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1

Do Targeted HIV Programs Improve Overall Care for Pregnant Women?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The implementation of disease-specific research or service programs may have an ancillary beneficial or harmful impact on routine clinical services. Methods We reviewed the records of 5801 first visits to 22 antenatal clinics from 1997 to 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia and examined documented syphilis rapid plasma reagin (RPR) screening and syphilis treatment before and after implementation of research and/or service programs in prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) HIV transmission. Findings Compared with before PMTCT program implementation, the prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for documented RPR screening were 0.9 (0.7 to 1.1) after implementation of research, 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) after service, and 2.5 (2.1 to 3.0) after research and service programs. Conclusions Documented RPR screening was improved after implementation of PMTCT research and service were operating simultaneously and not with research or service alone. Health policy makers and researchers should plan explicitly for how the targeted HIV programs, service, and/or research can have a broader primary care impact.

Potter, Dara; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Chao, Ann; Sinkala, Moses; Degroot, Alain; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Bulterys, Marc; Vermund, Sten H.

2009-01-01

2

Vaccines for Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... need before, during, and after pregnancy. Your Vaccination History It's important for you to keep an accurate ... Planning a Pregnancy Vaccines Before Pregnancy Rubella (German measles) : Rubella infection in pregnant women can cause unborn ...

3

Biomechanical Stability of Pregnant Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 27% of pregnant women report a fall during their pregnancies. Pregnant women undergo numerous anatomical, physiological, and hormonal changes that may be related to an increased risk of falling. Factors that contribute to this increase risk ...

A. Daftary J. Schwerha J. L. McCrory M. S. Redfern P. R. Cavanagh S. Mazumdar

2009-01-01

4

Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Nutrition Information for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Food safety ... careful about food safety while you are pregnant. Food safety advice for everyone Keep food safe to ...

5

Lymph drainage in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women. PMID:24251034

Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fátima

2013-01-01

6

Preoperative preparation of pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated ...

2011-01-01

7

Children and pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the literature of the 1980s reveals that women living in rural American are at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal and maternal care. Documented risk factors include poverty and concomitant lack of medical insurance, residence in the most restrictive Medicaid states, and loss of local services including the closure of obstetric units of rural hospitals and the decision by local physicians to discontinue obstetrics. A prominent factor in a physician's decision to stop providing maternity care is the escalating cost of medical liability insurance; however, other forces are also at work, including interference with personal and family activities, disruption of other aspects of professional life (e.g., office schedule), inadequate reimbursement, and an inability to keep up with advancing technology. A research agenda for the 1990s should be consistent with previous recommendations and must stimulate the development of new programs that will induce the maximum number of providers to again offer high quality perinatal care to rural women. Other items on the 1990s research agenda include: (1) the clarification of the impact of lost perinatal services in rural areas, (2) the effects of travel time and distance on perinatal outcomes and cost of care, (3) the effect of loss of obstetric services on other health care services for women and children, and (4) comparisons of regionalized versus centralized systems for the provision of perinatal services. PMID:10107680

Lawhorne, L; Zweig, S; Tinker, H

1990-10-01

8

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria in pregnant women referred to the medical centers of Tabriz, Iran, for prenatal care. Materials and Methods: A total of 1100 healthy pregnant women who were referred to 50 medical centers in Tabriz for a regular prenatal care were evaluated for bacteriuria. Results: The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.1%. Maternal age was lower in the women with a positive urine culture (P = .02. Asymptomatic bacteriuria had no relationship with gestational age, parity, level of education, and body mass index. Conclusion: We found a relatively high rate of bacteriuria in our cohort of asymptomatic pregnant subjects, especially the younger ones. For prevention from the complications of the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, such as pyelonephritis, hypertension, preeclampsia, low birth weight, prematurity, septicemia, and even maternal and neonatal death, it is recommended to perform urine culture as a routine evaluation during the pregnancy.

Samad Hazhir

2007-02-01

9

Preoperative preparation of pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated with the highest risks since it may lead to a life-threatening complication - eclampsia. As for other coexisting diseases, urinary tract infections and gestational diabetes are the most common as well as hyperthyroidism and other diseases that may also develop. The type and severity of the acute surgical disease, extensiveness of the planned surgery as well as the type of planned anesthesia to be applied, occasionally necessitate, depending on the gestational age, termination of pregnancy to be considered. Gynecological-obstetric consultations are mandatory in all surgical interventions planned in pregnant women.

Liki?-La?evi? Ivana

2011-01-01

10

Osteopathic manipulative treatment in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women experience extensive physiologic and structural changes during pregnancy that affect their daily functioning. The addition of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to the standard care of pregnant women has been hypothesized to enhance homeostasis and improve quality of life as the body adapts to these changes. Specifically, it has been postulated that OMT can ease pain in pregnant women by eliminating somatic dysfunction and maintaining proper structure. Also, through the viscerosomatic connection, the hemodynamic changes of the maternal body can be controlled, the duration of labor reduced, and the complications of labor avoided. The author reviews the available literature on the use and effectiveness of OMT during pregnancy. PMID:22707643

Lavelle, John M

2012-06-01

11

[Use of seat belts by pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are almost no pregnant women who never use a motorcar. The safety in crashes is diminished by mistakes in contruction and handling of the safety-equipment. Only every fourth woman can be regarded as properly protected. It should be the task of the physician to instruct his pregnant patients in the use of the seat belt. PMID:1002079

Schumann, K; Riedel, H; Nevermann, L

1976-11-01

12

Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-11-17

13

[Placenta antigens in serum of pregnant women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Antiplacenta serum was produced in rabbits using placenta extract; 3 different placenta antigens were demonstrated in placenta extract by means of the rabbit serum. These placenta antigens were found in the serum of pregnant women with normal and pathological pregnancies,in the urine of pregnant women, in the amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, and in the ascites of dropsical infants. The immunological characterization of the placental antigens is described in detail. PMID:5171383

Schultze-Mosgau, H; Fischer, K

1971-10-28

14

Clinical malaria in African pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was ...

Bardají Azucena; Sigauque Betuel; Bruni Laia; Romagosa Cleofé; Sanz Sergi; Mabunda Samuel; Mandomando Inacio; Aponte John; Sevene Esperança; Alonso Pedro L.; Menéndez Clara

2008-01-01

15

Whole blood selenium content in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The selenium content in the blood of pregnant women in the Valencian Community, Spain was determined until the end of gestation in order to assess its evolution and detect possible differences in relation to the values corresponding to non-pregnant women of fertile age. A total of 158 blood samples were obtained from 137 pregnant women. Samples were classified as: (a) first; (b) second; and (c) third trimester. Selenium was determined by a flow injection hydride atomic absorption spectrometric method (Seronorm whole blood was used as a quality control check). The selenium values obtained for the three trimesters followed a Gaussian distribution. The intervals for mean found were: (a) 75.7-85.5 micrograms/l; (b) 72.6-81.4 micrograms/l; and (c) 69.9-77.5 micrograms/l. Although a tendency to decrease was observed, no statistical significant differences between the three trimesters of the gestational period were observed. When we compare the values obtained with the blood selenium content of women of fertile age in the Valencian community (87.8-98.8 micrograms/l) by using an ANOVA test, statistically significant differences are found between the selenium values of women of fertile age and those corresponding to pregnant women. The differences, however, are very small and can be partially explained by the level of hemodilution during pregnancy, however, reference values of blood selenium contents in pregnant women should be taken into account. PMID:10231979

Ferrer, E; Alegría, A; Barberá, R; Farré, R; Lagarda, M J; Monleon, J

1999-03-01

16

Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease.

Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G

1991-01-01

17

Management of urinary calculi in pregnant women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence and predisposing factors of urinary calculi are generally the same in both pregnant and non pregnant women, but anatomic changes during pregnancy make diagnosis and treatment a more challenging issue. We reviewed 16 patients (22 stones) of urinary stone during pregnancy between 1986 and 1996 at Kyung Hee Medical Center. The most common symptom was flank pain, seen in 81.3% of patients, while 68.8% of patients were displayed microscopic hematuria. In all cases, diagnosis was made...

Lee, S. J.; Rho, S. K.; Lee, C. H.; Chang, S. G.; Kim, J. I.

1997-01-01

18

Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women  

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Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteristics ...

Short, Vanessa L.; Jensen, J. Rgen S.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Murray, Pamela J.; Ness, Roberta B.; Haggerty, Catherine L.

2010-01-01

19

Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteris...

Short, Vanessa L.; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Murray, Pamela J.; Ness, Roberta B.; Haggerty, Catherine L.

2010-01-01

20

Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteristics were evaluated. Results. Compared to women without M. genitalium, women with M. genitalium were more likely to report nulliparity (41.7% versus 17.4%, P=.04, history of pelvic inflammatory disease (27.3% versus 8.8%, P=.08, prior C. trachomatis infection (63.6% versus 36.9%, P=.11, and problems getting pregnant (18.2% versus 4.4%, P=.10. M. genitalium was not associated with SAB (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.2–3.8. Conclusions. Pregnant women who test positive for M. genitalium do not have an increased risk of SAB but report a history of reproductive morbidities.

Vanessa L. Short

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Doppler Echocardiographic Assessment of Pregnant Women with Chronic Arterial Hypertension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess structural and functional cardiac changes in asymptomatic pregnant women with chronic arterial hypertension (CAH). METHODS: One hundred pregnant women with CAH underwent conventional Doppler echocardiography. The Student t test was used to compare them with 29 normotensive pregnant women (NT) in their third gestational trimester. RESULTS: Systolic (SBP; mmHg) and diastolic (DBP; mmHg) blood pressure values were higher (p<0.001) in the CAH pregnant women (SBP: 139±1...

2002-01-01

22

Gentamicin serum half-life: a comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The serum half-life of gentamicin following an intravenous dose was compared between 19 pregnant women (28-34 weeks of pregnancy) with premature rupture of the membranes and 17 non-pregnant women with pelvic inflammatory disease, the groups being age and weight matched. A significant reduction of gentamicin half-life was found in the pregnant group.

Lazebnik, N.; Noy, S.; Lazebnik, R.; Hezroni, Y.; Amoday, I.; Aviram, A.

1985-01-01

23

Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ?26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

Safieh Jamali

2013-06-01

24

Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

H. Ben Nasr

2007-01-01

25

Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitt [...] ed to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

Ben Nasr, H.; Hammami, T. S.; Sahnoun, Z.; Rebai, T.; Bouaziz, M.; Kassis, M.; Zeghal, K. M..

26

Evaluation of rubella screening in pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: The rationale for rubella vaccination in the general population and for screening for rubella in pregnant women is the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prenatal rubella screening program in Quebec. METHODS: A historical cross-sectional study was designed. Sixteen hospitals with obstetric services were randomly selected, 8 from among the 35 "large" hospitals in the province (500 or more live births/year)...

Gyorkos, T. W.; Tannenbaum, T. N.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Delage, G.; Carsley, J.; Marchand, S.

1998-01-01

27

Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-11-17

28

Nutritional Status of Rural Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnancy is a crucial period of woman’s life where socio-demographic factors affect her health as well asdetermine the health of future generation. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in pregnant women inthe field practice area of RCHTC, Hebbal. Variables considered for the study were: Age, religion, Socio-economics status,type of family & house, parity, spacing methods, utilization of health services, height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI.Majority of pregnant woman had inadequate protien & calorie consumption during pregnancy; 23.93%, woman werehaving BMI<18.5; 66.67%, were anemic (Hb<11 gm%. The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be high amongilliterate (98.2%, Hindu (92.31% and moderately working woman (83.34% . Anemia was found to be more common whoseage at first pregnancy was <20 years (57.28%, age at marriage <20 years (87.17%, in IInd trimester of pregnancy(62.83% and in age group of 20-24 years (39.14%. Government hospital services were utilized by 78.63% but only 58.97%received iron & folic acid tablets and 70.94% had taken injection Tetanus Toxoid (TT.Hence, effective intervention should be directed towards young pregnant women <20 years of age to improvematernal nutritional status, literacy level, and health education for utilization of health services.

L.H. Madhavi,

2011-07-01

29

Recruitment of pregnant women in research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to identify factors that could influence recruitment in a prospective longitudinal study involving pregnant women. A total of 269 nulliparous women were enrolled for a prospective longitudinal study, to establish the prevalence of levator ani muscle defects during childbirth. The project was explained verbally and potential participants were given an information leaflet. When eligible and interested, they provided their contact details to enquire if they were willing to participate. Out of the 1,473 women approached, 269 (18.3%) agreed to participate and 1,043 (70.8%) declined; 420 women (40.3%) did not provide a reason for non-participation (see text for further details). Most often mentioned reasons were 'being too busy', 'other pregnancy problems', 'no additional (internal) examination', 'moving (abroad)' and 'husband'. Women from different ethnicities and age groups gave a wide variety of reasons for non-participation. This information can now be used by researchers recruiting women for comparable studies, to enhance recruitment and participation of eligible patients. PMID:23815192

van Delft, K; Schwertner-Tiepelmann, N; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

2013-07-01

30

[Children and pregnant women at high altitude].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, high altitude resorts have become popular destinations for family vacations. Based on a limited number of publications and international guidelines, this article summarizes the effects of high altitude on children and pregnant women. Children also suffer from high altitude-related diseases, however their presentation and clinical significance are different from their adult counterparts. Careful planning of the itinerary with respect to altitude of the overnight stays, access to medical services and potential evacuation routes is the cornerstone of a successful vacation. PMID:24908748

Rehakova, P; Rexhaj, E; Farron, F; Duplain, H

2014-05-01

31

Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10) were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation) and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks), together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before...

Kammerer Martin; Adams Diana; Castelberg Brida von; Glover Vivette

2002-01-01

32

Food safety: correct information for pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

Maria Ausilia Grassi

2013-04-01

33

Antidepressant use in pregnant and postpartum women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women in their reproductive years are at risk of experiencing depressive and anxiety disorders. As such, it is likely that pregnant women will undergo treatment with antidepressants. We review the risk of adverse birth outcomes and neonatal complications subsequent to antidepressant use in pregnancy. An inconsistent literature shows that antidepressant exposure is associated with shortened gestations and diminished fetal growth; these effects are small. Transitory neonatal signs are seen in some neonates after exposure to antidepressants in utero. No specific pattern of malformations has been consistently associated with antidepressants, with the possible exception of paroxetine and cardiac malformations. There is inconclusive evidence of a link between antidepressants in late pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. Extensive study finds that antidepressants cannot be considered major teratogens. It is likely that confounding factors contribute to a number of the adverse effects found to be associated with antidepressant use in pregnancy. PMID:24313569

Yonkers, Kimberly A; Blackwell, Katherine A; Glover, Janis; Forray, Ariadna

2014-03-28

34

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment Substance use ... 7.0 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Figure 1. Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Substance Abuse ...

35

Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

36

A Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Function in Saudi Pregnant Women ????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A prospective longitudinal study of thyroid function was undertaken in 23 pregnant women There was significant increase in serum free thyroxine and a decrease in thyrotropin in early pregnancy relative to the levels in non-pregnant controls. Free thyroxine significantly correlated with human chorionic gonadotrophin in early pregnancy. The level of decreased and that of thyrotropin increased significantly towards the end of pregnancy. On follow- up of pregnant women, thyroid function returned ...

ABDULWAHAB NOORWALI; HISHAM RAMADANI

1998-01-01

37

Violence against Pregnant Women – The Study Population in Salt City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to identify the forms of violence against pregnant women represented in (physical violence, psychological, and social), as well as identifying the consequences of violence against pregnant women, also identifying the impact of some qualitative variables such as (level of education, housing, income level, family members). The forms of violence against a pregnant woman, and to identify the relationship between some qualitative variables and consequences of violence against preg...

Lubna Makhled Al-adayleh; Hana Husni Al Nabulsi

2013-01-01

38

Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pregnant Women on Variant-Specific Immunity to Malaria?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum infection, and this has most clearly been demonstrated in pregnant women. Variant surface antigens on the surfaces of erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum are major targets of protective immunity. We studied the impact of HIV infection on pregnant women's humoral immunity to variant surface antigens expressed by placental and pediatric isolates of P. falciparum. By flow cytometry, sera from HIV-infected w...

Dembo, Edson G.; Mwapasa, Victor; Montgomery, Jacqui; Craig, Alister G.; Porter, Kimberly A.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Rogerson, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

39

Pregnant women's responses to a tailored smoking cessation intervention: turning hopelessness into competence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Cognitive behavioral interventions consisting of brief counseling and the provision of self-help material designed for pregnancy have been documented as effective smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women. However, there is a need to understand how such interventions are perceived by the targeted group. Aim: To understand the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses of pregnant women to a clinic-based smoking cessation intervention. Methods: In-depth interviews with...

Zaino Petersen; Krisela Steyn; Katherine Everett-Murphy; Maria Emmelin

2010-01-01

40

Prenatal nutrition among rural Bangladeshi pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expected outcome of pregnancy is a healthy mother with a healthy child. The single most important care which could prevent the negative outcomes of pregnancy is Antenatal Care (ANC). Proper and timely antenatal care can significantly reduce the risks of maternal mortality. In pregnancy, total cost is about 80,000 Kcal, and above normal energy requirements. To find out prenatal nutrition an exploratory study was carried out in seven villages of the Ward-2 of Jamtoil Union of Kamarkhand Upazila under Sirajganj District. Thirty pregnant women of different trimesters, gravida and parity had been studied employing the methods and techniques of "Ethnographic Field Work." Mean daily calorie consumption of the Key Informants (KIs) was 1480.49 Kcal without reference to their religious affiliation, family resource base, education, occupation, gravidity, parity and duration of pregnancy. This is indicated that the mean calorie intake of the Key Informants did not meet not only their prenatal nutritional need but also their requirement during pre-pregnancy period. It was observed that food intake was in no way different from that of the non-pregnant status. Antenatal care of rural inhabitants analyzed almost exclusively from biomedical perspectives, its cultural, socio-economic, gender, ecological and other relevant perspectives are mostly ignored. In order to have safe motherhood up through compliance of prenatal advice, nutritional one in particular, these factors should be taken into consideration. PMID:22081169

Basher, M S; Kabir, S; Ahmed, S; Miah, M A; Kamal, M S

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Seasonal variations in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Slovenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between December 1999 and December 2004, 40 081 pregnant women were examined for toxoplasmosis with Toxo-IgG, Toxo-IgM enzyme immunoassay. Women with positive results were then retested with the Toxo-IgG avidity assay for recent toxoplasmosis. Recent acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be significantly more frequent (p < 0.01) during winter than summer. The incidence of acute toxoplasmosis during winter-spring was also significantly more frequent (p < 0.025) than summer-autumn. This phenomenon should be taken into account when formulating preventive measures for toxoplasmosis, especially for pregnant women. PMID:16153265

Logar, J; Soba, B; Premru-Srsen, T; Novak-Antolic, Z

2005-10-01

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Urinary lysosomal enzyme excretion in pregnant women with hypertensive disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The authors assessed proximal renal tubular dysfunction and/or damage in pregnant women with various types of hypertension by measuring the three urinary lysosomal enzyme levels: N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), arylsulfatase A and ?-glucuronidase. Methods: The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into four groups: 41 women in 20th week of gestation or more, with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH group), 28 pregnant women after 20 weeks of pregnancy with pre-eclampsia (PE group), 21 pregnant women with chronic hypertension, identified before 20th week of pregnancy (CH group) and 30 healthy, pregnant women (healthy controls (HC) group). Results: Statistical analysis showed significantly higher levels of all the three of lysosomal enzymes in the urine of patients with PE compared with the healthy pregnant women, pregnant women with PIH and the ones with chronic hypertension. Additionally, significantly higher values of NAG were found in the group of pregnant women with PIH compared with healthy pregnancies. No correlation was found between the concentration of enzymes in urine and values of blood pressure in any of the analyzed groups of pregnant women. Conclusions: The authors conclude that higher values of all the studied enzymes in PE group, in the comparison with the other groups, indicate proximal tubular damage at the cellular level. The lack of correlation between the concentration of lysosomal enzymes and blood pressure suggests that the damage to these parts of kidney is complex. In addition, mechanisms other than hypertension realizing intracellular enzymes may be involved in this process. PMID:24724946

Torbé, Andrzej; Ch?apowska, Ewelina; Szyma?ska-Pasternak, Jolanta; Sulecka, Aneta; Bober, Joanna; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Rzepka, Rafa?; Konstanty-Kurkiewicz, Wioletta; Torbé, Bogdan

2014-08-01

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Lactose Tolerance in Pregnant African-American Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the investigation was to study lactose (milk sugar) digestion and milk tolerance and its association with dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome in pregnant black women. This study examined two broad areas of interest. The first explored ...

D. M. Paige

1998-01-01

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Food Safety Risks for Pregnant Women and Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... Shop Find a Registered Dietitian Home > Public Your Food and Nutrition Source It's About Eating Right In ... essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Food Safety Risks for Pregnant Women and Newborns During ...

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Cardiological management of pregnant women in the Udmurt Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of specialized management of pregnant women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the Udmurt Republic (UR of Russia.Material and methods. In prospective and retrospective study we investigated pregnancy outcomes in all 17948 women in management system created for pregnant patients with CVD in the UR from 2000 to 2007. The system comprises specialized outpatient and inpatient departments and an obstetric hospital within the regional cardiological centre.Pregnant women had different CVD including hypertension, congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, noncoronary myocardial disease, disorders and autoimmune diseases of connective tissue, etc.Results. Perinatal mortality decreased by 41,1% from 11,2‰in 2000 to 6,6‰in 2007. During 8 years, no one woman died.Conclusion. The management system for pregnant women with CVD within the regional cardiological clinic makes it possible to reduce of maternal and perinatal mortality rates significantly.

I.R. Gaisin

2009-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics of clindamycin in pregnant women in the peripartum period  

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The study presented here was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered clindamycin in pregnant women. Seven pregnant women treated with clindamycin were recruited. Maternal blood and arterial and venous umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. Maternal clindamycin concentrations were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with the NONMEM program. The data were best described by a linear three-compartment model. The clearance and the volume of distribut...

Muller, A. F.; Mouton, J. W.; Oostvogel, P. M.; Do?rr, P. J.; Voskuyl, R. A.; Dejongh, J.; Steegers-theunissen, R. P. M.; Danhof, M.

2010-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics of Clindamycin in Pregnant Women in the Peripartum Period ?  

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The study presented here was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered clindamycin in pregnant women. Seven pregnant women treated with clindamycin were recruited. Maternal blood and arterial and venous umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. Maternal clindamycin concentrations were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with the NONMEM program. The data were best described by a linear three-compartment model. The clearance and the volume of distribut...

Muller, Anouk E.; Mouton, Johan W.; Oostvogel, Paul M.; Do?rr, P. Joep; Voskuyl, Rob A.; Dejongh, Joost; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Danhof, Meindert

2010-01-01

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Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnant Women  

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UTI is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy together with anemia and hypertension and it occurs approximately in 5-10% of all pregnancies. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of uropathogens isolated from pregnant women. During the study period, 255 pregnant women urine samples were analysed. Urinary tract infection was diagnosed by growth of at least 105 colony-forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter in a cultur...

2008-01-01

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Daily versus intermittent iron supplementation in pregnant women  

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Abstract Background The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women. Method The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n =...

Bouzari Zinatossadat; Basirat Zahra; Zeinal Zadeh Mahtab; Cherati Shahla; Ardebil Maryam; Mohammadnetaj Maedeh; Barat Shahnaz

2011-01-01

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Toxoplasmosis in Primiparus Pregnant Women and Their Neonates  

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The prevalence of primary infection with T. gondii in pregnant women and risk of congenital infection in their neonates in various parts of Tehran are unknown. The prevalence rate of antibodies to T. gondii ranges from 24% in Tehran to 62.7% in Babol. This study describes the epidemiology of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Tehran and risk factors of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn among preterm infants and full- term infants born from these mothers. A cross sectional study was c...

Noorbakhsh, S.; Mamishi, S.; Rimaz, S.; Shr, Monavari

2002-01-01

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Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women  

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Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles andrelated factors in pregnant women.Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan.Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceivedhealth status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or peers’health-promoting behaviors, and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP?...

2009-01-01

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Cytomegalovirus infection in primiparous pregnant women and their neonates  

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Cytomegaloviurs (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection in humans. In various parts of the world the prevalence of antibodies to CMV ranges from 40-100%. The prevalence of primary infection with CMV in pregnant Iranian women and risk of congenital CMV infection in their neonates are unknown. To Determine the prevalence of CMV infection in primiparous pregnant (youner) women and incidence rate of cangenital CMV infection among preterm and full-term infants borned from these wo...

"Siadati A; Noorbakhsh S; Ghazi F; Rimaz Sh; Shr, Monavari

2002-01-01

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Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

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Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Ch...

Anne Lise Brantsæter; Marianne Hope Abel; Margaretha Haugen; Helle Margrete Meltzer

2013-01-01

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Comparison of Sexual Function between Nulliparous with Multiparous Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background & Aim: Pregnancy can conflict with sexual function that can be affected by physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare sexual functions between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women referred to health centers in Eastern district of Guilan. Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Guilan during 2009-2010. We used convenient sampling method to select 554 pregnant women. Data were gathered using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, sexual function and fear of harm to fetus. The SPSS-16 was used to analyze the data by the Mann-Whitney U and Generalized linear models. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: There was no significant difference between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women regarding sexual function in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (P=0.353, P=0.251. There were significant differences between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women regarding sexual desire (P=0.002, arousal (P=0.01, orgasm (P=0.01, pain (P=0.02 and sexual function total score (P=0.016. There was significant difference between nulliparous and multiparous pregnant women regarding sexual function (P=0.008. Conclusion: Sexual counseling and rehabilitation programs should be compiled as part of the comprehensive care of prenatal care especially for multiparous pregnant women.  

Kobra Abouzari Gazafroodi

2012-12-01

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Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p3Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

1988-01-01

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A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women  

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Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women a...

Munari, F. M.; De-paris, F.; Salton, G. D.; Lora, P. S.; Giovanella, P.; Machado, A. B. M. P.; Laybauer, L. S.; Oliveira, K. R. P.; Ferri, C.; Silveira, J. L. S.; Laurino, C. C. F. C.; Xavier, R. M.; Barth, A. L.; Echeverrigaray, S.; Laurino, J. P.

2012-01-01

57

Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures  

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Full Text Available Blood lead among pregnant women, even at modest levels, may impair offspring cognitive development. We examine whether blood lead levels (BLLs result from current versus historic exposures, among a cohort of pregnant women. Cumulative logit models were used to characterize the relationship between maternal risk factors and higher BLLs. Maternal blood lead levels more likely result from lead remobilization from historic versus contemporaneous exposures. Even if all lead sources were abated immediately, women and their fetuses would experience lead exposure for decades. This work emphasizes the importance of addressing sources of environmental lead exposure in the United States and internationally.

Marie Lynn Miranda

2010-04-01

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Overweight increases risk of first trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight that are much more common could be a risk factor for hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate if overweight increases risk for thyroid dysfunction, and specifically hypothyroxinaemia, in iodine-deficient pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional study at first hospital visit among healthy Thai pregnant women. We measured weight and height, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin. Pre-pregnancy weight and relevant dietary factors were determined by questionnaire, and body mass index (BMI) was used to classify weight status. Among 514 women (mean gestational age, 11 weeks) with a median UIC of 111??g?dL(-1) , indicating mild iodine deficiency, 12% had low free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations: 3% had overt hypothyroidism; 7% had subclinical hypothyroidism; and 8% had isolated hypothyroxinaemia. Based on pre-pregnancy BMI, 26% of women were overweight or obese. In a multiple regression model, BMI was a negative predictor of fT4 (??=?-0.20, P?Iodine-deficient pregnant Thai women who are overweight have a 3.6-fold higher risk of hypothyroxinaemia in the first trimester compared to normal weight women. Targeted screening should consider overweight a potential risk factor for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women in iodine-deficient areas. PMID:23937433

Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Zimmermann, Michael B

2014-01-01

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Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice  

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Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH), a nati...

Feijen-de Jong Esther I; Baarveld Frank; Emc, Jansen Danielle; Ursum Jennie; Reijneveld Sijmen A; Schellevis François G

2013-01-01

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Doppler Echocardiographic Assessment of Pregnant Women with Chronic Arterial Hypertension  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess structural and functional cardiac changes in asymptomatic pregnant women with chronic arterial hypertension (CAH. METHODS: One hundred pregnant women with CAH underwent conventional Doppler echocardiography. The Student t test was used to compare them with 29 normotensive pregnant women (NT in their third gestational trimester. RESULTS: Systolic (SBP; mmHg and diastolic (DBP; mmHg blood pressure values were higher (p<0.001 in the CAH pregnant women (SBP: 139±19 and DBP: 92± 18 as compared with those of the NT group (SBP: 112±10 and DBP: 74±9. A significant enlargement of the left atrium (4.10±0.48 cm vs 3.6±0.3 cm; p<0.001 and of the left ventricular normalized mass (59.6±19.7 g/cm2,7 vs 41.9±3.4 g/cm2,7; p<0.001 was observed. Cardiac output (CO, L/min and systolic volume (SV, mL were significantly higher in the CAH group (CO: 6.0±1.54 vs 4.9±2.1, p<0.01; SV: 77.3±19.8 vs 56.5±25.8, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Chronic hypertensive pregnant women have structural and functional cardiac changes that justify routine cardiologic assessment, even in the absence of cardiopulmonary symptoms.

