-In; Kwon, Yong Soo; Jang, Hee-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory data from Western countries suggest that pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness and complications associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). However, previous data among Korean women suggested a less severe outcome. In this study performed at a single referral center in Korea, rates of admission, pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, and death related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were significantly higher in 33 pregnant women than ...

  20. Is ACOG guideline helpful for encouraging pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy?

    Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Mahsa Ghajarzadeh; Mona Mohseni; Mamak Shariat; Maryam Ranjbar

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate physical activity of pregnant women before and after ACOG guideline study. Four hundred and eighty-five pregnant women enrolled in this before-after study. They were asked to study ACOG guideline. A structured questionnaire filled by women at first visit and the last visit in the prenatal clinic.Type, frequency, duration and anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy period. Before education, 411 did exercises before pregnancy onset, among them, 346 were walking out and 65 did...

  1. Stress-buffering effects of psychosocial resources on physiological and psychological stress response in pregnant women

    Nierop, Ada; Wirtz, Petra H; Bratsikas, Aliki; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    Sixty healthy pregnant women (aged 21-35 years), including 30 pregnant women at the beginning of second trimester and 30 women at the beginning of third trimester underwent a psychosocial stress test. Physiological (salivary free cortisol levels, salivary alpha-amylase levels) and psychological (perceived stress, mood, anxiety) responses to standardized psychosocial stress have been brought in association with psychosocial resources (self-efficacy and daily uplifts). Predictions revealed that...

  2. Health providers’ compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran

    Mirlohi, Vajihesadat; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most important crises with mental, social, and deep emotional dimensions in women's life. Health providers’ respect to pregnant women's Bill of Rights, as an important component of providing humanistic and ethical care, is of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine health providers’ compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery and some of its related factors in 2013. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-section...

  3. Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant Women in Northern Tanzania 2000-2010: A Registry-Based Study.

    Isaksen, Alexander Blaauw; Østbye, Truls; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol can be harmful to the development of the foetus. In most developed countries, pregnant women are recommended to abstain from alcohol, however in developing countries, women are less likely to receive these recommendations. With respect to pregnant women in Northern Tanzania, this study aims to 1) describe time trends in level of alcohol consumption, 2) assess socio-demographic predictors of alcohol consumption, and 3) describe associations between alcohol consumption and h...

  4. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected...

  5. Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin F in plasma of pregnant women

    The aim of this dissertation was to determine quantitatively prostaglandin-F in the plasma of pregnant women in order to obtain further knowledge on changes in PG-F during pregnancy, in particular during the last three months. The plasma of women with clinically normal pregnancies was taken. Prior to radioimmunoassay the plasma was extracted (separation of PG from other plasma components) and chromatography carried out (group separation of PG). The efficiency of this process, as measured by the recovery rate of 3H-PGF, lies between 60.99% and 93.01% for extraction and between 80.58% and 92.16% for chromatography. The plasma was extracted and analysed chromatographically for the assay. The radioimmunoassay was carried out according to the procedure recommended by the manufacturer. A calibration curve was produced without difficulty. The results of the examination of plasma samples were unsatisfactory because of the low sensitivity of the assay; PG-F values of the same order were obtained for all weeks of pregnancy. (orig./MG)

  6. HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women in Brazil: A National Survey.

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa de; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-08-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 36,713 included women, 35,444 (96.6%) were tested for HIV during delivery admission. The overall HIV prevalence was of 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.48), and it was highest in: the 30 to 39 year-old age group (0.60% [0.40-0.88]), in the Southern region of Brazil (0.79% [0.59-1.04]), among women who had not completed primary (0.63% [0.30-1.31]) or secondary (0.67% [0.49-0.97]) school education, and among women who self-reported as Asian (0.94% [0.28-3.10]). The HIV testing coverage during prenatal care was of 86.6% for one test and of 38.2% for two tests. Overall, 98.5% of women attended at least 1 ANC visit, 90.4% attended at least 4 visits, 71% attended at least 6 visits, and 51.7% received ANC during the 1st trimester. HIV testing coverage and ANC uptake indicators increased with increasing age and education level of education, and were highest in the Southern region. Conclusions Brazil presents an HIV prevalence of less than 1% and almost universal coverage of ANC. However, gaps in HIV testing and ANC during the first trimester challenge the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. More efforts are needed to address regional and social disparities. PMID:27608165

  7. Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.

    Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

  8. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    Jelena Meinilä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design: Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394 were examined at baseline (≤20 weeks of pregnancy of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results: The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7, saturated fatty acids (SFA 12 en% (SD 3, and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6. Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3, which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4 (p<0.001. Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions: The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take.

  9. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnant Women.

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Wei-Wen; Landis, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the associations of sleep hygiene and actigraphy measures of sleep with self-reported sleep quality in 197 pregnant women in northern Taiwan. Third-trimester pregnant women completed the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale (SHPS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and wore an actigraph for 7 consecutive days. Student's t-test was used to compare the SHPS scores and means as well as variability of actigraphy sleep variables between poor sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score >5) and good sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score ≤5). Compared to good sleepers, poor sleepers reported significantly worse sleep hygiene, with higher SHPS scores and higher sleep schedule, arousal-related behavior, and sleep environment subscale scores. Poor sleepers had significantly greater intra-individual variability of sleep onset latency, total nighttime sleep, and wake after sleep onset than good sleepers. In stepwise linear regression, older maternal age (p = .01), fewer employment hours per week (p = .01), higher CES-D total score (p sleep quality. Findings support avoiding physically, physiologically, emotionally, or cognitively arousing activities before bedtime as a target for sleep-hygiene intervention in women during pregnancy. PMID:26650922

  10. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    Mulligan, Nikki; Schalkwijk, Stein; Best, Brookie M.; Colbers, Angela; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Moltó, José; Stek, Alice M.; Taylor, Graham; Smith, Elizabeth; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Chakhtoura, Nahida; van Kasteren, Marjo; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Mirochnick, Mark; Burger, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12-h pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 and 0.026 mcg/mL). Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily. Etravirine AUC0–12 was higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 34% (median 8.3 vs. 5.3 mcg*h/mL, p = 0.068). Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data by 52% (median 24 vs. 38 L/h, p = 0.025). The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.52 (range: 0.19–4.25) and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. Clinical Trial registration: The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929.

  11. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  12. Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Juhl, Mette; Madsen, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88 200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression....... About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate...... more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups. In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target...

  13. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    Morteza Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20-80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane.

  14. High HIV Incidence and Sexual Behavior Change among Pregnant Women in Lilongwe, Malawi: Implications for the Risk of HIV Acquisition

    Keating, Maria A.; Gloria Hamela; MILLER, William C.; Agnes Moses; Hoffman, Irving F.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV incidence is higher among pregnant women than their non-pregnant counterparts in some sub-Saharan African settings. Our aims were (1) to estimate HIV incidence during pregnancy and (2) to compare sexual activity between pregnant, postpartum, and non-pregnant women. METHODS: We examined a retrospective cohort of 1087 women to identify seroconverters using antenatal and labor ward HIV test results. We also conducted a cross-sectional survey, including a quantitative questionnair...

  15. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    Ali Salah K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  16. Resistin protein expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta in pregnant women

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of resistin protein in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placental tissue in pregnant women and the relationship between pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods: The expression of resistin protein in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant and nonpregnant women and placental tissue was measured using western blotting method. Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay.Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Results: Resistin protein expression in placental tissue(67905 ± 8441)(arbitrary OD units)was much higher than that in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue in pregnant women (40718 ± 3818)( P <0.01 ) and nonpregnant women (38288 ± 2084) ( P < 0.01 ) respectively, and there was no significant difference in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conclusion: Resistin protein expression in placental tissue is much higher than that in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Resistin protein is secreted from human placental tissue.Resistin is one of the factors which lead to pregnant physiological IR and GDM.

  17. Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials

    In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential

  18. CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN

    Gui-fang He; Mei-lu Bian; Ying Wang; Xiao-yan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and follow up cervical cytology of pregnant and postpartum women and study their cytopathologic characteristics, so as to determine screening and managing programs for abnormal cervical cytology.Methods Totally 5296 patients in pregnancy and postpartum, in which 3729 by computer-assisted cytology test and 1567 by liquid-based monolayers cytology test, were examined and diagnosed by the Bethesda System made in 2001. Those proven epithelial abnormalities patients were followed up until the lesions regressed to normal. The remaining patients,who exhibited persistent abnormalities or progression, were given further examinations.Results The positive rate of cervical cytological test was 8.72% (462/5296), including squamous carcinoma (SCA) 1case (0.02%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 34 cases (0.64%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 145 cases (2.74%), atypical glandular cells (AGC) 5 cases (0.09%), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) 14 cases (0.26%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 263 cases (4.97%). The 419 proven cytological abnormality cases were followed up successfully. The total transnegative rate in three months was 73.74% (309/419), in which 303 cases (72.32%) persisted normal status for more than six months after regression. And the transnegative rate of ASC-US, ASC-H, AGC, LSIL, and HSIL were 79.56%, 64.29%, 100%,72.14% and 44.12%, respectively. Forty-six cases received biopsy directed by colposcopy. The distribution of coincidence of cytopathologic and histopathologic diagnosis was: SCA 1 case (100%), HSIL 10 cases (76.92%), LSIL 13 cases (65%), ASC-H 2 cases (50%), ASC-US 3 cases (37.50%), total 29 cases (63.04%).Conclusions We should cast more attention to screening cervix lesions in pregnant and postpartum women. Their cytopathologic characteristics are liable to make the clinician give a false positive diagnosis. So we propose to follow up them closely

  19. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    McIntyre H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

  20. Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

  1. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  2. Influenza vaccination acceptance among diverse pregnant women and its impact on infant immunization

    Frew, Paula M.; Zhang, Siyu; Saint-Victor, Diane S; Schade, Ashley C; Benedict, Samantha; Banan, Maral; Ren, Xiang; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined pregnant women’s likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed “Contagion” to understand cultural influences on message perception.

  3. Diabetic Nephropathy and Microalbuminuria in Pregnant Women With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    Damm, Julie Agner; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Callesen, Nicoline Foged; Mathiesen, Jonathan M.; Ringholm, Lene; Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Among 220 women with type 2 diabetes and 445 women with type 1 diabetes giving birth from 2007–2012, 41 women had diabetic nephropathy (albumin-creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g) or microalbuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio...

  4. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16cm to 12cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy. PMID:26809074

  5. Group B streptococcal carriage among pregnant women and its implications

    Venkataramana Kandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococci are a group of gram positive cocci of Streptococcaceae family belonging to Lancefield group B, classified based on carbohydrate antigen. Streptococci are a group of gram positive cocci predominantly showing chain arrangement attributed to the type of cell division (linear. Among the various groups of streptococci group B Streptococci comprise normal micro biota of human genitourinary tract. Group B Streptococci are represented by Streptococcus agalactiae which are not only commensals but also recognized as a potential pathogen responsible for serious neonatal infections. Colonization in vagina prior to pregnancy may be considered as a risk factor for intra-partum and post-partum complications in pregnant women and neonates. Considering the fact that there are many serotypes of group B streptococci prevalent in different geographical regions and that there are no vaccine available, studies on epidemiology of colonization among risk groups and potential pathogenic nature of the colonizing bacteria assume significance. This paper enlivens the current knowledge of epidemiology of group B Streptococci. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 301-304

  6. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. PMID:27137830

  7. Prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand

    Somphon Pharephan

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of α-thalassaemias in pregnant women in northern Thailand was high. This finding supports the implementation of the prevention and control of this common genetic disorder by screening for α-thalassaemia genotypes.

  8. HPV Prevalence and Concordance in the Cervix and Oral Cavity of Pregnant Women

    E. M. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity.

  9. Epidemiological Investigation of Mycosis Infection Among Full-term Pregnant Women

    刘植华; 邓英; 李晴

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find out the basic conditions of mycosis infection of full-term pregnant women. Methods: Fungus isolation and identification from the vaginal secretions and oral specimens from 208 full-term pregnant women were carried out by fungi culture and identified following standard biological practice. Results: The positive detection rate for vaginal fungi was 51.92% and for oral fungi it was 47.59%. 20.19% had fungi in both the vaginal and oral cavity. The fungi found were mainly of the species Candida albicans. Conclusion: The prevalence of fungal mycosis infection in full-term pregnant women was higher than that usually found in non-pregnant women. In order to prevent further complications and materal-child transmission, serious attention should be paid to this high prevalence finding.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum population dynamics in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal

    Guitard, Juliette; Andersen, Pernille; Ermont, Caroline;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women acquire protective antibodies that cross-react with geographically diverse placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates, suggesting that surface molecules expressed on infected erythrocytes by pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) parasites have conserved epitopes and, that de...

  11. AN ETHNOGRAPHY STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BANTEN INDONESIA

    Setyowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in childbirth in developing countries is still high. The study describes the qualitative methods used to examine the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviour related to nutrition and nutritional supplementation of pregnant women. The role of village midwives and cadres’ in relation to nutrition education resulted in improving nutritional behaviour of pregnant women to some extent, but poverty and culture restricted the ability of pregnant women to access better food. The study shows that the position of pregnant woman is low within the hierarchy of both the health care system and the power structures of the broader community. Husbands, mothers-in-law, village midwives, cadres and village leaders all have more power in determining nutrition during pregnancy. However, some women tried to eat better and more nutritious food in secret, thereby subverting culture and the authority of husbands and mothers-in-law.

  12. CDC Advises Pregnant Women to Avoid Miami Beach Due to Zika

    ... pregnant women, due to the virus' link to microcephaly, a devastating birth defect where babies are born ... the vast majority of cases of Zika-linked microcephaly. U.S. officials said they don't expect to ...

  13. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  14. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    2010-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  15. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    F.M. Munari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

  16. Evaluation of various screening tests to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women

    Jayalakshmi J; Jayaram V

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Clean catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 630 consecutive pregnant women and processed. Forty-four (7.4%) of the urine samples were culture positive, with Escherichia coli as the predominant organism isolated (57.4%). The results of the four screening tests, viz., Gram′s staining of uncentrifuged urine, pus cell count, nitrite test and...

  17. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    Ali Salah K; Ziad Abdel Haliem M; Hamdan Hamdan Z; Adam Ishag

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to g...