Nádia Cristiane de Mattia

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Reasons for rubella susceptibility among pregnant women in west Lambeth.  

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One hundred and thirty-three pregnant women who delivered at St Thomas' Hospital, in 1990 were noted to require rubella vaccination post partum. Fifty-three (39%) had completed a telephone questionnaire in order to determine reasons for susceptibility to rubella. Laboratory reports confirmed that 92 women were rubella seronegative and 27 had low levels of antibody. Of the 53 women interviewed, 25 gave a history of one or more rubella immunizations, 20 had no history of immunization and vaccin...

Lawman, S.; Morton, K.; Best, J. M.

1994-01-01

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Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

2014-04-01

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Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

2013-12-01

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Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women  

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"nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...

Hamissi, J.; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Davalloo, A.

2010-01-01

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Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

Nana Philip N

2008-07-01

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Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood. PMID:22066293

Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

2011-06-01

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Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women  

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Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number o...

Ben Nasr, H.; Hammami, T. S.; Sahnoun, Z.; Rebai, T.; Bouaziz, M.; Kassis, M.; Zeghal, K. M.

2007-01-01

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Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

1980-01-01

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Symptom Screening Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Is Acceptable and Has High Negative Predictive Value for Active Tuberculosis  

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We evaluated tuberculosis (TB) screening among 799 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected pregnant women in India. Eleven (1.4%) had active TB. The negative predictive value of screening using cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss was 99.3%. Tuberculin skin test and targeted chest radiography provided no substantial benefit. TB symptom screening, as recommended by the World Health Organization, is effective for ruling out TB in HIV-infected pregnant women.

Gupta, Amita; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Gupte, Nikhil; Patil, Sandesh; Bhosale, Ramesh; Sambarey, Pradeep; Ghorpade, Shivahari; Nayak, Uma; Garda, Laila; Sastry, Jayagowri; Bharadwaj, Renu; Bollinger, Robert C.

2011-01-01

70

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

2003-01-01

71

Cytomegalovirus infection in primiparous pregnant women and their neonates  

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Full Text Available Cytomegaloviurs (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection in humans. In various parts of the world the prevalence of antibodies to CMV ranges from 40-100%. The prevalence of primary infection with CMV in pregnant Iranian women and risk of congenital CMV infection in their neonates are unknown. To Determine the prevalence of CMV infection in primiparous pregnant (youner women and incidence rate of cangenital CMV infection among preterm and full-term infants borned from these women, in serum of 164 primigravid women before delivery, CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were measured by ELISA method and CMV-DNA detection by PCR in ~10% of their infants. 100% of women were immune to CMV infection (CMV-IgG positive were detected in mothers and newborns. Therefore, we can not compare gestational age and weight of infants in seropositive and serongegative mothers. Probably, in Iranian pregnant women, CMV screening test is not recommended.

"Siadati A

2002-07-01

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Elevated Levels of IL-10 and G-CSF Associated with Asymptomatic Malaria in Pregnant Women  

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In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 30 million pregnant women are at risk of contracting malaria annually. Nearly 36% of healthy pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen in Ghana. We tested the hypothesis that asymptomatic HRP II positive pregnant women expressed a unique Th1 and Th2 phenotype that differs from healthy controls. Plasma from healthy (n = 15) and asymptomatic (n = 25) pregnant women were evaluated for 27 biomarker...

Wilson, Nana O.; Bythwood, Tameka; Solomon, Wesley; Jolly, Pauline; Yatich, Nelly; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal; Adjei, Andrew A.; Anderson, Winston; Stiles, Jonathan K.

2010-01-01

73

Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Discussion Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at www.clinicaltrials.gov(NCT01772901).

2014-01-01

74

Upholding pregnant women's right to life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent decisions of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the High Court of Delhi have shown how the pregnancy-related deaths of individual women have been bases on which these authoritative tribunals have held Brazil, Paraguay, and India respectively accountable for avoidable maternal mortality not only in these cases, but also among their populations more generally. The right to life is the most fundamental of women's human rights, recognized in international human rights treaties and national laws. Failure of governments to apply their resources adequately to address, respect, and protect this right violates the law of human rights. These cases show, however, that governments may fail to allocate adequate resources to women's survival of pregnancy. Tribunals can build on the failures in individual cases to set standards of performance to which governments will legally be held to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:22356763

Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

2012-04-01

75

Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 imm...

2011-01-01

76

Some Suggested Cautions for Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Researchers continue to find new ways to protect the fetus and newborn from hazards posed by the environment through infectious and chemical agents. Research indicates that for women infected with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, antibiotic treatment reduces the incidence of harmful effects this infection can have on the fetus. In addition, researchers have concluded that women's breast milk can be a source of lead exposure in infants. Maternal use of calcium supplements, however, can decrease...

Flanders-stepans, Mary Beth

1999-01-01

77

First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge. Both participants and non-participants in the screening programme were included. The results are based on 4,095 responders (64%). Differences between sub-groups were examined by chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis. Estimates are stated with 95% CI. RESULTS: The majority of the participants (87.6% (86.6-88.6) to 92.6% (91.7-93.3)) correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. Fewer participants (16.4% (15.3-17.6) to 43.3% (41.8-44.8)) correctly recognised test accuracy and the potential risk of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session was weakly associated with more knowledge. CONCLUSION: The majority of the pregnant women correctly identified the test concept and the main condition being screened for. The pregnant women were found less knowledgeable on test accuracy and drawbacks. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone

2010-01-01

78

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

H Keshavarz

2008-04-01

79

Smoking in Dutch pregnant women and birth weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study 796 ambulatory singular pregnant women were questioned about their smoking habits both before and during pregnancy (ambispective). Important covariates such as parity, blood pressure, maternal weight gain, salt- and alcohol consumption and length of gestation were taken into account. At the beginning of pregnancy 52% of the questioned women smoked; 36% smoked in the seventh/eighth month of pregnancy. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and birth weight. For those pregnant women who still smoked after 7 months of pregnancy an average birth weight loss of 24 g was found per cigarette per day. Even after controlling for covariates, there still remains an independent influence of smoking on birth weight loss on the average of 19 g for each cigarette smoked per day. PMID:8852204

Adriaanse, H P; Knottnerus, J A; Delgado, L R; Cox, H H; Essed, G G

1996-06-01

80

Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available.

Siziya Seter

2008-10-01

82

Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Vellore region.  

Science.gov (United States)

All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a large hospital in Vellore, India (Christian Medical College Hospital) were screened for HIV infection between October 1987 and June 1992. A total of 36,953 blood samples were thus screened and 20 infected women were identified. Among these 18 women had acquired HIV infection from their husbands, who were also detected to be HIV infected. While these 18 women were monogamous, all the husbands had multiple sex partners. Two of the 20 women in this series were commercial sex workers. Among the 20, 17 (85%) women belonged to low socio-economic status, while three were from well-to-do families, with the husbands being businessmen or teachers. As the overall prevalence (0.054%) of HIV infection among pregnant women was relatively high and equal to or higher than many States in the USA and in areas outside London in the UK, the authors recommend that strict universal precautions be instituted in all obstetric practice in India. PMID:8144202

John, T J; Bhushan, N; Babu, P G; Seshadri, L; Balasubramanium, N; Jasper, P

1993-11-01

83

Immunisation Status Of Pregnant Women In Bihar  

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Full Text Available Research Question: What is the coverage level of immunization and other maternal services by a modified technique developed by IRMS (ICMR Delhi in comparison to standard WHO technique. Objectives: To study the â€"Coverage level for immunization, antenatal care and IFA tablets â€"Relationship of caste and education with the coverage levels. â€"Place and persons conducting deliveries. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Both in rural and urban areas of Bihar. Participants: 375 mothers having children up to one year of age selected by a stratified random sampling technique developed by IRMS Delhi. Study variables: Immunisation status, antenatal care, Use of IFA tabs, Education of the female, Education of husband, place and person conducting the delivery. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: Overall immunization coverage was 42% for pregnant females. Coverage was high (60% in urban areas compared to rural areas (40%. Coverage was low among females from SC/ST category, also when females and their husbands were illiterates. Similar trend was observed for antenatal care and IFA tabs. 90% deliveries took place at home and were mainly attended by village dais. Majority of mothers received immunization from some. Govt. agency lack of, awareness and lack of motivation were more commonly found as reasons for non-immunisation among SC/ST as compared to others. Lack of awareness was also found as a common reason for non-immunisation among illiterate females.

Yadav R. J

1998-01-01

84

Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1??g\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

McGowan, C A

2011-09-01

85

New generation of antidepressants in pregnant women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nAlthough pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram...

2007-01-01

86

Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab, and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab. Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (36 weeks; for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (36 weeks; and for TSH, values were (?IU/mL: 1.12 ± 0.69 (36 weeks. Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain.

Bocanegra-García Virgilio

2009-11-01

87

Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP) at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa) for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa) for those at term. In theearly pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05) whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho) was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84), between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81), and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85). CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.

Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua

2014-01-01

88

Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant women. Materials and Method: The study involved a control group of 60 apparently healthy pregnant women matched with a test group of 60 pregnant women with GDM. Data were obtained through a questionnaire, proper examination, including anthropometric measurements, and laboratory evaluation for glycaemic control. Results: The age (mean (M ± standard deviation (SD = 32.8±7.4 years and body mass index (BMI (M±SD = 27.9±4.9 Kg/m2 were significantly higher in pregnant ladies with GDM compared with the control group (M±SD = 29.7±6.0 years, 25.1±3.1 Kg/m2 respectively (P < 0.02 for both. There were significant associations between presence of GDM and age ? 30 years (relative risk (RR = 1.28, P = 0.016, BMI ? 25 Kg/m2 (RR = 1.48, P = 0.001, family history of diabetes mellitus (DM (RR = 1.8, P = 0.002, glucosuria (RR = 2.39, P = 0.000, proteinuria (RR = 1.98, P = 0.008. In contrast, parity and urinary tract infections failed to demonstrate significant associations with GDM. Conclusion: The strongest predictor of GDM in Sudanese women is glucosuria, followed by proteinuria, family history of DM, BMI ? 25 Kg/m2 and age ? 30 years in a descending pattern.

Mardi T.G

2012-01-01

89

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women  

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The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FI...

Fernanda Campos Machado; Dionéia Evangelista Cesar; Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho Assis; Cláudio Galuppo Diniz; Rosangela Almeida Ribeiro

2012-01-01

90

The use of radioisotopes in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This outline review concludes that pregnancy is a major contra-indication for any diagnostic procedures. The only exception is a perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs, when a pulmonary embolism is suspected. Accidental exposures of the embryo should be guarded against by implementing the ten day rule for diagnostic examinations of fertile women at risk of pregnancy. In the event of clinical emergencies resulting in radiation of an early developing embryo, reconstruction of the received dose is essential. A foetal dose of 10 rads or more is usually considered as an indication of a therapeutic abortion, while doses below 1 rad can probably be neglected. (U.K.)

1984-01-01

91

First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

Modh Carin

2011-04-01

92

Acute coronary syndrome in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to review the available information on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) during all stages of pregnancy. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus and EBSCO host research databases from 1980 through to August 2010 using the indexing terms 'pregnancy', 'ante-,peri-, and postpartum', 'acute coronary syndrome', 'myocardial infarction', 'STEMI' and 'NSTEMI'. Symptomatic coronary artery disease is still infrequent in women of childbearing age, but the recent increase in its prevalence in pregnancy has been attributed to the modern trend of childbearing in older years because many young working women are postponing having children. Although rare, acute pregnancy-related MI is a devastating event that may claim the life of a mother and her fetus. The incidence of MI is estimated at 0.6-1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The case fatality rate has been reported to be 5-37%. Owing to the rarity of the event, information related to MI in pregnancy is derived from case reports and, therefore, is subject to considerable reporting bias. Treatment needs to be prompt and urgent because of the very high mortality rate. Current guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MI should be expanded to include pregnancy-related MI. Screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors should be achieved before pregnancy. PMID:21517733

El-Deeb, Mohammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Gehani, Abdulrazzak; Sulaiman, Kadhim

2011-04-01

93

Phylogenetically diverse TT virus viremia among pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections during pregnancy have been suggested to be involved in childhood leukemias. We used high-throughput sequencing to describe the viruses most readily detectable in serum samples of pregnant women. Serum DNA of 112 mothers to leukemic children was amplified using whole genome amplification. Sequencing identified one TT virus (TTV) isolate belonging to a known type and two putatively new TTVs. For 22 mothers, we also performed TTV amplification by general primer PCR before sequencing. This detected 39 TTVs, two of which were identical to the TTVs found after whole genome amplification. Altogether, we found 40 TTV isolates, 29 of which were putatively new types (similarities ranging from 89% to 69%). In conclusion, high throughput sequencing is useful to describe the known or unknown viruses that are present in serum samples of pregnant women. PMID:22819835

Bzhalava, Davit; Ekström, Johanna; Lysholm, Fredrik; Hultin, Emilie; Faust, Helena; Persson, Bengt; Lehtinen, Matti; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele; Dillner, Joakim

2012-10-25

94

[Pregnant women with psychiatric illness are able to stop smoking].  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking during pregnancy is associated with neonatal complications and health problems later in life. However, about 10% of the pregnant women in the Netherlands smoke and those with a psychiatric illness smoke even more frequently. Although giving up smoking may be more difficult for these women, it does not lead to an increase of psychiatric symptoms. We present two patients who smoked during pregnancy. A 28-year-old female started smoking again during her first pregnancy when her depression relapsed. We advised a higher dose of medication and with her midwife's support she gave up smoking. A 35-year-old female, suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, had an increase of symptoms during her second pregnancy. She resumed smoking to feel more relaxed. Treatment with bupropion and an online support program helped her to give up smoking. We advise that every smoking pregnant woman with psychiatric problems be treated concurrently for the psychiatric illness and for smoking. PMID:22929746

Smit, Mirte; Jongedijk, Ellen J; Heres, Marion H B; Dolman, Koert M; Honig, Adriaan

2012-01-01

95

Hookworm-Related Anaemia among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review  

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Anaemia affects large numbers of pregnant women in developing countries and increases their risk of dying during pregnancy and delivering low birth weight babies, who in turn are at increased risk of dying. Human hookworm infection has long been recognized among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but understanding of the benefits of the management of hookworm infection in pregnancy has lagged behind the other major causes of maternal anaemia. Low coverage of anthelmintic treatme...

2008-01-01

96

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

Kendjo Eric

2003-06-01

97

Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Qualyobia Governorate, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted between August 2007 and October 2008 to identify the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women of different ages and stages of gestation. Latex agglutination test was used as screening test. ELISA-IgG & IgM tests measured for the Toxo-Latex positive cases to identify toxoplasmosis clinical status. The results indicated that the prevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women was relatively high in the rural (57.6%) than urban (46.5%) areas. The positivity was correlated, in general, with age as it was higher in the older age groups. No specific clinical pictures were noticed in different patients with variable proportions, as well as a less marked correlation between Toxo-latex positive cases and having toxoplasmic congenital babies. But, neither correlation was detected between the history of congenital toxoplasmosis, or contact with cats and the Toxo-latex out-come results. An acute newly infected pregnant women during their first trimester of pregnancy that represents the rate of incidence of T. gondii in which ELISA-IgM positive and ELISA-IgG negative, was 23 cases (27.05%) and v.v. was 20 (23.54). The interpretation of IgM and IgG was given. PMID:19795746

El-Gozamy, Bothina R; Mohamed, Sabry Abdel-fattah; Mansour, Hadil Ahmad M

2009-08-01

98

Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand  

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Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.

Anne M. Riederer

2012-09-01

99

Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, eng...

Tappin David M; MacAskill Susan; Bauld Linda; Eadie Douglas; Shipton Debbie; Galbraith Linsey

2010-01-01

100

Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. PMID:24182770

Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sleep disturbances in Korean pregnant and postpartum women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This was a prospective, cohort study in Korean pregnant and postpartum women, to estimate the prevalence and patterns of sleep disturbances. The survey was composed of the following validated sleep questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale, Berlin Questionnaire for sleep disordered breathing, the international restless leg syndrome (IRLS) Study Group criteria, and the Johns Hopkins Telephone Diagnostic Interview Form (JHTDIF) for RLS. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0. Six hundred eighty-nine women completed sleep surveys. The overall percentage of women with very poor sleep quality (a PSQI score greater than 10), clinically significant insomnia (a total score of 9 or more), excessive daytime sleepiness (a total ESS score of 10 or more), short sleep duration (less than 7 hours per night) were 80.7%, 50.5%, 34.0% and 29.5%, respectively, and all of three parameters became increased as pregnancy progressed and after delivery (?p = 0.002, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). The overall positive rates in Berlin and RLS questionnaires were 25.4% and 19.4%. In conclusion, sleep disturbances are prevalent among Korean pregnant and postpartum women, and increase significantly as pregnancy progresses and after delivery. PMID:22533904

Ko, HyunSun; Shin, Jongchul; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Yeun Hee; Lee, Jihyun; Kil, Ki Cheol; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Guisera; Sa-Jin, Kim; Kim, Byung In

2012-06-01

102

Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

2012-08-01

103

A comparative study of Zinc deficiency prevalence in pregnant and non pregnant women  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Zinc is one of the elements necessary for growth and health in human. Some evidences indicate that zinc deficiency is one of real difficulties for the public health in both developed and developing countries. Since the pregnant women are more at risk of zinc deficiency, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of zinc deficiency in pregnant women in the 3 trimesters and to compare these data with that of the healthy controls."n"nMethods: This research was an analytic- descriptive study which was done on 677 pregnant women in 3 Trimesters and 140 non pregnant groups who referred to clinic of Tehran University. Blood sample were taken And serum zinc was assessed By Enzymatic technique."n"nResults: The prevalence of zinc deficiency is 16% in pregnancy and 0% in non pregnant women with a significant difference between two groups (p<0.001. Zinc deficiency had no relation to mother's age, gestational age, Iron supplementation, Parity and mothers BMI. Hemoglobin level showed a direct relation to zinc deficiency and was grossly found to be more prevalent in Hb levels less than 12 (CI: 1/36-4/26, OR=2/4."n"nConclusion: Acording to the finding of presented study, zinc deficiency is more prevalent in Hb<12 inspite of iron supplementation. Iron and zinc supplements in pregnancy period seem to be more effective for Hb repair in each case.

Borna S

2009-08-01

104

The second wave: Toward responsible inclusion of pregnant women in research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Though much progress has been made on inclusion of non-pregnant women in research, thoughtful discussion about including pregnant women has lagged behind. We outline resulting knowledge gaps and their costs and then highlight four reasons why ethically we are obliged to confront the challenges of including pregnant women in clinical research. These are: the need for effective treatment for women during pregnancy, fetal safety, harm from the reticence to prescribe potentially beneficial medica...

Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth

2008-01-01

105

Obstetric MR imaging: Experience with 75 pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-five pregnant women underwent MR imaging at 0.35 T. The subjects fell into two broad categories: women with suspected medical or surgical disease (n = 37), and women with abnormal gestations, as determined by prior US studies (n = 38). In the first group, MR imaging depicted a wide variety of maternal ailments, including abnormalities in the brain, chest, liver, adrenals, kidneys, and pelvis. There were no false-positive MR imaging studies. There were two true-negative studies in this group. The only false-negative examination occurred in a patient with a tubal ectopic pregnancy. In the second group, MR imaging depicted fetal anomalies in all 24 cases identified on US. However, in every instance, US provided equivalent or more morphologic information and also physiologic information not available from MR imaging. MR imaging may be useful for evaluating pregnant women with medical or surgical diseases, but currently it provides only limited morphologic data on the fetus, in comparison to US

1986-12-05

106

The relationship between neck circumference and pregnancy-induced hypertension in the third trimester pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in the third trimester pregnant women. Methods: The study included 126 women who were in the third trimester pregnancy. All subjects completed a standard sleep questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and ultrasonic testing. Results: Pregnant women with NC ?34.7?cm had significantly higher frequency of PIH than pregnant women with NC <34.7?cm (35.6% versus 2.5%, ?(2?)=?25.863, p?=?0.000). Conclusions: The increase of NC was independent risk factor for PIH in the third trimester pregnant women. PMID:24392861

Shao, Jun-Tao; Yu, Jie; Qi, Jun-Qiao; Liu, Xiao-Dong

2014-08-01

107

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sampl...

Akrami, M. Nojomi Z.

2006-01-01

108

Toxoplasmosis in Primiparus Pregnant Women and Their Neonates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of primary infection with T. gondii in pregnant women and risk of congenital infection in their neonates in various parts of Tehran are unknown. The prevalence rate of antibodies to T. gondii ranges from 24% in Tehran to 62.7% in Babol. This study describes the epidemiology of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Tehran and risk factors of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn among preterm infants and full- term infants born from these mothers. A cross sectional study was carried out in 140 primiparus women living in various part of Tehran. Initially from each case a questionnaire was completed by the authorized physician, followed by clinical exams in newborns. The birth certificate was the data source used for such as gestational age, birthweigt, etc. The centrifuged blood specimens from all pregnant women are screened using an assay for Toxoplasma- specific IgM and IgG based on preliminary evidence in Iran. Specific toxo- IgM was positive in 7.1% (90% of them were also IgG positive , toxo – IgG was positive in 34.3% of mothers. Mean age of IgG positive mothers (22.49±4.22, mean age of IgM positive mothers (19.90± 3.48. There were significantly differences between living place of mothers and IgG positive (p=0.007 . There were significantly differences between living place of mothers (East and central and IgM positive (Fisher test = 0.023. Elaborating an epidemiological profile and risk correlates might help focus prenatal education and newborn screening strategies. Prenatal screening could be more easily justified in central part of Tehran because low incidence populations detected and probably treatment of mothers infected during pregnancy led to lower rates of transmission to the newborn. In contrast, in eastern part of Tehran due to high seroprevalence rate detected, newborn screening is relatively inexpensive and efficient.

S Noorbakhsh

2002-08-01

109

Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non-planners with accepting planners and by comparing rejecting planners with rejecting non-planners. The variables studied comprise age, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economic situation and contraceptives. RESULTS: The characteristics of accepting non-planners and accepting planners were in accordance and in contrast to those of rejecting planners and in particular of rejecting non-planners. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was 15%. Among rejecting non-planners the same figure was 51%. CONCLUSION: Accepting non-planners seemed to be in a situation which could be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one.

Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B

2001-01-01

110

Calorie Intake of Pregnant Women and Related Factors in Health Centers of Urban Areas Qom, 2007  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a critical period during which good maternal nutrition plays a key role influencing the health of both mother and child. The present study aimed at determining the intakes of energy and related factors in pregnant women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1036 pregnant women were selected from health centers of urban areas in Qom. Personal interviews using the questionnaire of 24 -hour dietary recall were carried out to elicit information. Calorie intake efficacy was calculated based on nutrient substance intake. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software program. X2 test was used to determine the significance of differences (p<0/05.Results: Calorie intake of 50% of subjects was adequate. The majority of pregnant women who had reported higher intake of energy were illiterate (%56.4 and house holders (%51/1? and in the third trimester (%58.8 There was a significant difference between calorie intake, occupation, level of education and stage of pregnancy. The mean of energy from oil and fat was higher than that of other food groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the nutritional education is a component of programs targeted at working women and low income families.

Ahangari R

2011-03-01

111

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values

2013-10-01

112

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

2013-10-15

113

Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli Induce Different Cytokine Production Patterns in Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. Methods Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg) or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNF?, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. Results We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it’s LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNF? was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. Conclusion Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

Faas, Marijke M.; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G.

2014-01-01

114

Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five (0.74%) of 678 women delivering in 1985 at a tertiary referral hospital for high-risk pregnancies and 16 (1.34%) of 1198 women visiting an urban prenatal obstetrics clinic in 1986-1987 had serologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Unlinked testing (removal of personal identifiers from the blood specimen and the epidemiologic data sheet) of residual serum from hepatitis B virus serologic testing was used. Neither age, marital status, payor status, nor serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infection was useful in identifying women at risk for HIV-1 infection. As a result of these data, we have initiated a program in which counseling is offered to all women and testing for those who consent. Unlinked testing of women who refuse consent is performed for epidemiologic purposes. This will allow us to continue to plan for health care resource needs and to track the course of the epidemic in various subgroups of pregnant women. PMID:1627222

Repke, J T; Townsend, T R; Coberly, J S; McQuillan, G M; Halsey, N A; Quinn, T C

1992-07-01

115

Daily versus intermittent iron supplementation in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women. Method The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n = 50 received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet daily, second group (n = 50 received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet three times a week, and the third group (n = 50 received two 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablets (100 mg weekly, respectively for 12 consecutive weeks. Serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron were measured before and after the supplementation. Paired t and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated. Results There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment hemoglobin levels with iron supplementation in the three group (P = 0.518, P = 0.276, respectively. The mean serum iron level before and after treatment with iron supplementation in the three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.962, P = 0.970, respectively. Although the mean serum ferritin level before and after treatment with iron supplementation was statistically significant in the three groups, no significant differences were found comparing the three groups (P = 0.827, P = 0.635 respectively. Conclusions This results suggested, three times a week or weekly iron supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation for healthy pregnant women without anemia. Trial Registration ISRCTN: IRCT201101093820N1

Cherati Shahla

2011-10-01

116

Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study  

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Abstract Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to eva...

Yamaguchi Kotomi; Suganuma Nobuhiko; Ohashi Kazutomo

2012-01-01

117

A fatal case of acute hepatitis E among pregnant women, Central African Republic  

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Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health problem in developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and more often fatal in the third trimester. The mortality rate due to HEV-induced hepatitis is as high as 15-20 per cent. The present study was designed to determine the potential factors responsible for high mortality rate among pregnant women. Findings Twenty one pregnant women attended the Maternity Center of Be...

2010-01-01

118

Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

Toher, C

2013-08-24

119

Prevalence of malaria parasitemia amongst asymptomatic pregnant women attending a Nigerian teaching hospital  

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Background: Malaria parasitemia among pregnant women is associated with complications to mother and the unborn fetus. There is paucity of data on asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, particularly in the northwest region of Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in asymptomatic pregnant women and to estimate the packed cell volume (PCV) of this group of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descrip...

2011-01-01

120

Attitudes, Knowledge, and Practices Regarding Malaria Prevention and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Eastern India  

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We explored views toward and use of malaria prevention and treatment measures among pregnant women in Jharkhand, India. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions (total = 73 respondents) with pregnant women in urban, semi-urban, and rural locations in a region with moderate intensity malaria transmission. Most respondents ranked malaria as an important health issue affecting pregnant women, had partially correct understanding of malaria transmission and prevention, a...

Sabin, Lora L.; Rizal, Abanish; Brooks, Mohamad I.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Tuchman, Jordan; Wylie, Blair J.; Joyce, Katherine M.; Yeboah-antwi, Kojo; Singh, Neeru; Hamer, Davidson H.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking at maternity booking or provide false information. Carbon monoxide breath testing can bypass this difficulty. Identified smokers may not be referred but an opt-out referral policy can remove this barrier. Engagement at home allowed a greater proportion to set a quit date and quit, but costs were higher.

Shipton Debbie

2010-01-01

122

Vitamin A Status of Pregnant Women in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vitamin A status of 101 pregnant women attending clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria was assessed based on 24 h dietary recall, serum retinol concentration, history of night blindness, physical appearance and clinical eye signs. The study revealed that the mean dietary vitamin A intake of the respondents (2645.31 ±188.91 ?g RE) and their mean serum retinol concentration (31.18 ±2.94 ?g dL-1) were significantly (p<0.05) hi...

Williams, Ima O.; Eka, Okon U.; Essien, Essien U.

2008-01-01

123

Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug u...

2009-01-01

124

Falls among pregnant women in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Falls during pregnancy are major public health issues and a common cause of maternal injury during pregnancy. There is paucity of data on prevalence and risk factors of falls during pregnancy in African population including Nigeria. Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with falls during pregnancy in Enugu, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 332 consecutive pregnant women presenting in labor for delivery at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria between 1 st May and 31 st December, 2012. Results: The mean age of the women was 32.2 ± 2.7 (range: 20-42) years. One hundred and eight women (32.5%) reported falling at least once during the index pregnancy. Women aged ? 30 years had twofold risk of falling during pregnancy than women aged > 30 years [41.1% (69/168) vs. 23.8% (39/164); odds ratio (OR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-3.58; P < 0.001)]. Similarly, women ? 160 cm in height had significantly higher risk of falling during pregnancy than women < 160 cm in height [43.5% (70/161) vs. 22.2% (38/171); OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23-0.60; P < 0.0001)]. Furthermore, primigravidae had almost threefold risk of falling during pregnancy than multigravidae [45.3% (63/139) vs. 23.3% (45/193); OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.70-4.37; P < 0.0001)]. Conclusion: Falls during pregnancy is common in Enugu, Nigeria. It is, therefore, recommended that women should be counseled during pregnancy on this public health problem and the above-identified risk factors emphasized in order to reduce the prevalence and morbidity. PMID:24714005

Okeke, T C; Ugwu, E O; Ikeako, L C; Adiri, C O; Ezenyeaku, Cct; Ekwuazi, K E; Okoro, O S

2014-01-01

125

[Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women and perinatal infants].  