  18. HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women.

    Haugen, T H; Turek, L P; Wang, D; Yankowitz, J; Ritchie, J. M.; Smith, E M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 577 pregnant women seeking routine obstetric care were evaluated for HPV infection in their cervix during gestation and immediately before delivery, and in the oral cavity during gestation. Male partners present during the gestational clinic visit also provided a specime...

  19. Sources of Potential Lead Exposure Among Pregnant Women in New Mexico

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Rowland, Andrew S.; Young, Bonnie N.; Cano, Sandra; Phelan, Sharon T.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Rayburn, William F.; Lewis, Johnnye

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence and potential sources of lead exposure among pregnant women residing in a socially-disadvantaged immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Pregnant women (n = 140) receiving prenatal care through a community clinic participated in a structured interview and screening to measure their blood lead levels (BLLs). Potential sources of lead exposure were ascertained by the CDC and New Mexico Department of Health questionnaires. Sel...

  20. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    Khlood Bookari; Heather Yeatman; Moira Williamson

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an onl...

  1. Pro-inflammatory cytokines profiles in Nigerian pregnant women infected withPlasmodium falciparum malaria

    Nmorsi OPG; Isaac C; Ohaneme BA; Obiazi HAK

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines profiles in in Nigerian pregnant women infected withPlasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria.Methods: Peripheral, and placental blood samples were collected from96 consenting volunteers comprising76 P. falciparium infected pregnant women and 20 healthy uninfected pregnant women in Ekpoma, Nigeria, and subjected to ELISA for cytokines evaluation.Results: Increased serum concentrations of interferon-gamma(IFN-γ) was observed in infected pregnant women than their uninfected counterparts[(31.2±20.9)pg/mL vs (1.8±0.9) pg/mL] and these differences were statistically significant(″2= 26.18,P0.05). The interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly elevated in infected pregnant women (81.0±26.1 pg/mL) than in the uninfected pregnant women [(25.0±5.0) pg/mL](″2 = 29.58,P<0.05). In all, mean cytokines concentration of IL-6, IL-12 andIFN-γ in the placental blood from infected pregnant women were (53.5±23.4) pg/mL, (8.7±6.9) pg/mL and(16.4±4.0) pg/mL, respectively. The multigravidae had a higher haemoglobin level of 10.2 g/dL and birth weight of3 000 g than the primigrivadae with lower haemoglobin level of7.5g/dL and birth weight of2 430 g. Conclusions: The elevatedIFN-γamong the malarous pregnant women implicates it as the major cytokine mediator in the host responses to systematicP. falciparummalaria in our locality.

  2. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Paramatma Singh; Varsha Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine associ...

  3. The epidemiology of HIV seropositive malaria infected pregnant women in Akure Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Ajibade Kwashie Ako-Nai; Blessing I Ebhodaghe; Patrick O. Osho; Ebun A Adejuyigbe; Folasade M Adeyemi; Adeniran A. Ikuomola; KASSIM, OLAKUNLE O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV increases the risks of malaria in pregnant women, while maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load also facilitates perinatal transmission to neonates. Malaria and HIV coinfection has been shown to exacerbate adverse pregnancy complications. Our study was designed to determine the HIV prevalence of pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in Akure in southwestern Nigeria, investigate the relationship between dual HIV and malaria infection and HIV viral load and CD4+ T...

  4. Modern Possibilities of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Pregnant Women with Anemia

    Agamurad A. Orasmuradov; Olga L. Paendi; Farkhad A. Paendi

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the number of anemia cases has increased more than 6-fold. Unfortunately, the treatment of pregnant women with anemia using an iron supplement gives unsatisfactory results. However, the data from the present study can change situation for the better. This conclusion was derived from a comparative analysis of the treatment of 65 pregnant women suffering from anemia, divided into two groups: the study and control groups. Patients of the study group received, along with s...

  5. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India

    Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal; Gurvanit Lehl; Sachinjeet K Sodhi; Sonia Sachdeva

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of soc...

  6. Adherence to Walking or Stretching, and Risk of Preeclampsia in Sedentary Pregnant Women

    Yeo, SeonAe

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia may benefit from the positive effects of exercise, but they may be unlikely to adhere to an exercise program. A randomized trial was conducted with 124 sedentary pregnant women to compare the effects of walking exercise to a stretching exercise on adherence and on the preeclampsia risk factors of heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and weight gain. Walkers exercised less than stretchers both overall and as pregnancy advanced. HR and blood pressure were low...

  7. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Haji Kedir; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/o...

  8. The impact of psychological abuse by an intimate partner on the mental health of pregnant women

    Tiwari, A.; Chan, KL; Fong, D; Leung, WC; Brownridge, DA; Lam, H.; Wong, B; Lam, CM; Chau, F; Chan, A; Cheung, KB; Ho, PC

    2008-01-01

    Objective The objective of this first population-based study in Hong Kong was to assess the impact of psychological abuse by an intimate partner on the mental health of pregnant women. Design Survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in seven public hospitals in Hong Kong. Population Three thousand two hundred and forty-five pregnant women. Methods The Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) and demographic questionnaires were administered face-to-face at 32–36 weeks of gestation. At 1 week postpartum, the AAS...

  9. [Effect of respiratory and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive potential of pregnant women].

    Krivonogova, T S; Gerget, O M; Agarkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the most promising methods for the assessment of the health status of pregnant women and their children based on information criteria in the framework of an intelligent system. Inter-relations between the revealed adaptation strategies and functional disturbances in the organism are considered with special reference to various types of adaptive reactions in pregnant women and adaptational capacities of their children. PMID:21381327

  10. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders among overweight and obese pregnant women

    Rice, JR; Larrabure-Torrealva, GT; Luque Fernandez, MA; Grande, M; Motta, V.; Barrios, YV; Sanchez, S.; Gelaye, B; Williams, MA

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common and serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep, is associated with excess weight and obesity. Little is known about the co-occurrence of OSA among pregnant women from low and middle-income countries. METHODS: We examined the extent to which maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity status are associated with high risk for OSA, poor sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness in 1032 pregnant women in Lima, Peru....

  11. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders among overweight and obese pregnant women

    Rice, Jayne R.; Larrabure-Torrealva, Gloria T.; Fernandez, Miguel Angel Luque; Grande, Mirtha; Motta, Vicky; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sanchez, Sixto; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common and serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep, is associated with excess weight and obesity. Little is known about the co-occurrence of OSA among pregnant women from low and middle-income countries. Methods: We examined the extent to which maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity status are associated with high risk for OSA, poor sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness in 1032 pregnant women in Lima, Peru....

  12. Perception of nurses on the adhesion of partners of pregnant women with syphilis to the treatment

    Mayanne Santana Nóbrega de Figueiredo; Edilma Gomes Rocha Cavalcante; Célida Juliana de Oliveira; Maria de Fátima Vasques Monteiro; Glauberto da Silva Quirino; Dayanne Rakelly de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the perception of nurses of the Family Health Strategy on the factors that influence adhesion to treatment of sexual partners of pregnant women with syphilis. Methods: it is a qualitative research, made with 10 nurses. To collect data, a semi-structured interview was used. The data were submitted to thematic analysis. Results: the following categories were identified: the approach of the nurses to partners of pregnant women with syphilis; barriers that influence on t...

  13. The cytological diagnosis and prognosis of malignization of cervical epithelium of uterus in pregnant women.

    Sumenko V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation is dedicated to the study of the pathological alterations of cervical epithelium of uterus, proliferative activity in the lesion focuses and the improvement of cytological diagnosis of the state of cervical epithelium of uterus. The correlation between the proliferative processes in abnormal epithelium of uterine cervix and some pathological factors of the pregnant women organism was studied. The criteria for prognosis of the cervical epithelial dysplasia in pregnant women w...

  14. Physical activity in pregnancy: a qualitative study of the beliefs of overweight and obese pregnant women

    Rankin Judith; McParlin Catherine; Robson Stephen C; Bush Judith; Weir Zoe; Bell Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women; and (ii) inform interventions which could promote the adoption of physical activity during pregnancy....

  15. Prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand

    Somphon Pharephan; Pannee Sirivatanapa; Sanit Makonkawkeyoon; Wirote Tuntiwechapikul; Luksana Makonkawkeyoon

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Alpha-thalassaemias are genetic disorders with high prevalence in northern Thailand. However, common genotypes and current data on the prevalence of α-thalassaemias have not been reported in this region. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of pregnant women who came to Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Universit...

  16. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia Castro

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24th and 36th weeks of gestation. Main Outcome Measures: Mater...

  17. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

    AO Egwunyenga; JA Ajayi; OPG Nmorsi; DD Duhlinska-Popova

    2001-01-01

    Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8%) were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3%) were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5%) having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species fo...

  18. The perception of pregnant women on child malnutrition: focus on the specificities of the gestation

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota; Larissa Coelho Barbosa; Conceição de Maria de Albuquerque; Mariana Cavalcante Martins; Osvaldo Albuquerque Sousa Filho

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand the perception of pregnant women about child malnutrition and to identify food habits and specificities of the gestation period. Methods: A descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, held at the Nucleus of Integrated Medical Attention - NAMI - Fortaleza-Ceará-Brazil, in the period of 2005 – 2006. The informers were seven undernourished pregnant women aged 15 to 35 years old. Data collection was carried out by means of prenatal consultation, a semi-...

  19. Dental Care Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States Reported in 1999 and 2002

    Peggy Timothé, DDS, MPH; Paul I. Eke, PhD, MPH, PhD; Scott M. Presson, DDS, MPH; Dolores M. Malvitz, DrPH

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine national and state-specific estimates of dental care use among adult pregnant women in the United States using data from two 12-month periods. The study also determined person-level characteristics that may predict a lack of dental care use within this subgroup. Methods Responses were analyzed from 4619 pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years who participated in the 1999 and 2002 state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. De...

  20. Dental Care Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States Reported in 1999 and 2002

    Peggy Timothé, DDS, MPH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine national and state-specific estimates of dental care use among adult pregnant women in the United States using data from two 12-month periods. The study also determined person-level characteristics that may predict a lack of dental care use within this subgroup. Methods Responses were analyzed from 4619 pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years who participated in the 1999 and 2002 state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Dental care use was defined as having a dental visit or a dental cleaning in the 12 months preceding the interview. State-specific estimates were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. population distribution. Multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate person-level characteristics that may predict not obtaining dental care during this period. Results Overall, 70% of pregnant women in 1999 and 2002 had received dental care in the previous 12 months. Age-adjusted estimates ranged from 36% (Nevada to 89% (Vermont to 91% (Puerto Rico. In 19 states, 75% or more of pregnant women had obtained dental care in the previous 12 months (age-adjusted figure. Most pregnant women with dental care were non-Hispanic white and married, and they had a greater than high school education. Income and smoking status were significant predictors for not using dental care. Conclusion In several states, more than 70% of pregnant women reported a dental visit or dental cleaning during the previous 12 months. Relative to the general population, pregnant women are as likely to receive dental care, but certain subgroups need to do much better. However, these estimates may be biased toward a population with a higher socioeconomic status and may not represent dental care use among pregnant women in the general U.S. population.

  1. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potentia...

  2. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    Morteza Izadi; Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh-Ansari; Davood Kazemisaleh; Maryam Moshkani-Farahani; Akbar Shafiee

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase...

  3. Related Factors to Choose Cesarean Rather than Normal Delivery among Shirazian Pregnant Women

    Majid Movahed; Halimeh Enayat; Esfandiar Ghaffarinasab; Sedigheh Alborzi; Rohollah Mozafari

    2012-01-01

    Background & objective: Although delivering with Cesarean method is preferred in limited cases which has dangerous effects on child or mother's health, rate of cesarean is increasing vastly nowadays. The main purpose of this study was to explore Social, Cultural and Demographic factors related to this phenomenon among pregnant women of Shiraz. Materials & Methods: In this study 600 pregnant women residing in Shiraz were selected using Lin cross size of sample (multistage sampling). Data were ...

  4. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

    Raquel Guimarães Nobre; Ana Vaneska Passos Meireles; Julyanne Torres Frota; Raphael Marques de Miranda Costa; Vanessa Fernandes Coutinho; Maria Miriam da Cunha Melo Garcia; Luciana Catunda Brito

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obst...

  5. Effects of Nutrition Education on Levels of Nutritional Awareness of Pregnant Women in Western Iran

    FALLAH, Farnoush; POURABBAS, Ahmad; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Shadnoush, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional health, before and during pregnancy, influences the health status of herself and her developing fetus. Pregnancy is an important condition for improving nutritional knowledge. Objectives The present study aimed at determining effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of a representative group of pregnant women in Western Iran. Patients and Methods A quasi-experimental intervention was undertaken on a random sample of pregnant women (n = ...

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

    Hussein Aqeely; Eman K. El-Gayar; Darakhshan Perveen Khan; Abdullah Najmi; Ayesha Alvi; Ibrahim Bani; Mohamed Salih Mahfouz; Saif Elden Abdalla; Elhassan, Ibrahim M

    2014-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors...

  7. The Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection among Iranian Pregnant Women- a Meta-Analysis Study

    Shamsi Abbasalizadeh; Zahra Darvishi; Fatemeh Abbasalizadeh; Milad Azami; Milad Borji; Alireza Afshar Safavid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a well-known bacteria; it produces multiple and serious gastrointestinal diseases. Studies in Iran, The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is Variable between 7. 7-80% in pregnant women. The present study aims at assessing the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among Iranian pregnant women using a meta-analysis method.Methods: According to purpose study, published articles in national and international journals were examined about prevale...

  8. OA02.10. Influence of kalyani raga on fetus and pregnant women

    Krishna, Deepthi; ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Pregnant women are more alert to their environment which greatly influences them. Prenatal stimulation through music allows expectant mothers to connect with their unborn baby. This helps to lower the mother's anxiety level and neonatal stress too. Auditory system is the only one that establishes a connection between the foetus and the outer world. So this we can stimulate the most. The intension of the study is to see the efficiency of music on foetus as well as pregnant women. So i...