Science.gov (United States)

Perinatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was studied, using method of CMV-IgM ELISA, in 256 pregnant women at different periods and in the cord blood of 84 babies born by CMV positive mothers. Results showed that in 42 cases at early and midtrimester pregnancy, 17 were CMV-IgM positive with an infection rate of 40.48%. Among the 214 women at late pregnancy, 84 were positive (39.25%). There was a higher prevalence of perinatal morbidity, neonatal asphyxia, malformation, intrauterine death, and poor obstetrical outcome in the CMV positive mothers as compared with the CMV negative group (P CMV-IgM indicated a recent or recurrent CMV infection during pregnancy and the babies should be carefully monitored. PMID:8082429

Yang, R M; Gu, C Y; Li, T X

1994-03-01

126

Prevalence and clinical symptoms of geographic tongue in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Introduction: “Geographic tongue” or benign migratory glossitis is a tongue disorder which causes pain and dysfunction and its persistence leads to cancer phobia. Based on some reports, hormones (especially female sex hormones are associated with geographic tongue development or exacerbation. Geographic tongue might be confused with lichen planus and candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the lesion with pregnancy and its changes during each trimester. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, 451 eligible cases were selected. After clinical examination and completion of questionnaires, if geographic tongue was diagnosed, photographs were taken and compared between the three trimesters. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: The prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was 36.8%. There were no significant relationships between the number of pregnancies, age and the frequency of the lesions. However, there was a significant relationship between the ectopic lesions and the fissured tongue (p value = 0.001 and also between the gestational age and geographic tongue lesions (p value = 0.043. The lesions were most prevalent in the second trimester, but in third trimester, prevalence of severs lesions decreased. Conclusions: Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of geographic tongue in pregnant women was higher than previous reports in other communities. Severe lesions were more prevalent in the second trimester. Key words: Benign migratory glossitis, Hormones, Pregnancy.

Parichehr Ghalyani

2012-01-01

127

Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: 94.4% responded the questionnaire and participated in statistical procedure. 73.1% of the patients used to brush their teeth at least twice a day and also 70.3% used to brush their teeth after meal."nConclusion: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community- based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes. More importance must be given to oral health care center in family planning centers.

J Hamissi

2010-03-01

128

Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles andrelated factors in pregnant women.Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan.Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceivedhealth status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or peers’health-promoting behaviors, and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP?.Results: The results showed that the standardized total score of health promotinglifestyles was 66.88 (moderate level. The subscales of the HPLP ? indescending order of standardized scores were as follows: “interpersonal relationships,”“health responsibility,” “psychological wellness,” “nutrition,”“stress management” and “physical activity.” There were significant differencesin the total scores of the HPLP ? among subjects with different educationallevel, socioeconomic status, chronic diseases, exercise habits, lengthof sleep, and perceived health status. Both perception of health-promotingbehaviors among family (or peers and self-efficacy of health behaviors hadsignificantly positive relationships with health-promoting lifestyles.Perception of the family or peers’ health-promoting behaviors, self-efficacyof health behaviors, perceived health status and chronic diseases were thefour significant predictors of health-promoting lifestyles, accounting for62.4% of the variance.Conclusion: The findings of this study could be used as a reference for prenatal care,nursing education, and maternal / neonatal health policies.

Te-Fu Chan

2009-12-01

129

The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women  

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BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (nâ??=â??32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (nâ??=â??22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S

2014-01-01

130

Differential evolution of anti-VAR2CSA-IgG3 in primigravidae and multigravidae pregnant women infected by Plasmodium falciparum - art. no. 10  

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Background: Pregnant women develop protective anti-VSA IgG1 and IgG3 when infected by Plasmodium falciparum. The major target of IgG from serum of infected pregnant women is VAR2CSA. Methods: In this study, ELISA was used to compare the level of VAR2CSA DBL5 epsilon- specific IgG subclasses at enrolment and at delivery in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal. All antibody measures were analysed in relation to placental infection according to parity. Results: The results show an interaction b...

Guitard, Juliette; Cottrell, Gilles; Moulopo Magnouha, Nellie; Salanti, Ali; Li, Tengfei; Sow, Sokhna; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

2008-01-01

131

Pregnant women's responses to a tailored smoking cessation intervention: turning hopelessness into competence  

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Full Text Available Background: Cognitive behavioral interventions consisting of brief counseling and the provision of self-help material designed for pregnancy have been documented as effective smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women. However, there is a need to understand how such interventions are perceived by the targeted group. Aim: To understand the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses of pregnant women to a clinic-based smoking cessation intervention. Methods: In-depth interviews with women attending four antenatal clinics in Cape Town, South Africa, who were exposed to a smoking intervention delivered by midwives and peer counselors. Women were purposively selected to represent a variation in smoking behavior. Thirteen women were interviewed at their first antenatal visit and 10 were followed up and reinterviewed later in their pregnancies. A content analysis approach was used, which resulted in categories and themes describing women's experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the intervention. Results: Five women quit, five had cut down, and three could not be traced for follow-up. All informants perceived the intervention positively. Four main themes captured the intervention's role in influencing women's smoking behavior. The process started with ‘understanding their reality,’ which led to ‘embracing change’ and ‘deciding to hold nothing back,’ which created a basis for ‘turning hopelessness into a feeling of competence.’Conclusion: The intervention succeeded in shifting women from feeling pessimistic about ever quitting to feeling encouraged to try and quit. Informants rated the social support they received very highly and expressed the need for the intervention to become a routine component of clinic services.

Zaino Petersen

2010-12-01

132

Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand  

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Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

Nathan Shaffer

2009-01-01

133

Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab, Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg, Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-Aand antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in Yenagoa city, the heart of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies were detected by using "Determine" HIV-1/2 test strip (Abbott Laboratories, Japan; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and antibodies to T. pallidum were carried out using ACON rapid test strips (ACON Laboratories, USA. All positive samples for HIV, HBV and HCV were confirmed using the Clinotech diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kits (Clinotech Laboratories, USA, while all reactive samples to Treponema pallidum antibodies were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA test (Lorne Laboratories Ltd., UK. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers? instructions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data generated were coded, entered, validated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 12.0, and Epi info. The seroprevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV and HIV was expressed for the entire study group by age, sex and other demographic features using Pearson chi-square analysis. Values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,000 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 15 and 44 years with a mean of 27.34?5.43 years were screened. In terms of percentage, 89.4% of the subjects were married, and 10.6% were without formal husbands. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis was found to be 4.1%, 5.3%, 0.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Conclusions: High prevalence of some infectious diseases was observed in the present study, which may pose serious health risk to women of reproductive age in this region. It is important to point out that there is need to improve antenatal care of pregnant women by mandatory screening for these infectious diseases.

Buseri F

2010-01-01

134

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City  

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Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ? 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

M. Fallah

2006-04-01

135

Violence against woman from the perspective of pregnants women  

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Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the kinds of violence suffered in gestational period based on Ecological Model of Violence from Pan American Health Organization and to discuss the violence concept under point of view from pregnant women. Methods: descriptive study from qualitative approach conducted in a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro city. One hundred interviews were conducted with mothers in the Rooming-in Care. Results: among women who have suffered some kind of violence there is a greater proportion of physical aggression (67%, and the aggressor is, in most cases (33%, a person close to the woman. The victims did not seek a specialized help service (79%. The socio-demographic profile showed that the predominant age range was 20-29 years (56%, with a low level of schooling, less than six years of study, with a predominant family income of more than two minimum salaries and residents, most of them (27% from A.P.3.1 Méier. Conclusions: it’s important to ensure human rights and enhance the full care to women victims of violence. The existance of a regular training is essential to take care of these women, facing this violence phenomenon, offering then a careful, ethical and humane nursing.

Gabriela Fernandes e Silva, Maíra Domingues Bernardes Silva, Leila Rangel da Silva, Inês Maria Meneses dos Santos

2009-07-01

136

Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin  

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Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

2000-11-13

137

Effectiveness of a Group-based Educational Program on Physical Activity among Pregnant Women  

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Background & Objective: Appropriate physical activity help to promote women's health during pregnancy. Providing appropriate educational programs for pregnant women seems to be necessary. This study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of a group educational program on pregnant women's physical activity. Methods & Materials: This clinical trial was conducted among 280 nulliparous women. The participants were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. W...

2012-01-01

138

The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District  

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Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

FN Dube

2008-09-01

139

Prevention of supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

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In our studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with major depressive disorder, two subjects had an episode of supine hypotensive syndrome and one subject had an episode of dizziness without hypotension. Prevention of the supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation is described. PMID:24768354

Kim, Deborah Rubin; Wang, Eileen

2014-08-15

140

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

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Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Cardiorespiratory responses during and after water exercise in pregnant and non-pregnant women Respostas cardiorrespiratórias durante e após exercício aquático em gestantes e não gestantes  

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PURPOSE: to compare the blood pressure and oxygen consumption (VO2) responses between pregnant and non-pregnant women, during cycle ergometer exercise on land and in water. METHODS: ten pregnant (27 to 29 weeks of gestation) and ten non-pregnant women were enrolled. Two cardiopulmonary tests were performed on a cycle ergometer (water and land) at the heart rate corresponding to VO2, over a period of 30 minutes each. Exercise measurements consisted of recording blood pressure every five minute...

Ilana Finkelstein; Paulo André Poli de Figueiredo; Cristine Lima Alberton; Roberta Bgeginski; Ricardo Stein; Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

2011-01-01

142

Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimeste [...] r of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Machado, Fernanda Campos; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Assis, Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida.

143

Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women  

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In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%), Prevotella nigrescens (44%), Treponema denticola (32%), and Prevotella intermedius (24%) were noted along with significant association with the disease (P < 0.05).

Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Asha; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

2014-01-01

144

Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women  

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African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women w...

Jones, Hendre?e E.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Kline, Tracy L.; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A.; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

2011-01-01

145

[Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in central Italy].  

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Between 2005 and 2007 we examined 2356 pregnant women. We interviewed the patients concerning their dietary behaviour and lifestyles during pregnancy in correlation with the possibility of contracting toxoplasmosis. Our purpose was to ascertain the importance of different risk factors in a group of Italian patients and assess the level of knowledge on this matter. The survey questions were related to: 1) eating rare/raw meat; 2) eating commercial or homemade ham or other pork derivatives such as dry sausage and salami; 3) owning a garden or a plot for fruit and vegetables; 4) owning pets, especially cats; 5) living in town or in the country; 6) eating fresh uncooked vegetables. On the basis of serological tests (Toxo IgG, IgM, IgA, avidity test) we identified three groups of women: those with primary infection, seronegative women (control), and those with inactive infections. Comparison of the first two groups showed that each risk factor significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring toxoplasmosis. Higher odds ratios were observed for those living in the country and for those consuming homemade cured meat. PMID:22212163

Thaller, R; Tammaro, F; Pentimalli, H

2011-12-01

146

Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Manejar las complicaciones médicas en el embarazo es un reto para los clínicos. Objetivos: Este estudio delineó algunos patrones de enfermedades y prescripciones en embarazadas que visitan una clínica prenatal en Nigeria. Se determinó una clasificación de riesgo de los medicamentos. Métodos: Se inve [...] stigaron los historiales médicos de 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron las clínicas de preparto de tres centros en la ciudad de Benin , Nigeria. Los patrones de enfermedades se determinaron desde sus diagnósticos. Los patrones de prescripción se evaluaron utilizando los indicadores del a OMS y la clasificación de medicamentos de la Food and Drug Adminsitration de Estados Unidos según el riesgo para el feto. Resultados: Durante el periodo de revisión, se evaluaron 1897 prescripciones de las 1200 mujeres embarazadas que visitaron. Los resultados indicaron que la malaria con 554 (38%) fue la enfermedad más prevalente, seguida de las infeccione respiratorias altas (IRA) con 13% y enfermedades gastrointestinales (GI) con 12%. La media de medicamentos prescritos por visita fue de 3,0 y 2434 (43%) fueron prescritas en genéricos. Minerales/vitaminas, con 2396 (42%) fueron los medicamentos mas prescritos, y los antibióticos aparecieron en 502 (8,8%). De todos los medicamentos prescritos, 984 (17%) se incluían en la categoría de riesgo fetal C y 286 (5%) en la categoría D. Conclusión: Este estudio concluyó que entre las mujeres embarazadas, la malaria era la enfermedad más frecuente, seguida de las IRA y las GI. Los minerales y vitaminas seguidos el os antibióticos encabezaron l alista de medicamentos prescritos. La media de medicamentos por visita fue mucho mayor que los estándares recomendados por la OMS. La aparición de medicamentos contraindicados era baja. Abstract in english Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files o [...] f 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38%) was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%). The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43%) of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8%) of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17%) were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5%) in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

Uchenna I., Eze; Adego E., Eferakeya; Azuka C., Oparah; Ehijie F., Enato.

147

A Pilot Study of the Nutritional Status of Opiate Abusing Pregnant Women on Methadone Maintenance Therapy  

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Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women had lower BMI, consumed more calories, had lower serum carotenoid concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than controls. The study’s limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

148

Calorie Intake of Pregnant Women and Related Factors in Health Centers of Urban Areas Qom, 2007  

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Full Text Available

Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a critical period during which good maternal nutrition plays a key role influencing the health of both mother and child. The present study aimed at determining the intakes of energy and related factors in pregnant women.

 

Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1036 pregnant women were selected from health centers of urban areas in Qom. Personal interviews using the questionnaire of 24 -hour dietary recall were carried out to elicit information. Calorie intake efficacy was calculated based on nutrient substance intake. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software program. X2 test was used to determine the significance of differences (p<0/05.

 

Results: Calorie intake of 50% of subjects was adequate. The majority of pregnant women who had reported higher intake of energy were illiterate (%56.4 and house holders (%51/1? and in the third trimester (%58.8 There was a significant difference between calorie intake, occupation, level of education and stage of pregnancy. The mean of energy from oil and fat was higher than that of other food groups.

 

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the nutritional education is a component of programs targeted at working women and low income families.

Z Abedini

2012-05-01

149

Prevalence of violence against pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

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Women are at risk of violence at all stages of their life, including during pregnancy. Using a interviewer-administered questionnaire, 306 pregnant women were interviewed in two public secondary health facilities in Ibadan to compare prevalence and risk factors of VAW before and during pregnancy. Prevalence ofVAW a year before current pregnancy was 41.5% compared to 17.7% during pregnancy. Perpetrators before pregnancy were mostly relatives (22%), while during pregnancy, partners (64%). Major reasons for violence were "not obeying instructions" (33.3%) and "misbehaving" (26%). Education (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.83) and polygamous union (OR 9.56; 95% CI 3.71-24.63) and consumption of alcohol (OR 7.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.53) were statistically significant a year before pregnancy. Mothers occupation (OR 0.19; 95% CI 1.05-4.49); type of union (OR14.13; 95% CI 6.13-32.59), alcohol consumption by partner (OR 6.06; 95% CI 0.05-0.54); and not wanting pregnancy (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.20-9.30) were statistically significant in the index pregnancy. Hemorrhage (7.4% vs. 4.8%), abortion (1.9% vs. 1.2%), intrauterine death (3.7% vs. 1.2%) and premature labour (9.3% vs. 3.2%) were more often found in women who experienced VAW than those who did not, the latter was statistically significant (P against VAW. Empowerment of women through education and employment is crucial. Counselling on planning of families is also necessary. Screening for violence in pregnancy and close monitoring of the abused to ensure good obstetric outcome is recommended. PMID:21735995

Fawole, O I; Abass, L W A; Fawole, A O

2010-12-01

150

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico  

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Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods<...

Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme; Sifuentes-Álvarez Antonio; Narro-Duarte Sergio; Estrada-Martínez Sergio; Díaz-García Juan; Liesenfeld Oliver; Martínez-García Sergio; Canales-Molina Arturo

2006-01-01

151

Compliance to Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Low compliance has been linked to the ineffectiveness of supplementation programme among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the compliance of vitamin and mineral supplementation among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in urban and rural areas. A total of 118 pregnant women aged 28±4 years (urban areas = 62; rural areas = 56 were recruited. Socio demographic data and compliance to supplementation were obtained through self-reported questionnaire. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was obtained from the antenatal records. More than two-thirds of the subjects (79.7% were in third trimester and less than a third (20.3% was in second trimester. Overall, 49.2% of subjects complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation. The mean of weight and haemoglobin concentration were 63.7±15.1 kg and 11.3±1.1 g d/L, respectively. The overall percentage of subjects who complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation was 49.2%. There was no significant difference in percentage of subjects who complied with the supplements in urban (46.8% and rural areas (51.8% (p = 0.587. The prevalence of anaemia among the subjects (Hb <11 g d/L was 42.3% (n = 50. Prevalence of anaemia was lower in the compliant group compared with the non-compliant group (34.5% vs 50%, p = 0.01. Pregnant mothers who did not comply to the supplementation had significantly lower haemoglobin concentration (11.0±1.0 g d/L compared with those who complied (11.5±1.2 g d/L (p = 0.01. Percentage of compliance in anaemic and non-anaemic subjects were 34.5 and 65.5%, respectively (p = 0.088. The main reasons for non-compliance reported by subjects in both areas were forgetfulness (33.9%, side effects (nausea and vomiting (11.9% and worry regarding big size of babies (5.1%. In summary, the incidence of anemia is still high while compliance to supplementation is still low. Comprehensive nutrition education and health promotion programme should be carried out targeting pregnant women in urban and rural to educate the importance of compliance with the vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy.

A.M. Zahara

2010-01-01

152

Correlates of Unwanted Pregnancy among Pregnant Women attending Medical and Health Centers in Semnan, Iran  

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Background & Aim: Unwanted pregnancy is one of the most important causes of mother and child mortality. It may end up to illegal abortion and result in inevitable physical and psychological consequences. This study aimed to determine the correlates of unwanted pregnancy among pregnant women attending medical and health centers in Semnan. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 229 pregnant women using random sampling. Women with at least one alive child were r...

Sanaie Nasab, H.; Rashidi Jahan, H.; Tavakoli, R.; **** HR (Ph.D) - Tavakoli; Amin Shokravi, F.

2009-01-01

153

Depressed Pregnant Black Women Have a Greater Incidence of Prematurity and Low Birthweight Outcomes  

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Pregnant black depressed women were compared to pregnant black non-depressed women on self-report stress measures and cortisol levels at mid and late pregnancy and on neonatal outcomes. The depressed women had higher anxiety, anger, daily hassles, sleep disturbance scores and cortisol levels at both prenatal visits. These higher stress levels may have contributed to the greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight neonatal outcomes noted in the depressed group, and they may partially ...

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Holder, Vitillius; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

2009-01-01

154

Detection of Syphilis by Serologic Tests in Pregnant Iranian Women, Shiraz, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background:Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum and transmitted via sexual contact, infected discharge and blood as well as vertical transmission. It causes various impacts on women during pregnancy and their newborns which results in various complications. Thus, screening of syphilis is routinely performed during pregnancy. Choosing to perform a specific screening test is based on the prevalence of the disease in the target population which needs adequate information in this regard. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women in Shiraz, South-west of Iran. Materials and Methods: in this 15 month prospective study, 1100 pregnant women aged between 15 – 42 years, referred to University affiliated hospital in shiraz, Iran were included Blood samples were obtained from all of our study population for performing RPR test. FTA-ABS serologic test was carried out on positive cases of RPR test. Results:15 suspicious cases with weakly positive RPR test were detected but in all of them FTA-ABS tests were negative.Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of syphilis was low in our area which may be due to variable reasons, such as reduction in the rate of unsafe and unprotected sex, improving knowledge, and adequate health care services. More studies are still needed to decide whether syphilis screening is beneficial in our area and should be considered as a routine test in pregnancy

Mohammad Motamedifar

2013-09-01

155

Pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in pregnant women in Sudan with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

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The pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine were investigated in 12 pregnant and 12 well-matched, non-pregnant women receiving a three-day oral fixed dose combination regimen of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum at New Halfa Hospital in eastern Sudan. Frequent venous plasma samples were drawn from the patients over a 63-day period and a complete concentration-time profile was collected for 7 pregnant and 11 non-pregnant patients. Piperaquine was quantified using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method. Pregnant women had a significantly higher total drug exposure (median area under the curve [range] = 1,770 [1,200-5,600] hr × ng/mL versus 858 [325-2,370] hr × ng/mL; P = 0.018) and longer time to maximal concentration (4.00 [1.50-4.03] hr versus 1.50 [0.500-8.00] hr; P = 0.02) after the first dose compared with non-pregnant women. There was no other significant difference observed in piperaquine pharmacokinetics between pregnant and non-pregnant women, including no difference in total drug exposure or maximum concentration. The overall pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine in this study were consistent with previously published reports in non-pregnant patients. PMID:22764289

Adam, Ishag; Tarning, Joel; Lindegardh, Niklas; Mahgoub, Hyder; McGready, Rose; Nosten, François

2012-07-01

156

Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes  

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Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban®) in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman,...

Bc, Chan; Koren G

2003-01-01

157

Comparative analysis of the ground reaction forces, during the support phase, in a group of pregnant women on their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in a group of not pregnant women  

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PURPOSE: To analyze and compare the Ground Reaction Forces (GRF), during the stance phase of walking in pregnant women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, and non pregnant women. METHODS: 20 women, 10 pregnant and 10 non pregnant, voluntarily took part in this study. GRF were measured (1000 Hz) using a force platform (BERTEC 4060-15), an amplifier (BERTEC AM 6300) and an analogical-digital converter of 16 Bits (Biopac). RESULTS: The study showed that there were significant diffe...

Santos, Rubim; Gil, Belandina; Marques, Alda; Vilas Boas, Joa?o; Silva, Jose?

2008-01-01

158

Serum cytokine levels and T lymphocyte subsets in pregnant women with eclampsia  

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Full Text Available Background: Eclampsia, defined as the occurrence during pregnancy of hypertension, oedema, proteinuria and/or other neurologic abnormalities, causes substantial morbidity and mortality for both mother and foetus. However, its aetiology is largely unknown. Genetic and immune factors may play a role including a reduced maternal response to paternal antigen and an altered adaptation of the maternal immune system to the foetus. Methods: Participants consisted of pregnant women with and without a diagnosis of eclampsia (N = 20, each group, and normal healthy nonpregnant controls (N = 18. Women with smear positive malaria or clinical infections were excluded. Serum levels of TNF? and IL-10 were assayed by ELISA. T lymphocyte subsets of pregnant patients with and without eclampsia were also studied by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies and compared with the control group of 18 normal healthy nonpregnant women (NHC. Results: Eclampsia was associated with significantly lower mean serum IL-10 levels compared to normal pregnant and nonpregnant controls. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? were higher in pregnant women with and without eclampsia, compared to control nonpregnant women. Further differences on serum cytokine levels were observed in the significantly increasing ratio of IL-10 to TNF? from nonpregnant controls to normal pregnant women and to pregnant women with eclampsia. The mean values of CD3+ and CD4+ positive lymphocytes was significantly decreased in patients with eclampsia (p < 0.05 in this study compared to pregnant controls. Similarly, CD3+ and CD4+ T cells were further decreased in eclampsia and pregnant controls compared to nonpregnant controls (p < 0.05. A decreasing CD4/CD8 ratio was observed from non-pregnant to pregnant controls and to patients with eclampsia buttressing an increase in CD8+ cells in eclampsia and pregnancy compared to controls. Conclusions: While a pro-inflammatory immune milieu during pregnancy complicated with eclampsia was demonstrated, the presence of eclampsia was not associated with further cytokine differences.

Bolanle O. P. Musa

2012-09-01

159

Pharmaceutical care to pregnant women carrying human immunodeficiency virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente estudo conhecer o perfil farmacoepidemiológico das gestantes portadoras do vírus HIV, as ações de prevenção da transmissão vertical e avaliar o serviço quanto ao nível de satisfação das pacientes. Realizou-se estudo quali-quantitativo, longitudinal, sendo a amostra compos [...] ta pelas gestantes portadoras do vírus HIV atendidas no Serviço de Atenção Farmacêutica de um hospital público de Fortaleza-CE, no período de janeiro a setembro de 2007. Coletaram-se os dados por meio de fichas de seguimento, prontuários das pacientes e, finalmente, entrevistas para verificar o nível de satisfação das usuárias em relação ao serviço. Participaram do estudo 27 gestantes e parturientes infectadas pelo HIV. O perfil encontrado foi de mulheres solteiras, na faixa etária de 18 a 28 anos, de cor branca ou parda, com renda familiar inferior a um salário mínimo, com ensino fundamental ou médio e desempregadas. Observou-se que 77,8% (n=21) pacientes seguiram todas as estratégias de prevenção da transmissão materno-infantil. Detectaram-se 29 problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos, dos quais 51,7% (n=15) foram resolvidos. O nível de satisfação geral em relação ao serviço de atenção farmacêutica foi bastante satisfatório. Por meio do serviço de atenção farmacêutica, o profissional farmacêutico colabora com a utilização correta dos medicamentos, podendo repercutir diretamente na redução da transmissão vertical do HIV. Abstract in english The purpose of this present study was to know the pharmacoepidemiological profile of pregnant women carrying HIV, the prevention actions against vertical transmission, and evaluate the service respecting the patients' level of satisfaction. It was developed a quali-quantitative longitudinal study, w [...] ith the sample being composed by pregnant women carrying HIV attended at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of a public hospital of Fortaleza - state of Ceará, during the period between January and September, 2007. The data were collected by means of follow-up cards, patients' medical history and, finally, interviews to verify the users' level of satisfaction related to the service. Twenty seven pregnant and parturient women have participated in the study. The mean profile found was of a single woman, aged in the range between 18 and 28 years, of Caucasian race or dark colored, with familial revenue below the minimum wage, having elementary or high school, and being unemployed. It was observed that 77.8% (n=21) of patients followed all prevention strategies against maternal-infant transmission. Twenty nine drug related problems have been detected, out of which 51.7% (n=15) were resolved. The general level of satisfaction respecting the Pharmaceutical Care Service was quite satisfactory. By means of the Pharmaceutical Care Service, the pharmacist professional effectively collaborates for the correct utilization of medications, and this action results directly in a decrease of HIV vertical transmission.

Geysa Aguiar, Romeu; Larissa Varela de, Paiva; Mariana Mota Moura, Fé.

160

[Congenital heart diseases in pregnant women--a risk factor for fetal distress].  

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The condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with congenital heart diseases was studied by means of ultrasound, dopplerometry, cardiotocography, by determination of estradiol, progesterone and placental lactogen in the blood of pregnant women and in the umbilical cord and by means of pathomorphologic study of the placenta. It is shown that congenital heart diseases complicated by heart failure in pregnant women--a important risk factor for fetal distress bouth in the preclinical stage of placental insufficiency (violation of the utero-placental blood flow, changes of fetoplacental hormones levels) and in conjunction with clinical signs of fetal suffering (distress and growth retardation). PMID:24605629

Kyryl'chuk, M Ie

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Association between several persistent organic pollutants and thyroid hormone levels in serum among the pregnant women of Korea.  

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Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are of global concern because of their widespread contamination and adverse health effects. Potential endocrine disruption, especially of thyroid status by PCBs has been repeatedly suggested in both experimental and epidemiological studies. However the associations with PBDEs or OCPs have been arguable especially in human populations. We investigated the associations between major groups of POPs and thyroid hormone balances among pregnant women. One hundred five pregnant women at delivery were recruited from four cities of Korea in 2011 and were investigated. Blood samples were collected within a day before delivery. Serum was then analyzed for 19 PCBs, 19 PBDEs, and 19 OCPs, along with five thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4, and TSH). Several PCBs such as PCB28, 52, and 118 showed negative associations with T3 or T4. BDE47 and total PBDEs showed significant associations with T3 or T4. For OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were generally associated with reduction of T3 or T4. The thyroid hormone levels of all subjects were within the reference range, however exposure to several target POPs were clearly related with potential for disrupting thyroid hormone balance among pregnant women, at the current level of exposure. Although subtle, the changes in thyroid hormones should be seen with caution because even minor changes within pregnant women may have significant consequences especially on sensitive population like fetus. PMID:23928038

Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

2013-09-01

162

Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

Ali Salah K

2011-01-01

163

Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

2012-06-01

164

Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Pregnant Women’s Mental Health: Mental Distress and Mental Strength  

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The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in th...

Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

2010-01-01

165

Definition of sistemic inflamatory response syndrome (SIRS in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Introduction: the Consensus Conference of the American College ofChestSurgeons and the American Society of Critical Care Medicine in 1992, definesthe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. In pregnantwomen, a seriesof physiological and anatomical changes. These changes SIRS denote by definition,being only physiological parameters in a pregnant woman with variation accordingto gestational age. The aim of this study is to perform a diagnostic evaluation of thedefinition of SIRS in critically ill obstetric patient, taking into account the parametersfound in two cohorts of patients.Methodology: we performed a multicenter comparative diagnostic study of twocohorts: a retrospective cohort of patients admitted to two intensive care units inthe city of Cartagena, Colombia, with a diagnosis ofsepsis of any origin, which werecompared with healthy pregnantpatients without septic focus in prenatal care in order toestimateappropriate cutoff for the definition of SIRS in pregnant women.Results: in developing this study we found that the cut-off points at 12400 cell/mm3 for leukocyte count, heart rate greater than 105 per minute and respiratory rate of20 per minute showed the best statistical behavior. With regard to the definition ofSIRS ConsensusConference of the American College of Chest Surgeons and the AmericanSociety of Critical Care Medicine in 1992, the only variation was found within thecutoff for heart rate, where 105 beats per minute, was show the best sensitivity andspecificity.Conclusión: the current criteria to define SIRS in pregnant women do not seem to beadequate according to the results of this study.RESUMEN:Introducción: en la Conferencia de Consenso del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos delTórax y de la Sociedad Americana de Medicina Crítica en 1992, se define el Síndromede Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica (SRIS. En la mujer gestante ocurren una seriede cambios fisiológicos y anatómicos. Estos cambios denotarían por su definición SRIS,siendo solamente parámetros fisiológicos en una mujer gestante con variación según suedad gestacional. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una evaluación diagnósticade la definición de SRIS en la paciente obstétrica críticamente enferma, teniendo encuenta, los parámetros encontrados en dos cohortes de pacientes.Metodología: se realiza un estudio diagnóstico comparativo multicéntrico, de doscohortes; una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes, ingresadas a dos unidades decuidados intensivos, en la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, con el diagnóstico de sepsisde cualquier origen, que se compararon con pacientes embarazadas sanas sin focoséptico en control prenatal, con el fin de estimar puntos de corte adecuados para ladefinición de SRIS en la embarazada.Resultados: al desarrollar este estudio encontramos que los puntos de corteestablecidos en 12400 cell/mm3 para el conteo leucocitario, frecuencia cardiaca mayorde 105 por minuto y frecuencia respiratoria mayor de 20 por minuto mostraron el mejorcomportamiento estadístico. Con respecto a la definición de SRIS de la conferencia deConsenso del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos del Tórax y de la Sociedad Americanade Medicina Crítica en 1992, la única variación encontrada corresponde al punto decorte para frecuencia cardiaca, donde 105 latidos por minuto, resultó mostrar la mejorsensibilidad y especificidad.Conclusión: los criterios actuales para definir SRIS, en la mujer gestante, no parecenser los más adecuados de acuerdo a los resultados de este estudio.

Polo-Mendoza Eduy

2011-12-01

166

Submicroscopic and multiple plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnant Sudanese women  

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Full Text Available Background: Control of malaria during pregnancy remains a major public health challenge in developing countries. Microscopic parasite detection represents a pivotal step in malaria control, while modern molecular techniques are deemed to improve detection rates markedly. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of submicroscopic and multiple Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum infections during pregnancy, using the P. falciparum merozoite surface protein1 (MSP-1 gene as a polymorphic marker. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional, analytical study that was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan, between July 2003 and December 2004. Following informed consent, 836 pregnant women between the ages of 16-47 years with different gestational ages were enrolled in the study. Thin and thick blood films were stained with Giemsa and examined by experienced microscopists. Parasite DNA was extracted using Chelex method. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays specific for P. falciparum were carried out to detect infections below the threshold of microscopy and to genotype different strains in the samples using merozoite surface protein-1. Results: More than a quarter of the study participants (219/836; 26.2% were smear-positive for malaria infection. The results of the PCR-based assays showed that 41.8 % (257/617 of the smear-negative women were PCR positive and therefore had submicroscopic infections. The mean number of genetically different P. falciparum parasites detected was 2.7 (range 1–9. The multiplicity of infection identified by at least two alleles of MSP-1 was significantly higher among paucigravidae (45.6% compared to multigravidae (28.9%, with mean number of alleles of 2.4 and 1.9, respectively (p=0.009. This likely indicates the gradual acquisition of immunity. Conclusion: Conventional microscopy underestimates the actual extent of malaria infections during pregnancy in endemic regions. Multiplicity of infection may be an important factor in the gradual acquisition of strain-specific immunity.

Samia Omer

2011-03-01

167

Genetic susceptibility of term pregnant women to oxidative damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic polymorphisms involved in the activation and detoxification of exogenous chemicals and in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species may modulate the levels of oxidative injury biomarker. We investigated 81 pregnant women in Inchon, Korea. In addition to a questionnaire survey, urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as oxidative injury biomarkers. Cytochrome P-450(CYP)1A1, CYP2E1, glutathione S-transferase (GST)M1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphisms were evaluated to determine the effect of genetic modification on urinary 8-OH-dG and MDA. The concentrations of urinary 8-OH-dG were significantly elevated in the presence of the MnSOD variant genotype (P=0.04) and in the case of GSTM1 null status (P=0.02) by multivariate regression. The concentrations of urinary MDA were not affected significantly by the genetic polymorphisms. This result shows that oxidative stress injury is modified by some heritable polymorphisms, including GSTM1 and MnSOD. PMID:11888709

Hong, Yun-Chul; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yi, Cheol-Ho; Ha, Eun-Hee; Christiani, David C

2002-03-28

168

Calcium and magnesium status is not impaired in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficiencies in calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are associated with various complications during pregnancy. To test the hypothesis that the status of these minerals is inadequate in pregnancy, a cross-sectional study was conducted of the dietary intake and status of Ca and Mg in pregnant women (n = 50) attending a general public university hospital in Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed from 4-day food records; levels of plasma Mg, erythrocyte Mg, and urinary Ca and Mg excretion were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy; and type I collagen C-telopeptides were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Probabilities of inadequate Ca and Mg intake were exhibited by 58 and 98% of the study population, respectively. The mean levels of urinary Ca and Mg excretion were 8.55 and 3.77 mmol/L, respectively. Plasma C-telopeptides, plasma Mg, and erythrocyte Mg were within normal levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed positive relationships among urinary Ca excretion, Ca intake (P = .002) and urinary Mg excretion (P < .001) and between erythrocyte Mg and Mg intake (P = .023). It is concluded that the Ca and Mg status of participants was adequate even though the intake of Ca and Mg was lower than the recommended level. PMID:22901563

Rocha, Vivianne S; Lavanda, Ivana; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Ruano, Rodrigo; Zugaib, Marcelo; Colli, Célia

2012-07-01

169

A qualitative study of pregnant women's choice of nuchal translucency measurement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: In 2004, The Danish National Board of Health introduced new guidelines for prenatal screening and diagnosis. Subsequently, all pregnant women in Denmark have been offered a maternal serum screening and a nuchal translucency measurement (NTM). The results are combined to a single risk estimate of carrying a Down syndrome child. All pregnant women are also offered a late second trimester scan for fetal abnormalities. Pregnant woman should be fully informed to enable them to make an informed choice. We explored the role of information in the pregnant women's understanding and decision-making for the NTM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 26 consenting pregnant women were interviewed after their first visit to their GP and again after the late ultrasound scan. Our results are mainly based on the first interviews and the 24 participants who chose to have a NTM. RESULTS: The pregnant women consider a fetal scan as an attractive routine procedure during pregnancy. Apart from the information about prenatal examinations given by the GP, the pregnant women do not subsequently seek further information. The most important motives for wanting to have the NTM are 1) assurance, 2) choice, 3) expectations of the scan being a happy event, and 4) the idea that the examinations are approved by the Danish health care system. DISCUSSION: The decision to have a NTM is motivated by expectations that exceed the specific medical aim of the examination and the content of the information provided. The pregnant women believe in a link between knowledge and anxiety, and therefore do not wish to "know too much". Our results show that the pregnant woman's conception of the information provided and her motives for having a NTM are based on strategies and rationales that hinder an informed choice.

Lou, S; Dahl, K

2007-01-01

170

Differences in sexual behaviour between HIV-infected pregnant women and their husbands in Bangkok, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a Bangkok antenatal clinic, we interviewed 102 HIV-infected pregnant women and their husbands, 30% of whom were HIV-negative. We evaluated these data by matched and unmatched analysis, compared men and women in stable couple relationships on a number of sociodemographic and risk factor indicators and investigated further whether there were any differences in sociodemographic or risk factor profiles between HIV-serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples. When compared to wives, more of the husbands were working (p = 0.001), earning more money (p = 0.001), had had more than two sex partners (p = 0.001) and had had syphilis (p = 0.001). Serodiscordant couples did not differ greatly from seroconcordant couples except that women married to HIV-negative men were more likely to have been divorced or separated than their husbands which was not the case for women married to HIV-positive men (p = 0.02). There was poor agreement between husband and wife reports of husband risk behaviour and this did not differ between concordant and discordant couples. These findings suggest that assessment of risk and counselling of Thai women is incomplete without information on the HIV status and risk behaviour of her partner. Prevention strategies to decrease heterosexual transmission among couples need to target both the man and the woman. PMID:10716006

Bennetts, A; Shaffer, N; Phophong, P; Chaiyakul, P; Mock, P A; Neeyapun, K; Bhadrakom, C; Mastro, T D

1999-12-01

171

[Calcium antagonists in the preoperative preparation of pregnant women with gestosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential preoperative preparation of pregnant women with gestosis, which is aimed at eliminating dysfunction of the universal secondary calcium messenger and preventing further disorders caused by calcium antagonists, is accompanied by positive changes in the basic links of development of the general adaptation syndrome--the autonomic nervous and cardiovascular systems. A physiologically required reduction in total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVE) is achieved in pregnant women with hyper- and eukinetic hemodynamics. In pregnant women with hypokinetic type, who receive hydroxyethyl starch-130/04 solution in the infusion therapy protocol, there is elimination of its pathological increase and there is a tendency for its physiological reduction. Obviating the discrepancy between cardiac index and TPVE causes a change of the hyper- and hypokinetic hemodynamic types to the eukinetic one, which is attended by development of physiological sympathicotonia and by almost complete normalization of water metabolic parameters in pregnant women with gestosis. PMID:18330020

Shepetovskaia, N L; Piovarova, G M; Gur'ianov, V A; Tolmachev, G N; Volodin, A V

2007-01-01

172

Slightly Higher Risk of Birth Defects Seen in Pregnant Women on HIV Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... Higher Risk of Birth Defects Seen in Pregnant Women on HIV Drugs Large study of French children ... in France born between 1994 and 2010 to HIV-infected mothers who took antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy. Taking ...

173

Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs  

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Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women.

Sklar, Peter A.; Bathgate, Susanne L.; Young, Heather A.; Parenti, David M.

2001-01-01

174

Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes  

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Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban®) in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for sm...

Chan, Bc; Koren, G.

2003-01-01

175

A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method [...] targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ?36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively). The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

F.M., Munari; F., De-Paris; G.D., Salton; P.S, Lora; P, Giovanella; A.B.M.P, Machado; L.S., Laybauer; K.R.P., Oliveira; C, Ferri; J.L.S., Silveira; C.C.F.C, Laurino; R.M., Xavier; A.L, Barth; S, Echeverrigaray; J.P., Laurino.

176

A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ?36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

F.M. Munari

2012-03-01

177

Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa  

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Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis) among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated t...

Caron Mélanie; Bouscaillou Julie; Kazanji Mirdad

2012-01-01

178

Prevalence and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Pregnant Women in Argentina  

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The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid med...

Perazzi, Beatriz E.; Menghi, Claudia I.; Coppolillo, Enrique F.; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; Torres, Ramo?n A.; Vay, Carlos A.; Famiglietti, Angela M. R.

2010-01-01

179

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

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Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between Se...

Fakeye Titilayo O; Adisa Rasaq; Musa Ismail E

2009-01-01

180

Phthalates Biomarker Identification and Exposure Estimates in a Population of Pregnant Women  

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Phthalates are known reproductive and developmental toxicants in experimental animals. However, in humans, there are few data on the exposure of pregnant women that can be used to assess the potential developmental exposure experienced by the fetus. We measured several phthalate metabolites in maternal urine, maternal serum, and cord serum samples collected at the time of delivery from 150 pregnant women from central New Jersey. The urinary concentrations of most metabolites were comparable t...

Yan, Xiaoyong; Calafat, Antonia; Lashley, Susan; Smulian, John; Ananth, Cande; Barr, Dana; Silva, Manori; Ledoux, Thomas; Hore, Paromita; Robson, Mark G.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

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Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven wome...

2009-01-01

182

HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women.  

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OBJECTIVES: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 577 pregnant women seeking routine obstetric care were evaluated for HPV infection in their cervix during gestation and immediately before delivery, and in the oral cavity during gestation. Male partners present during the gestational clinic visit also provided a specime...

Smith, E. M.; Ritchie, J. M.; Yankowitz, J.; Wang, D.; Turek, L. P.; Haugen, T. H.

2004-01-01

183

Serum allopregnanolone levels in pregnant women: changes during pregnancy, at delivery, and in hypertensive patients.  

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Allopregnanolone is a neuroactive steroid measurable in peripheral circulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and the possible changes in serum allopregnanolone and progesterone levels in pregnant women during gestation, at delivery, and in patients with chronic hypertension, with or without superimposed preeclampsia. We also evaluated allopregnanolone in cord blood. Three groups of pregnant women were studied: 1) healthy controls followed longitudinally through...

2000-01-01

184

Sources of Potential Lead Exposure Among Pregnant Women in New Mexico  

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The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence and potential sources of lead exposure among pregnant women residing in a socially-disadvantaged immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Pregnant women (n = 140) receiving prenatal care through a community clinic participated in a structured interview and screening to measure their blood lead levels (BLLs). Potential sources of lead exposure were ascertained by the CDC and New Mexico Department of Health questionnaires. Sel...

Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Rowland, Andrew S.; Young, Bonnie N.; Cano, Sandra; Phelan, Sharon T.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Rayburn, William F.; Lewis, Johnnye

2013-01-01

185

Pregnant women with bronchial asthma benefit from progressive muscle relaxation: A randomized, prospective, controlled trial  

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Background: Asthma is a serious medical problem in pregnancy and is often associated with stress, anger and poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on change in blood pressure, lung parameters, heart rate, anger and health-related quality of life in pregnant women with bronchial asthma. Methods: We treated a sample of 64 pregnant women with bronchial asthma from the local population in an 8-week randomized, prospective, ...

2006-01-01

186

Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women  

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Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in pl...

Santacruz, Arlette; Collado, Mari?a Del Carmen; Garci?a Valde?s, L.; Segura, M. T.; Marti?n Lagos, J. A.; Anjos, T.; Marti? Romero, M.; Lo?pez, R. M.; Florido, J.; Campoy, Cristina; Sanz, Yolanda

2010-01-01

187

Drug information in pregnancy. Attitudes and needs among pregnant women and physicians  

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Background: Drug use in pregnancy is common and both pregnant women and their physicians are in need of appropriate information for decision-making regarding drug therapy. However, uncertainty about the risks of drug use in pregnancy could result in restrictive attitudes to prescribing medicines and to their use.Purpose: To examine attitudes of and needs for medicines information among pregnant women and physicians.Materials and methods: Four studies based on thre...

Widnes, Sofia Frost

2013-01-01

188

Drug information in pregnancy. Attitudes and needs among pregnant women and physicians  

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Background: Drug use in pregnancy is common and both pregnant women and their physicians are in need of appropriate information for decision-making regarding drug therapy. However, uncertainty about the risks of drug use in pregnancy could result in restrictive attitudes to prescribing medicines and to their use.

Purpose: To examine attitudes of and needs for medicines information among pregnant women and physicians.

Materials and methods: Four studies based on t...

Widnes, Sofia Frost

2013-01-01

189

Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study  

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OBJECTIVE: To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Six large European cities. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM were compared with pregnant women seronegative for toxoplasma (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios for acute infection adjusted f...

2000-01-01

190

Drug use in pregnancy: Knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

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More than 90% of pregnant women take prescription or non-prescription drugs at some time during pregnancy. In general, unless absolutely necessary, drugs should not be used during pregnancy because many of them are harmful to the fetus. Appropriate dispensing is one of the steps for rational drug use; so, it is necessary that drug dispensers should have relevant and updated knowledge and skills regarding drug use in pregnancy. To assess the knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women rega...

Kamuhabwa, Appolinary; Jalal, Rashida

2011-01-01

191

Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital  

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Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structure...

Hamdan Hamdan Z; Ziad Abdel Haliem M; Ali Salah K; Adam Ishag

2011-01-01

192

Knowledge of newborn healthcare among pregnant women: basis for promotional and educational programs on breastfeeding  

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CONTEXT: Promotional and educational programs relating to breastfeeding are important for reversing the decline in this practice. Most programs are centered exclusively on breastfeeding, although general knowledge about newborn healthcare may be important, especially among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To study pregnant women's knowledge about general healthcare of newborns, including breastfeeding aspects. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Prof. Samuel Barnsley Pessoa Health School Cente...

2001-01-01

193

The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment  

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This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interv...

Brown, Qiana L.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Penniman, Typhanye V.; Latimer, William W.

2012-01-01

194

Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women  

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Abstract Background Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA) in large scale trials. This study compared the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement between these measures. Methods Pregnant women (n = 58) with body mass index ?25 kg/m2 at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer and a Yamax Digi-Walker CW-7...

2011-01-01

195

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. Methods A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010–2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. Conclusion Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution of asymptomatic malaria, without temporal and spatial clustering, may have critical implications for malaria elimination strategies.

Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Shields, Timothy; Sack, David A.; Sullivan, David J.; Nyunt, Myaing M.

2014-01-01

196

KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN FARS PROVINCE ABOUT INTAKE OF IRON SUPPLEMENTS  

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During pregnancy, the need of mother and fetus to iron gradually increases and will reach at its most level at the end of the pregnancy. This study was preformed to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pregnant women in Fars Province about supplements containing iron intake. Data collection was a questionnaire completed by face to face interview using simple nonrandom sampling method in 2997 pregnant women of urban and rural areas including their demographic information and questions about ...

Moradi, F.; Mohammadi, S.; Kadivar, A. A.; Masoumi, S. J.

2007-01-01

197

Iodine status of Icelandic pregnant women. Adherence to Food Based Dietary Guidelines  

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Objectives: One of the most critical periods of iodine deficiency is pregnancy.The study had two aims: 1) To assess iodine status of pregnant women in a population changing from a high to lower consumption of milk and fish, which are important sources of dietary iodine. 2) To assess food choice among pregnant women and compliance to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines (FBDG).

Aníta Guðný Gústavsdóttir 1975

2011-01-01

198

Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Genitalium in Pregnant Women of Sabzevar- Iran  

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Background: As prenatal screening for sexually transmitted infections and treatment of infected pregnant women is not routinely performed in Iran and prevalence of two sexually transmitted pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, in Sabzevar (east of Iran) is unknown, we decided to perform this prospective study.Methods: One hundred ninety-six urine specimens of pregnant women attending the specialized maternity hospital of the city were collected and tested by duplex PCR.R...

Haghighi Hasanabad, M.; Mohammadzadeh, M.; Bahador, A.; Fazel, N.; Rakhshani, H.; Majnooni, A.

2011-01-01

199

Factors Associated with Pregnant Women’s Anticipations and Experiences of HIV-related Stigma in Rural Kenya  

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Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1,777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose hus...

2012-01-01

200

Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8% have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ? two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is necessary to avert the potential toxoplasmosis related complications especially in the neonates.

Amina Abdullah Al Sultan

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

Gad Yahia

2011-01-01

202

Population pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boarder were treated with a standard fixed oral 3-day treatment, and venous plasma concentrations of both drugs were measured frequently for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Population pharmacokinetics were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The main pharmacokinetic finding was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but reduced exposure to dihydroartemisinin in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Piperaquine was best described by a three-compartment disposition model with a 45% higher elimination clearance and a 47% increase in relative bioavailability in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but a shorter terminal elimination half-life. Dihydroartemisinin was best described by a one-compartment disposition model with a 38% lower relative bioavailability in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was a decreased total exposure to dihydroartemisinin. The shorter terminal elimination half-life of piperaquine and lower exposure to dihydroartemisinin will shorten the posttreatment prophylactic effect and might affect cure rates. The clinical impact of these pharmacokinetic findings in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria needs to be evaluated in larger series. PMID:22252822

Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

2012-04-01

203

Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20–29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy.

Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C.; Cheung, Mary Mae M.; Dungca, Julieta Z.; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A.

2014-01-01

204

Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. Method: The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. Results: There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p?women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p?pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p?pregnant group for both macular central subfield and foveal center thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p?=?0.004). Conclusions: This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia. PMID:24475772

Ata?, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ata?, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zarars?z, Gökmen

2014-08-01

205

Prevalence of malaria parasitemia amongst asymptomatic pregnant women attending a Nigerian teaching hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: Malaria parasitemia among pregnant women is associated with complications to mother and the unborn fetus. There is paucity of data on asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, particularly in the northwest region of Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in asymptomatic pregnant women and to estimate the packed cell volume (PCV of this group of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of only well pregnant women recruited consecutively at the time of booking for antenatal care. Thick film microscopy and qualitative immunoassay test for malaria parasite (MP were performed for all the women. PCV estimation was also done using the micro-centrifuge method and comparison was made for women with parasitemia with those without MP. Some socio-demographic variables were also analyzed. Chi-square test was used to test for significance and a P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Two hundred and twenty-five healthy pregnant women were studied. Seven women (3.1% had MP by direct microscopy while 11 (4.8% were MP positive with the qualitative immunoassay test. One hundred and eighty-five (82% of the women were literate while 128 (57% used insecticide treated mosquito nets in their homes. The mean PCV of the women with positive MP was 30.57 ± 2.26 as against 32.89 ± 2.45 for those without parasitemia (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia in the study group was low but there was associated anemia in those with parasitemia. The use of intermittent preventive treatment is recommended for all pregnant women including those who are asymptomatic to forestall complications like maternal anemia.

Isah Aliyu

2011-06-01

206

Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant an [...] d HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant), who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau) and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143), with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50), of whom 60.4% (29/48) were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51) of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51) of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45) of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant), characterising its distribution in this setting.

Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra, Brandão; Heloisa Ramos, Lacerda; Norma, Lucena-Silva; Ricardo Arraes de Alencar, Ximenes.

207

Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/?L was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/?L were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt antimalarial treatment resulted in normalization of platelet counts within a week.

Moo Yoe

2008-10-01

208

Numerical evaluation of SAR in pregnant women during MRI examinations  

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) tomography, although among the safest diagnostic techniques presently exploited, presents some risks for patients. Among the major causes of risk is heating of tissues elicited, through the Joule effect, by the electric currents induced by the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field used in MRI. International guidelines from radiation protection organizations such as the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA (IRPA/INIRC) have been published in order to protect the patients from RF electromagnetic fields during MRI examinations: limits are given in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), i.e. the power absorbed per unit mass, which is regarded as the most suitable physical quantity to describe the thermal load induced in the body by RF fields. Special caution in the use of this technique is recommended by IRPA/INIRC in the case of pregnant women: the MRI examinations should be postponed until after the first trimester, and limited to cases in which the diagnostic information cannot be obtained by ecography. This caution results from the scarce available information on the safety of MRI during pregnancy. An important step to obtain more information on this subject is the theoretical determination of SAR in the mother and in the fetus. To evaluate the SAR distribution in the different tissues of models that we have developed on the basis of information from ecographic scanning, we have employed a numerical technique, the impedance method, previously used to determine SAR in a model of the human torso subject to different procedures of MRI tomography. Preliminary results on SAR distribution are presented and discussed. (author)

1996-01-01

209

PREGNANT WOMEN GROUPS: KNOWLEGES, CHANGES AND LINKS OF SPAPE AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS  

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Full Text Available During pregnancy there are several changes and consequent adaptations that might produce anxietyand fear. A form of confronting might be the participation in pregnant women groups. This study wants to know theperception of the participants in pregnant women groups and its repercussion in the women?s lives after themeetings. It is a study with qualitative, descriptive and exploratory approach, of the case study kind. The data weregathered through non-structured interviews. For the analysis the proposition of Bardin was taken into consideration.Two out of four emergent themes two are presented in this article: the group as a space of knowledge, changesand links; and, the group and the repercussions in the participants? lives. The pregnant women groups can betherapeutic for their participants and they pertinent while integral form to assistance people.

Isabel Cristina Pacheco Van der Sand

2004-08-01

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Evaluation of subfoveal choroidal thickness in pregnant women using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.  

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Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) in pregnant women. Methods: In this prospective and cross-sectional study, 100 pregnant women and 100 age-matched nonpregnant women were enrolled. The SFCT was measured by EDI-OCT. The refractive error, intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) were also measured. Pregnancy-related factors including gestational age, maternal weight gain, and fetal weight were noted. Results: Mean SFCT was 371.1?±?61.8?µm in the study group and 337.2?±?62.4?µm in the control group (p?CCT, OPP, gestational age, maternal weight gain, or fetal weight. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subfoveal choroidal thickness increases in pregnant women compared with age-matched nonpregnant women. PMID:24400952

Kara, Necip; Sayin, Nihat; Pirhan, Dilara; Vural, Asli Deger; Araz-Ersan, Hatice Bilge; Tekirdag, Ali Ismet; Yildirim, Gonca Yetkin; Gulac, Bekir; Yilmaz, Gokce

2014-06-01

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Assessment of the Cardioankle Vascular Index in Pregnant Women Complicated with Hypertensive Disorders  

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It was previously reported that the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is elevated in preeclamptic women. However, baPWV is strongly affected by blood pressure. Recently, a new index of vascular stiffness, the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), was developed. CAVI is thought to be an index independent of blood pressure. We assessed CAVI in normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. We studied a total of 109 Japanese women consisting of 23 nonpregnant healthy women (group A), 45 nor...

2011-01-01

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Suicidal Ideation Among Drug-Dependent Treatment-Seeking Inner-City Pregnant Women  

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The current retrospective study compared the psychiatric and lifestyle characteristics of two groups of treatment-seeking pregnant, opiate and/or cocaine dependent women admitted to the Center for Addiction and Pregnancy (CAP). Women reporting past and/or current suicidal ideation (SI) (46%; n = 35) were compared to women who did not report thoughts of suicidal ideation (NSI) (54%; n = 41). SI women were more likely to be homeless (p = .020), to report histories of emotional (p = .022), physi...

2008-01-01

213

Characteristics and prenatal care utilisation of Romanian pregnant women.  

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Abstract Objective To describe the degree to which Romanian women access free prenatal care services, and to describe the demographic profile of women who are at risk for underutilisation. Methods Secondary data (n = 914) were taken from a large, nationally representative sample of Romanian mothers and children (N = 2117). Kotelchuck's Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation Index was used to measure the adequacy of prenatal care. Results Seventy-eight percent of mothers underutilised prenatal care services. Those who did so to the greatest degree were likely to be young, members of an ethnic minority, poor, uneducated, and rural. Conversely, those who utilised care to the greatest degree were likely to be older, members of the ethnic majority, wealthy, educated, and city dwelling. Conclusion Despite the fact that many of the risk factors for underutilisation in this sample were similar to those found elsewhere in Europe and the developed world, these findings illustrate the worrisome magnitude of the problem in Romania, particularly among women with low levels of income and educational attainment. Future studies should examine factors that contribute to underutilisation, whether it corresponds to negative health outcomes, and whether targeted social interventions and outreach could help improve care. PMID:24836590

Stativa, Ecaterina; Rus, Adrian V; Suciu, Nicolae; Pennings, Jacquelyn S; Butterfield, Max E; Wenyika, Reggies; Webster, Rebecca

2014-06-01

214

Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, ?stanbul  

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Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence.

Cengiz, Huseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Y?ld?z, Sukru; Suzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

2014-01-01

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Suicide ideation, depression and HIV among pregnant women in rural South Africa  

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Background: Despite public perception to the contrary, pregnancy does not offer a protective effect for suicide ideation. In low and middle income countries (LMIC) multiple concurrent risk factors including unplanned pregnancies, testing for HIV, intimate partner violence and depression may increase suicide risk among pregnant women. We examine suicide ideation among women attending routine antenatal care in ru...

Rochat, Tamsen J.; Bland, Ruth M.; Mark Tomlinson; Alan Stein

2013-01-01

216

Prevalence of Anxiety, Depression and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women of Hyderabad, Pakistan  

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Background Few studies have examined the relationship between antenatal depression, anxiety and domestic violence in pregnant women in developing countries, despite the World Health Organization's estimates that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of the global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mood disorders, their predictors and sequelae among pregnant women in Pakistan. Aims To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and evaluate associated factors, including domestic violence, among pregnant women in an urban community in Pakistan. Methods All pregnant women living in identified areas of Hyderabad, Pakistan were screened by government health workers for an observational study on maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. Of these, 1368 (76%) of eligible women were administered the validated Aga Khan University Anxiety Depression Scale at 20–26 weeks of gestation. Results 18 percent of the women were anxious and/or depressed. Psychological distress was associated with husband unemployment (p=0.032), lower household wealth (p=0.027), having 10 or more years of formal education (p=0.002), a first (p=0.002) and an unwanted pregnancy (p<0.001). The strongest factors associated with depression/anxiety were physical/sexual and verbal abuse; 42% of women who were physically and/or sexually abused and 23% of those with verbal abuse had depression/anxiety compared to 8% of those who were not abused. Conclusions Anxiety and depression commonly occur during pregnancy in Pakistani women; rates are highest in women experiencing sexual/physical as well as verbal abuse, but they also are increased among women with unemployed spouses and those with lower household wealth. These results suggest that developing a screening and treatment program for domestic violence and depression/anxiety during pregnancy may improve the mental health status of pregnant Pakistani women.

Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis; Bann, Carla M.; Moss, Nancy; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Pasha, Omrana; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2013-01-01

217

Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study  

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Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL) of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae). Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.011). Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p?pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women were especially impaired by striae gravidarum and it is considered important to prevent or reduce the severity of striae gravidarum of the multiparae group.