  9. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women regarding anemia, iron rich diet and iron supplements and its impact on their hemoglobin levels

    Nivedita K.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicated the lack of knowledge regarding anemia, iron rich foods and the importance of iron supplementation during pregnancy. Targeted estimation of hemoglobin levels in adolescent girls and women in reproductive age group, intensive counseling and motivation of pregnant women to consume Iron and folic acid and ensuring adequate supply to them, intensive de-worming, provision of toilet facilities to all households would help in reducing the incidence of anemia in pregnant women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 425-431

  11. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  12. Prevalence of HIV among Rural Pregnant Women Attending PPTCT Services at KLE Hospital, Belgaum

    G.S. Ashtagi *, C.S. Metgud, P.R. Walvekar and V.A. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of HIV infection among rural pregnant women? Objectives: To know the prevalence of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary Health Centres namely Kinaye, Vantamuri and Handiganur. Participants: 716 pregnant women residing in three Primary Health Centres and availing PPTCT services at KLE’s Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital & MRC, Belgaum. Results: The study revealed that, the prevalence rate of HIV infection in antenatal mothers was 0.70%. Out of 716 pregnant women studied, 508 (70.95% were anaemic and 208 (29.05% were not anaemic. Among 508 anaemic pregnant women, 211 (41.54% had mild anaemia, 211 (41.54% had moderate anaemia and 86 (16.92% had severe anaemia. About 17.73% of the pregnant women belonged to high-risk group. Conclusion: The economic and demographic consequences of the spread of HIV/AIDS are inexorable and awesome. Development of programmes with an integrated approach to inducing behavioral change, promoting use of condoms and controlling STD’s may reduce the infectivity of HIV transmitters and the susceptibility of HIV exposed persons. In this era of AIDS, there is a need to express care and compassion rather than fear, hostility or alienation.

  13. Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak--United States, 2016.

    Petersen, Emily E; Staples, J Erin; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Fischer, Marc; Ellington, Sascha R; Callaghan, William M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-22

    CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended. PMID:26796813

  14. A study of risk factors and consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women and feto-maternal outcome

    Prasanna Byna; Naimisha Muvva; Swathi Kolli; Mahaboob V. Shaik

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study is undertaken to know the risk factors and consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Narayana Medical College Hospital, Nellore. Methods: 500 pregnant women were recruited for the study after their consent for participation. 85 women with culture positive for ASB were paired with 85 healthy pregnant women without bacteriuria to compare feto maternal outcome. Results: Antenatal complications like anemia (35%), PROM (14%), preter...

  15. The Use of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale in a Population of Teenager Pregnant Women in Mexico: A Validation Study

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background :Depression may occur in teenager pregnant women. The use of a validated tool for screening depression is highly recommended. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) is a screening tool for depression used in women during the postnatal period and pregnancy. However, the EPDS has not been validated in teenager pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to validate a Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS in a population of teenager pregnant women. Methods: One hundred and ...

  16. Knowledge, attitude, perception of malaria and evaluation of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    N.C. Iriemenam, A.O. Dosunmu, W.A. Oyibo & A.F. Fagbenro-Beyioku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women to malaria managementin malaria endemic countries. This study was designed to access knowledge, attitude, perception and homemanagement of malaria among consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC clinic.Methods: In total, 350 pregnant women were randomly recruited during their ANC Clinic in Lagos. Structuredquestionnaires were administered in a two-stages research design; first during their early months of ANC visitand the second approximately 1–2 months before delivery. Information on occupation, parity, symptoms used torecognise malaria, treatment sources, control measures, knowledge factors, anti-vector measures, health-seekingpractices, malaria parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV were recorded.Results: The results revealed that 78.9% of the pregnant women identified infected mosquitoes as the cause ofmalaria while 86% of the pregnant women identified stagnant water as its breeding sites. Knowledge of thebenefit of insecticide-treated mosquito bednets was less prominent as most of the selected subjects decried itshigh market price. Our data also showed that educational programme targeted on potential mothers is beneficial.Overall, 27.4% (96/350 of the pregnant women had peripheral malaria infection with 88.5% (85/96 of theparasite positive women infected with Plasmodium falciparum and 11.5% (11/96 with P. malariae. PCV rangedfrom 20–40% (median 33.9% with 25.7% (90/350 of the pregnant women being anaemic with PCV <33%. Wefound an association between malaria infection and occupation, and this association was not influenced byparity.Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings revealed that improvement in knowledge and education of women ofchild-bearing age has an influential impact on malaria control

  17. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  18. Goal-oriented incentive payment in CUDAM institution and variation in medical visit indicators in children under one and pregnant women

    Marcelo Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: The establishment of National Integrated Health System in Uruguay from 2007 led to changes in the financing of the Collective Health Care Institutions (IAMC. They charge the National Health Fund (FONASA for their partners from social security (SS a health fee consists of: a A risk-adjusted capita (94%b A component for compliance with performance (6%, depending on the fulfillment of three goals of care. Goal 1 is a component of the child under 1 year and a component of the pregnant woman. For both components were established institutional baseline (July 2007-September 2008 in the control patients in both age groups. This motif COMPLIANCE quarterly reports with a fee of $48/user FONASA/month for average baseline compliment. Las for children and pregnant women were monitored for IAMC CUDAM 64% and 59% respectively.This institution has 42,000 users, 95% derived from SS, featuring 45 births, 585 children <1 year and 405 pregnant women tested monthly.Objectives: Evaluate two years (July-September 2010:a The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant CUDAM with medical controlb Relationship between income through the FONASA insitucional for goal 1 and children and pregnant women in medical management during the quarter.Methods: a retrospective study of children and pregnant women with medical control CUDAM. In turn, each target has 6 indicators (N: children, F: females. Child: N1 and N2: derivation and acquisition of the newborn, N3: controls as a guideline, N4: current vaccination, N5: ultrasound hip and pregnant, N6: accreditation in good feeding practices for infants and young children and pregnant women. Pregnant woman: M1 controls as a guideline, M2: leaf perinatal information system, M3: HIV and VDRL performed, M4: uptake in 1 st quarter, M5 and M6: dental checkup during pregnancy and postpartum.Results: The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant women increased to 92% (164 additional children and 88

  19. The pharmacokinetics of mecillinam and pivmecillinam in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Heikkilä, A.; Pyykkö, K; Erkkola, R; Iisalo, E

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of parenteral mecillinam (n = 27) and oral pivmecillinam (n = 12) were studied in pregnant (n = 27) and non-pregnant (n = 12) subjects. 2. In early pregnancy (9-14 weeks of gestation) the mean peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax = 19 +/- 9 micrograms ml-1) after an intravenous injection of 200 mg mecillinam was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) and the volume of distribution (V = 49 +/- 20.1) significantly larger (P less than 0.05) than in non-pregnant subjects (...

  20. Systemic and structural analysis of morbidity of pregnant women and newborns on the radionuclide contaminated territories

    In the work, systemic and structural analysis of causes and dynamics of the morbidity of pregnant women and newborns in the Gomel, Mogilov and Brest area during the period from 1986 to 2001 has been made. The pregnant morbidity rate of anemias, urogenital system diseases, late gestosis, as well as of newborn morbidity rate of acute viral infections, intrauterus hypoxia and asphyxia, respiratory distress-syndrome, birth traumas and inborn pneumonias was higher on the radionuclide contaminated territories. The main directions for improvement of medical care to pregnant women and the ways of their realization have been determined (authors)

  1. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level partner (AOR = 1.91 [CI = 1.11-3.27]) and whose partner were alcoholic (AOR = 2.19 [CI = 1.31-3.66]) were significantly more likely to perceive themselves at risk of HIV. Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples. PMID:24215183

  2. For Consumers: Seven Things Pregnant Women and Parents Need to Know About Arsenic in Rice and Rice Cereal

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates For Consumers: Seven Things Pregnant Women and Parents Need to Know About Arsenic ... 5. If you have an infant or are pregnant, what should you do? Based on the FDA’s ...

  3. Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border

    Moo Yoe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/μL was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/μL were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt

  4. Risk factors on hypertensive disorders among Jordanian pregnant women.

    Suleiman, Amal K

    2014-03-01

    Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373

  5. Suicidality among pregnant women in Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    Castro e Couto, Tiago; Brancaglion, Mayra Yara Martins; Cardoso, Mauro Nogueira; Faria, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes P; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Corrêa, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of preventable death. We evaluated suicidality among pregnant women who participated in prenatal care in Brazil. A total of 255 patients were assessed using semi-structured interviews as well as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Thereafter, Stata 12 was used to identify the significant predictors of current suicide risk (CSR) among participants using univariate and multivariate analyses (p CSR was 23.53%, distributed across risk levels of low (12.55%), moderate (1.18%), and high (9.80%). Our rates approximate those found in another Brazilian study (18.4%). Antenatal depression (AD), lifetime bipolar disorder, and any current anxiety disorder (as measured using the MINI) as well as BDI scores ≥15 and EPDS scores ≥11 were identified as positive risk factors in a univariate analysis (p < 0.001). These factors changed after a multivariate analysis was employed, and only years of education [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.21-0.99], AD (OR = 3.42; 95% CIs = 1.37-8.53), and EPDS scores ≥11 (OR = 4.44; 95% CIs = 1.97-9.97) remained independent risk factors. AD and other psychiatric disorders were the primary risk factors for suicidality, although only the former remained an independent factor after a multivariate analysis. More than 10 years of education and EPDS scores ≥11 were also independent factors; the latter can be used as a screening tool for suicide risk. PMID:26189445

  6. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women in South India

    Nabhi VR. Murty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction is one of the commonest endocrinopathies seen in pregnancy and affects both maternal and fetal outcomes. There is little data available on its prevalence in Indian pregnant women. This study was conducted at Bhaskar medical college and hospital situated in a rural/suburban area near Hyderabad, Telengana, India. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of thyroid disease among pregnant women. Methods: All consecutive pregnant women registered from January 2014 to December 2014 were included in the study. Morning samples of serum were tested for T3, T4 and TSH. Results: A total of 1340 women were included in the study. 260 pregnant women (19.41% had TSH values more than 3.0 mIU/L, the cut-off value used for upper limit of normal in this study. Out of these, 216 had normal T4 value, hence labeled as subclinical hypothyroidism and 44 had low T4, hence termed overt hypothyroidism. Three pregnant women had overt hyperthyroidism and 11 had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine women had low T4 values-Isolated hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnancy was found to be higher in our patients, more so the sub clinical hypothyroidism. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 453-456

  7. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  8. Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status

    Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Pregnant Syphilis among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Shenzhen (China) in 2003

    Yang Fan(杨帆); Zhou Hua(周华); Hong Fuchang(洪福昌); Luo Bin(罗斌); Cai Yumao(蔡于茂); Wen Lizhang(文立章); Zhang Chunlai(张春来)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Nnewly reported cases of congenital syphilis have been increaseding substantially over the past few years. To control the epidemic, a municipal program aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission of syphilis was introduced in July, 2001,which was designed aimed to screen all pregnant women for syphilis at their first visit to antenatal clinics or at admission to hospitals in Shenzhen.Objectives: The aim of the study is tTo determine the prevalence of syphilis among women attending antenatal clinics and other medical institutions in Shenzhen and identifies its patterns of infection.Methods: Upon giving informed consent, w Women who attended antenatal care centers in Shenzhen from January to December 2003 were included in this study subject to obtaining informed consent. A blood sample was harvested for syphilis screened for syphilising by using rapid plasma reagent test (RPR) and confirmed by TPHA for those who were RPR positive. The women with pregnant syphilispositive serology were systematically interviewed to obtain. During the interview, their demographic detailsinformation, patterns of risk behaviors and other data. Data were collected andwere analyzed retrospectively.Results: Among Of 118,235 pregnant women surveyed,555 pregnant women were confirmed to have syphilis (prevalence of 4.69%), with a incidence of 4.69‰. 123women were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete medical records. Of 432 infected subjects with complete medical records, the average age was 26.8, with a range of 19 to 41. 7.41% (32/432) of them suffered from primary syphilis, 3.24% (14/432) were ofhad secondary syphilis, and 89.35%(386/432) had latent syphilis. Without any conspicuous clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusions: The prevalence of syphilis among the pregnant women in our series was high an most of them were asymptomatic. Screening for syphilis among pregnant women in Shenzhen is of importantce for the prevention of mother

  10. Human parvovirus B19 in Iranian pregnant women: A serologic survey

    Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parvovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that vary in the spectrum from trivial to severe. The important clinical manifestations are erythema infectiosum or the fifth disease, transient aplastic anemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies, acute polyarthralgia syndrome in adults, hydrops fetalis, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Acute infection in nonimmune pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. In view of the many complications that can result from acute parvovirus B19 infections during pregnancy, documenting the seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG and its association with the history of abortion in an Iranian population of pregnant women would be of value. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 86 pregnant women were collected between May and September 2011 in West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Every pregnant woman completed a questionnaire which included age, history of tattooing, blood transfusion, and abortion. Anti-B19 specific IgG was detected by using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Anti-B19-specific IgG antibody was detected in (65/86, 75.6% of pregnant women. The mean age was 25.56 ± 5.30 years and three women had a documented history of blood transfusion (2 of them tested seropositive for B19. 16/18 (88.8% of women with a history of abortion were IgG positive. The frequency of abortion sessions in the seropositive group (25 sessions of abortion: 11 women experienced once, 2 twice, 2 thrice and one 4 times was 4.03 times greater than abortion in seronegative group (2 abortions/21 seronegative women. Conclusion: Our study reaffirms previous reports regarding the higher frequency of abortion among anti-B19 IgG seropositive pregnant women and a possible role of this viral infection in the pathogenesis of abortion.

  11. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella in pregnant women attending antenatal private clinic at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Laure Stella Ghoma Linguissi; Bolni Marius Nagalo; Cyrille Bisseye; Thrse S Kagon; Mahamoudou Sanou; Issoufou Tao; Victoire Benao; Jacques Simpor; Bibiane Kon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. Methods: All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (PlateliaTM Rubella IgG and Platelia™Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Results:Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3%and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7%to 12.1%and 84.6%to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. Conclusions: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Pregnant Women in Gorgan City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran-2012.

    Mitra Sharbatkhori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasites of human and warm- blooded animals. Toxoplasmosis is important especially in two groups: pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. If women acquire the primary infection during the pregnancy, it would be life threatening or remains severe disorders for the fetus. This study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women referred to Health Center in Gorgan City, Golestan Province, northern Iran.Serum samples were collected from pregnant women referred to Health Center in Gorgan City, south eastern Caspian Sea. Anti- Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by commercially ELISA kits and the relation of infection with socio-demographic and risk factors such as age, education, occupation, cat ownership, soil contact and some other factors was studied.From 555 tested sera of pregnant women referred to Health Center in Gorgan, 39.8% had IgG antibodies against T. gondii and 3.4% were positive for IgM antibodies. A significant correlation was seen between T. gondii infection with age and soil contact.About 60% of pregnant women in Gorgan City are seronegative against T. gondii, so they should considered as at risk persons.

  13. The cytological diagnosis and prognosis of malignization of cervical epithelium of uterus in pregnant women.

    Sumenko V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation is dedicated to the study of the pathological alterations of cervical epithelium of uterus, proliferative activity in the lesion focuses and the improvement of cytological diagnosis of the state of cervical epithelium of uterus. The correlation between the proliferative processes in abnormal epithelium of uterine cervix and some pathological factors of the pregnant women organism was studied. The criteria for prognosis of the cervical epithelial dysplasia in pregnant women were elaborated on this basis of our data. The pathological processes in cervical epithelium were revealed in 309 pregnant women in the first trimester (mean age of women was 26,17±0,83 years. The hormonal state of pregnant women was studied on the basis of colpocytological picture and the colpocytological types which indicate the unfavorable prognosis with a certain degree of validity were determined. The mathematic model for all cytological groups of pregnant women for prognosis of inflammatory processes, epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was created. The simple and comprehensible prognostic scheme for diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was developed.

  14. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  15. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  16. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  17. Bad experience, good birthing: Dutch low-risk pregnant women with a history of sexual abuse

    L.A.M. van der Hulst; G.J. Bonsel; M. Eskes; E. Birnie; E. van Teijlingen; O.P. Bleker

    2006-01-01

    Objective. The long-term effects on women in childbirth with a history of sexual abuse have only been studied to a limited degree. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime experience among low-risk pregnant women (non-clinical) in the Netherlands as well as the association with (1) psycho-social outc

  18. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    Yamaguchi Kotomi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae. Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011. Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p p = 0.005. Conclusions There was no difference in generic QOL of pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL

  19. The epidemiology of HIV seropositive malaria infected pregnant women in Akure Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Ajibade Kwashie Ako-Nai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV increases the risks of malaria in pregnant women, while maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV viral load also facilitates perinatal transmission to neonates. Malaria and HIV coinfection has been shown to exacerbate adverse pregnancy complications. Our study was designed to determine the HIV prevalence of pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in Akure in southwestern Nigeria, investigate the relationship between dual HIV and malaria infection and HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts. The study also estimated the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in a selected cohort of 74 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the HIV serostatus of 3,225 pregnant women, who attended the antenatal clinic between August 2012 and April 2013. A cohort of 74 pregnant women was selected for the investigation of the relationship between coinfection of HIV and malaria and HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. Their HIV status was determined during three trimesters of pregnancy by both HIV-1/2 strips and confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Malaria parasitemia was determined by Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears. CD4 cell count was by flow cytometry using the CyFlow Counter (Partec, Germany. Viral load estimated by Amplicor HIV-I monitor assay. Results: We found 3.53% prevalence of HIV serostatus among the 3,225 pregnant women who were screened. Forty-four of the 74 subjects were HIV positive and 30 were HIV negative controls. The results show HIV infection among the pregnant women reduced the CD4 cells from a mean of 750 cells/ml for HIV negative women to a mean of 363 cells/ml for HIV seropositive women. Additionally the presence of malaria more than doubled the HIV viral load from a mean of 7,270 ribonucleic acid (RNA copies/ml for HIV positive women without malaria to 15,148 RNA copies/ml for HIV positive women with malaria. Conclusion: In this study, HIV infection significantly increased risk of

  20. Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India.

    Awasthi, S.; Awasthi, R; Pande, V K; Srivastav, R C; Frumkin, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status were measured, and PbB was measured. RESULTS: The mean PbB was 14.3 micrograms/dl and 19.2% of women had PbB > ...

  1. Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress in pregnant women of South East Nigeria

    Uchenna Ifeanyi Nwagha; Tochukwu Christopher Okeke; Theresa Ukamaka Nwagha; FidelisEbeleEjezie; SylvesterOgbonnaOgbodo; CyrilChukwudiDim; BondUgochukwuAnyaehie

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship between asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and some oxidative stress parameters in pregnant Nigerian women. Methods:This is a cross-sectional study involving 130 normal pregnant women at various trimesters, who were attending antenatal clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and Kenechukwu Specialist Hospital in Enugu. A comparable group (control), made of 30 non pregnant women was also recruited. After a 24 hour dietary recall, serum levels of vitamin A, C and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by colorimetric method, while vitamin E was determined by absorptiometric method. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, parity, estimated calorie, vitamins A, C and E intake between the pregnant and non pregnant groups (P>0.05). The serum level of the vitamins (umol/L) and MDA (umol/L) in control, 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively were:(1)Vitamin A:1.6±0.36 vs 0.6±0.26 vs 0.62±0.33 vs 0.46±0.21 (P0.05). Conclusions:Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress on pregnant women in Nigeria. The enormity of acute and complicated attack should be further investigated.

  2. Frequency and risk indicators of tooth decay among pregnant women in France: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Jean-Noel Vergnes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. METHODS: A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women's medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. RESULTS: 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8. Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45], lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23] and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]. The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. DISCUSSION: The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations.

  3. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  4. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on Streptococcus mutans counts in pregnant women.

    Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral environment stabilization (OES) on the counting of Streptococcus mutans in high-caries-risk pregnant women participants of a prevention program in a public teaching institution. The sample was composed of 30 pregnant women aged 18 to 43 years, who looked for treatment at the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Araraquara Dental School, UNESP. Saliva samples were collected before and after the OES procedures and were forwarded to the pathology for observation and quantification of S. mutans CFU. There was a decrease in the number of S. mutans CFU, which was significantly different (ppregnant women. This management is simple and effective, corresponding to the basic treatment needs of pregnant women that search dental care in this public service. PMID:21861025

  5. Thyroid status and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    Thyroid function, lipid peroxidation (LPO) products content and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus are studied. The levels of malonic dialdehyde, vitamins A, C and E, reduced glutathion, and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were measured in the blood of 60 women living in Minsk and 90 pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The functions of the thyroid was assessed from the blood levels of tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, thyroidbinding globulin, and T4/TSH ratio. It is shown that the content of LPO products is increased higher and the levels of antioxidant vitamins and reduced glutathion decreased lower in the residents of contaminated territories. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in pregnant women depend on the function of the thyroid

  6. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  7. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Nursing Care Relieving Problems of Hospitalized High-Risk Pregnant Women in Bed Rest

    Umran Yesiltepe Oskay; Anahit Coskun

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that bed rest at home or in hospital has many physical and psychosocial effects on pregnant women. Objective: This study is type of an intervention study which has been conducted to determine bed rest related physical and psychosocial problems of hospitalized high-risk pregnant women and effectiveness of a comprehensive nursing care plan in solving to those problems. Material and Method: The sample group was selected among high-risk pregnant women who were hospitalized in per...

  8. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep...

  9. Population-Level Benefits from Providing Effective HIV Prevention Means to Pregnant Women in High Prevalence Settings

    Dobromir Dimitrov; Marie-Claude Boily; Jeannie Marrazzo; Richard Beigi; Brown, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Southern Africa is extremely high. Epidemiological studies suggest that pregnancy increases the risk of HIV sexual acquisition and that HIV infections acquired during pregnancy carry higher risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). We analyze the potential benefits from extending the availability of effective microbicide to pregnant women (in addition to non-pregnant women) in a wide-scale intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A transmission...

  10. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women t...

  11. HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

    Sun, Yuping; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Wu, Qiang; Yu, Jiang; Guo, Zhiqiu; Han, Yali; Fan, Yujiang; Qin, Xianfang; Xu, Ping; Bolatihan, Janati; Hoshaerbai, Mayinuer; Yuan, Luping; Hong, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has increased in recent years. HIV screening for pregnant women was performed in a remote area in Xinjiang, as an effort to promote universal HIV screening in pregnant women and to help prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women in Burqin and Jeminay Counties in Xinjiang were offered free voluntary HIV screening. Local mid-level medical workers were trained to use Determine® HIV-...

  12. Comparative Molecular and Microbiologic Diagnosis of Vaginal Colonization by Group B Streptococcus in Pregnant Women during Labor

    Farnaz Fatemi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sRapid tests for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (GBS at the onset of labor are needed to permit early intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to evaluate the PCR assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA for detection of the GBS in comparison with a specific culture method. Materials and MethodsTwo swabs were used to obtain vaginal specimens from the 330 pregnant women attended delivery room at Hedayat hospital, Tehran, Iran. One swab was analyzed by direct plating onto selective GBS agar medium (ISLAM and the other swab was used for a PCR assay, which amplified the 16S rDNA of S. agalactiae. Comparative study between the selective culture and the PCR assay was done among the 330 tested women.ResultsThe GBS colonization rate based on the culture results was 20.6% (68/330. Both culture and PCR methods were positive for 56 and negative for 253 women. The culture method was positive and PCR was negative in 12 women. The culture was negative and the PCR positive for 9 women. Sensitivity of the PCR assay was 82.3% and specificity was 96.5%. The positive predictive value was 86.15% and negative predictive value was 95.4%. ConclusionISLAM diagnostic procedure and PCR are rapid and reliable analyzing methods, which might be useful for accurate diagnosis of GBS colonization in pregnant women at the time of delivery.

  13. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  14. Determinants of non-vaccination against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in pregnant women: a prospective cohort study.

    Romain Freund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In October 2009, the French government organized a national-wide, free of charge vaccination campaign against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, especially targeting pregnant women, a high risk group for severe illness. The study objective was to evaluate pandemic flu vaccine uptake and factors associated with non-vaccination in a population of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort conducted in 3 maternity hospitals in Paris, 882 pregnant women were randomly included between October 12, 2009 and February 3, 2010, with the aim to study characteristics of pandemic influenza during pregnancy. At inclusion, socio-demographic, medical, obstetrical factors and those associated with a higher risk of flu exposition and disease-spreading were systematically collected. Pandemic flu vaccine uptake was checked until delivery. 555 (62.9% women did not get vaccinated. Determinants associated with non-vaccination in a multivariate logistic regression were: geographic origin (Sub-Saharan African origin, adjusted Odd Ratio aOR = 5.4[2.3-12.7], North African origin, aOR = 2.5[1.3-4.7] and Asian origin, aOR = 2.1[1.7-2.6] compared to French and European origin and socio-professional categories (farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, aOR = 2.3[2.0-2.6], intermediate professionals, aOR = 1.3[1.0-1.6], employees and manual workers, aOR = 2.5[1.4-4.4] compared to managers and intellectual professionals. The probability of not receiving pandemic flu vaccine was lower among women vaccinated against seasonal flu in the previous 5 years (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8] and among those who stopped smoking before or early during pregnancy (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8]. Number of children less than 18 years old living at home, work in contact with children or in healthcare area, or professional contact with the public, were not associated with a higher vaccine uptake. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this cohort of pregnant women, vaccine coverage against pandemic

  15. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal...... newborn fat masses, but not to fat-free mass. Interventions targeting maternal postprandial glucose levels may induce more appropriate birth weight, thereby reducing the risk of subsequent morbidity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. Distribution and predictors of exercise habits among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Juhl, M; Madsen, M; Andersen, A-M N; Andersen, P K; Olsen, J

    2012-02-01

    Physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, although strong evidence on reproductive health is lacking. We present exercise habits and predictors of exercise during pregnancy. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), 88,200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed in logistic regression. About one-third of the women exercised in early/mid pregnancy and slightly less in late pregnancy. Bicycling, swimming, and low-impact activities were most common. Exercising more than three times per week was strongly correlated with older age, being a student or out of work, eating disorders, moderate alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. Multiparity, a normal or less good self-rated health, smoking, and a less health conscious diet were the strongest predictors of not doing exercise. Women of 25 years or older, with metabolic or psychiatric disorders, or who had received subfecundity treatment were more likely to increase their activity level substantially from early to late pregnancy than comparison groups. In conclusion, exercising during pregnancy correlated with a number of maternal characteristics. The findings may be used to identify pregnant women not likely to exercise, to target activities that may fit their needs, and, for research purposes, to identify adjustment variables or guide sensitivity analyses when data on confounders are lacking. PMID:20500556

  17. Altered response to A(H1N1)pnd09 vaccination in pregnant women

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Carson, Charlotte Giwercman;

    2013-01-01

    were to compare influences of dose and adjuvant on the immune response. METHODS: The study was nested in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort in 2009-2010 and conducted as a single-blinded block-randomised [1∶1∶1] controlled clinical trial in pregnant......-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) groups (OR = 0.49 [0.13-1.85], p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the immune response to the 7.5 µg MF59-adjuvanted Focetria® H1N1pnd09 vaccine in pregnant women may be diminished compared with non-pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012557....

  18. Parity implications for anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits in pregnant women

    L. Goñi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining an adequate health status and appropriate lifestyles during pregnancy is of great importance to prevent adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, socio-demographic features, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits of pregnant women in Spain, and to identify the influence of parity on these profiles. Methods: This cross-sectional study included pregnant women from regions all over Spain. The information was collected through a 40 item questionnaire, previously validated, by community health professionals. Results: The 5,087 pregnant women analyzed had an average age of 31.9 years with an adequate nutritional status. The distribution of the sample was 56% nulliparous and 44% multiparous. The nulliparous reported a better self-perceived health status and nutritional balance, and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the multiparous showed healthier lifestyle habits (lower rates of smoking and alcohol consumption and more physically active patterns. Regarding diet, nulliparous pregnant women consumed more dairy products, fresh fruit and nuts, and less bread, rice/pasta/potatoes, meat, sausage and buns/pastries than multiparous pregnant women. Conclusions: Differences between analyzed patterns were observed in anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits, which may require different nutritional messages to nulliparous as compared to multiparous from a public health point of view.

  19. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses.