2012-01-01

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Modern practice in preparation of pregnant women to maternity (from interview with gynecologists  

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Full Text Available The article issue is the formation of maternity readiness as one of the main aims in the work of a gynecologist. The results of introduction of birth certificates and dynamics in the field of quality of medical aid have been analyzed. The necessity evaluation of pregnant women in professional social and psychological assistance has been revealed. Types of women who are ready for maternity have been obtained. The complete representation of the importance, the maintenance and the ways of realization of social and psychological help to pregnant women has been clearly identified by gynecologists

Novokreschenova I.G.

2011-03-01

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A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression.  

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Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, and transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; Todorova, Ralitsa; Kao, Jennifer Chien-Wen; Johnson, Jennifer

2013-12-01

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Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India.  

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OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status were measured, and PbB was measured. RESULTS: The mean PbB was 14.3 micrograms/dl and 19.2% of women had PbB > ...

Awasthi, S.; Awasthi, R.; Pande, V. K.; Srivastav, R. C.; Frumkin, H.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Dietary Patterns among Pregnant Women in the West-North of Iran  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the food consumption pattern and nutrient intakes of pregnant women residing in Maku-the west north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women (142 from urban area and 142 from rural areas participated. Subjects were interviewed privately, face-to-face. Dietary intake data was collected using two 24 h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire for 3 months. Mean consumption of grains and dairies was higher in rural women compared to their counterparts in urban areas. Women in urban areas consumed 140 g fruits compared to 248 g consumed by rural women. There were no significant differences regarding consumption of vegetables, pulses, fat and oils between these two groups. All women consumed adequate amount of energy, protein, thiamin and niacin (>75% RDA. Intake of vitamin B6, folate, vitamins A and D, iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and zinc was not sufficient in these women. Inadequate intake of vitamin C and riboflavin was also reported in urban women. Percentage of energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein was 66, 23 and 11% for urban women, respectively and 68, 20 and 12% for rural women, respectively. Iron intake was lower in urban women compared to rural women. The findings indicated that rural women have better nutritional status than urban women. Future studies should determine factors associated with food consumption pattern in these women.

Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

2008-01-01

222

Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping  

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Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant and HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant), who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire an...

Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra Brandão; Heloisa Ramos Lacerda; Norma Lucena-Silva; Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

2009-01-01

223

Prospective study of Hepatitis E Virus infection among pregnant women in France  

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Background Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection has a poor prognosis among pregnant women from high endemic countries. HEV-prevalence and incidence among pregnant women is unknown in high-income countries such as France. This prospective study was conducted to assess HEV infection in this setting. Findings An overall HEV prevalence of 7.74% was observed among 315 pregnant women. Seroprevalence was higher in south than in north of France (29.3% vs. 3.6%, p?women with detectable IgG were older. No IgG seroconversion or IgM detection were observed during pregnancy. Conclusions Data suggest that HEV infection is a rare occurrence during pregnancy even in regions of western countries with high seroprevalence rates.

2014-01-01

224

Risk factors of development of inflammatory diseases of parodentium in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affect inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. Material and methods: The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 240 women with physiological pregnancy and 360 with pregnancy complicadet by gestosis. Re-sults: Freguency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnancy were defined. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Conclusion: Violations of immune homeostasis at the pregnancy, complicated gestosis, authentically are more expressed that contributes to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease. The imbalance of cytokines can serve in oral liquid as additional diagnostic and predictive marker of severity of a course of inflammatory periodontal disease.

Dubrovskaya M.V.

2013-09-01

225

[Microbiologic and molecular diagnostic of cariogenic bacteria in pregnant women from the Araucania Region of Chile].  

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Dental caries is a transmissible infectious disease in which Streptococcus mutans is a principal protagonist. Although it is widely believed that pregnancy is harmful to teeth, the effect of pregnancy on the development of caries is not clear. Considering this situation, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of infection and to differentiate bacterial species with cariogenic potential in pregnant women from the Araucania region in Chile, by bacteriological and molecular analysis. In this work, we evaluated 51 pregnant women aged 15 to 40 years. The results show that 100% of women are infected by mutans streptococci Group, and 70.6% exhibited high levels of infection (> 500.000 cfu/mL). The molecular analysis shows that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus frequencies were 92.1% and 1.9%, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pregnant women are a high risk group for caries development. PMID:17728913

Herrera G, Christian L; Pantoja F, Patricio; De la M, Tomás de La Maza; Sanhueza C, Antonio; Salazar N, Luis A

2007-08-01

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Evaluation of a portable hemoglobin photometer in pregnant women in a high altitude area: a pilot study  

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Abstract Background Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in pregnant women. This study examined the agreement between a portable hemoglobin photometer and a laboratory analyzer in determining hemoglobin level in pregnant women. Methods This study recruited 69 pregnant women in Tibet, China. Capillary blood samples were taken to measure hemoglobin concentration using the hemoglobin p...

Zhou Xiaoyan; Yan Hong; Xing Yuan; Dang Shaonong; Zhuoma Bianba; Wang Duolao

2009-01-01

227

Evaluation of the effect of metformin and aspirin on utero placental circulation of pregnant women with PCOS  

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Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often are infertile and even if they become pregnant, there are complications with some adverse outcomes. It has been reported that aspirin and metformin improve uteroplacental circulation and reduce pregnancy complications.Objective: To determine and compare uteroplacental circulation and obstetrics complications in pregnant women with PCOS treated with metformin, aspirin and control group.Materials and Methods: 105 pregnant women with ...

2012-01-01

228

Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes Estado nutricional de gestantes: prevalência e desfechos associados à gravidez  

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INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, see...

Luciana Bertoldi Nucci; Maria Inês Schmidt; Bruce Bartholow Duncan; Sandra Costa Fuchs; Eni Teresinha Fleck; Maria Margarida Santos Britto

2001-01-01

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Comparative Molecular and Microbiologic Diagnosis of Vaginal Colonization by Group B Streptococcus in Pregnant Women during Labor  

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Full Text Available Objective(sRapid tests for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (GBS at the onset of labor are needed to permit early intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to evaluate the PCR assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA for detection of the GBS in comparison with a specific culture method. Materials and MethodsTwo swabs were used to obtain vaginal specimens from the 330 pregnant women attended delivery room at Hedayat hospital, Tehran, Iran. One swab was analyzed by direct plating onto selective GBS agar medium (ISLAM and the other swab was used for a PCR assay, which amplified the 16S rDNA of S. agalactiae. Comparative study between the selective culture and the PCR assay was done among the 330 tested women.ResultsThe GBS colonization rate based on the culture results was 20.6% (68/330. Both culture and PCR methods were positive for 56 and negative for 253 women. The culture method was positive and PCR was negative in 12 women. The culture was negative and the PCR positive for 9 women. Sensitivity of the PCR assay was 82.3% and specificity was 96.5%. The positive predictive value was 86.15% and negative predictive value was 95.4%. ConclusionISLAM diagnostic procedure and PCR are rapid and reliable analyzing methods, which might be useful for accurate diagnosis of GBS colonization in pregnant women at the time of delivery.

Farnaz Fatemi

2010-09-01

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The latent symptom structure of the Beck depression inventory: second edition in Latina pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnancy represents a unique period of time when women are at an increased risk of developing depression. Although the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of depression symptomology, its psychometric properties and underlying factor structures have not been determined for antenatal women and among Latinas. The current study evaluated the latent symptom structure of the BDI-II in a community-based sample of Latina pregnant women (N = 217) identified to be at high risk for depression. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify underlying salient individual item loadings for two- and three-factor models. Confirmatory factor analyses then examined several different indices to determine the best model fit. Examination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supports a three-factor oblique structure of the BDI-II composed of Cognitive-Affective, Somatic, and Pregnancy Symptoms. The three-factor model provides clinicians with the ability to target specific constellations of depressive symptoms instead of relying on the BDI-II total score that represents the overall severity of depression in this population. PMID:23929560

Alexander, Lisa A; de la Fey Rodríguez Muñoz, Maria; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu

2014-07-01

231

Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which is associated with serious adverse effects on pregnancy. The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the level of transmission in the area. Our study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors for malaria (age, parity and gestational age among pregnant women of eastern Sudan, which is characterized by unstable malaria transmission. Methods The prevalence and possible risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria were investigated in 744 pregnant Sudanese women attending the antenatal clinic of New Haifa Teaching Hospital, eastern Sudan, during October 2003-April 2004. Results A total 102 (13.7% had P. falciparum malaria, 18(17.6% of these were severe cases (jaundice and severe anaemia. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that, age and parity were not associated with malaria. Women who attended the antenatal clinic in the third trimester were at highest risk for malaria (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02–2.4; P Women with malaria had significantly lower mean haemoglobin (9.4 g/dl, 95% CI 9.1–9.7 versus 10.7, CI 10.6–10.8, P Conclusion The results suggest that P. falciparum malaria is common in pregnant women attending antenatal care and that anaemia is an important complication. Preventive measures (chemoprophylaxis and insecticide-treated bednets may be beneficial in this area for all women irrespective of age or parity.

Khamis Amar H

2005-04-01

232

Prevalence and etiological classification of thrombocytopenia among a group of pregnant women in Erbil City, Iraq  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and define the causes of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 850 pregnant women at different ages of gestation were screened for thrombocytopenia. A control group of 150 age-matched non-pregnant women were tested for platelet count. Newborns of thrombocytopenic women were tested within 24 hours of delivery and reassessment of the women's platelets was done within 7-10 days post-delivery. Results: The mean platelet count in pregnant women was significantly lower than in non-pregnant women (221±59.9/mm3 vs. 273±66.9/mm3. Thrombocytopenia affected 8% of cases, with peak incidence during the third trimester. Gestational thrombocytopenia was found to be the principal cause (73.8%; hypertensive disorders caused thrombocytopenia in 23% of cases and two cases (4% were due to immune thrombocytopenic purpura. No maternal or fetal complications were noted. The mean platelet count of 51 newborns of thrombocytopenic women was 240±7.1. Two newborns (4% had low platelet counts. Conclusion: The majority of thrombocytopenias were mild gestational and occurred in late pregnancy. No maternal or neonatal bleeding complications were observed.

Rawand Pouls Shamoon

2009-09-01

233

Prenatal and mental health care among trauma-exposed, HIV-infected, pregnant women in the United States.  

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Comprehensive prenatal care for HIV-infected women in the United States involves addressing mental health needs. Retrospective quantitative data are presented from HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 45) who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse (66%), abuse in adulthood by a sexual partner (25%), and abuse during pregnancy (10%). Depression and anxiety were the most commonly reported psychological symptoms; more than half of the sample reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including HIV-related PTSD (PTSD-HIV). There was a strong association between depression and PTSD as well as between anxiety and PTSD-HIV. The majority of infants received zidovudine at birth and continued the recommended regimen. All but one infant were determined to be noninfected. Women improved their CD4(+) T cell counts and HIV RNA viral loads while in prenatal care. Results support the need for targeted prenatal programs to address depression, anxiety, substance use, and trauma in HIV-infected women. PMID:24274993

Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Cook, Ryan; Messick, Barbara; Duthely, Lunthita M; Gazabon, Shirley; Glemaud, Myriam; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Potter, JoNell

2014-01-01

234

Factors influencing intentions of pregnant women to exercise after giving birth.  

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The aim of this study was to identify factors that may influence a pregnant woman's decision to exercise after giving birth. A sample of 98 pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire investigation attitudes, social norms, perceived barriers to exercise, and intention regarding exercising after giving birth. Also determined were age, education level, exercise habits, number of months elapsed since onset of present pregnancy, and number of children. The regressions of intentions to e...

1989-01-01

235

Teenage pregnancy, attachment style, and depression : a comparison of teenage and adult pregnant women  

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The aim of this portuguese study is to compare the experience of pregnancy in teenage years and later adulthood and to examine insecure attachment style as a risk factor for depression during pregnancy. The Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Bernazzani, 2002) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) were administered to 66 pregnant adolescents and 64 adult women. Pregnant teenagers were found to be nearly three times more likely t...

Figueiredo, Ba?rbara; Bifulco, A.; Pacheco, Alexandra P.; Costa, Raquel A.; Magarinho, Rute

2006-01-01

236

Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban® in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for smoking cessation for pregnant patients. There are currently four studies that have investigated the use of nicotine patch, three for nicotine gum, and registry and preliminary reports for bupropion. These studies did not show any adverse pregnancy outcomes with the use of pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. All the nicotine replacement therapy studies, with the exception of one randomized-controlled nicotine patch trial had small sample sizes and looked at short-term use of drug in the third trimester. Two studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman. The results from these studies reveal greater nicotine metabolism in pregnant individuals who continue to smoke during pregnancy. Current guidelines from several organizations uniformly recommend that Nicotine Replacement Therapy should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have been unsuccessful. Bupropion is recommended in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. There is a need for further studies on the safety and effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement therapy and bupropion in pregnancy. However, considering the current research and guidelines, pharmacological cessation aids should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have not been effective.

Chan BC

2003-09-01

237

Effect of Metformin on Diabetes Mellitus Prevention in Pregnant Women with Risk Factors  

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Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of metformin on prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with high risk of GDM. Materials and methods: Total number of 189 pregnant women aged between 25 to 35, and 10 to 14 weeks pregnancy,admitted to  Mirza Koochakkhan Hospital, Tehran in January 2008 - January 2009 entered to this randomized controlled clinical trial. The women had one of the three risk factors; history of GDM, family history of diabetes, or BMI ? ...

Shirin Niroomanesh; Masoumeh Dadashaliha; Farahnaz Ahmadi; Fatemeh Rahimi Sherbaf; Forough Forghani

2010-01-01

238

Risk factors for recent toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Naples  

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Effective primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis requires up to date information on locally relevant risk factors for infection in pregnant women. In Naples, risk factors for toxoplasma infection were compared in recently infected women (as assessed by detection of specific IgM in serum) and susceptible, IgG negative women. Recent infection was strongly associated with frequency of consumption of cured pork and raw meat. Eating cured pork or raw meat at least once a month increased th...

1996-01-01

239

Risk factors for recent toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Naples.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis requires up to date information on locally relevant risk factors for infection in pregnant women. In Naples, risk factors for toxoplasma infection were compared in recently infected women (as assessed by detection of specific IgM in serum) and susceptible, IgG negative women. Recent infection was strongly associated with frequency of consumption of cured pork and raw meat. Eating cured pork or raw meat at least once a month increased th...

1996-01-01

240

Intimate Partner Violence and Community Service Needs among Pregnant and Post-partum Latina Women  

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Healthcare providers are advised to refer abused women to needed community services. However, little is known about abused women's perceived need for services, particularly among Latina women. We examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and perceived needs for legal, social, and job services among a prospective cohort of 210 pregnant Latinas. At the pre-natal interview 27.2% of recent IPV(+) Latinas reported needing legal services compared to 27.1% of ever IPV(+) and ...

Eisenman, David P.; Richardson, Erin; Sumner, Lekeisha A.; Ahmed, Sawssan R.; Liu, Honghu; Valentine, Jeannette; Rodriguez, Michael A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Association of viridans group streptococci from pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis and upper genital tract infection.  

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The prevalence and role of viridans group streptococci in the female genital tract have not been well described. In this study of 482 pregnant women, 147 (30%) were culture positive for viridans group streptococci. Of 392 women with predominant Lactobacillus morphotypes by Gram stain (normal), 110 (28%) were colonized with viridans group streptococci, compared with 37 (41%) of 90 women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) (P = 0.02). To determine whether any species were associated with BV, 177 cons...

Rabe, L. K.; Winterscheid, K. K.; Hillier, S. L.

1988-01-01

242

Study of Molecular Epidemiologic of Group B Streptococcus Colonization in Pregnant Women by PCR Method  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Group B streptococcus(GBS(Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of the newborn infant and accounted as a factor leading septicemia after birth in mothers. Infections in infants are usually acquired by contact with the genital tract of the mother during labor and delivery. So a rapid screening test for group B streptococcus that could accurately identify pregnant women who are carrying the bacteria at the time of delivery would obviate the need for prenatal screening.The goal of this study was molecular epidemiology of group B beta Hemolytic Streptococcal(GBS colonization in the vaginal flora of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from mucus of anal and vaginal of 250 pregnant women during 35-37 weeks ingestion by swap. Samples were tested by standard culture using Todd Hewitt Broth and Blood Agar and also by PCR using cfb gene.Results: Culture identified 21(8.4% women as carriage of GBS from 250 women but PCR assay could identify 24(9/6% women. In comparison to culture results, sensitivity, NPV Specificity PPV of PCR Were(100%, 100% and 97%, 82% respectively. The times that used for PCR assay and culture were 2h and 36h respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that group B streptococci can be detected rapidly and reliably by a PCR assay of combined vaginal and anal secretions from pregnant women at the time of delivery. Also this study shows that incidence of GBS is at high rate in Iranian pregnant woman, so we recommend screening of pregnant woman for detecting of GBS emphatically.

MB Khalili

2011-12-01

243

Iodine insufficiency in pregnant women from the State of São Paulo / Insuficiência iódica em gestantes paulistas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo : O consumo de quantidade adequada de iodo durante a gestação é de fundamental importância para o desenvolvimento neurológico do feto. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional iódico em gestantes do estado de São Paulo, Brasil.Material e métodos : Analisamos a concentração u [...] rinária de iodo (UIC) em 191 gestantes e em 58 mulheres não gestantes de mesma faixa etária. Foram utilizados os critérios da OMS para definir suficiência iódica (mediana de UIC: 150-249 µg/L entre as gestantes e 100-199 µg/L para as não gestantes).Resultados : A mediana de UIC das gestantes estudadas esteve abaixo da recomendada (mediana = 137,7 ?g/L; 95% IC = 132,9 – 155,9) enquanto a das mulheres não grávidas se mostrou na faixa adequada (mediana = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159,3 – 200,1). Entre as gestantes, 57% apresentaram UIC Abstract in english Objective : The intake of adequate amounts of iodine during pregnancy is essential for the neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in pregnant women from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Material and methods : We analyzed urinary iodine concen [...] tration (UIC) in 191 pregnant and 58 non-pregnant women matched by age. We used the World Health Organization criteria to define sufficient iodine supply (median UIC: 150-249 µg/L among pregnant women, and 100-199 µg/L for non-pregnant women).Results : Median UIC of the pregnant women studied was lower than the recommended value (median = 137.7 µg/L, 95% CI = 132.9 – 155.9), while non-pregnant women had UIC levels within the appropriate range (median = 190 ?g/L; 95% IC = 159.3-200.1). UIC was below 150 µg/L in 57% of the pregnant women.Conclusions : Although a larger sample is needed to consolidate these findings, these results raise concerns about the adequacy of the iodine supply of pregnant women in Brazil, especially considering the new determinations of the Brazilian government, which have recently reduced the concentrations of iodine in table salt to 15-45 mg/kg of salt. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):282-7

Sabrina Maria Saueia, Ferreira; Anderson Marliere, Navarro; Patrícia Künzle Ribeiro, Magalhães; Léa Maria Zanini, Maciel.

244

Pregnant women's awareness of sensitivity to cold (hiesho and body temperature observational study: A comparison of Japanese and Brazilian women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity to cold (hiesho is a serious health problem in Japan, yet it is minimally understood within Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the divergence between pregnant Japanese woman living in Japan and pregnant Brazilian women living in Brazil in awareness of hiesho and differences between core body and peripheral temperatures. Methods The subjects of this study were 230 pregnant Japanese women living in Japan and 200 pregnant Brazilian women living in Brazil. Data was collected in June/July and November 2005 in Japan and from October 2007 to February 2008 in Brazil. The survey methods consisted of measurement of deep body temperatures and questionnaires. Results 67.0% of Japanese women and 57.0% of Brazilian women were aware of hiesho, which showed a significant difference between the Japanese and Brazilian women (p = 0.034. The difference between forehead and sole temperatures was 2.0°C among Japanese and 2.8°C among Brazilians in June-July (p = 0.01. But in November the difference between those temperatures was 5.2°C among Japanese and 2.8°C among Brazilians (p Conclusions There are differences between Japanese and Brazilians both in awareness of hiesho and in body temperatures.

Mori Taeko

2011-08-01

245

Comparison of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in the Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women  

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Full Text Available - To Compare colonization of group B streptococcus (GBS in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. In this prospective study 50 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (both pregestational and gestational and 43 pregnant women without diabetes between 33 and 37 weeks' gestation were evaluated. Three samples for Group B streptococcal culture detection were obtained from each subject in the following order: perinea sample, vaginal sample, and an anorectic sample. All had singleton gestations, negative tests for human immunodeficiency virus, and intact membranes at enrollment. Pearson chi-square and fisher, Exact test were used when appropriate. Most common site of GBS colonization in all women was vagina (11.8%. Colonization of group B streptococcus in control group included vagina (7% perineum (0.3% and rectum 0.3% and in diabetic group included vagina (16% perineum (16% and rectum (16%. Although comparison was shown higher vaginal colonization rate in diabetic group (16% versus 7% but difference was not significant (P=0.154.The prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization in gestational diabetes was 20% and higher than pregestational diabetic women. Among women with pregestational diabetes, the prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization was 15% in non-insulin dependent diabetic women and 10% in insulin dependent diabetic women (P> 0.05. Comparison between two groups showed high rectal colonization in diabetic group and difference was significant (P= 0.027. Pregnant diabetic patients have higher carriage rates of group B streptococcus (GBS in rectum than non-diabetic pregnant women and diabetes is a risk factor for group B streptococcus colonization during pregnancy.

Akhlaghi Farideh

2009-05-01

246

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana  

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Full Text Available The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean catch urine was cultured on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar aerobically at 37oC . Isolates were identified to the species level using standard proto-col. Antibiotic sensitivity test were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Of the 200 women examined, 19 had significant bacteriuria representing a prevalence of 9.5% in the study population. Pregnant women in their second trimester from the study had the highest prevalence of significant bacteriuria (52.6% with age ranges between 30-34 years having the highest prevalence (36.8%. Nulliparous women were 35 (17.5% with 3 (8.6% testing positive for bacteriuria and 165 (82.5% were multiparous with 16 (9.7% testing positive for bacteriuria. E. coli (36.8% was the common bacteria isolate from this study. From this study, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among antenatal women in the population studied. It is therefore recommended that periodic test-ing of pregnant women is advocated and those found to be infected need to be treated to avoid complications.

Acheampong, I.

2012-01-01

247

Exploring posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile among pregnant women  

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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in perinatal than general samples of women (6–8% versus 4–5%). To explore potential causes, we examined the symptom profiles of women belonging to two separate samples: a perinatal clinic sample (n = 1,581) and a subsample of women in a similar age range from the U. S. National Women’s Study (n = 2,000). Within the perinatal sample, risk ratios were higher for all 17 PTSD symptoms among women with current PTSD compared with unaffect...

Seng, Julia S.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Resnick, Heidi; Reed, Caroline D.; King, Anthony; Low, Lisa Kane; Mcpherson, Melnee; Muzik, Maria; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel

2010-01-01

248

Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: a current status in Songklanagarind hospital, southern Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Toxoplasmosis, being one of the TORCH’s infections in pregnant women, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. This parasitic infection in pregnancy congenitally causes severe outcomes to their fetus and newborn. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and stages of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and its associated risks exposures. Methods The study was conducted within the pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) at Songklanagarind hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla province, Thailand. The sera of a total of 760 consecutive pregnant women were screened using standard commercial ELISA kits for detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. IgG avidity in the seropositive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were also assessed. The pregnant women’s socio-demographic, obstetrics and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results From the total 760 pregnant women, 190 (25%, 95% CI = 22.05-28.20) were positive for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Of these, 167 (22.0%, 95% CI = 19.0-25.0) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody and 23 (3.0%, 95% CI = 2.0-4.0) were positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. All these samples were high avidity, indicated the infection occured prior to four to five months. By applying statistical univariate analysis, age group, occupation and sources of drinking water showed a significant association with Toxoplasma seropositivity (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis further indicated that the significant factors associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity are age ?26 (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.11-2.44), working as laborer (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.13-2.18) and drinking unclean (piped/tap/rain) water (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.08-2.84). Conclusion The pregnant women in the active age group, working as laborers and exposure to unclean drinking water from various sources were at higher risk of Toxoplasma infection. Therefore, health education and the awareness of risk exposures regarding this parasitic disease are required to minimize the effects of this parasitic infection in pregnant women as well as in the general population.

2014-01-01

249

The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

2002-03-01

250

Modern Possibilities of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Pregnant Women with Anemia  

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Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, the number of anemia cases has increased more than 6-fold. Unfortunately, the treatment of pregnant women with anemia using an iron supplement gives unsatisfactory results. However, the data from the present study can change situation for the better. This conclusion was derived from a comparative analysis of the treatment of 65 pregnant women suffering from anemia, divided into two groups: the study and control groups. Patients of the study group received, along with standard therapy, courses of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO. Evaluation of treatment efficiency was based on data from laboratory methods, Doppler, and cardiotocography before and after treatment, as well as a morphological study of the placenta. The received results show that the use of HBO in the complex treatment of pregnant women with anemia may take place in clinical practice both for treatment of anemia during pregnancy, and for the prevention of complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

Agamurad A. Orasmuradov

2014-06-01

251

Effects of earthquake on pregnant women in Ningqiang County of China within three years  

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Full Text Available Statement of the problem : An eight-magnitude earthquake struck Wenchuan, Sichuan Province of China on 12 May 2008. Ningqing County is one of the worst-hit areas. Earthquake exposure was a special stressor for pregnant women. But little is known about what the earthquake influence on pregnant women and the degree of the influence. Only if we understand people's mentation after a natural disaster that can we help them to get over it. To assess the impact of the earthquake on the mental health, we investigated the impact of the Wenchuan Earthquake on pregnant women who lived in Ningqiang County. Methods : Women who had babies within 3 years after earthquake in Ningqiang County were randomly recruited in this study. Seventy five women were screened by employing Life Events Scale for Pregnant Women (LESPW compiled by Yan Gao et al. in 2005 and 87 women were screened by employing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Self-rating Scale (PTSD-SS compiled by Xianchen Liu et al. in 1998. Results : Among 75 women, the mean score of LESPW was 297.08±21.95, and 30.67% women's score was equal or greater than 375. This result was significantly higher than that of Xiaomei Li's report of general pregnant women in Weifang (223.18±129.30(p?=?0.001. The mean score of PTSD-SS was 38.55±1.56, and 19.54% women's score was equal or greater than 50. Women who had baby at age of more than 30 got more scores and more detection at the scale of LESPW compared with those age less than 30 (p?pregnant women in Ningqiang county of China within three years.

Dongge Cai

2012-09-01

252

Clinical care for opioid-using pregnant and postpartum women: the role of obstetric providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review clinical care issues that are related to illicit and therapeutic opioid use among pregnant women and women in the postpartum period and outline the major responsibilities of obstetrics providers who care for these patients during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Selected patient treatment issues are highlighted, and case examples are provided. Securing a strong rapport and trust with these patients is crucial for success in delivering high-quality obstetric care and in coordinating services with other specialists as needed. Obstetrics providers have an ethical obligation to screen, assess, and provide brief interventions and referral to specialized treatment for patients with drug use disorders. Opioid-dependent pregnant women often can be treated effectively with methadone or buprenorphine. These medications are classified as pregnancy category C medications by the Food and Drug Administration, and their use in the treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant patients should not be considered "off-label." Except in rare special circumstances, medication-assisted withdrawal during pregnancy should be discouraged because of a high relapse rate. Acute pain management in this population deserves special consideration because patients who use opioids can be hypersensitive to pain and because the use of mixed opioid-agonist/antagonists can precipitate opioid withdrawal. In the absence of other indications, pregnant women who use opioids do not require more intense medical care than other pregnant patients to ensure adequate treatment and the best possible outcomes. Together with specialists in pain and addiction medicine, obstetricians can coordinate comprehensive care for pregnant women who use opioids and women who use opioids in the postpartum period. PMID:24120973

Jones, Hendrée E; Deppen, Krisanna; Hudak, Mark L; Leffert, Lisa; McClelland, Carol; Sahin, Leyla; Starer, Jacquelyn; Terplan, Mishka; Thorp, John M; Walsh, James; Creanga, Andreea A

2014-04-01

253

Antibodies Frequency Against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella Virus and Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available      Aim: Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus (CMV infections can be seen in all age groups and they are usually asymptomatic infection diseases, but it is important seeing them in pregnant women especially in first trimester because they compose congenital malformations in fetus.In this study, I aimed at the seroprevelance of IgM and IgG type antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV infections according to the age groups 14-24, 25-34 and 35-44 of pregnant women who applied for routine examination in Usak region. Material and Method: 1465 pregnant women who applied for examination in Usak State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between the dates of July 1st 2010 - June 30th 2011 during 1 year period were seperated in to 3 age groups of 14-24, 25-34 and 35- 44. These patient’s laboratory results of IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus and CMV were analysed retrospectively. Results: 588 pregnant women (40.1% between the ages 14-24, 758 (51.8% between 25-34, 119 (8.1% between 35-44, total 1465 pregnant women examined. The results are Toxoplasmosis IgM positivity 3.0%, Toxoplasmosis IgG positivity 18.3%, Rubella virusIgM positivity 1.0%, Rubella virus IgG positivity 92.2%, CMV IgM positivity 1.0%, CMV IgG positivity 99.4% according to the all age groups. Discussion: In this study, Toxoplasmosis, Rubella virus, and CMV seroprevalence were determined in pregnant women who admitted to Usak State Hospital. As there is no similar datas of Usak City in the past, I believe this study provide constributes to the literature.