  20. Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus status of pregnant women and their newborns in west iran

    To determine the prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women and in cord blood of their newborns. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH) Vit D, were measured in 193 pregnant subjects between 16-45 years of age in third trimester admitted in Be'sat hospital. Same were measured in the cord blood of 193 newborns belonging to them. Mean maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D was 16.5+-14.2 ng/mL, and cord blood was 12+-0.2 ng/mL. Fifty-seven percent of pregnant women had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Seventy six percent of newborns had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D correlated positively with cord 25(OH) Vit D (r=0.77, P<0.05). Mean maternal serum calcium was 8.89+-0.73 mg/ml and mean newborn serum calcium was 9.46+-0.93. Mean maternal serum calcium correlated with mean newborn serum calcium (r= 0.38, P<0.05). Twenty six percent of women and 37.8% of newborns had hypocalcemia. There was a high prevalence of significant hypovitaminosis D among pregnant women and their newborns. Our study emphasize the need of majority of pregnant women and their newborns to supplemental vitamin D and has significant public health implications. (author)

  1. Gene Targeting to the Uteroplacental Circulation of Pregnant Guinea Pigs.

    Mehta, Vedanta; Ofir, Keren; Swanson, Anna; Kloczko, Ewa; Boyd, Michael; Barker, Hannah; Avdic-Belltheus, Adnan; Martin, John; Zachary, Ian; Peebles, Donald; David, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to target adenoviral gene therapy to the uteroplacental circulation of pregnant guinea pigs in order to develop a novel therapy for fetal growth restriction. Four methods of delivery of an adenovirus encoding β-galactosidase (Ad.LacZ) were evaluated: intravascular injection using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into (1) uterine artery (UtA) or (2) internal iliac artery or external administration in (3) PBS or (4) pluronic F-127 gel (Sigma Aldrich). Postmortem examination was performed 4 to 7 days after gene transfer. Tissue transduction was assessed by X-gal histochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. External vascular application of the adenovirus vector in combination with pluronic gel had 91.7% success rate in terms of administration (85% maternal survival) and gave the best results for maternal/fetal survival and local transduction efficiency without any spread to maternal or fetal tissues. This study suggests an optimal method of gene delivery to the UtAs of a small rodent for preclinical studies. PMID:26865541

  2. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Tamima Al-Dughaishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results: Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions: The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history.

  3. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

    Ane-Kersti Skaarup Knudsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives: To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design: Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women 50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland.

  4. Examining Intimate Partner Violence and Health Factors Among Rural Appalachian Pregnant Women.

    Shannon, Lisa; Nash, Shondrah; Jackson, Afton

    2016-09-01

    Among pregnant women, intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized as a critical risk factor in adverse health outcomes for the mother and newborn alike. This pilot study examined IPV and health for rural Appalachian pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable high-risk and high-needs group. Participants were 77 rural, Appalachian pregnant women entering a hospital-based inpatient detoxification unit primarily for Opiate Dependence. Study participants gave informed consent to a face-to-face interview and secondary data abstraction from hospital medical records. IPV was measured via questions from the National Violence Against Women Survey, the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). The majority of the sample reported lifetime psychological (89.6%) and physical (64.9%) violence. A little over three fourths (75.3%) experienced IPV in the past year. Furthermore, over one third (39.0%) experienced stalking, physical, or sexual violence in the past year. Most participants (71.4%) experienced psychological abuse in the past year. IPV experiences, in conjunction with pervasive substance use, mental and physical health problems, and poverty present in rural Appalachia, culminate in a particularly high-risk and high-needs group of pregnant women. These women present unique opportunities and challenges for prevention, intervention, and treatment. PMID:25846757

  5. Physical activity, depressed mood and pregnancy worries in European obese pregnant women

    de Wit, Linda; Jelsma, Judith G M; van Poppel, Mireille N M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between mental health status (i.e. depressed mood and pregnancy-related worries) and objectively measured physical activity levels in obese pregnant women from seven European countries. METHODS: Baseline data from the vitamin D...... scores indicative of depressed mood (<50) were reported by 27.1 % of the women and most frequently endorsed pregnancy-related worries pertained to own and the baby's health. Women with good well-being spent 85% more time in MVPA compared to women with a depressed mood (P = 0.03). No differences in MVPA...... levels were found for women with no, some, or many pregnancy worries. Depressed mood and pregnancy-related worries were not associated with sedentary behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in pregnant women who are obese, a depressed mood, but not pregnancy-related worries, may be associated...

  6. Living conditions, contraceptive use and the choice of induced abortion among pregnant women in Denmark

    Rasch, Vibeke; Wielandt, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study describes women with induced abortion and thereby elucidates how living conditions and contraceptive failure are associated with the choice of induced abortion in a population of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: The study population consisted of pregnant women attending Odense...... University Hospital. They were categorized in two groups: women with induced abortion (n = 373) and a reference group consisting of women with spontaneous abortion and antenatal care attendees (n = 2,176). The two groups were compared by use of a case-referent design. The variables studied comprise age...... choice of induced abortion. Among married/cohabiting women aged 20-39 with fewer than two children, being under education, unemployed, on leave, or willing to invest effort in obtaining a more satisfying job influenced the choice of induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the number of induced abortions...

  7. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Akinbami AA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Akinsegun A Akinbami,1 Sarah O Ajibola,2 Kabiru A Rabiu,3 Adeniyi A Adewunmi,3 Adedoyin O Dosunmu,1 Adewumi Adediran,4 Vincent O Osunkalu,4 Bodunrin I Osikomaiya,5 Kamal A Ismail,51Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 2Department of Haematology and Blood, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 4Department of Haematology and Blood, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 5Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy.Subjects and methods: This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed.Results: Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume

  8. Frequency and Risk Indicators of Tooth Decay among Pregnant Women in France: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. Methods A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women’s medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. Results 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. Discussion The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations. PMID:22586442

  9. Teenage pregnancy, attachment style, and depression : a comparison of teenage and adult pregnant women

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bifulco, A.; Pacheco, Alexandra P.; Raquel A. Costa; Magarinho, Rute

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this portuguese study is to compare the experience of pregnancy in teenage years and later adulthood and to examine insecure attachment style as a risk factor for depression during pregnancy. The Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Bernazzani, 2002) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) were administered to 66 pregnant adolescents and 64 adult women. Pregnant teenagers were found to be nearly three times more likely t...

  10. Factors influencing intentions of pregnant women to exercise after giving birth.

    Godin, G.; Vezina, L; Leclerc, O

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that may influence a pregnant woman's decision to exercise after giving birth. A sample of 98 pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire investigation attitudes, social norms, perceived barriers to exercise, and intention regarding exercising after giving birth. Also determined were age, education level, exercise habits, number of months elapsed since onset of present pregnancy, and number of children. The regressions of intentions to e...

  11. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Pregnant Women for Emerging Infections and Bioterrorism Emergencies

    Cono, Joanne; Cragan, Janet D.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.

    2006-01-01

    Emerging infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism attacks warrant urgent public health and medical responses. Response plans for these events may include use of medications and vaccines for which the effects on pregnant women and fetuses are unknown. Healthcare providers must be able to discuss the benefits and risks of these interventions with their pregnant patients. Recent experiences with outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox, and anthrax, as well as response plan...

  12. The Evaluation of Ureteroscopy and Pneumatic Lithotripsy Results in Pregnant Women With Urethral Calculi

    Keshvari Shirvan, Maliheh; Darabi Mahboub, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Seyedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary stone incidence in pregnancy has been reported in a wide range, from 1 in 200 to 1 in 2000 cases. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopic treatment and its results and complications for pregnant women with urinary stones. Patients and Methods From 2003 till 2011, 113 pregnant patients with symptomatic urolithiasis were admitted to the urology emergency clinic at Imam Reza hospital. All patients were initially treated cons...

  13. Evaluation of a goiter epidemic degree among pregnant women in natural iodine deficiency region

    Petrova, V; F Abdulhabirova; Petrova, S.; E Egorycheva; S Soloveva; E Troshina

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: the aim of the study was to investigate clinical features of thyroid function in pregnant woman in the region of natural iodine deficiency. Methods: serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations, urine excretion of iodine were measured. The structure and volume of thyroid gland were defined by palpation and ultrasonography. The 150 pregnant women (50 in every trimester) were included in study. Results: median of urine iodine excretion was 72.5 mkg/l, ...

  14. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    Mbalibulha Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yona Mbalibulha,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Godfrey R Mugyenyi,2 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods: Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results: Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%; A: 190 (26.%; B: 152 (21%; and AB: 28 (4%. A total of 28 (3.86% pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1% of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8% were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of

  15. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and Serum Bile Acids in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    Weinberg, Adriana; Allshouse, Amanda; Kinzie, Kay; Cho, Alice; Davies, Jill K.; Mc Farland, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is uncommon, but has severe effects on pregnancy outcomes. ICP is characterized by elevated serum bile acids and liver enzymes and preferentially affects women with liver disorders. We compared bile acids and pregnancy outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women, who commonly have elevated live enzymes, with uninfected controls. Methods Twenty-four HIV-infected, including 2 co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 25 uninfected women we...

  16. Mode of Delivery among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Philadelphia, 2005-2013

    Thompson, Dana R.; Momplaisir, Florence M.; Adams, Joëlla W.; Yehia, Baligh R.; Anderson, Emily A.; Alleyne, Gregg; Brady, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current guidelines call for HIV-infected women to deliver via scheduled Caesarean when the maternal HIV viral load (VL) is >1,000 copies/ml. We describe the mode of delivery among HIV-infected women and evaluate adherence to relevant recommendations. Study Design We performed a population-based surveillance analysis of HIV-infected pregnant women in Philadelphia from 2005 to 2013, comparing mode of delivery (vaginal, scheduled Caesarean, or emergent Caesarean) by VL during pregnancy...

  17. Cultural Acceptability of a Smoking Relapse Prevention Intervention for Pregnant Women in Puerto Rico: Providers’ Feedback

    Litvin, Erika B.; Rojas, Ariz; Brandon, Thomas H.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Meade, Cathy D.; Jimenez, Julio; Castro, Eida; Diaz, Zulhermi; Simmons, Vani N.

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic women are more likely than non-Hispanic women to quit smoking during pregnancy, indicating that relapse-prevention interventions may benefit this population. We conducted qualitative interviews with health care providers in Puerto Rico who serve pregnant women regarding the cultural acceptability of Libres Para Siempre Por Mi Bebé y Por Mi (transcreated from the English version, Forever Free for Baby and Me), a smoking relapse-prevention booklet series. Providers praised the overall ...

  18. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Tamima Al-Dughaishi; Yusra Al Harrasi; Maymoona Al-Duhli; Ikhlass Al-Rubkhi; Nihal Al-Riyami; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Pathare, Anil V.; Vaidyanathan Gowri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD) antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and Ju...

  19. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant African-American Women in Washington, D.C

    Kiely, Michele; Thornberry, Jutta S.; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the patterns and associated behaviors related to alcohol consumption among a selected sample of pregnant women seeking prenatal care in inner city Washington D.C. Women receiving prenatal care at one of nine sites completed an anonymous, alcohol-screening questionnaire. Questions were from the TWEAK and AUDIT as well as quantity/frequency questions about the amount, type, and pattern of alcohol consumption. Women were determined to be at no, low, mod...

  20. Study of Coping-competence among Unmarried Pregnant Young Women in Three Big Cites in China

    Wei WEI; Xiao-ming YU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the coping-competence among unmarried pregnant young women.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the setting of clinics-based.A total of 1391 unmarried young women were recruited as the sample in Youth Clinics of 3 maternal care hospitals in Beijing,Jinan,and Guangzhou respectively in China."Behavioral Attributes of Psychosocial Competence Scale-Condensed Form" was administered to identify the coping-competence of these women.All these women were aged 10-24 years old and were divided into three groups based on whether or not they had sex and pregnancy.The three groups were named as follows:pregnancy group with young women having had both sex and pregnancy,sex group with young women having had only sex but not pregnancy,and non-sex group with young women having no sex experience.Results Among the adolescents aged 10-19 years old,the coping-competence was different among the three groups(P=0.050).Compared with the pregnancy group,the non-sex group were more inclined to active coping(P=0.026).Among all the pregnant women aged 10-24 years old,the coping-competence was various by region(P<0.001):the women in Jinan were more inclined to active coping than the women in another two cites(P=0.009,P<0.001),and there was no difference between the women from Beijing and Guangzhou(P=0.324).Conclusion This is the first study of coping among unmarried pregnant young women in China.The results supported the point of view that the pregnant adolescents were more inclined to passive coping,and the coping had regional differences.

  1. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low ...

  2. The Quality of Life in Pregnant Women Conceiving Through In Vitro Fertilization

    Globevnik Velikonja Vislava; Lozej Tina; Leban Gaja; Verdenik Ivan; Vrtačnik Bokal Eda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine whether pregnant women conceiving through in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those conceiving spontaneously in terms of psychological well-being and the quality of life. Methods In a prospective study we included 75 women conceived after IVF and 78 who conceived spontaneously in the same time period (control group). All the women were sent a self-report questionnaire about demographic and reproductive history, health, pregnancy concerns, containing Sub...

  3. Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes

    Chan BC

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban® in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for smoking cessation for pregnant patients. There are currently four studies that have investigated the use of nicotine patch, three for nicotine gum, and registry and preliminary reports for bupropion. These studies did not show any adverse pregnancy outcomes with the use of pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. All the nicotine replacement therapy studies, with the exception of one randomized-controlled nicotine patch trial had small sample sizes and looked at short-term use of drug in the third trimester. Two studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman. The results from these studies reveal greater nicotine metabolism in pregnant individuals who continue to smoke during pregnancy. Current guidelines from several organizations uniformly recommend that Nicotine Replacement Therapy should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have been unsuccessful. Bupropion is recommended in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. There is a need for further studies on the safety and effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement therapy and bupropion in pregnancy. However, considering the current research and guidelines, pharmacological cessation aids should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have not been effective.

  4. Iodine Status in Pregnant Women, Lactating Mothers, and Newborns in an Area with More Than Two Decades of Successful Iodine Nutrition.

    Nazeri, Pantea; Zarghani, Najmeh Hamzavi; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-07-01

    Pregnant women, lactating mothers, and their newborns constitute the target population for prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine nutrition status among these vulnerable groups in an area with more than two decades of successful elimination of iodine deficiency. In this cross-sectional study conducted in health care centers of Tehran, 100 pregnant women and 84 lactating mothers and their newborn were randomly selected. Urinary iodine concentration and iodine content of salts were measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff and titration methods, respectively. Urinary iodine concentration mammary glands. PMID:26631051

  5. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

    Acheampong, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean catch urine was cultured on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar aerobically at 37oC . Isolates were identified to the species level using standard proto-col. Antibiotic sensitivity test were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Of the 200 women examined, 19 had significant bacteriuria representing a prevalence of 9.5% in the study population. Pregnant women in their second trimester from the study had the highest prevalence of significant bacteriuria (52.6% with age ranges between 30-34 years having the highest prevalence (36.8%. Nulliparous women were 35 (17.5% with 3 (8.6% testing positive for bacteriuria and 165 (82.5% were multiparous with 16 (9.7% testing positive for bacteriuria. E. coli (36.8% was the common bacteria isolate from this study. From this study, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among antenatal women in the population studied. It is therefore recommended that periodic test-ing of pregnant women is advocated and those found to be infected need to be treated to avoid complications.

  6. Comparison of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in the Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women

    Akhlaghi Farideh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available - To Compare colonization of group B streptococcus (GBS in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. In this prospective study 50 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (both pregestational and gestational and 43 pregnant women without diabetes between 33 and 37 weeks' gestation were evaluated. Three samples for Group B streptococcal culture detection were obtained from each subject in the following order: perinea sample, vaginal sample, and an anorectic sample. All had singleton gestations, negative tests for human immunodeficiency virus, and intact membranes at enrollment. Pearson chi-square and fisher, Exact test were used when appropriate. Most common site of GBS colonization in all women was vagina (11.8%. Colonization of group B streptococcus in control group included vagina (7% perineum (0.3% and rectum 0.3% and in diabetic group included vagina (16% perineum (16% and rectum (16%. Although comparison was shown higher vaginal colonization rate in diabetic group (16% versus 7% but difference was not significant (P=0.154.The prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization in gestational diabetes was 20% and higher than pregestational diabetic women. Among women with pregestational diabetes, the prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization was 15% in non-insulin dependent diabetic women and 10% in insulin dependent diabetic women (P> 0.05. Comparison between two groups showed high rectal colonization in diabetic group and difference was significant (P= 0.027. Pregnant diabetic patients have higher carriage rates of group B streptococcus (GBS in rectum than non-diabetic pregnant women and diabetes is a risk factor for group B streptococcus colonization during pregnancy.

  7. The Situation of Pregnant Women Exposure to Violence by Husband and the Factors Associated With Violence

    Tulay Sagkal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was planned to determine the pregnant women living in rural areas exposure the situation to violence by husband and the factors associated with violence. METHODS: This descriptive cross-section research was conducted all of 5 Family Health Center located in the center of Odemis in izmir. The study sample consisted of 230 pregnant women who are willing to participate in the study, which surveyed admitted to Family Health Center between December 2011 - February 2012. Data are collected through a questionnaire prepared by examining the literature. The questionnaire consists of a total of 20 questions which including socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women (8 questions, pregnancy, physical, emotional, economic and sexual violence, to determine (12 questions. Data were collected by face to face interviews by the researchers, were evaluated with number, percentage and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The average age of pregnant women was 25.75 +/- 4.63 (min:15-max:40, who was 83% of willingly got pregnant, 43% of first pregnancy, 79.6% of during pregnancy support of husband, 67% of the support of the family, % 32.6 of her husband doesn and #8217;t use substance but use alcohol, 10.9% of pregnant women reported physical, 52.6% of emotional, 31.7% of economic and 8.3% were exposed to sexual violence. CONCLUSiON: In this study, having pregnant woman and her husband to have graduated from primary school, moderate of the economic situation, unwilling pregnancy, lack of family support were the factors most strongly associated with violence. It is suggested that by health care institutions and health care providers must be routine screenings to determine violence during pregnancy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 381-390

  8. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women, 599 parturients and 1043 lactating women, 318 non-pregnant women included as controls. The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geographical areas of China. The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy, parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Total energy, protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction. Calcium and zinc intakes, however, were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended, respectively. Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake. The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0 mg each day among all the subjects. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that maternal zinc intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight. The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zinc intake among Chinese women, and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height, weight, or weight gain from birth.

  9. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    YANGYUE-XIN; CHENXUE-CUN; 等

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women,599 Parturients and 1043 lactating women,318 non-pregnant women included as controls,The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geograthical areas of China,The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources.Women in the third trimester of pregnancy,parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy.Total energy,protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction,Calcium and zinc intakes,howerver,were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended.respectively.Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake.The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0mg each day among all the subjects.Correlation and stepwise regression analysis shoed that maternal zine intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight.The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zine intake among Chinese women,and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height,Weight,or weight gain from birth.

  10. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  11. Modern Possibilities of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Pregnant Women with Anemia

    Agamurad A. Orasmuradov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, the number of anemia cases has increased more than 6-fold. Unfortunately, the treatment of pregnant women with anemia using an iron supplement gives unsatisfactory results. However, the data from the present study can change situation for the better. This conclusion was derived from a comparative analysis of the treatment of 65 pregnant women suffering from anemia, divided into two groups: the study and control groups. Patients of the study group received, along with standard therapy, courses of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO. Evaluation of treatment efficiency was based on data from laboratory methods, Doppler, and cardiotocography before and after treatment, as well as a morphological study of the placenta. The received results show that the use of HBO in the complex treatment of pregnant women with anemia may take place in clinical practice both for treatment of anemia during pregnancy, and for the prevention of complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

  12. MR imaging of the lumbosacral spine in asymptomatic pregnant and nonpregnant women

    Back discomfort is a common complaint during pregnancy. In the past, back discomfort was commonly attributed to exaggeration of the normal lumbar lordosis. Recently, however, claims have been made that there is an increased incidence of lumbar disk disease during pregnancy. To evaluate this claim and determine its significance, we compared MR images of the spines of pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women. Sagittal MR images (0.35 T, spin-echo technique) of the lumbosacral spines of 50 pregnant and 50 nonpregnant women were evaluated for intervertebral disk desiccation, bulge, and herniation. The nonpregnant subjects were divided into two groups: nulliparous and parous. The authors found no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Thus, there is no evidence for an increased prevalence of disk disease in pregnant women

  13. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup;

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals is of particular concern for pregnant women....... We therefore studied current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in 200 healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between weeks 8-30 of pregnancy and analysed for 10 phenols, 7 parabens and 16 phthalate metabolites by LC...... daily intake (TDI) and with Hazard Quotients (HQ) below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the individual estimated DI of phthalates and BPA was below TDI, our results...

  14. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård;

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...... healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed...... using a descriptive analysis methodology. Results: Motivational interviewing is an excellent technique in the operation of daily clinics in obstetrics when communicating with obese pregnant women or pregnant women in general. The technique makes the healthcare professionals more aware of their own...

  15. Self-care practices developed by pregnant women in a prenatal outpatient clinic

    Sueli Riul da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study was to examine self-care practices developed by pregnant women in a prenatal outpatient clinic. Ninety-nine pregnant women participated. The survey was conducted in a public outpatient clinic in Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was administered. The responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated greater self-care in relation to consumption of toxic substances (alcohol and drugs, hygiene, rest and nutrition. Others, such as physical exercise, wearing sunscreen and breast care were not deemed as priorities by the participants. Most reported receiving self-care guidance from health professionals, especially physicians and nurses. Defining the nature of the theme could contribute to the reorganization of health services, in order to provide better strategies for delivering quality care to pregnant women, especially the development of educational practices. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.21779.

  16. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan.

  17. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  18. The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance

    To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

  19. [Ferro-Folgamma--a drug for treatment and prophylaxis of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women].

    Bozhinova, S; Penkov, V; Bogdanova, A

    2004-01-01

    The problem of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in pregnant women is not a new one, but the flashback to it is justified because of the fact that its significance is not appreciated properly. The growing foetus has increased needs of different active for blood formation substances such as iron (Fe), folic acid, vit. B12, which are taken away from the mother. If her supplies are not enough, an anaemic syndrome can be promoted. The only suitable way in the presence of iron deficiency is the administration of drugs for equilibration of iron balance. We used Ferro-Folgamma--a new medicine for our pharmaceutical market, for treatment of IDA in 42 pregnant women and we rendered an account of the results of its administration. All pregnant women had starting data of Hbvit B12 increases the iron resorbtion. PMID:15341253

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Rostamzadeh Khameneh; Hanifian; Rostamzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan, capable of infecting a wide range of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Infection with T. gondii can be life threatening in immunocompromised people. Moreover, infection with T. gondii during pregnancy can lead to severe problems for fetus. Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant wom...

  1. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Lindemann Laura; Veeck Elaine B; Marinho Sandra A; Rockenbach Maria I; Shinkai Rosemary S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliv...

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran

    Kalantar Enayat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9% had bacteriuria. The mean age of the all the pregnant women included in the study was 28.40 years with a standard deviation of 6.16. Age ranged from 15 to 45 years of age. The urine culture of the asymptomatic pregnant women (1505 cases showed growth in only 134 cases (8.9%. Escherichia coli was the commonest organism 79 (58.96% followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8% and S aureus 18 (13.43%. Escherichia coli, which comprised 58.96% (79 of the isolates, were 88.62%, 87.35%, and 83.55% sensitive to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and cefotizoxime respectively. Similarly, E. coli were 89%, 70%, and 20% resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin respectively (OR 1.57 95% CI 1.01, 2.44. After analyzing, four variables, hemoglobin levels seem to be independently associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (OR = 9.41 (1.65-50.38. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women was 8.9%. The predominant organisms were Escherichia coli 79 (58.96%, followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%. Most strains of Escherichia coli showed that they were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin.

  3. The performance of various anthropometric assessment methods for predicting low birth weight in adolescent pregnant women

    Denise Cavalcante de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the performance of various anthropometric evaluation methods for adolescent pregnant women in the prediction of birth weight. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study including 826 adolescent pregnant women. In the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI classification, the recommendations of the World Health Organization were compared with that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Institute of Medicine (IOM of 1992 and 2006. The gestational weight gain adequacy was evaluated according to the classification of IOM of 1992, of 2006 and of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The newborns were classified as low birth weight (LBW or macrosomic. Multinomial logistic regression was used for statistical analysis and sensibility, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results: The evaluation, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, showed the best prediction for LBW among pregnant women with low weight gain (specificity = 69.5%. The evaluation according to the IOM of 1992 showed the best prediction for macrosomia among pregnant women with high weight gain (specificity = 50.0%. The adequacy of weight gain according to the IOM of 1992 classification showed the best prediction for LBW (OR = 3.84; 95%CI 2.19 - 6.74, followed by the method of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 1.73 - 4.79, among pregnant women with low weight gain. Conclusion: It is recommended the adoption of the Brazilian Ministry of Health proposal, associated with BMI cut-offs specific for adolescents as an anthropometric assessment method for adolescent pregnant women.

  4. Malaria and its burden among pregnant women in parts of the Niger Delta area of Nigeria

    Chukwuocha Uchechukwu Madukaku; Dozie Ikechukwu Nosike; Chukwuocha Adanna Nneoma

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the epidemiology and burden of malaria among pregnant women in parts of theNigerDelta ofNigeria.Methods:About140 pregnant women were selected from four communities for the study after consent was obtained from them and their husbands.Clinical malaria was confirmed usingGiemsa staining technique, while social demographic data was obtained using structured pretested questionnaires.Results:Results showed that57.1% patients were positive for malaria infection.The peak age specific incidence was15-20 years(35%) and there was a significant difference among age groups(P<0.05).The incidence of malaria varied significantly according to the trimesters of the pregnant women, locations, level of education and occupation(P<0.05).The burden of the disease among pregnant women in the study area were in forms of symptoms(χ2=7.67,P<0.05), abnormalities(χ2 =21.38,P<0.05) and cost of treatment(χ2=6.62,P<0.005).Pregnant women were mostly predisposed to malaria infection by presence of stagnant water(25.0%) and with farming/fishing activities(22.5%).The most perceived preventive/control measure was intermittent preventive treatment(20.00%) and AntenatalCare/Health education(13.75%).Conclusions:Malaria still exerts heavy public health and socioeconomic burden on pregnant women in the study area.This calls for concerted effort to scale up and sustain control strategies especially intermittent preventive treatment and health education during antenatal visits.

  5. Cognitive factors associated with the willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women in China

    Li Chunrong; Yang Liu; Kong Jinwang

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively.The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China.The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing.Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services.Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively.Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated,which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively.This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM).Results The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%.Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariateadjusted odds ratio (ORm)=2.02,95% confidence interval (CI):1.40-5.06),more knowledge for HIV (ORm=1.92,95% CI:1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm=0.80,95% CI:0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.Conclusion To prevent HIV mother to children transmission,it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV,change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.

  6. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  7. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  8. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  9. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total

  10. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  11. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Roshan T. Ramlal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  12. Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study

    Anderson Amy E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36 years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n = 837. Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing. Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05 for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66 if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63 or binged (OR ≥ 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31 and were higher for those who abstained (OR

  13. Evaluation of Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in Urine Specimens from Pregnant Women

    Tamayo, Javier; Gómez-Garcés, José-Luis; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    The Granada agar plate (GAP; Biomedics SL, Madrid, Spain) was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in urine specimens from pregnant women submitted for testing for asymptomatic bacteriuria and was compared with blood agar (BA [Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood]; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). The GAP detected 103 out of 105 GBS, whereas BA detected only 50. Use of the GAP could be a good method for the detection of GBS in urine specimens from pregnant women.

  14. Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre-eclampsia in Dakahlia, Egypt

    AM El-Mansoury; MA El-Harouny; HE Gouda; SM Attalla; SM Motawei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead toxicity is a prevalent health problem in both developed and developing countries. One of the proposed mechanisms for lead-induced organ damage is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is well-associated with the pregnancy disorder, pre-eclampsia. Exposure to lead may be one of the sources of the oxidative stress that leads to development of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.Objective: To test if blood lead level of pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia is higher than the no...

  15. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L.; McIntyre, Anne F.; Denise J Jamieson; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010–11 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and...

  16. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macr......, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy.......One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section...

  17. Rabies antibody levels in pregnant women and their newborns after rabies post-exposure prophylaxis

    Ahmad Fayaz; Susan Simani; Vida Fallahian; Ali Eslamifar; Mahboob Hazrati; Firoozeh Farahtaj; Nader Howaizi; Peivand Biglari

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a fatal infectious disease and rabies post-exposure prophylaxis is the method of choice for prevention of human rabies. Case series: We report rabies antibody levels in cord blood and also in serum of pregnant women who were bitten by suspected animals to rabies and were immunized by purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and Human Rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) serum. During the years of 2007-2010, six pregnant women by the age range of 22-35 years were admitted in trea...