Güliz Doðan Toklu

2013-01-01

254

Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI) among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecut [...] ive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9%) had bacteriuria. The mean age of the all the pregnant women included in the study was 28.40 years with a standard deviation of 6.16. Age ranged from 15 to 45 years of age. The urine culture of the asymptomatic pregnant women (1505 cases) showed growth in only 134 cases (8.9%). Escherichia coli was the commonest organism 79 (58.96%) followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%) and S aureus 18 (13.43%). Escherichia coli, which comprised 58.96% (79) of the isolates, were 88.62%, 87.35%, and 83.55% sensitive to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and cefotizoxime respectively. Similarly, E. coli were 89%, 70%, and 20% resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin respectively (OR 1.57 95% CI 1.01, 2.44). After analyzing, four variables, hemoglobin levels seem to be independently associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (OR = 9.41 (1.65-50.38). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women was 8.9%. The predominant organisms were Escherichia coli 79 (58.96%), followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%). Most strains of Escherichia coli showed that they were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin.

Kalantar, Enayat; Farhadifar, Fariba; Nikkho, Bahram.

255

Elevated frequencies of micronuclei in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in their newborns.  

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Pregestational diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) affects about 1% of the obstetric population. In diabetes, persistent hyperglycemia can be a source of DNA damage via overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test, we measured the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) per 1000 binucleated (BN) cells in pregnant women (mothers) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in their newborns. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from 17 pregnant women with T1DM and cord-blood lymphocytes from their 17 newborns. The control group included 40 pregnant women (mothers) without diabetes mellitus (DM) and their 40 newborns. In the group of pregnant women with T1DM, the mean number of MN per 1000 BN cells was 2.35 (±1.07), significantly (p<0.001) higher than in the control group of pregnant women (0.86±0.90). The frequency value in the group of newborns of T1DM mothers was 1.42 (±0.60), significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the corresponding control group (0.67±0.79). The value in the group of mothers with T1DM was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in their newborns. Comparing mothers without DM with their newborns, no significant frequency differences were observed. No significant correlations were observed between MN frequencies in mothers with T1DM and either the frequencies in their newborns, the duration of diabetes, or HbA1C levels. Our results indicate that T1DM is accompanied by increased frequencies of MN in pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:24561380

Witczak, Monika; Ferenc, Tomasz; Gulczy?ska, Ewa; Nowakowska, Dorota; ?opaczy?ska, Dobros?awa; Wilczy?ski, Jan

2014-03-15

256

Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

Cully, G

2010-09-01

257

Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study  

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Full Text Available Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodelling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from 7 months to birth, and whether pregnancy related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated and later analyzed following four dream categories: 1 Dreamed MMR, 2 Quality of baby/child representations, 3 Pregnancy-related themes, 4 Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p?0.006. Baby/child representations were less specific in late 3rd than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.005 and than in non-pregnant women (p=0.01. Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p?.01. Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.01. Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p<.05. Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodelling MMR of the woman as a mother and of the unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content.

JessicaLara-Carrasco

2013-08-01

258

Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HBsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the cost-benefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection

1999-01-01

259

Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ? 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

Caron Mélanie

2012-10-01

260

Comparison of oxidative stress in preeclampsia, normal pregnancy and non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Preeclampsia remains a disease of theories as its real etiology has remained elusive. Endothelial cell dysfunction may play a role in the pathobiology of preeclampsia. There is some evidence to suggest that endothelial cell damage result from oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to measure oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia. Material and Methods: Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lipid peroxidation (LPO and thiol groups was measured in 20 women with preeclampsia, 20 normal pregnant women and 20 nonpregnant women. All three women groups were matched with respect to age, BMI, parity and gestational age. Oxidative stress markers were measured by spectrophotometer methods. Results: Serum concentration of LPO was significantly higher in preeclampsia (17.7 + 3.8 nmol/ml as compared with nonpregnant women (10.4 + 0.48 nmol/ml, p< 0.0001. TAC in preeclamptic women was lower than those in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women, but not statistically significantly. There was no significant difference between the mean concentrations of thiol groups in the women groups. Conclusion: Increased levels of LPO products may cause peroxidative damage of vascular endothelium and result in clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. However, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

A. Ghazavi

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Hepatitis B among pregnant women attending health care facilities in rural Bangladesh.  

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This study assessed hepatitis B prevalence among pregnant women attending health care facilities in rural Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from 480 participants. HBsAg was positive in 0.4% of subjects, anti-HBc was positive in 21.5% and anti-HBs was positive in 8.5% of subjects. HBsAg was more prevalent among the older age group. Hepatitis B has a low prevalence among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Existing hepatitis B vaccination schedule in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) to vaccinate the children in rural Bangladesh is appropriate. PMID:22299410

Shamsuzzaman, Md; Singhasivanon, P; Kaewkungwal, J; Lawpoolsri, S; Tangkijvanich, P; Gibbons, Robert V; Rahman, M; Alamgir, A S M; Mahtab, M A

2011-11-01

262

Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity ...

Fmr, Lopes; Mitsuka-bregano?, R.; Dd, Gonc?alves; Rl, Freire; Cjt, Karigyo; Gf, Wedy; Matsuo, T.; Emv, Reiche; Hk, Morimoto; Jd, Capobiango; It, Inoue; Jl, Garcia; It, Navarro

2009-01-01

263

Effects of earthquake on pregnant women in Ningqiang County of China within three years  

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Statement of the problem : An eight-magnitude earthquake struck Wenchuan, Sichuan Province of China on 12 May 2008. Ningqing County is one of the worst-hit areas. Earthquake exposure was a special stressor for pregnant women. But little is known about what the earthquake influence on pregnant women and the degree of the influence. Only if we understand people's mentation after a natural disaster that can we help them to get over it. To assess the impact of the earthquake on the mental ...

Dongge Cai; Qian Su; Ning Jia; Yan Qin; Li Yang; Zhongliang Zhu; Rui Chen; Qing Gao; Hui Li

2012-01-01

264

ACTIONS DEVELOPED BY THE HEALTH TEAM FAMILY FOR MAINTENANCE OF MEMBERSHIP OF PREGNANT WOMEN IS LINKED TO THE PROGRA M O F PROTECTION FOR PREGNANT WOMEN  

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Full Text Available In the need to capture pregnant women, and find a better way to have her support, the teamhas confronted many difficulties in the execution. This study objective is describe theactivities made with pregnant women at the program SISPRENATAL by the professionals inthe PSF units in Valparaiso deGoiáscity. The results show the professionals profile, thatwork on health family strategyconstituted by 29% of nurses, 4% of doctors, 15% of technicalnursing and 52% of community agents. Most of the staffdidn'treceive the necessary trainingto make a good work.Many aspects was mentioned about the facilities found in the program,especiallyspeed of results and the accessibility. The avoidance of pregnant women is a majordifficulty justifying the lack of time and distance from the unit to her house. The high staffturnover has hindered the development of the actions, demonstratingthe importance ofcontinuing education for the development of new skills for the professional, to implementtheir actions in the pursuit of excellence in customer service

Ezequiel Chaves Rondon

2013-05-01

265

Seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in North India: a tertiary care hospital based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry outthis study at a tertiary care hospital in north India Methods Blood samples from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were collected after informed consent and pre-test counseling. The samples were tested for HIV antibodies as per the WHO guidelines, over a period of four years from January 2003 to December 2006. Results Of the 3529 pregnant women tested in four years, 0.88% (CI 0.5 – 1.24 women were found to be HIV seroreactive. Majority of the seroreactive pregnant women (41.9% were in the age group of 20–24 years followed by the 30–34 yrs (25.8% and 25–29 years (22.6% age group. The mean age of the HIV positive women was 24.9 years (SD ± 1.49 yrs. The HIV seroprevalence rates showed an increasing trend from 0.7% (CI 0.14 – 2.04 in 2003–2004 to 0.9% (CI 0.49 – 1.5 in 2005–2006. This prevalence rate indicates concern, as Delhi and its adjoining states are otherwise considered as 'low prevalence states'. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be increasing in the last four years amongst pregnant women of North India. These findings are in contrast to the national projections.

Singh Sarman

2007-11-01

266

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

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Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (pcypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

267

Evaluation of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women with gestational and pre-gestational diabetes.  

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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid function tests in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and pre-gestational DM and control group. Methodology : There were 61 pregnant diabetic women in study group and 35 pregnant women in control group. Serum T4, T3, T3RU, FTI, TSH and Anti TPO Ab were assessed in each person. Results : About 36% of patients had GDM and 64% pre-gestational DM. Thyroid dysfunction was detected in 18% of study group compared with 8.6% of control group (P = 0.2). There was Thyroid dysfunction in 4.5% of GDM and 25.6% of pregestational DM (P = 0.045). There was no statistically significant difference between thyroid dysfunction in GDM group and control group (P=0.99).27% of GDM and 36% of pregestational DM and 23% of control group had positive titer of Anti TPO Ab without statistically significant differences among the three groups. Conclusion : Thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in women with pre-gestational DM so, thyroid function should be evaluated in these patients during pregnancy. Rate of thyroid dysfunction in GDM patients is similar to normal pregnant control women. High prevalence of positive titer of TPO Ab was seen in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. PMID:24353594

Shahbazian, Hajieh; Shahbazian, Nahid; Rahimi Baniani, Mahnaz; Yazdanpanah, Leila; Latifi, Seyed Mahmuod

2013-04-01

268

Investigation of serum leptin levels in pregnant women during various trimesters and their neonates  

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Objective: To investigate the variations of serum leptin levels in pregnant women of various trimesters and their neonates as well as the correlativity in-between. Methods: Serum leptin levels in 300 women at pregestation during the three trimesters and the umbilical blood leptin levels in their neonates were measured with RIA. Results: Serum leptin levels in pregnant women rose significantly only from midgestation with a peak at partum (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 vs pregestation). The leptin levels in neonates were almost the same as those of women of pregestation. The maternal leptin levels were positively correlated to body weight, body weight-index, abdominal perimeter, height of fundus of uterus, diastolic and systolic pressure. The leptin levels in neonates were positively correlated to the birth weight, but not correlated to maternal leptin levels. Conclusion: Leptin in neonates comes from neonates themselves, and its concentrations are determined by the degree of accumulation of body adipose tissue. Measurement of blood leptin concentrations in pregnant women during pregnancy has little meaning for accessing the body weight of fetus, but it can show the degree of maternal weight-gaining and may have some value for clinical observation of the syndrome of pregnant hypertension

2003-04-01

269

Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre-eclampsia in Dakahlia, Egypt  

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Full Text Available Background: Lead toxicity is a prevalent health problem in both developed and developing countries. One of the proposed mechanisms for lead-induced organ damage is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is well-associated with the pregnancy disorder, pre-eclampsia. Exposure to lead may be one of the sources of the oxidative stress that leads to development of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.Objective: To test if blood lead level of pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia is higher than the normal limit. Methods: Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood lead level was measured in 115 pregnant women suffering from pre-eclampsia and compared to its level in a comparison group of 25 healthy pregnant women in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.Results: The mean±SD blood lead level was 37.68±9.17 ?g/dL in women with pre-eclampsia; the value in the comparison group was 14.5±3.18 ?g/dL (p<0.001.Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia is significantly associated with a high blood lead level.

AM El-Mansoury

2013-01-01

270

Distribution and perinatal transmission of bacterial vaginal infections in pregnant women without vaginal symptoms.  

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Abstract Background: We evaluated the distribution and vertical transmission of bacterial vaginal infections in asymptomatic pregnant women. Methods: We performed multiplex PCR on secretions collected on cervical swabs from pregnant women at over 36 weeks of gestation and on oral secretions collected from their neonates immediately after delivery. We detected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with the following 6 species: Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Results: Infectious agents were detected in 64 of 455 pregnant women (14.1%) and in 11 neonates (2.4%). The rate of vertical transmission was 17.2% and all the infectious agents detected in neonates were concordant with those found in their mothers. U. urealyticum was the most frequently detected in the maternal genitalia, followed by M. hominis. Women who were in labor for a longer period of time had a higher risk of vertically transmitting STI agents to their neonates. Conclusions: Vertical transmission of bacterial STIs from mothers to their infants is possible at delivery and influenced by the duration of labor. STIs should be diagnosed in pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission from the mother to the infant at the time of delivery. PMID:24552584

Hahn, Ho-Suap; Lee, Ki-Heon; Koo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Soon-Gyu; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kim, Moon Young; Hwang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, In-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Taek; Shim, Jae-Uk; Kim, Tae-Jin

2014-05-01

271

Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa: Drug Use, Sexual Behavior, and the Need for Comprehensive Services  

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The multiple risks associated with methamphetamine use are of serious concern for women. These risks and consequences are magnified during pregnancy. This secondary analysis of a parent study compared 26 pregnant to 356 nonpregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, on selected demographic, psychosocial, and HIV-risk domains to identify their treatment service needs. Proportionally, more pregnant than nonpregnant women are using methamphetamine, P = .01, although a very high rate of women us...

Jones, Hendre?e E.; Browne, Felicia A.; Myers, Bronwyn J.; Carney, Tara; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Kline, Tracy L.; Poulton, Winona; Zule, William A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

2011-01-01

272

Can physical activity reduce excessive gestational weight gain? Findings from a Chinese urban pregnant women cohort study  

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Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) poses negative impact on mothers and their children. It is important to understand the modifiable lifestyle factors associated with excessive GWG during pregnancy to guide future public health practice. Aim To investigate the association between physical activity during pregnancy and GWG of Chinese urban pregnant women. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established between 2005 and 2007 ...

2012-01-01

273

A systematic review of African studies on intimate partner violence against pregnant women: prevalence and risk factors  

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Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is very high in Africa. However, information obtained from the increasing number of African studies on IPV among pregnant women has not been scientifically analyzed. This paper presents a systematic review summing up the evidence from African studies on IPV prevalence and risk factors among pregnant women.

2011-01-01

274

Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions  

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Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced r...

Sui, Zhixian; Dodd, Jodie M.

2013-01-01

275

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

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Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT. Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

2012-04-01

276

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics  

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Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria.Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT.Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

2012-05-01

277

Incidence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in 35,940 Pregnant Women in Norway and Pregnancy Outcome for Infected Women  

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From 1992 to 1994 a screening program for detection of specific Toxoplasma gondii antibodies involving 35,940 pregnant women was conducted in Norway. For women with serological evidence of primary T. gondii infection, amniocentesis and antiparasitic treatment were offered. The amniotic fluid was examined for T. gondii by PCR and mouse inoculation to detect fetal infection. Infants of infected mothers had clinical and serological follow-up for at least 1 year to detect congenital infection. Of...

Jenum, Pa?l A.; Stray-pedersen, Babill; Melby, Kjetil K.; Kapperud, Georg; Whitelaw, Andrew; Eskild, Anne; Eng, Jan

1998-01-01

278

Women's Attitudes towards the Option to Choose between Karyotyping and Rapid Targeted Testing during Pregnancy  

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Objectives. Pregnant women, referred because of an increased risk of fetal Down syndrome, who underwent an invasive prenatal procedure were offered a choice between karyotyping and rapid targeted testing. This study aims to assess women's attitudes and experiences towards what option to choose. Methods. A retrospective multicentre survey (2008–2010) was conducted among 1370 women. General questions were asked about decision making issues, followed by personal questions about their experienc...

Kooper, Angelique J. A.; Smeets, Dominique F. C. M.; Feenstra, Ilse; Wijnberger, Lia D. E.; Rijnders, Robbert J. P.; Quartero, Rik W. P.; Boekkooi, Peter F.; Vugt, John M. G.; Smits, Arie P. T.

2013-01-01

279

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

280

Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions  

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Full Text Available Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during pregnancy in the overweight and obese population. There is a need for a detailed description of physical activity patterns during pregnancy in women who are overweight or obese, and more randomized trials evaluating exercise interventions for women who are overweight or obese, with a focus on clinical outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, exercise, physical activity, overweight, obesity

Sui Z

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

High Uptake of HIV Testing in Pregnant Women in Ontario, Canada  

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In 1999, Ontario implemented a policy to offer HIV counseling and testing to all pregnant women and undertook measures to increase HIV testing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the new policy by examining HIV test uptake, the number of HIV-infected women identified and, in 2002, the HIV rate in women not tested during prenatal care. We analyzed test uptake among women receiving prenatal care from 1999 to 2010. We examined HIV test uptake and HIV rate by year, age and health region. In an ano...

2012-01-01

282

Colonisation of pregnant and puerperal women and neonates with Chlamydia trachomatis.  

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Chlamydia trachomatis was cultured from cervical specimens of 14 (16.1%) of 231 women applying for legal abortion and from 23 (8.7%) of 273 puerperal women. The chlamydial isolation rate was related to the women's age. Of the pregnant and puerperal women under 20 years C trachomatis was isolated in 10% and 24% respectively; in those aged between 20 and 24 years the rates were 8.7% and 10.2% respectively whereas in those over 24 years the rates were 4.2% in both groups. Chlamydia were isolated...

Ma?rdh, P. A.; Helin, I.; Bobeck, S.; Laurin, J.; Nilsson, T.

1980-01-01

283

Prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnant women of Luanda, Angola.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, but in Angola, epidemiologic data from this group is almost inexistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in 567 pregnant Angolan women living in Luanda province. One in five women had P. falciparum at delivery, diagnosed by PCR assay. Age, residence and history of malaria during pregnancy were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, but gravidity and use of anti-malarial drugs were not. Placental infections were significantly more common in women ?18?years old and in primigravidae, but we could not correlate placental infections with poor pregnancy outcomes. These findings are relevant to malaria control policies in Luanda, Angola. PMID:21729222

Valente, Bianor; Campos, Paulo A; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Varandas, Luis; Silveira, Henrique

2011-10-01

284

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to improved oral and dental health, and ultimately pregnancy outcomes.

Sunita Bamanikar

2013-07-01

285

Recommendations of ICRP-60 for occupationally exposed pregnant women. Compliance evaluation in six health centres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decrease in the limits of dose equivalent at the entry of the abdomen of occupationally exposed pregnant women, as recommended by ICRP-60, necessitates to evaluate with dosimeter the various professional positions in different services existing in a health care centre, to guarantee that such limits cannot be exceeded, and thus ensure the protection of the foetus. The results obtained in this work, related exclusively to external radiation dose, show that the radiation protection system currently in force is in compliance with the regulation in the majority of the professional positions evaluated, though stricter criteria for pregnant women workers must be established with the aim of obtaining a better dose optimization. The fact that pregnant operators are working in Nuclear Medicine requires an additional effort to ensure that doses in excess of the limits stated are prevented

1997-11-01

286

Nasal and vaginal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pregnant women in Cartagena, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The host niche for Staphylococcus aureus (SA are the anterior nares; however, vaginal colonizationrates between 14% and 17.1% in pregnant women have been recently reported, raising interest about the potentialrisk in postpartum women and in neonates from colonized mothers.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nasal and vaginal colonization of SA and the antibiotic susceptibilityof the isolates in pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Cartagena, Colombia.Methods: Nasal and vaginal swabs were obtained from participants and subjected to microbiological and molecular assays. A post discharge follow-up was performed for up to four weeks.Results: From 100 pregnant women enrolled in the study, 34 were colonized with SA; 29 only in the nares, three only in the vagina, and two at both sites. Colonization of pregnant women with SA was more common in the nares than in the vagina or at both sites [29/34 (85.3% vs 3/34 (8.8% and 2/34 (5.9%; p<0.05]. We obtained 36 SA isolates,nine (25% of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, one was from the vagina; thus, the overall MRSA colonization rate among pregnant women was 9%. Molecular analysis showed that Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes were carried by the vaginal MRSA, seven of the nasal MRSA, and two of the MethicillinsensitiveStaphylococcus aureus (MSSA isolates. Two MRSA isolates carried SCCmec type I and seven carried SCCmec type IV.Conclusions: Nasal colonization rate for SA in the study population was similar to previous reports. However, the frequency of nasal colonization of MRSA was higher while vaginal colonization of SA was lower than previously reported in other studies for similar populations. The MRSA isolates obtained showed a community profile.

Oscar Correa

2012-02-01

287

Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract There is now considerable evidence for the involvement of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO induced relaxation of smooth muscles including the myometrium. In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO – induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of specific blockers of these channels on the relaxation of myometrium from non-pregnant women. In vitro isometric contractions were recorded in uterine tissues from non-pregnant premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy. Apamin (10 nM and scyllatoxin (10 nM did not alter spontaneous myometrial contractions. However, 15-min pretreatment of the myometrium strips with apamin completely inhibited relaxation caused by diethylamine-nitric oxide (DEA/NO. The pretreatment with scyllatoxin significantly reduced (about 2.6 times maximum relaxation of the strips induced by DEA/NO (p 2+ and voltage dependent charybdotoxin-sensitive (CTX-sensitive K+ channels, apamin-sensitive K+ channels are also present in the human non-pregnant myometrium. These channels offer an additional target in the development of new tocolytic agents.

Kleszczewski Tomasz

2003-02-01

288

Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study.  

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Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. ...

2010-01-01

289

Dealing with a positive result: routine HIV testing among pregnant women in Vietnam  

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Abstract HIV testing is an essential component of PMTCT. It can be offered to pregnant women through different testing models, ranging from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to routine and mandatory testing. This study was conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, where HIV prevalence is low among the general population, but high among young, urban, sexually active male intravenous drug users. Women who want to deliver in a state hospital are routinely tested for HIV, in the absence of wel...

2008-01-01

290

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA, respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1% women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84, residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49, and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44. Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection.

Díaz-García Juan

2006-07-01

291

Unwanted pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women in Hosanna town, southern Ethiopia  

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Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

Hamdela, Belayneh; G Mariam, Abebe; Degfie, Tizta Tilahun

2012-01-01

292

Influenza Vaccine Given to Pregnant Women Reduces Hospitalization Due to Influenza in Their Infants  

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Background. Infants aged <12 months are at high risk of hospitalization for influenza. Influenza vaccine is recommended for pregnant women and for most children; however, no vaccine is approved for infants aged !6 months. Effective approaches are needed to protect this vulnerable population. Vaccination of women during pregnancy may protect the infant through transfer of antibodies from the mother. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of this strategy, and those studies produced mixed ...

2010-01-01

293

Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ? secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ? 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ? 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

Rayis, Duria A

2010-12-06

294

Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia  

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Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

Hamdela, Belayneh; G Mariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Tizta

2012-01-01

295

Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne

2012-01-01

296

Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

Hayes, Catherine B

2013-05-01

297

Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants. : Complex physiology with a risk of misinterpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and Young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Design: Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Setting: Population Surveys and research studies. Subjects: Pregnant women and young infants. Results. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (mu g l(-1)) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (mu g per 24 h); 2) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cordblood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine deficiency than in the mother. Conclusions: if the iodine status Of pregnant women and small children is not to be Misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account.

Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.

2007-01-01

298

The National Children’s Study: A Golden Opportunity to Advance the Health of Pregnant Women  

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With a $3 billion investment by the federal government, the National Children’s Study (NCS) recently began recruitment. The NCS is a golden—and potentially missed—opportunity to study one of the most underrepresented populations in clinical research: pregnant women.

Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth R.

2009-01-01

299

Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women  

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air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

2010-01-01

300

Disabilities of Children in Correlation to the usage of Hair Dye among Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available air dye during pregnancy. The results of this study indicates that pregnant women who were dyeing their hair using at-home hair color dye had higher statistical frequencies of disabled children with more than one disability in comparison to mothers who have been dyeing their hair at hair salons by hair specialists.

Ayed H. Ziadat

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Comparative study of morbimortality of gestational product in pregnant women with mild or severe preeclampsia.  

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Full Text Available SUMMARYIntroduction : Preeclampsia is an exclusive disease of human estation, that affects pregnant women producing vascular dysfunction. AIM: Compare the morbid-mortality of the gestational product in pregnant women with mild or severe preeclampsia (PE. PATIENT AND Methods : Retrospective, descriptive, non experimental, cause-effect study. The studied subjects were women that suffered with PE, sub-classified in two groups, mild PE patients and severe PE patients. The study was made in the “Clínica Hospital del Profesor” from June 2007 to June 2008. Different clinical parameters from the newborn andthe pregnant were analyzed. The results were analyzed by thecomparison of population and population ratio tests. Results :From a total of 1680 pregnant women registred in the “ClínicaHospital del Profesor”, 42 were diagnosed pregnancy-inducedhypertension / gestational hypertension, which represents 2.5%of all pregnancies. 28 (66% represents to a moderate PE, 13(32% represents to a severe PE. Intrauterine growth restrictionpresented a significant difference with an p 0,05. Conclu Sion : Although the clinical differences for the diagnose of mild and severe PE are clear, the complications that may ocurre to the product of the pregnancy don’t present a significant difference, except for the intrauterine growth restriction, that presented a significant difference with an ? < 0,05

Étienne Beals L. Luis Cáceda M. Alejandro Carvajal R. Anthony Saravia C. Cristian Olivares P. Franco Victoriano P. Guillermo Echeverría R. Víctor Díaz N

2009-07-01

302

Methadone and Metabolites in Hair of Methadone-Assisted Pregnant Women and Their Infants  

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Methadone is the recommended pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. The primary aims of this study were to determine whether a dose-concentration relationship exists between cumulative maternal methadone dose, methadone and metabolite concentrations in maternal hair during pregnancy and whether maternal hair methadone and metabolite concentrations predict neonatal outcomes.

Himes, Sarah K.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Rock, Colleen M.; Jones, Hendre?e E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

303

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire interview was carried out to ask about some risk factors of infection. Among the 487 studied pregnant women, 38.8 % were seropositive for anti T. gondii IgG while 6.2 % were positive for anti T. gondii IgM and 3.3 % were positive for both anti T. gondii IgG & IgM. The only risk factor associated with seropositive anti T. gondii IgM was the history of the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Regarding anti T. gondii IgG seropositivity, it was found to increase significantly with increased age, number of gravida and parities, and previous history of toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG & IgM by ELISA among pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia is considerable with few identifiable significant risk factors reported. PMID:24505169

Almushait, Mona A; Dajem, Saad M Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M; Eskandar, Mamdoh A; Al Azraqi, Tarik A; Makhlouf, Laila M

2014-03-01

304

Trends in Influenza Vaccine Coverage in Pregnant Women, 2008 to 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Pregnant women are at increased risk of severe influenza-related complications and hospitalizations and are a priority group for influenza vaccination. Objective: To examine coverage of seasonal and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines in pregnant women in a managed care setting, from 2008 to 2012. Design: Retrospective cohort study of 10,145 pregnant women. Main Outcome Measures: H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination rates. Results: Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage increased from 38% to 63% between the 2008–2009 and 2010–2011 seasons, and then dropped to 61% in 2011–2012. Vaccine coverage was higher in women considered at high risk of influenza complications, increasing from 43% in 2008–2009 to 71% in 2010–2011, before decreasing to 69% in 2011–2012. H1N1 vaccine coverage was greater than seasonal influenza coverage in 2009–2010 in the overall pregnant population (61% vs 53%) and in the high-risk group (64% vs 59%). We observed statistically significant differences in vaccination rates by trimester, gravidity, maternal age, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Vaccination rates increased significantly from 2008 to 2011, then dropped slightly in 2011–2012. Continued efforts are needed to ensure adequate vaccination coverage in this high-risk population.

Henninger, Michelle; Crane, Bradley; Naleway, Allison

2013-01-01

305

PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY  

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Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

Giuseppina Messina

2010-01-01

306

Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women in Abha General Hospital  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI in pregnant women, to identify infectious agents causing the infection, and to explore relationship of specific socio–cultural factors with UTI. This study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Abha General Hospital, Saudi Arabia from September 2012 to January 2013 on 402 pregnant Saudi women. Midstream urine sample was obtained. A urine analysis test and culture were done as well as socio-demographic data sheet was completed. Among the 402 studied pregnant women, 12.7% were affected with UTI. The main causative agent was escherichia coli(e-coli followed by staphylococci. It was found that UTI was strongly affected by the presence of previous history of reproductive tract inflammation, history of previous UTI attacks, the presence of UTI related complaints, washing and drying the perineum area, the direction of washing and drying the perineum area, frequency of changing diaper during menstruation and the average of cleaning the bathtub (P= 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.05, 0.000 and 0.002 respectively. Our study showed a significant percentage on prevalence of UTI among Saudi pregnant women.

Mona Abdullah Almushait

2013-06-01

307

Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy.

Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens

2012-01-01

308

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Northeast Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

We report Toxoplasma IgG seroprevalence of 34.4% among 419 pregnant women in Mashhad, northeast Iran. Soil contact, living in rural environment, and level of education were associated with infection. The prevalence did not increase with age, suggesting high infection rate during childhood and adolescence.

Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Hassan, Nayereh; Lotfi, Peyman; Esmaeili Rastaghi, Ahmad Reza

2013-01-01

309

Elevated Levels of IL-10 and G-CSF Associated with Asymptomatic Malaria in Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 30 million pregnant women are at risk of contracting malaria annually. Nearly 36% of healthy pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen in Ghana. We tested the hypothesis that asymptomatic HRP II positive pregnant women expressed a unique Th1 and Th2 phenotype that differs from healthy controls. Plasma from healthy (n=15 and asymptomatic (n=25 pregnant women were evaluated for 27 biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL- 17, Eotaxin, bFGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-?, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, PDGF-bb, RANTES, TNF, and VEGF associated with Th1 and Th2 cytokine homeostasis. IL-10 and G-CSF levels were elevated in the asymptomatic group when compared with the healthy group (P=.031 and .041, resp.. The median ratios of IL-1?:5, IL-1?:10, IL-1?:G-CSF, IL-1?:Eotaxin, IL-12:G-CSF, IL-15:10, IL-17:G-CSF, IL-17:Eotaxin, TNF:IL-4, TNF:IL-5, and TNF:G-CSF were significantly different among the two groups. Thus, asymptomatic malaria carriage may be linked to circulating levels of IL-10 and G-CSF.

Nana O. Wilson

2010-01-01

310

Comparative study of serum zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in preeclamptic pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preeclampsia complicates 2-8 % of all pregnancies and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and pre-term delivery in the world. Unfortunately, there is scarcity of document discussing the circulating level of several essential trace elements in preeclampsia patients in Bangladesh. The present study was designed to evaluate the serum concentration of four trace elements, namely zinc, copper, manganese, and iron, in preeclamptic pregnant women. The study was conducted as a case-control study with 50 preeclamptic pregnant women as cases and 58 normotensive pregnant women as controls. Obstetric, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected at routine obstetric visits. Serum trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Independent sample t test and Pearson's correlation test were done for the statistical analysis using the statistical software package SPSS, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We observed significant differences for gestational age, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between patient and control groups (p??0.05) except the correlation between zinc and iron in preeclampsia patients (p?pregnant women. PMID:23749478

Sarwar, Md Shahid; Ahmed, Salma; Ullah, Mohd Shahid; Kabir, Humayun; Rahman, G K M Mustafizur; Hasnat, Abul; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul

2013-07-01

311

Pregnant women's awareness of sensitivity to cold (hiesho) and body temperature observational study: A comparison of Japanese and Brazilian women  

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Abstract Background Sensitivity to cold (hiesho) is a serious health problem in Japan, yet it is minimally understood within Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the divergence between pregnant Japanese woman living in Japan and pregnant Brazilian women living in Brazil in awareness of hiesho and differences between core body and peripheral temperatures. Methods The subjects of this study were 230 pregnant Japanese women l...

Nakamura Sachiyo; Mt, Ichisato Sueli; Horiuchi Shigeko; Mori Taeko; Momoi Masako

2011-01-01

312

Fear is in the air : Midwives´ perspectives of fear of childbirth and childbirth self-efficacy and fear of childbirth in nulliparous pregnant women  

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Introduction: In Western countries, about one pregnant woman in five experiences a considerable fear of childbirth (FOC). Consequently FOC is an important topic for midwives, being pregnant women’s main care givers. Also, although many aspects of FOC have been studied, almost no studies have into detail applied a theoretical frame of reference for studying pregnant women’s expectations for their upcoming labour and delivery. Therefore, the theory of self-efficacy, here regarding pregnant ...

Salomonsson, Birgitta

2012-01-01

313

Anticoagulation in pregnant women with mechanical heart valve prostheses  

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OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in women with mechanical heart valve prostheses in relation to the anticoagulant treatment used in the first trimester and the incidence of thrombotic and bleeding complications.?METHODS—92 pregnancies in 59 women were followed between 1986 and 1997. In 31 pregnancies, oral anticoagulants were discontinued when pregnancy was diagnosed and subcutaneous heparin was started (12 500 U every 12 hours) adjusted to prolong the adjusted pa...

Meschengieser, S.; Fondevila, C.; Santarelli, M.; Lazzari, M.

1999-01-01

314

Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women attending Bugando Medical centre (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 247 pregnant women were enrolled, of these 78 (31.5%) were symptomatic and 169 (68.4%) asymptomatic. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine (MSU) culture on standard culture media and urinalysis was done using rapid dip stick. The prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were 17.9% and 13.0% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.307). Using univariate analysis there was no association of parity (p = 0.825), gestational age (p = 0.173), education (p = 0.615), age (p = 0.211) and marital status (p = 0.949) with bacteriuria. The sensitivity and specificity of urine dipstick was 38.9% and 86.7% respectively. Escherichia coli (47.2%) and Enterococcus spp (22.2%) were the most commonly recovered pathogens. The rate of resistance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethaxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem were 53%, 58.8%, 64.7%, 5.9%, 11.8%, 5.9%, 29.4% and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women is prevalent in our setting and majority of Escherichia coli are resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, SXT and ceftriaxone. Due to low sensitivity of rapid dip stick, routine urine culture and susceptibility testing is recommended to all pregnant women at booking. PMID:20734713

Masinde, A; Gumodoka, B; Kilonzo, A; Mshana, S E

2009-07-01

315

LABOUR TERMINATION AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PLACENTA ABRUPTION WITH PPROM AND PROM  

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Full Text Available Placenta abruption is an obstetric accident which endangers life and health of both mother and embryo. It is one of the most serious obstetric complications, whose incidence ranges from 4.9-12.9 per 1,000 labours, and according to frequency, it represents the second cause of perinatal death. Retrospective analysis included the interval from 1996 to 2005. Total number of labours was analyzed and it was 32358. In addition, the number of labours complicated by placenta abruption was analyzed, and it was 119 or 0.37%. It analyzed the incidence of placenta abruption according to age of pregnancy and the integrity of embryonic membranes. It is established that there is no statistically significant difference in the incidence of placenta abruption appearing in pregnant women, with and without the disruption of embryonic membranes. The age of pregnant women was also analyzed, and it was found out that the pregnant women with placenta abruption and PPROM were 5 years older than those with placenta abruption without PPROM, and that this difference was very significant. Disruption duration was analyzed as well as the time from the first uterus bleeding to labour. The difference between PPROM and PROM duration was statistically significant, as well as the difference in duration between spontaneous and artificial rupture of embryonic membranes. The way of labour termination was analyzed in pregnant women with verified placenta abruption. In 80% of pregnant women, the labour was terminated by Caesarian section, and only 20% by vaginal labour. Also, the perinatal outcome was analyzed, according to Apgar score in the first and fifth minute. Apgar score showed that out of the total number of abruptions, 7 neonatuses was born dead (11.66%, 13 (21.66% was born in good condition (Apgar score>7, 26 (43.33% was marked with 4-7, while 14 (23.33% was in hard asphyxia (Apgar score 1-5.

Ranko Kutlesic

2007-10-01

316

Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women in Comparison to the Reference Intake  

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Full Text Available Pregnant women with poor nutritional status have an increased risk of birth outcomes. Nutritional assessment is an effective method of preventing potential complications in pregnant women. To assess and compare the dietary intake of nutrients and energy in pregnant women from antenatal care units of Peshawar. A Cross sectional study was carried out in Lady Reading hospital (Govt and Alkhidmat (Private hospital Peshawar for a period of three months. A total of 198 Pregnant Women (PW, 66 from each trimester were selected. The sub groups of PW in each trimester were 18 (n = 12, 19-30 (n = 151 and >31 (n = 35 years. Data about the socioeconomic status, educational status and food intake were collected by structured questionnaire. Nutrients were calculated using food composition tables. Percent adequacy for each nutrient was calculated. The nutrients were calculated from actual ingredients used for dish preparation and the quantity of food consumed by the pregnant women. The energy and protein intake of all PW were higher than RDA except belonging to 1st trimester. Intake level of Fe, Ca, Zn were below except age group >31 yrs (2nd trimester in which Fe intake was 5.1%, The Mg and P intakes were higher except age group 18 (1st trimester which was -11%. Intake of vitamin B12 and folate were below while intake of vitamin C was above the RDA except for age group 18 years (2nd and 3rd trimesters which were -12.7 and -28.4%, respectively. Micronutrients were deficient in the diet of PW from both low and high income groups when compared with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA.

Ruqayya Sajjad

2012-01-01

317

Antepartum cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) quantification by estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) in pregnant South Indian women.  

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The aim of the study was to calculate the maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) for pregnant women of varying trimesters and to quantify the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)with the objective of being able to determine the exercise dose for antenatal women which can be prescribed to achieve optimal exercise benefits during various trimesters. A study group comprising 64 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy and control group with 77 non-pregnant women were subjected to Cooper's 12 minutes walk test. From the distance covered in 12 minutes, Vo2max was calculated. The Vo2max values were statistically analysed between the non-pregnant and pregnant and also its variability among the trimesters. Percentile tables of Vo2max were drawn and multiple comparisons were applied. Results show that the Vo2max values among non-pregnant and first trimester ranges between 18 and 22 ml/kg/minute. Trimesters II and III had a range of Vo2max values between 16-20 and 14-18 ml/kg/minute respectively. The CRF of pregnant women significantly reduced to 6%, 9% and 18% in each trimester respectively when compared with the reference table framed out of non-pregnant Vo2max values. Among the study group the reduction in Vo2max values had no statistical significance between first 2 trimesters but trimester III significantly differs from other trimesters. The exercise prescription cannot be the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women. Even among the pregnant women, III trimester needs separate exercise prescription from the other two trimesters as CRF is markedly compromised towards term. PMID:23025219

Chakaravertty, Biswajit; Parkavi, K; Coumary, Sendhil A; Felix, A J W

2012-04-01

318

Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. Methods 151 obese pregnant women in an intervention group and 188 obese pregnant women in a control group answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Group differences between the two groups were estimated by using the ?2 - test on categorical variables. The Student's t-test on continuous, normally distributed variables measuring changes in mean score on BAI and EPDS over time was used. To make a more comprehensive assessment of group differences, between as well as within the two groups, logistic regressions were performed with the BAI and EPDS as dependent variables, measured at gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks postnatal. The grouping variable has been adjusted for socio-demographic variables and complications. Results The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy varied between 24% and 25% in the intervention group and 22% and 23% in the control group. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety postnatally was 9% in the intervention group and 11% in the control group. Five percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% of the women in the control group showed symptoms of anxiety during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. The prevalence of symptoms of depression during pregnancy varied between 19% and 22% in the intervention group but was constant at 18% in the control group. Postnatal prevalence was 11% in both groups. Six percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% in the control group showed symptoms of depression during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. We found no differences between the two groups as concerns demographic characteristics, weight gain in kg, or the distribution of scores on anxiety and depressive symptoms nor did we find differences in the fluctuation of anxiety and depressive symptoms over time between the women in the intervention group and in the control group. Conclusion Obese pregnant women attending an intervention program seem to have the same risk of experiencing anxiety and/or depressive symptoms as do obese pregnant and postnatal women in general.

Sydsjö Gunilla

2010-12-01

319

Health Problems and APN Interventions in Pregnant Women with Diabetes  

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The purpose of this study was to compare health problems and advanced practice nursing (APN) interventions in two types of APN care provided to 41 childbearing women with diabetes. The study’s design involved content analysis of interaction logs containing the process of APN care during two clinical trials: 1) APN care was added to physician care (n = 22); and, 2) half of physician care was substituted with APN care (n = 19). Women’s’ health problems and APN interventions were classified using the Omaha System’s Problem Scheme and Intervention Scheme. The women, in the study, had a mean age of 30, and were predominantly Black, high school graduates, with a low income. The findings identified 61,004 health problems and 60,980 APN interventions from the interaction logs. APNs provided significantly more interventions antenatally to the women in the substitution group than to those in the additive group. However, the overall categories of problems were the same in both groups. Surveillance and health teaching/counseling were the top APN interventions antenatally and postpartum. Case management interventions were third most common for both groups, while treatments and procedures constituted the least number of APN interventions in each group before and after birth. When APNs shared care more equally with physicians, they intervened differently in type and number of interventions. Their broad range of skills and depth of understanding in clinical practice, health systems, family and personal issues allowed them to intervene early and effectively.

Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.; Hannan, Jean; Guido-Sanz, Frank; Neff, Donna Felber; Deoisres, Wannee

2013-01-01

320

Introducing a New Measure for Assessing Self-Efficacy in Response to Air Pollution Hazardsd for Pregnant Women  

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A self-efficacy instrument should be condition-specific. There are several instruments for measuring self-efficacy, but none are air pollution-specific. This study aimed to develop a self-efficacy measure for assessing pregnant women’s responses to air pollution hazards. A random sample of pregnant women aged between 18 and 35 years attending three prenatal care centers were entered into the study. Prenatal care centers randomly selected from a list of centers located in different geographi...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The Effect of Simultaneous Administration of Zinc Sulfate and Ferrous Sulfate in the Treatment of Anemic Pregnant Women  

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Background: Iron deficiency and its resulting anemia is a common problem among Iranian pregnant women. In spite of iron supplementation program, yet, this problem has not resolved in many parts of the country. Zinc deficiency also is very common in Iran. This study evaluated the efficiency of concomitant zinc and iron therapy in the treatment of anemic pregnant Iranian women. Methods: A total of 118 anemic women were registered in this randomized controlled trial. Both groups received 10...

Mahmoudian, A.; Khademloo, M.

2005-01-01

322

Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders  

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Background: Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods: A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds rati...

Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Fida, Neway; Williams, Michelle A.

2012-01-01

323

Longitudinal Studies of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women Living in a Rural Cameroonian Village with High Perennial Transmission  

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A prospective longitudinal study of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women was conducted in the rural village of Ngali II, where malaria is hyperendemic and individuals receive ~0.7 infectious mosquito bites/person/day throughout the year. Pregnant women (N = 60; 19 primigravidae, 41 multigravidae) were enrolled early in pregnancy (median 14 wk) and were followed monthly, with 38 women followed through term (5.7 ± 1.1 prenatal visits and delivery). The total number of times primigravidae we...

Leke, Rose F. G.; Bioga, Jude D.; Zhou, James; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Leke, Robert J. I.; Tchinda, Viviane; Megnekou, Rosette; Fogako, Josephine; Sama, Grace; Gwanmesia, Philomina; Bomback, Germaine; Nama, Charles; Diouf, Ababacar; Bobbili, Naveen; Taylor, Diane Wallace

2010-01-01

324

Homocysteine concentration, related B vitamins, and betaine in pregnant women recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Study.  

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BACKGROUND: Both folate and betaine are important predictors of total homocysteine (tHcy) during pregnancy. However, studies to date have only been undertaken in populations with Western dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictors of tHcy in pregnant women recruited in the Seychelles, a population where access to fortified foods is limited and where women habitually consume diets rich in fish, eggs, rice, and fruit. DESIGN: Pregnant women (n = 226) provided blood samples at en...

Molloy, Anne Marie; Scott, John Martin

2008-01-01

325

French Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire Compared with an Accelerometer Cut Point to Classify Physical Activity among Pregnant Obese Women  

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Given the high risk for inactivity during pregnancy in obese women, validated questionnaires for physical activity (PA) assessment in this specific population is required before evaluating the effect of PA on perinatal outcomes. No questionnaire was validated in pregnant obese women. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) has been designed based on activities reported during pregnancy and validated in pregnant women. We translated the PPAQ to French and assessed reliability and ...

Chandonnet, Nadia; Saey, Didier; Alme?ras, Natalie; Marc, Isabelle

2012-01-01

326

Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care  

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Abstract Background In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care. Methods As part of a larger prospe...

Bilardi Jade E; De Guingand Deborah L; Temple-Smith Meredith J; Garland Suzanne; Fairley Christopher K; Grover Sonia; Wallace Euan; Hocking Jane S; Tabrizi Sepehr; Pirotta Marie; Chen Marcus Y

2010-01-01

327

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Pregnant Women in Zanjan, Northwest of Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: In the last two decades the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs are dramatically increased and remain a major public health problem in developing countries. Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis which is a flagellated protozoon associated with vaginitis, cervicitis and urethritis. Researchers believed that pregnancy is one of the influencing factors of the genital trichomoniasis in women.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis in pregnant women in Zanjan, Iran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 pregnant women were examined for diagnosis of trichomoniasis based on direct microscopic examination and culture method. They referred to the treatment and health centers of Zanjan, Northwest Iran, Demographic and personal information of the subjects were collected and evaluated with questionnaires.Results: Thirty-three out of one thousand examined individuals (3.3% presented vaginal infection with T. vaginalis. Infection in women with lower gestational age, higher mothers’ age, higher parity and living in city were significantly associated with increased risk of vaginal trichomoniasis (P < 0.05. Other variables were not significantly associated with parasite infection.Conclusions: The present study found that the infection with T. vaginalis is a health problem in pregnant women correlated with some epidemiological variables and can be considered with microbiological screening tests during pregnancy.

Abbasali Nourian

2013-09-01

328

Mercury exposure assessment in Iranian pregnant women's hair with respect to diet, amalgam filling, and lactation.  

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Our aim for carrying out this study was to estimate the levels of mercury in the hair of pregnant women and its association with fish consumption and amalgam fillings. From November 2007 to January 2008, 100 hair samples were collected randomly from three groups of pregnant women: Ahvaz in the south of Iran, Noushahr in the north, and the countryside of Noushahr. Significant differences were found in these three groups of pregnant women's samples (p>0.05). The mean mercury level in women's hair was found to be 0.37 ?g/g (range, 0.11-3.57 ?g/g). Only in 2 % of collected hair samples did the total mercury (THg) level exceed the United States Environmental Protection Agency-recommended 1.0 ?g/g. In addition, there was a positive correlation of THg content in Ahvaz group's samples with respect to fish consumption (r=0.41, p=0.02) and a negative correlation of THg content in those who consumed vegetables and fruit. The level of education also played an indicating factor in this group. Moreover, significant association was found between the residence time and Hg concentration of women's hair samples collected from Noushahr (p>0.05). Similarly, the same correlations were found between hair mercury levels and the time since the first filling, number of dental fillings, pregnancy interval, and lactating period. PMID:22419376

Barghi, Mandana; Behrooz, Reza Dahmardeh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

2012-09-01

329

Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day. In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day. 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy.

Christian Mølgaard

2012-04-01

330

A qualitative interview study exploring pregnant women’s and health professionals’ attitudes to external cephalic version  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11 and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11 recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs. To address these challenges a number of approaches will be required.

Say Rebecca

2013-01-01

331

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 28.89 ± 5.76 years (range 13–42 years. Of the 157 women tested, HEV seroprevelance was 28.66% (45/157. Among the seropositive women, 64.40% (29/45 tested positive for anti-HEV IgM while 35.60% (16/45 tested positive to HEV IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was highest (46.15% among women 21–25 years of age, followed by 42.82% in = 20 year group, then 36.84% in = 36 year group. Of the 157 women, 75.79% and 22.92% were in their third and second trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Anti-HEV antibodies detected in women in their third trimester of pregnancy (30.25% was significantly higher, P Conclusion Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in pregnant women.

Mingle Julius AA

2009-07-01

332

Report on results of seventeen years in consultations of radiation exposed pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a survey it will be given results of consultations of pregnant women exposed during the pregnancy in the period of 1976 to 1992 formerly in the National Board of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR and since 1990 in the Clinic-diagnostical Division of the Federal Health Office. The report includes dose estimations of the embryo and medical assessments of 430 pregnant women. The radiation exposure were mainly received by X-ray diagnostic (n = 406 cases) and the others by applications of radiation in nuclear medicine, research and vocational training (n = 24 cases). Results of dose and risk estimation were summarized in tables. Women having incurred fetal doses in excess of 100 mGy were recommended to interrupt pregnancy. A fetal dose above 100 mGy occured in 9 cases. The anatomico-pathological and embryological findings of the embryo or fetus showed only in one case a reference of teratogenic radiation damage. (orig.)

1992-06-01

333

Effect of lycopene in prevention of preeclampsia in high risk pregnant women  

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of pre-natal supplementation of antioxidant Lycopene in prevention of pre-eclampsia in the high risk pregnant women. We also assessed the effect of lycopene supplementation on intra-uterine growth restriction and the perinatal outcome in women at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia.Materials and Methods: A total of 54 women between 14-28 weeks of pregnancy who were at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia were considered for the study. Inclusion criteria we...

2011-01-01

334

A Survey of Relationship Between Neonate and Mother Prognosis and Plasma Level of Blood Uric Acid in Preeclampsia Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was investigated that whether the measure of the uric acid in pregnant women has cause-effect relationship with severity of preeclampsia, biochemical and urine parameters. This study was targeted the preeclampsia women with uric acid levels = 6 mg dL-1 and -1 for comparing with healthy pregnant women. In order to survey of serum Hb, platelet, liver enzymes and renal function test findings, blood and urine samples of preeclampsia and healthy groups were taken before delivery and analyzed. There was significant differences in the gestational age and mean serum AST, ALT, BUN and urine albumin between preeclampsia groups and healthy women. Also the gestational age variable in preeclampsia women with uric acid levels = 6 mg dL-1 were lower than preeclamptic patients who have lower than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the both preeclampsia cases compared with control group. There was significant differences in Apgar scores in the first and fifth minutes of life between the preeclampsia groups and healthy women. Also Apgar score in the fifth minutes of life has a significant effect on the risk of preeclampsia with more than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid compared with preeclampsia with less than 6 mg dL-1 uric acid. Neonatal weight in the preeclampsia groups were lower than its levels in the control group. In conclusion our results declared that a cause-effect relationship between the secretion of serum uric acid and severity of preeclampsia, biochemical and urine parameters may in fact exist.

Afshan Amirshaghaghi

2013-01-01

335

Pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.  

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Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination treatment. Some antimalarials have altered pharmacokinetics in pregnancy. Pregnant women in the 2nd or 3rd trimester and matched nonpregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated with a total of 6.4 mg/kg of body weight dihydroartemisinin and 51.2 mg/kg piperaquine once daily for 3 days. Venous blood samples were drawn at prespecified time points over 9 weeks. Plasma dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin pharmacokinetics were well described. There were no significant differences in total piperaquine exposure (P = 0.80) or drug exposure during the terminal elimination phase (72 h to infinity) (P = 0.64) between the two groups. The apparent volume of distribution of piperaquine was significantly smaller (602 liters/kg versus 877 liters/kg) in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (P = 0.0057), and the terminal elimination half-life was significantly shorter (17.8 days versus 25.6 days; P = 0.0023). Dihydroartemisinin exposure after the first dose was significantly lower (844 h × ng/ml versus 1,220 h × ng/ml, P = 0.0021) in pregnant women, but there were no significant differences in total dihydroartemisinin exposure or maximum concentrations between the two groups. There were no significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between the second and third trimester. These results obtained through noncompartmental analysis suggest that in the treatment of falciparum malaria, there are no clinically important differences in the pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin or piperaquine between pregnant and nonpregnant women. However, a more detailed analysis using population pharmacokinetic modeling is needed to fully investigate the differences found for some of the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as the terminal half-life. PMID:21947392

Rijken, Marcus J; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Phae; Lindegardh, Niklas; Tarning, Joel; Laochan, Natthapon; Than, Hla Hla; Mu, Oh; Win, Aye Kyi; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas; Nosten, François

2011-12-01

336

Weight Gain During Pregnancy and Birth Weight Outcome In Pregnant Women, Tabriz, Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate weight gain during pregnancy and birth weight in rural regions of Tabriz, a province in the northwest of Iran. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using routinely collected data of pregnant mothers from rural health centers. Eight health centers were randomly selected in rural areas of Tabriz. Totally, 874 women aged 24.86±5.08 years with singleton term that regularly attended health centers for prenatal care and delivered between 2002 and 2007 entered the study. The data on pre-pregnancy weight, height, total weight gain during pregnancy, mother’s age, parity, newborn's birth weight, mother’s education and working status were extracted from the health records. The women were categorized based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Pregnancy weight gain was compared with new (2009 and old (1990 recommendations of Institute of Medicine (IOM. Results: 86.1% of underweight and 77.7% of normal weight pregnant women gained weight during their pregnancy below the lower limits of recommended ranges. While weight gain in none of the underweight pregnant women was more than the new IOM recommendations, 1.1% of normal weight, 17.8% of overweight and 36.4% of obese women gained weight more than the upper limits of the new IOM recommendations. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that according to IOM guidelines, most of Iranian rural pregnant women gain weight during pregnancy less than minimum recommendations.

Kurosh Djafarian

2012-07-01

337

Estimated Incidence and Genotypes of HIV-1 among Pregnant Women in Central Brazil  

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Objective To estimate the incidence of HIV-1 infection among pregnant women from central-western Brazil. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 54,139 pregnant women received antenatal HIV screening from a network of public healthcare centers in 2011. The incidence of confirmed HIV-1 infection was estimated using the Serological Testing Algorithms for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) methodology and BED-capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The yearly incidence was calculated, and adjusted incidence rates were estimated. For a subgroup of patients, protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions were retrotranscribed from plasma HIV-1 RNA and sequenced after performing a nested polymerase chain reaction. Results Of the participants, 20% had a pregnancy before the age of 18 and approximately 40% were experiencing their first pregnancy. Of the 54,139 pregnant women screened, 86 had a confirmed HIV-1 diagnosis, yielding an overall prevalence of 1.59 cases per 1000 women (95% CI 1.27–1.96). A higher prevalence was detected in the older age groups, reflecting cumulative exposure to the virus over time. Among the infected pregnant women, 20% were considered recently infected according to the BED-CEIA. The estimated incidence of HIV infection was 0.61 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.33-0.89); the corrected incidence was 0.47 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.26-0.68). In a subgroup of patients, HIV-1 subtype C (16.7%) was the second most prevalent form after subtype B (66.7%); BF1 recombinants (11.1%) and one case of subtype F1 (5.5%) were also detected. Conclusion This study highlights the potential for deriving incidence estimates from a large antenatal screening program for HIV. The rate of recent HIV-1 infection among women in their early reproductive years is a public health warning to implement preventive measures.

Costa, Zelma Bernardes; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araujo; de Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Borges, Walter Costa; Filho, Clidenor Gomes; Filho, Jose Vicente Macedo; Minuzzi, Ana Lucia; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

2013-01-01

338

Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

Hjorth Mads F

2012-12-01

339

Toxoplasmosis: an examination of knowledge among health professionals and pregnant women in a municipality of the State of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of toxoplasmosis among professionals and pregnant women in the public health services in Paraná, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional observational and transversal study of 80 health professionals (44 nurses and 36 physicians) [...] and 330 pregnant women [111 immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and IgG-non-reactive and 219 IgG-reactive] was conducted in 2010. An epidemiological data questionnaire was administered to the professionals and to the pregnant women, and a questionnaire about the clinical aspects and laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was administered to the professionals. Results The participants frequently provided correct responses about prophylactic measures. Regarding the clinical and laboratory aspects, the physicians provided more correct responses and discussed toxoplasmosis with the pregnant women. The professionals had difficulty interpreting the avidity test results, and the physicians stated that they referred pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies to a county reference center. Of the professionals, 53 (91.4%) reported that they instructed women during prenatal care, but only 54 (48.6%) at-risk pregnant women and 99 (45.2%) women who were not at risk reported receiving information about preventive measures. The physicians provided verbal instructions to 120 (78.4%) women, although instructional materials were available in the county. The pregnant women generally lacked knowledge about preventive measures for congenital toxoplasmosis, but the at-risk pregnant women tended to respond correctly. Conclusions This study provides data to direct public health policies regarding the importance of updating the knowledge of primary care professionals. Mechanisms should be developed to increase public knowledge because prophylactic strategies are important for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.

Contiero-Toninato, Ana Paula; Cavalli, Helenara Osorio; Marchioro, Ariella Andrade; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi da Costa Lima; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia.

340

Decreased maternal-fetal attachment in methadone-maintained pregnant women: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal-fetal attachment represents the mother's affiliation and interaction with her unborn fetus. It develops during pregnancy and may be critical to successful mother-infant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to investigate maternal-fetal attachment in methadone-maintained pregnant women. We studied a cross-sectional sample of women (n = 67), 15 to 35 years of age, with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies, at 28 to 37 weeks of gestation. The study population comprised two groups: group 1 consisted of 17 women enrolled in a substance abuse program who were using methadone, 40 to 80 mg a day, for a period of more than 3 months; group 2 included 50 women with no history of substance abuse. The Cranley 24-item scale was used as a measure of maternal-fetal attachment. Methadone-maintained pregnant women had diminished maternal-fetal attachment scores compared with controls (P < .05). This may be attributed to methadone use or to behavior characteristics of women with substance abuse. In either case, decreased maternal-fetal attachment may conceivably reduce women's compliance with prenatal health care, interfere with maternal adjustment during pregnancy, and/or have negative long-term effects on mother-child attachment. PMID:7663100

Mikhail, M S; Youchah, J; DeVore, N; Ho, G Y; Anyaegbunam, A

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Lesiones por quemadura en la embarazada / Injuries from burn in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: las quemaduras en la embarazada constituyen un reto para el equipo multidisciplinario que se ocupa de su tratamiento. Estas lesiones en dependencia de su extensión, profundidad y el tiempo de gestación de las pacientes, pueden comprometer tanto la vida de la madre como la del feto. Objet [...] ivo: determinar la morbi-mortalidad por quemaduras en las embarazadas y la conducta seguida en dependencia del tiempo de gestación, en las pacientes atendidas con estas características en el Servicio de Caumatología del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech de la ciudad de Camagüey desde el año 2001 hasta el 2010. Método: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. El universo estuvo conformado por 585 mujeres que sufrieron quemaduras durante este período, la muestra no probabilística la conformaron 16 pacientes las cuales estaban en estado de gestación. Resultados: Se encontraban en el segundo trimestre de su embarazo siete gestantes para un 43.75 %, y del total de las lesionadas cuatro eran grandes quemaduras. El índice de menos grave representó el 50 % del total de las lesionadas. Con el 68.75 % de las embarazadas se siguió una conducta expectante. Conclusiones: La mayoría de las gestantes estaban clasificadas como menos graves. El estado materno al egreso fue satisfactorio en la totalidad de las pacientes, no así el estado fetal. Abstract in english Background: burns in pregnant women are a challenge for the multidisciplinary team dealing with their treatment. These lesions depending on its size, depth and time of gestation of patients, may compromise the life of the mother and the fetus. Objective: to determine the morbidity and mortality due [...] to burns in pregnant women and the management followed depending on gestation time, in patients treated with these features in the Burns unit at the University Hospital Manuel Ascunce Domenech in Camagüey city from 2001 to 2010. Method: an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. The universe was constituted by 585 women who suffered burns during this period; 16 pregnant patients were taken through a non probabilistic sampling. Results: seven pregnant women were in the second trimester of their pregnancy for a 43.75 %, from the total of the injured four had large burns. The less serious rate represented 50 % of the total number of the injured. With the 68.75 % of pregnant women an expectant management was followed. Conclusions: the majority of pregnant women were classified as less serious. The maternal state when discharge from hospital was satisfactory in all patients, unlike the fetal state.