  18. Clinical significance of combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol and human lactogen in pregnant women

    To evaluate the clinical significance of combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol (FE3) and human lactogen (HPL) for determination of intrauterine fetal growth and development. The serum FE3 and HPL in pregnant women were measured by chemiluminescence and RIA respectively. The results showed that the E3 and HPL levels in pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension were lower than the normal controls (P0.05). The combined measurement of maternal serum free estriol and human lactogen has important clinical significance in determination of fetus-placenta function and high risk pregnancy. (authors)

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia

    Almushait, Mona A.; Dajem, Saad M. Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M.; Eskandar, Mamdoh A.; Al Azraqi, Tarik A.; Makhlouf, Laila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent...

  20. Musculoskeletal problems among pregnant women: a facility based survey in Odisha

    Yasobant S, Nibedita S, Saswata S, Arnansu M, Kirti S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic medical conditions are in focus for the development of strategies aimed at improving population health worldwide. This is also true for chronic pain conditions leading to impaired or non-existent ability to exercise, as physical inactivity is associated with the development of chronic diseases. Musculoskeletal disorders constitute an estimated 90% of all chronic pain, of which back pain contributes to a high extent. During the time of pregnancy many hormonal and anatomical changes that affect the musculoskeletal system in the female body, which may cause various musculoskeletal complaints, predispose to injury, or alter the course of pre-existing conditions. Though Obstetric physiotherapy is an essential part of maternal health care and promotion; still it is not well known in developing countries like India. So this current study aimed to address common musculoskeletal complaints arising among the women during prenatal period in Odisha. Methodology: A cross sectional study was designed in rural & urban area health facilities targeting the pregnant women of Odisha. Total of 410 pregnant women from selected facilities of two different regions of Odisha- Eastern (Urban and Western (Rural were interviewed with a structured validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis compared the independent variables of participants with Musculoskeletal Pain using independent sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square for ordinal/nominal variables has been reported considering null hypothesis to be significant if p-value is <0.05 which is level of significance. Results: About half (50.7% of the participants reported symptoms at least in one part of their bodies, over the pregnancy period. Among these, acute Low back pain was the highest of 55.6% and 35.4% of chronic, followed by acute ankle pain (25.9% and knee pain (16.6%. Neck pain (4.9%, Shoulder pain (4.4% were the least reported among all participants. The MSDs pain is more

  1. Comparison of real-time PCR and microscopy for malaria parasite detection in Malawian pregnant women

    Maleta Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New diagnostic tools for malaria are required owing to the changing epidemiology of malaria, particularly among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Real-time PCR assays targeting Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfldh gene may facilitate the identification of a high proportion of pregnant women with a P. falciparum parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy. These molecular methods will enable further studies on the effects of these submicroscopic infections on maternal health and birth outcomes. Methods The pfldh real-time PCR assay and conventional microscopy were compared for the detection of P. falciparum from dried blood spots and blood smears collected from the peripheral blood of 475 Malawian women at delivery. A cycle threshold (Ct of the real-time PCR was determined optimizing the sensitivity and specificity of the pfldh PCR assay compared to microscopy. A real-time PCR species-specific assay was applied to identify the contribution to malaria infections of three Plasmodium species (P. falciparum P. ovale and P. malariae in 44 discordant smear and pfldh PCR assay results. Results Of the 475 women, P. falciparum was detected in 11 (2.3% by microscopy and in 51 (10.7% by real-time PCR; compared to microscopy, the sensitivity of real-time PCR was 90.9% and the specificity 91.2%. If a Ct value of 38 was used as a cut-off, specificity improved to 94.6% with no change in sensitivity. The real-time PCR species-specific assay detected P. falciparum alone in all but four samples: two samples were mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. malariae, one was a pure P. malariae infection and one was a pfldh PCR assay-positive/species-specific assay-negative sample. Of three P. malariae infections detected by microscopy, only one was confirmed by the species-specific assay. Conclusions Although microscopy remains the most appropriate method for clinical malaria diagnosis in field settings, molecular diagnostics

  2. Practices and perceptions of animal contact and associated health outcomes in pregnant women and new mothers

    Hsin-Yi eWeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI 33%–45% and 26% (95% CI 21%–31%, respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4% in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%, and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%. Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopting certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers

  3. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring.

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2015-08-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363

  4. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies against simian virus 40 in healthy pregnant women in Italy.

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy.Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples.Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123 and 12.7% (14/110, respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods.SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines.

  5. Investigation of serum leptin levels in pregnant women during various trimesters and their neonates

    Objective: To investigate the variations of serum leptin levels in pregnant women of various trimesters and their neonates as well as the correlativity in-between. Methods: Serum leptin levels in 300 women at pregestation during the three trimesters and the umbilical blood leptin levels in their neonates were measured with RIA. Results: Serum leptin levels in pregnant women rose significantly only from midgestation with a peak at partum (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 vs pregestation). The leptin levels in neonates were almost the same as those of women of pregestation. The maternal leptin levels were positively correlated to body weight, body weight-index, abdominal perimeter, height of fundus of uterus, diastolic and systolic pressure. The leptin levels in neonates were positively correlated to the birth weight, but not correlated to maternal leptin levels. Conclusion: Leptin in neonates comes from neonates themselves, and its concentrations are determined by the degree of accumulation of body adipose tissue. Measurement of blood leptin concentrations in pregnant women during pregnancy has little meaning for accessing the body weight of fetus, but it can show the degree of maternal weight-gaining and may have some value for clinical observation of the syndrome of pregnant hypertension

  6. Clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil

    Objective: To discuss the change of serum TRAb and changeable regularity of thyroid function and clinical significance of pregnant women with Graves' diease treated by propylthiouracil. Methods: Detecting the serum TRAb, FT3, FT4, TSH levels of pregnant women with Graves' disease treated by propylthiouracil using radioreceptor assay and electro chemiluminescence. Results: The serum TRAb level of the pregnant women with Graves' disease in early gestation treated by propylthiouracil descended much more than that in the initial diagnosis (P<0.01). The positive rates of TRAb in the women before treated by propylthiouracil and treated 3 months, 6 months, 8 months were 90.2%, 82.9%, 68.2% and 21.9% separately. The activity of TRAb descended slightly 3 months latter after treated. The activity of TRAb descend obviously and the positive rates changed largely 8 months after treated. Conclusion: There is very important clinical significance of monitoring of serum TRAb in pregnant women with Graves' disease in diagnosis and differential diagnosis and observation of therapeutic effects. Also, a favourable prognosis judgement. Meanwhile, provides significant reference index of pathogenetic condition judgement and drug discontinuance whether or not for the clinician. (authors)

  7. Urine and serum biomonitoring of exposure to environmental estrogens I: Bisphenol A in pregnant women.

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Despite its very low oral bioavailability and rapid elimination, multiple reports of unexpectedly high bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in the serum of pregnant mothers or cord blood have raised questions about BPA exposures during pregnancy. Thirty healthy pregnant women recruited to the study were evaluated for total BPA exposure over a 30-h period comprising one-half day in the field and one day in a clinical setting. BPA and its metabolites were measured in serum and total BPA was measured in matching urine samples. The mean total exposure was similar to the 50(th) percentile of exposure for U.S. women and pregnant women in a large North American cohort. Twenty volunteers had total daily exposures equal to or exceeding the U.S. mean, and six volunteers had exposures exceeding the 75th percentile. Women working as cashiers did not have higher total BPA exposure. BPA was detected in some serum samples (0.25-0.51 ng/ml), but showed no relationship to total BPA in corresponding urine samples, no relationship to total BPA exposure, and had unconjugated BPA fractions of 60-80%, consistent with established criteria for sample contamination. We conclude that typical exposures of North American pregnant women produce internal exposures to BPA in the picomolar range. PMID:27038865

  8. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Erin Burnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97. After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78. Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB.

  9. Development and validation of a new tool to measure Iranian pregnant women's empowerment.

    Borghei, N S; Taghipour, A; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Keramat, A

    2016-12-01

    Empowering pregnant women improves their health and reduces maternal mortality, but there is a lack of suitable tools to measure women's empowerment in some cultures. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. After a literature review, and face and content validity testing, a 38-item questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 161 pregnant women. Factor analysis grouped the items into 3 subscales: educational empowerment (e.g. prenatal training), autonomy (e.g. financial independency and mental ability) and sociopolitical empowerment (e.g. involvement in social and political activities). Criterion validity testing showed a strong positive correlation of the total scale and subscales scores with the Kameda and the Spritzer empowerment scales. Cronbach alpha was 0.92 for total empowerment. A total of 32 items remained in the Self-Structured Pregnancy Empowerment Questionnaire, which is a valid new tool to measure the dimensions of pregnant women's empowerment. PMID:26996363

  10. Psychosocial aspects of pregnant women living with diabetes.

    Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant woman is exposed to a number of stress factors that can affect the pregnancy, maternal health and well-being of the foetus. Among these are the biological, social/environmental and psychological factors. The biological factors include medical condition of the pregnant woman, most notable is the gestational diabetes. The increased glucose levels can cause detrimental effect on the foetus and also cause maternal distress. This factor becomes more complicated if the woman is exposed to environmental stressors. The result is evident in the form of complications during pregnancy and psychological effects like depression and anxiety. Appropriate steps are important to address these issues in order to maintain the mother and prospective child\\'s well-being. PMID:27582167

  11. Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community

    Okwu GN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

  12. Microalbuminuria, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: results from a nationwide Danish study

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Ovesen, Per Glud; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Westergaard, Jes G; Moeller, Margrethe; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2010-01-01

    To study the association between microalbuminuria and development of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......To study the association between microalbuminuria and development of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  13. Pregnant women and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Knowledge, perception and drug consumption pattern during pregnancy in Ethiopia

    Chalelgn Kassaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are among the widely used drugs and are often used by pregnant women. However, they can have significant teratogenic effects. The aim of the study was to investigate pregnant women′s knowledge about NSAIDs use during pregnancy and their perception and consumption pattern. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on women waiting for a consultation in the selected maternity hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The pregnant women were selected randomly and then interviewed by using standardized questionnaires. Result : A total of 224 pregnant women were involved in the study. Out of those, 203 (90.6% of them have taken NSAIDs since the beginning of their pregnancy. About 201 (89.7%, 198 (88.4% and 189 (84.4% of the pregnant women considered that ibuprofen, diclofenac and aspirin are not NSAIDs respectively. Regarding analgesic effect of NSAIDs, 97 (43.3% of the pregnant women believed that NSAIDs are effective for treating pain. Acetaminophen was considered as the most effective treatment for pain by 84 (37.50% of the patients. Conclusion: Acetaminophen is the most common analgesic that was taken by most pregnant women. The knowledge of pregnant women about NSAIDs is poor.

  14. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2008-01-01

    In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome.......In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome....

  15. Incidence of parvovirus B19 infection among an unselected population of pregnant women in the Netherlands: A prospective study.

    Gessel, P.H. van; Gaytant, M.A.; Vossen, A.C.; Galama, J.M.D.; Ursem, N.T.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wildschut, H.I.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins and the rate of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective assessment of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins in an unselected population of pregnant women booked for antenatal care from 1998

  16. Incidence of parvovirus B 19 infection. among an unselected population of pregnant women in the Netherlands : A prospective study

    van Gessel, Peter H.; Gaytant, Michael A.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Galama, Joep M. D.; Ursem, Nicolette T. C.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Wildschut, Hajo I. J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins and the rate of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant women. Design: Prospective assessment of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins in an unselected population of pregnant women booked for antenatal care from 1998

  17. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  18. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    Heminger CL; Schindler-Ruwisch JM; Abroms LC

    2016-01-01

    Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscap...

  19. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics

    Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT. Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

  20. Psychopharmacology Decision-Making Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Health Providers: Informing Compassionate and Collaborative Care Women's Health

    Price, Sarah Kye; Bentley, Kia J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopharmaceutical use by pregnant and postpartum women is complicated by the complexity of prescribing as well as the sociocultural context in which medication-related decisions are made. This study sought to advance understanding of decision–making processes and communication experiences regarding use of psychopharmaceuticals during pregnancy by considering both provider and consumer perspectives. An electronic survey was conducted with health care providers (N = 88) and women consumers (...

  1. Evaluation of sexual function, quality of life, and mental and physical health in pregnant women.

    Amir Nik-Azin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sexual function and its relationship with quality of life, and mental and physical health in pregnant women.Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7% women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3% women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05. The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7% women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3% women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05. The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Depression as same as environment heath had an important effect on

  2. Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women

    Hendrée E. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  3. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C.(Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain); Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 ...

  4. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care...... in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...

  5. Prenatal care in a primary healthcare center for imprisoned pregnant women

    Maria do Carmo Silva Fochi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experience report aimed to describe the prenatal care undertaken in a primary care center in the non-metropolitan area of the State of São Paulo, offered to the female prison population. The data and related information refer to the period June 2010 – June 2012. The article describes the construction of the work process by the local team, the dynamics of providing the attendance, the human resources involved and the consultations undertaken. The prenatal care provided to the pregnant women made it possible to investigate the pluralized universe of imprisoned women and their needs resulting from the condition of being pregnant in the prison environment. Thus, decent attendance to the prison population’s health - a human and constitutional right - is considered important, so as to avoid physical, emotional and social problems, which in the pregnant woman may be passed on to her child.

  6. Epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women living in the Greater Romagna Area, Italy

    Patrizia Billi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aim of this study was to assess the incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in pregnant women living in Romagna area, in North East Italy to implement the best management of this infection. Materials and Methods. In 2012, 23,727 serological tests for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in the Microbiology Unit, the Hub Laboratory of the Greater Romagna Area: 6931 were pregnant women. Results and Conclusions. 179 subjects were positive for CMV IgM antibodies: 82 were not pregnant; 97 were IgM positive during pregnancy or in the course of a pre-conception evaluation. The detected incidence of the CMV infection in pregnancy (calculated at 1.40% actually validates the literature data. This study’s findings clearly underline the usefulness of testing the CMV specific immune response in the pre-conception period or as early as possible during pregnancy.

  7. Asymptomatic Genital Infection of Human Papillomavirus in Pregnant Women and the Vertical Transmission Route

    DENG Dongrui; WEN Liangzhen; CHEN Wen; LING Xiazhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: To further investigate the vertical transmission route of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the indication for the choice of mode of delivery, the infective status of 152 asymptomatic pregnant wemen and the maternal-fetal transmission were studied. By using general primers in polymerase chain reaction (GP-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, HPV DNA positive rate in cervical secretions and venous blood in asymptomatic pregnant women was 36.21 % and 52.78 %, respectively, and the identified genotypes were mainly HPV16 and 18. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HPV via genital tract as well as blood was 40.91 % and 57.89 %, respectively. It was concluded that besides the transmission route of genital tract and amniotic fluid, there was also transplacental transmission of HPV in utero. Therefore,in our opinion, it is not an absolut indication to perform a cesarean delivery for the pregnant women with HPV asymtomatic genital infection.

  8. Recommendations of ICRP-60 for occupationally exposed pregnant women. Compliance evaluation in six health centres

    The decrease in the limits of dose equivalent at the entry of the abdomen of occupationally exposed pregnant women, as recommended by ICRP-60, necessitates to evaluate with dosimeter the various professional positions in different services existing in a health care centre, to guarantee that such limits cannot be exceeded, and thus ensure the protection of the foetus. The results obtained in this work, related exclusively to external radiation dose, show that the radiation protection system currently in force is in compliance with the regulation in the majority of the professional positions evaluated, though stricter criteria for pregnant women workers must be established with the aim of obtaining a better dose optimization. The fact that pregnant operators are working in Nuclear Medicine requires an additional effort to ensure that doses in excess of the limits stated are prevented

  9. Features of laboratory tests for diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women

    T. D. Grigor’eva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite on mandatory vaccination against rubella, the amount of pregnant women without immunity to rubella may exceed 20%. These women represent a risk group for the rubella disease.Objectives: The goals of the presented work are to analyze the cases of anti-rubella IgM detection in pregnant women, and to develop an algorithm for management of such patients.Materials and Methods: Screening has been performed by ELISA test systems company Radim (Italy. In total 799 patients were examined for rubella in 2013, 56 of them were pregnant women.Results. Positive IgM antibodies to rubella in 2013 have been identified in 5 cases, including 4 pregnant women. A detailed analysis of medical history, clinical and laboratory data has been done. In none of these cases the diagnosis of rubella has been confirmed.Conclusions. The main criterion for the diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women with rubella markers in the absence of clinical symptoms must be a dynamic examination, including study on IgM- and IgG-antibodies to rubella virus. The study must be conducted in the same laboratory at intervals of 10–14 days. In most cases, determination of IgG-antibodies avidity helps to estimate the time of infection. In complicated cases it is recommended to use PCR and immunoblot.

  10. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  11. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p meat was reported frequently and only slight risk was associated with sheep/goat meat (OR = 1.39, p = 0.15). Eating outside the home at restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age. PMID:26924348

  12. Retrospective study of pregnant women placed under expectant management for persistent hemorrhage

    Aoki, Shigeru; Inagaki, Megumi; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Okuda, Mika; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the clinicopathological characteristics of pregnant women who presented with intermittent hemorrhage occurring throughout pregnancy until delivery. Method A total of 24 women with intermittent hemorrhage occurring throughout pregnancy were categorized into two groups, a group with persistent subchorionic hematoma (PSH) and another with chronic abruption (CA), and the pregnancy outcomes were compared between the two groups. The data were expressed as medians (range). Resul...

  13. Foeto-maternal outcome of HIV-positive pregnant women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Samuels EON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in pregnant women is an important medical challenge. There exist varied reports on the foeto-maternal outcome amongst HIV positive women in Africa. Aim: The study was to compare the foeto-maternal outcome among HIV-positive pregnant women who are on HAART with those that are HIV-negative. Methods: A comparative, case-control study of booked HIV-positive and HIV-negative women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC in Abuja. One hundred and five serial eligible HIV-positive women who booked for ante-natal care between October 8, 2012 and April 29, 2013 were recruited and matched with the control. They were followed up to six weeks post-partum. Live babies were tested for HIV using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR at six weeks post-partum. The data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 16. Chisquare at < 0.05 at confidence level of 95% and Student t-test were used to determine significant association. Results: There were 112 HIV positive pregnant women among 1683 pregnant women during the study period giving a prevalence of 6.7%. The rate of preterm delivery was significantly higher among the HIV positive women (33% Vs 18%, P= 0.005. There was no case of vertical transmission. Conclusion: Maternal HIV infection was significantly associated with preterm delivery. There was no recorded vertical transmission. Strengthening the use of HAART may maintain zero vertical transmission among other precautionary measures.

  14. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    McIntyre H; Byrne Nuala M; Rowlands Ingrid J; Foxcroft¹ Katie F; Callaway Leonie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestationa...

  15. Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant Women

    Allison, Kelly C.; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Emmanuelle Paré; Sarwer, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n = 120) with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, co...

  16. Determination of Nutritional Training for the Prevention of Anemia on Pregnant Women

    Nurhan Aytug Kanber; Reha Demirel; Gulengul Koken

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Anemia seen during the period of gestation affects the health of the mother as well fetus. Nutrition education which given in pregnancy may prevent the development of anemia. Our research was carried out to determine the effect of nutritional training for the prevention of anemia due to iron defiency. Method: The training and the control group each having 30 people in our research received a total of 60 pregnant women. All of the pragnant women was administered questionnaire during the 3...

  17. Prevalence and predictors for domestic violence among pregnant women in a rural community Northwest, Nigeria

    Ashimi, Adewale O.; Amole, Taiwo G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Domestic violence (DV) against women constitutes a violation of human rights. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors for DV among pregnant women in a rural community northwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study which utilised an interviewer-administered semi-structured pretested questionnaire. This assessed the type of DV experienced, the perpetrators and the trigger factor. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the ...

  18. Stress matters! Psychophysiological and emotional loadings of pregnant women undergoing fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Derntl, Birgit; Krajnik, Jacqueline; Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Bijak, Manfred; Nemec, Ursula; Leithner, Katharina; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Background While the application of fetal MRI in high-risk pregnant women is steadily rising, little is known about the psychological consequences of this procedure. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotional and psychophysiological reactions of females undergoing fetal MRI. Methods Sixty women (17–44 ys), assigned for fetal MRI, were included. Affective state was assessed by standardized measures of anxiety, emotional states and depressive symptoms. Stress coping strategies we...

  19. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Álvarez, Antonio; Narro-Duarte, Sergio Guadalupe; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Díaz-García, Juan Humberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo; Canales-Molina, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA), respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1%) women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84), residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49), and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44). Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection. PMID:16839423

  20. Dealing with a positive result: routine HIV testing among pregnant women in Vietnam

    Oosterhoff, Pauline; Hardon, Anita Petra; Nguyen, Thu Anh; Pham, NgocYen; Wright, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Abstract HIV testing is an essential component of PMTCT. It can be offered to pregnant women through different testing models, ranging from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to routine and mandatory testing. This study was conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, where HIV prevalence is low among the general population, but high among young, urban, sexually active male intravenous drug users. Women who want to deliver in a state hospital are routinely tested for HIV, in the absence of wel...

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico

    Díaz-García Juan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA, respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1% women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84, residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49, and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44. Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection.

  2. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Hjorth Mads F; Kloster Stine; Girma Tsinuel; Faurholt-Jepsen Daniel; Andersen Gregers; Kæstel Pernille; Brage Søren; Friis Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women,...

  3. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  4. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Else Lena; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Karro, Helle; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Laanpere, Made; Steinsgrimsdottir, Thora; Tabor, Ann; Temmerman, Marleen; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern Euro- pean countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. Design. A prospective cohort study. Setting. Routine antenatal care in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. Population. A total of 7174 pregnant women. Methods. A ques- tionnaire including a va...

  5. Association of Homocysteine, Vitamin and Blood Factors with Preeclampsia in Pregnant Women

    M Nadafi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Preeclampsia is a disease with worldwide importance to mothers and infants, where it accounts for 20–80% of the strikingly increased maternal mortality. The lack of enzymes added to the homocysteine metabolism or the cofactors necessary for its metabolism (folate, B6 vitamin, B12 vitamin cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Abnormal serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Recently high levels of B-HCG have been identified as a potential marker for developing preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible association of homocysteine, vitamin and some serum factors levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A case control study was performed prospectively on normotensive healthy pregnant women (80 and pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (80 referring to Imam Sadjad hospital in Yasuj, between September 2004 to August 2005. In addition to the obstetric evaluation and laboratory examination in the 3rd trimester of gestation, blood samples were taken from all cases for homocysteine and vitamin B12, folic acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, B-HCG analysis. The samples were evaluated by Immunoassay (ELISA. Univariant and logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of outcomes. Results: The mean plasma level of total homocysteine was significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnancy(p0.05. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnant women(p<0/05. LDL and HDL levels were not correlated with preeclampsia. There was no significant association between preeclampsia and B-HCG levels. Conclusion: Homocysteine, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increase in preeclampsia but decrease of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels was not observed in preeclampsia. LDL, HDL and B-HCG levels were not

  6. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortio...

  7. APPLICATION OF GENETIC DEAFNESS GENE CHIP FOR DETECTION OF GENE MUTATION OF DEAFNESS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    CHANG Liang; ZHONG Su; ZHAO Nan; LIU Ping; ZHAO Yangyu; QIAO Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study is to identify the carrier rate of common deafness mutation in Chinese pregnant women via detecting deafness gene mutations with gene chip. Methods The pregnant women in obstetric clinic without hearing impairment and hearing disorders family history were selected. The informed consent was signed. Peripheral blood was taken to extract genom-ic DNA. Application of genetic deafness gene chip for detecting 9 mutational hot spot of the most common 4 Chinese deafness genes, namely GJB2 (35delG,176del16bp, 235delC, 299delAT), GJB3 (C538T) ,SLC26A4 ( IVS72A>G, A2168G) and mito-chondrial DNA 12S rRNA (A1555G, C1494T) . Further genetic testing were provided to the spouses and newborns of the screened carriers. Results Peripheral blood of 430 pregnant women were detected,detection of deafness gene mutation carri-ers in 24 cases(4.2%), including 13 cases of the GJB2 heterozygous mutation, 3 cases of SLC26A4 heterozygous mutation, 1 cases of GJB3 heterozygous mutation, and 1 case of mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutation. 18 spouses and 17 newborns took fur-ther genetic tests, and 6 newborns inherited the mutation from their mother. Conclusion The common deafness genes muta-tion has a high carrier rate in pregnant women group,235delC and IVS7-2A>G heterozygous mutations are common.

  8. Pharmacotherapy for Depressed Pregnant Women : Overcoming Obstacles to Gathering Essential Data

    Wisner, K. L.; Appelbaum, P. S.; Uhl, K.; Goldkind, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3% of pregnant women take antidepressant medications. Information on the impact of antidepressants on short- and long-term maternal and offspring outcomes is highly desirable but neglected. The position that the dearth of treatment information is of greater concern than the risks to pr

  9. Universal HIV screening of pregnant women in England : cost effectiveness analysis

    Postma, Maarten; Beck, E J; Mandalia, S; Sherr, L; Walters, M D; Houweling, H; Jager, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital

  10. Translation and adaptation of smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women.

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Cruz, Ligia M; Brandon, Thomas H; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse-prevention booklets; however, there is a dearth of materials available in Spanish for Hispanic smokers. The goal of the present study was to translate and adapt existing, theoretically based, smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. This article describes the transcreation approach used to ensure the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets were linguistically and culturally relevant for the heterogeneous populations of Hispanic women. The authors conducted multistage formative research to adapt the booklets and modify vignettes and graphics. Compared with previous research conducted with pregnant non-Hispanic women, results revealed the following: (a) a lack of association or concern about smoking and weight gain, (b) the importance of family approval of behavior, and (c) stress related to difficulties surrounding the immigration experience. The authors' qualitative findings confirm and extend past research that has suggested ways to enhance the cultural relevance and acceptability of a health intervention. PMID:21120739

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  12. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  13. Development and validation of a vitamin D status prediction model in Danish pregnant women

    Jensen, Camilla; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew; Hansen, Linda;

    2013-01-01

    preserved samples. The aims of this study were to (1) identify predictors of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) among pregnant women in a subsample (N = 1494) of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and (2) develop and validate a score predicting 25(OH)D-status in order to explore associations between...

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  15. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    Moore, Rebecca

    2015-05-20

    Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.

  16. Bias against the null hypothesis: Scaring pregnant women about drugs in pregnancy

    Koren, Gideon; Madjunkova, Svetlana; Maltepe, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Question Since the thalidomide disaster, medicine is practised as if every drug is teratogenic, when in fact very few medications are. Pregnant women are often ready to refuse treatment even for life-threatening conditions owing to misinformation and misperceptions about fetal risks. How can I reassure my patients and prevent misinformation from affecting their treatment?

  17. Diagnostic utility of zinc protoporphyrin to detect iron deficiency in Kenyan pregnant women

    Mwangi, M.N.; Maskey, S.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Shinali, N.K.; Roth, J.M.; Trijsburg, L.; Mwangi, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-deficient erythropoiesis results in excess formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), which can be measured instantly and at low assay cost using portable haematofluorometers. ZPP is used as a screening marker of iron deficiency in individual pregnant women and children, but also to assess populat

  18. Colonization of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant women and their transmission to offspring.

    Behnam Sobouti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important opportunistic pathogens that cause urogenital infections and accelerated newborn delivery in pregnant women. Moreover genital mycoplasmas have been implicated in different neonatal diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence and transmission rate of these two organisms in pregnant women and their neonates.Nasotracheal and pharyngeal specimens of 165 newborns hospitalized at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of Rasoul Akram Hospital (during 2010 - 2011 were assessed by PCR to detect M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Moreover, PCR of vaginal specimens from their mothers were obtained to determine the prevalence of these organisms in pregnant women and rate of transmission to their newborns. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Totally, the results of PCR were positive in 33 newborns (20%. Vaginal colonization among the mothers was found to be 15% (25/165 for U. urealyticum and 15% (25/165 for M. hominis. The transmission rate to their infants was 72% and 60% for U. urealyticum and M. hominis, respectively.These data indicate that vertical transmission of mycoplasma and ureaplasma are prevalent in newborns. Since these organisms cause serious infections in neonates, it would be better to perform screening tests in pregnant women before the delivery in order to prevent transmission to neonates and consequent infections and morbidities among them.

  19. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  20. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…