Enrique J, Moya Rosa; Robert, Palacio Reyes; Luis, Vázquez Alfonseca.

342

Change of seizure frequency in pregnant epileptic women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pregnancy on seizure frequency was monitored prospectively in 136 pregnancies of 122 epileptic women. Pregnancy did not influence the seizure frequency in 68 pregnancies (50%). In 50 pregnancies (37%) the number of seizures increased during pregnancy or puerperium. The seizure frequency decreased in 18 pregnancies (13%). In 34 out of 50 pregnancies (68%) the increase was associated with non-compliance with the drug regimen or sleep deprivation. In seven out of 18 pregnancies (39%) improvement was related to correction of non-compliance or sleep deprivation during the pregestational nine months. Insufficiently low plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs were found in 47% of the women with uncontrolled epilepsy during pregnancy. The course of epilepsy during pregnancy is primarily influenced by non-compliance, sleep deprivation during pregnancy, and inadequate therapy before and during pregnancy. With good medical attention pregnancy itself seems to have only a minimal influence on the course of epilepsy.

Schmidt, D; Canger, R; Avanzini, G; Battino, D; Cusi, C; Beck-Mannagetta, G; Koch, S; Rating, D; Janz, D

1983-01-01

343

Adherence to the screening program for HBV infection in pregnant women delivering in Greece  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B infection (HBV is a major Public Health Problem. Perinatal transmission can be prevented with the identification of HBsAg(+ women and administration of immunoprophylaxis to their newborns. A national prevention programme for HBV with universal screening of pregnant women and vaccination of infants is in effect since 1998 in Greece. Methods To evaluate adherence to the national guidelines, all women delivering in Greece between 17–30/03/03 were included in the study. Trained health professionals completed a questionnaire on demographic data, prenatal or perinatal screening for HBsAg and the implementation of appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Results During the study period 3,760 women delivered. Prenatal screening for HBsAg was documented in 91.3%. Greek women were more likely to have had prenatal testing. HBsAg prevalence was 2.89% (95%CI 2.3–3.4%. Higher prevalence of HBV-infection was noted in immigrant women, especially those born in Albania (9.8%. Other risk factors associated with maternal HBsAg (+ included young maternal age and absence of prenatal testing. No prenatal or perinatal HBsAg testing was performed in 3.2% women. Delivering in public hospital and illiteracy were identifiable risk factors for never being tested. All newborns of identified HBsAg (+ mothers received appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Conclusion The prevalence of HBsAg in Greek pregnant women is low and comparable to other European countries. However, immigrant women composing almost 20% of our childbearing population, have significant higher prevalence rates. There are still women who never get tested. Universal vaccination against HBV at birth and reinforcement of perinatal testing of all women not prenatally tested should be discussed with Public Health Authorities.

Cassimos Dimitrios

2006-05-01

344

Change of seizure frequency in pregnant epileptic women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of pregnancy on seizure frequency was monitored prospectively in 136 pregnancies of 122 epileptic women. Pregnancy did not influence the seizure frequency in 68 pregnancies (50%). In 50 pregnancies (37%) the number of seizures increased during pregnancy or puerperium. The seizure frequency decreased in 18 pregnancies (13%). In 34 out of 50 pregnancies (68%) the increase was associated with non-compliance with the drug regimen or sleep deprivation. In seven out of 18 pregnancies (39...

1983-01-01

345

Non-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction in pregnant Iranian women  

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Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infection. In 75% of women and 50% of men infection is asymptomatic. According to World Health Organization reports, the number of new genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis reaches 100 million annually. The sensitivity and specificity of nacid amplification tests are 95% and 99%, respectively. Urine samples can provide a non-invasive method of testing for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women referred to a teaching hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Urine samples were obtained from 210 pregnant women and investigated microscopically and macroscopically by urinalysis. Precipitants were also used for DNA extraction and PCR test for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. Among 210 urine specimens from women aged 15-39 years, none were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR. In spite of the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR, and the elimination of inhibitory effects on PCR test, no pregnant woman was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. Here, we suggest that a larger sample should be studied and other sensitive methods could also be used in the future.

Amir Emami

2012-01-01

346

Ethnic differences in C-peptide/insulin/glucose dynamics in young pregnant women.  

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There are ethnic differences in insulin secretion and resistance in healthy nondiabetic adults, children, and adolescents. It is not known whether these ethnic differences are also detectable during normal pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine whether ethnic differences in glucose homeostasis (C-peptide/insulin/glucose dynamics) are present in nondiabetic pregnant women. Fasting serum C-peptide, insulin, and plasma glucose were measured in the second and third trimesters in 773 pregnant women (343 African-Americans, 312 Hispanics, and 118 Caucasians), and a 50-g oral glucose challenge test was performed in the third trimester. Significantly reduced C-peptide levels and C-peptide to insulin ratio and elevated fasting insulin to glucose ratios were observed in African-American women compared with Caucasians and/or Hispanics. Similar results were found after a 50-g glucose load. In addition, African-Americans had greater insulin and lower glucose levels at glucose challenge test. There were ethnic differences in insulin production and resistance in both fasting and glucose-stimulated conditions in normal young nondiabetic pregnant women. PMID:12364450

Chen, Xinhua; Scholl, Theresa O

2002-10-01

347

"KETONURIA AND SERUM GLUCOSE OF FASTING PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE END OF A DAY IN RAMADAN"  

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Full Text Available Moslem pregnant women are inclined to fast during the month of Ramadan. Ketonuria and hypoglycemia are harmful in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to find out whether clinical symptoms and/ or calorie deficiency of fasting pregnant women before Eftar (ending of the daily fast can accurately predict ketonuria and hypoglycemia. In a descriptive study, 185 volunteer fasting pregnant women in Ramadan of 1999 were tested just before Eftar taking into account their clinical symptoms, intake of the previous 24 hours and testing their ketonuria and serum glucose. The positive predictive values of clinical symptoms before breaking the fast for ketonuria and hypoglycemia were 32% and 56%, respectively. The negative predictive values of clinical symptoms for ketonuria and hypoglycemia were 70% and 33%. The positive predictive values of over 500 Kcal deficiency in ketonuria and hypoglycemia were 33% and 57%. Severe calorie deficiency (more than 2000 Kcal positively predicts ketonuria in 70% of cases and sufficient calorie intake (less than 500 Kcal deficiency negatively predicts ketonuria in 93% of women. Clinical symptoms and calorie intake were not appropriate criteria for predicting ketonuria and hypoglycemia except in asymptomatic or severely calorie deficient cases or those with sufficient calorie intake whose ketonuria was predicted accurately.

M. Arab

2004-08-01

348

Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy

1988-01-01

349

Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

2012-01-01

350

Drug Prescriptions in Pregnant Women: A Descriptive Analysis in the Department of the Aube  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study prescription-drug use in pregnant women in the department of the Aube. Method: We used the data-base of the general scheme of French health insurance (régime général de l’assurance maladie in order to obtain all reimbursed drug prescriptions for March 2000. Results: The incidence of prescription-drug use in this cohort of women was 81.78 per 100 persons month. Among the 1,313 pregnant women who were reimbursed for at least one medication, 1.7% took a prescription drug which was absolutely contra-indicated during pregnancy and 3.9% received one which was relatively contra-indicated during pregnancy. More than half of these cases involved topical prescription drugs. The most frequently prescribed contra-indicated drugs were non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (absolutely contra-indicated and aminosides (relatively contra-indicated. Conclusion: The authors insist on the potential danger of topical drug use in pregnant women, a fact which is undoubtedly ignored by patients and possibly by druggists and prescribing physicians as well.

Truchi L

2001-03-01

351

A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.

Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

2014-01-01

352

Related Factors to Choose Cesarean Rather than Normal Delivery among Shirazian Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Background & objective: Although delivering with Cesarean method is preferred in limited cases which has dangerous effects on child or mother's health, rate of cesarean is increasing vastly nowadays. The main purpose of this study was to explore Social, Cultural and Demographic factors related to this phenomenon among pregnant women of Shiraz. Materials & Methods: In this study 600 pregnant women residing in Shiraz were selected using Lin cross size of sample (multistage sampling. Data were collected through the validated questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software by multi-variables logistic regression and X2 techniques. Results: Research hypotheses about significant relation among these factors (age, age of marriage, education, spouse’s education, occupational status, place of birth, social class status, previous childbirth method, record of barrenness, place of previous childbirth, place of pregnant care, record of cesarean in family and attitude toward cesarean with choice of cesarean have been approved. Research hypotheses about month of pregnancy, number of pregnancy and knowledge of delivery method and cesarean have been rejected. Conclusion: Due to significant positive attitude of women's towards the cesarean, rather than normal delivery, it is necessary to inform them about the advantages of normal delivery and health hazard which might cause by Cesarean to the mother and child. The change of women's attitude about cesarean is needed to avoid further complication.

Majid Movahed

2012-09-01

353

A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process. PMID:24926151

Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

2014-05-01

354

Interference factors in digoxin analysis, especially in the serum of pregnant women, by RIA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of false digoxin concentrations measured in pregnant women by RIA were gone into; 103 sera of healthy women in their last trimester of pregnancy were analyzed by 4 different RIA methods. In 6 cases, falsepositive digoxin levels above 1.0 ng/ml were found; 4 of the measured digoxin levels were above 2.0 ng/ml, i.e. a clinically toxic concentration. No pseudodigoxin was detected post partum; however, the author was only able to make control measurements of 2 of the 3 positive sera between the 6th and 12th week post partum. The causes of this phenomenon remain unclear. It cannot be excluded that these pregnant women may have a still unknown hormone metabolite, resulting from a possible enzymatic defect, which cross-reacts with the digoxin antiserum and thus causes false-positive results. In those rare cases where pregnant women receive digitalis treatment, digoxin serum measurements by RIA must be analyzed very critically due to the possibility of false-positive results. (orig.)

1981-01-01

355

Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

2012-12-01

356

KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN FARS PROVINCE ABOUT INTAKE OF IRON SUPPLEMENTS  

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Full Text Available During pregnancy, the need of mother and fetus to iron gradually increases and will reach at its most level at the end of the pregnancy. This study was preformed to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pregnant women in Fars Province about supplements containing iron intake. Data collection was a questionnaire completed by face to face interview using simple nonrandom sampling method in 2997 pregnant women of urban and rural areas including their demographic information and questions about the importance and method of consumption, unused complications and the method of iron table intake. 44.4% of women were in the first pregnancy, 25.9% in the second, 14.2% in the third and 6.9% of pregnancies were unwanted ones. 75.9% of pregnant women were aware about the reason of iron supplementary use during pregnancy, 86.3% knew the method of administration and 91% used supplements containing iron after fourth month of pregnancy. The lowest rate was seen in Estahban and the highest in Abadeh and Eghlid and 43.3% used the tablet correctly. Further studies are needed to test the stool simultaneously to control daily iron intake and judge about the percentage of correct daily iron, the percentage of correct use and digestive system complications.

F. Moradi

2007-07-01

357

Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome. DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective study, Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-six consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Twenty-five healthy pregnant controls. METHODS: At 8, 14, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, the diabetic women self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) (8/day) for 3 days and had blood samplings obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (T4), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), anti-TPO, pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Anti-TPO was detected in 31 (32%) of the pregnant diabetic women compared with two women (8%) in the healthy controls (p=0.015). The presence of anti-TPO was associated with higher TSH at 8 (p2.5 mIU/l), most prevalently among anti-TPO positive women. Sixteen women (17%) were treated for thyroid disorder during pregnancy. No differences were detected between the diabetic women with and without anti-TPO regarding HbA1C, insulin dose, median SMPG or pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TPO was present in one-third of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and associated with slightly higher TSH, but not poorer glycemic control or adverse birth outcome. A total of 17% of women with type 1 diabetes were treated for thyroid disorder during pregnancy Udgivelsesdato: 2008

Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

2008-01-01

358

Assessment of noninvasive, percutaneous hemoglobin measurement in pregnant and early postpartum women  

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Full Text Available Atsushi Yoshida,1 Keiko Saito,2 Kenji Ishii,2 Isao Azuma,2 Hidenori Sasa,1 Kenichi Furuya11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nishisaitama-Chuo National Hospital, Tokorozawa, JapanPurpose: Using the Pronto-7® analyzer, we measured percutaneous hemoglobin (SpHb noninvasively in pregnant and early postpartum women, and assessed the accuracy of the measurements by comparing them with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.Methods: We obtained SpHb measurements from 193 pregnant women, 269 early postpartum women, and 76 nonpregnant women. A laboratory total hemoglobin (tHb measurement, from venous blood sampling, was obtained immediately prior to the SpHb measurement. The total number of measurements obtained from the nonpregnant, pregnant, and postpartum women was 76, 438, and 347, respectively.Results: The mean biases (SpHb - tHb among the nonpregnant, first trimester, second trimester, third trimester, and early postpartum women were -0.20, 0.19, 1.01, 1.32, and 1.10 g/dL, respectively. The Bland-Altman comparison showed neither the tendency of a fixed bias nor proportional biases among the measurements in the category of nonpregnant and first trimester women. But in the second and third trimester and postpartum category, a significant fixed bias was noted, without any tendencies of proportional bias.Conclusion: In this study, we found higher hemoglobin values with the Pronto-7 analyzer than were measured in the laboratory. We consider that the device has certain limitations in obstetrical utility and requires further modifications for use in the perinatal period.Keywords: anemia, pregnancy, hemoglobin, noninvasive

Yoshida A

2014-01-01

359

Nutritional status of pregnant women in Northeast Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study on the nutritional status of primiparous and multiparous women in the first trimester of pregnancy was conducted in the northeastern province of Thailand, Khon Kaen, to investigate differences in protein-energy-malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin A deficiency and carotenoid status between both parity groups. 94 subjects were recruited at first attendance of antenatal clinic. Data about weight, height, haemoglobin and haematocrit were obtained from hospital records. Anthropometric measurements of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skinfold were done on a sub sample. Retinol, carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol were analysed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Ferritin, transthyretin and retinol-binding protein were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primiparous women showed lower body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, corrected arm muscle area (P<0.001) as well as lower retinol, cholesterol and triceps skinfold (P<0.05). After adjusting for age and socio-economical status the significant difference persisted for all parameters but triceps skinfold. No significant differences of alpha-tocopherol, serum proteins, carotenoids and iron indices could be observed, even though a tendency to higher values for ferritin, haemoglobin and haematocrit was shown in multiparous women. Prevalence of protein-energy-malnutrition (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2) in the primiparous group was significantly higher compared to the multiparous group (P<0.05). Prevalence of protein-energy-malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency were 15.1%,6.3% and 3.3%, respectively, in the total study population. No differences between parity groups could be observed for prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency. PMID:16837424

Andert, Christoph U; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Schelp, Frank P; Schweigert, Florian J

2006-01-01

360

Treatment options for pregnant women with ovarian tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of ovarian mass during pregnancy is a rare event. Treatment of ovarian malignancies during pregnancy depends on histology, grade, stage, and gestational weeks. When possible, surgical excision is indicated, and sometimes, fertility-sparing surgery is recommended. Administration of systemic treatment before or after surgery is indicated as in nonpregnant women. Preliminary data suggest that platinum salts and taxanes are safe during pregnancy. Management of ovarian tumors in pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary approach to guarantee an optimal treatment for the mother and the fetus. PMID:24978707

Mancari, Rosanna; Tomasi-Cont, Nicoletta; Sarno, Maria Anna; Azim, Hatem A; Franchi, Dorella; Carinelli, Silvestro; Biglia, Nicoletta; Colombo, Nicoletta; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Homocysteine in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR: a comparison with normotensive pregnant women with isolated IUGR and healthy pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze homocysteine levels in maternal serum in women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and/or IUGR. Patients and methods: The study was carried out on 49 pregnant patients with normotensive pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction (group IUGR, 31 patients with preeclampsia complicated by IUGR (group PRE-IUGR, and 35 preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight fetuses (group PRE. The control group consisted of 47 healthy normotensive pregnant patients with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies and with proper intrauterine fetal growth. Results: We revealed higher levels of maternal serum homocysteine in the group of pregnant patients with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction in comparison with the control subjects. The concentrations of homocysteine were also higher in both groups of patients with pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR. The highest levels of homocysteine were observed in preeclamptic women with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetal growth. The mean values were 9.004 +/– 2.820 umol/L in the IUGR group, 10.815 +/– 3.785 umol/ L in the group PRE, 9.808 +/– 2.543 umol/L in the group PRE-IUGR and 7.639 +/– 2.728 umol/L in the control group. Conclusions: Increased levels of homocysteine are involved in pathogenesis IUGR and preeclampsia and may contribute to endothelial cells activation or dysfunction observed in these pregnancy disorders. Further studies are needed to explain these aspects in order to improve the management and therapeutic strategies for pregnancies complicated by IUGR and/or preeclampsia.

Marzena Laskowska

2011-12-01

362

Effect of Metformin on Diabetes Mellitus Prevention in Pregnant Women with Risk Factors  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of metformin on prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with high risk of GDM. Materials and methods: Total number of 189 pregnant women aged between 25 to 35, and 10 to 14 weeks pregnancy,admitted to  Mirza Koochakkhan Hospital, Tehran in January 2008 - January 2009 entered to this randomized controlled clinical trial. The women had one of the three risk factors; history of GDM, family history of diabetes, or BMI ? 30 kg/m2, with normal results in the glucose challenge test (GCT or the glucose tolerance test (GTT. Subjects were randomly split to two groups; 63 women (group A who received metformin (500 mg, twice a day and 126 women (group B did not use metformin. Incidence  of gestational diabetes was compared between two groups. Results: The incidence  of gestational diabetes was significantly different between two groups (%1.4 in group A, %15.4 in group B (p<0.001. The study also showed that the insulin requirement was significantly different between two groups after developing GDM (group A %3.6, group B %9.5, p=0.001. Conclusion: Using Metformin can effectively reduce the incidence of GDM in pregnant women at risk.

Fatemeh Rahimi Sherbaf

2010-12-01

363

Oral and dental health care practices in pregnant women in Australia: a postnatal survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess women's knowledge and experiences of dental health in pregnancy and to examine the self-care practices of pregnant women in relation to their oral health. Methods Women in the postnatal ward at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, completed a questionnaire to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices to periodontal health. Pregnancy outcomes were collected from their medical records. Results were analysed by chi-square tests, using SAS. Results Of the 445 women enrolled in the survey, 388 (87 per cent completed the questionnaire. Most women demonstrated reasonable knowledge about dental health. There was a significant association between dental knowledge and practices with both education and socio-economic status. Women with less education and lower socio-economic status were more likely to be at higher risk of poor periodontal health compared with women with greater levels of education and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusion Most women were knowledgeable about oral and dental health. Lack of knowledge about oral and dental health was strongly linked to women with lower education achievements and lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Whether more intensive dental health education in pregnancy can lead to improved oral health and ultimately improved pregnancy outcomes requires further study.

Middleton Philippa F

2008-04-01

364

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women Referring to the Reference Laboratory of Zahedan, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Zahedan is a tropical region in southeast of Iran. Due to importance of congenital Toxoplasmosis and absence of study evidences in this field in Zahedan, this research was accomplished. Materials and Methods: 221 serum samples were collected from pregnant women referring to reference laboratory of Zahedan. The IgG and IgM antibody levels against were examined using ELISA method. Results: 30.8% cases out of all samples were IgG positive and in 1.4% cases IgG and IgM were both positive for toxoplasmosis. Conclusion: 69.2% of pregnant women were serologically negative against toxoplasmosis; therefore hygiene education to eliminate risk factors especially during pregnancy period seems to be imperative.

Adel Ebrahimzadeh

2013-12-01

365

Conservative management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN(2-3)) in pregnant women.  

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The management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN(2-3)) diagnosed during pregnancy was the subject of this study. Two hundred and eight pregnant women with an abnormal cytology were assessed in our unit over a 10-year period. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 45 (mean 28) years. Seventy-eight of these women were histologically proven to have CIN(2-3). All patients were followed up every 8-10 weeks by cytology and colposcopy during pregnancy and reassessed 8-12 weeks postpartum. The disease persisted in 30 cases (38.4%), whereas in the remaining 48 cases it regressed to CIN(1). No case of invasive disease developed during the follow-up period in these pregnant patients. Conservative management of CIN(2-3) during pregnancy is acceptable, but close follow-up and colposcopic expertise are necessary. PMID:12566748

Vlahos, G; Rodolakis, A; Diakomanolis, E; Stefanidis, K; Haidopoulos, D; Abela, K; Georgountzos, V; Michalas, S

2002-01-01

366

Developing quality indicators for the care of HIV-infected pregnant women in the Dutch Caribbean  

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Abstract Background Effective interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) exist and when properly applied reduce the risk of vertical HIV transmission. As part of optimizing PMTCT in the Dutch Caribbean we developed a set of valid and applicable indicators in order to assess the quality of care in HIV-infected (pregnant) women and their newborns. Methods A multidisciplinary expert panel of 19 experts reviewed and prioritized recommendations...

Hermanides Hillegonda S; van Vught Lonneke A; Voigt Ralph; Muskiet Fred D; Durand Aimée; van Osch Gerard; Koolman-Wever Sharline; Gerstenbluth Isaac; Smit Colette; Duits Ashley J

2011-01-01

367

Prevalence and comparison of diagnostic methods for Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women in Argentina.  

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The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid medium. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were assessed considering culture on liquid medium as the "gold standard". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by culture on liquid medium was 4.0% (24/597). The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by direct wet smear, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and sodium acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue staining-fixing technique was 1.8%, 2.3% and 2.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the direct wet smear was 45.8%, that of the prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining was 58.3%, and that of the SAF/methylene blue method was 62.5%. Considering the 3 microscopic examinations altogether, the sensitivity rose to 66.7% and the specificity was 100% for all of them. This is the first time that the prevalence data of T. vaginalis by culture in pregnant women are published in Argentina. Due to the low sensitivity obtained by microscopy in asymptomatic pregnant women, the use of the liquid medium is recommended during pregnancy, in order to provide an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20333287

Perazzi, Beatriz E; Menghi, Claudia I; Coppolillo, Enrique F; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; de Torres, Ramón A; Vay, Carlos A; Famiglietti, Angela M R

2010-03-01

368

Abortion Decisions as Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in Research Involving Pregnant Women and Fetuses  

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From the perspective of investigators conducting research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion can sometimes be relevant to the suitability of the woman and fetus as research subjects. However, prominent ethicists disagree over whether it is permissible for a woman's decision about abortion to be an inclusion or exclusion criterion for participation in research. A widely-held view is that fetuses to be aborted and fetuses to be carried to ...

2012-01-01

369

Rift Valley fever: a sero-epidemiological survey among pregnant women in Mozambique.  

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Rift Valley fever (RVF) causes abortion in sheep and cattle. However, the teratogenic and abortogenic potential of RVF in humans is not known. Sera from a total of 1163 pregnant women in Mozambique were tested for RVF virus antibodies by ELISA and 28 (2%) were found to be positive. Mothers experiencing fetal death or miscarriage (155) had the same RVF virus antibody prevalence as those with normal deliveries. Analysis of maternity histories showed some indication of increased fetal wastage am...

Niklasson, B.; Liljestrand, J.; Bergstro?m, S.; Peters, C. J.

1987-01-01

370

Evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant status of pregnant women suffering from malaria in Cameroon  

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Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of malaria, especially in pregnancy where natural resistance is markedly reduced. In the present study we investigated oxidative stress in 315 pregnant women out of which 159 had Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 154 controls. We evaluated the level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA level) in the plasma, the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant defense enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC: 1.15.1.1) and catalase (Cat, EC: 1....

2009-01-01

371

Transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South-Western Uganda: Report of Three Cases in Pregnant Women  

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Plasmodium vivax is considered to be rare in the predominantly Duffy negative populations of Sub-Saharan Africa, as this red blood cell surface antigen is essential for invasion by the parasite. However, despite only very few reports of molecularly confirmed P. vivax from tropical Africa, serological evidence indicated that 13% of the persons sampled in Congo had been exposed to P. vivax. We identified P. vivax by microscopy in 8 smears from Ugandan pregnant women who had been enrolled in a l...

Dhorda, Mehul; Nyehangane, Dan; Re?nia, Laurent; Piola, Patrice; Guerin, Philippe J.; Snounou, Georges

2011-01-01

372

Serum cytokine levels and T lymphocyte subsets in pregnant women with eclampsia  

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Background: Eclampsia, defined as the occurrence during pregnancy of hypertension, oedema, proteinuria and/or other neurologic abnormalities, causes substantial morbidity and mortality for both mother and foetus. However, its aetiology is largely unknown. Genetic and immune factors may play a role including a reduced maternal response to paternal antigen and an altered adaptation of the maternal immune system to the foetus. Methods: Participants consisted of pregnant women with and without a ...

2012-01-01

373

Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children  

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This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Their rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 40....

2006-01-01

374

Operational problems of an iron supplementation programme for pregnant women: an assessment of UNRWA experience.  

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Assessed is a large-scale iron supplementation programme for the 70 000 pregnant refugee women cared for by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). For this purpose, a retrospective survey of 1267 antenatal records was conducted in health centres located in the West Bank, Gaza, Syrian Arab Republic, Jordan, and Lebanon. The following operational problems were identified: late entry to antenatal care; high drop-out rate from antenatal care; l...

1996-01-01

375

Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border  

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Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC) in a cohort of ...

Tan Saw; McGready Rose; Zwang Julien; Pimanpanarak Mupawjay; Sriprawat Kanlaya; Thwai Kyaw; Moo Yoe; Ashley Elizabeth A; Edwards Bridget; Singhasivanon Pratap; White Nicholas J; Nosten François

2008-01-01

376

Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based st...

Getachew Million; Yewhalaw Delenesaw; Tafess Ketema; Getachew Yehenew; Zeynudin Ahmed

2012-01-01

377

Rapid identification of pregnant women heavily colonized with group B streptococci.  

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Pregnant women admitted to Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, Fla., were cultured for group B streptococci (GBS). Culture swabs were placed into enriched, selective Todd-Hewitt medium and were quantitated for GBS. The broth cultures were tested by slide coagglutination before incubation and after 5 and 20 h of incubation. Fifty-four (27%) of the 201 maternity patients cultured were positive for GBS and were identified as such by slide coagglutination. A strong correlation was found between the ma...

Jones, D. E.; Friedl, E. M.; Kanarek, K. S.; Williams, J. K.; Lim, D. V.

1983-01-01

378

Escherichia coli Strains from Pregnant Women and Neonates: Intraspecies Genetic Distribution and Prevalence of Virulence Factors  

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To determine the extent to which the vagina, endocervix, and amniotic fluid screen the Escherichia coli strains responsible for neonatal infections, we studied the genetic relationships among 105 E. coli strains isolated from all of the ecosystems involved in this infectious process. Twenty-four strains were isolated from the intestinal flora, and 25 strains were isolated from the vaginas of pregnant women. Twenty-seven strains were isolated from the amniotic fluid, blood, and cerebrospinal f...

Watt, Ste?phane; Lanotte, Philippe; Mereghetti, Laurent; Moulin-schouleur, Maryvonne; Picard, Bertrand; Quentin, Roland

2003-01-01

379

Comparing of Physiologic Delivery and Traditional Vaginal Delivery in Pregnant Women Who Come to Kosar Hospital  

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In traditional vaginal delivery used any intervention such as: IV line, prescription of oxytocin and episiotomy but in physiologic delivery did not do any intervention and exit of placenta was spontaneously and patient position in favorable situation. Comparing laceration and hemoglobin decrease in physiologic delivery and traditional vaginal delivery. Recent study are analytical epidemiologic study, case control that doing in 500 pregnant women who come to Kosar hospital with labor pain that...

Fatemeh Lalooha; Faride Movahed; Talaat Dabaghi Ghaleh; Leila Alijani; Omid Mashrabi