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Sample records for talus slopes

  1. Dark streaks on talus slopes, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution pictures of talus slopes on Mars show small, dark streaks that characteristically widen downward. These streaks are different from the thin and even streaks of various albedos that stream from cliffs on talus slopes, but gradations between the two streak types occur and not all streaks can be classified with confidence. In order to study the nature and origin of the small, widening, dark streaks, all Viking pictures with a resolution of less than 100 m/pixel were surveyed. To date several hundred streaks were located, but only few are of high enough resolution to be confidently identified as widening downwards. The approximate dimensions of the streaks were measured and their shapes, numbers, position, and spacing on slopes were noted. They were plotted on a topographic map, and their relation to topography, geologic units, and regions of distinct thermal inertia and albedo were studied. Also noted was the season at which images containing streaks were acquired and the direction of illumination. Albedo measurements are in progress. Several streaks can be seen stereoscopically, but none are observed on color images. The observation of small dark streaks on talus slopes on Mars is compatible with an interpretation of their origin as eruptions of small masses of wet debris in places where steep walls intersect aquifers or where seasonal equatorial warming permits the local melting of ground ice.

  2. Relict slope rings and talus flatirons in the Colorado Piedmont: Origin, chronology and paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Morgan, Matthew L.; Matthews, Vincent; Gutiérrez, Mateo; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo

    2015-02-01

    In the Colorado Piedmont, talus flatiron chronosequences are associated with buttes that consist of erodible arkosic sandstone and resistant caprock. Following the removal of the caprock, some buttes evolve into crater-like relict slope rings resulting from the differential erosion of the soft bedrock in the core of the hills. These unique landforms are only documented in the Colorado Piedmont. Their development is attributed to the unusually high erodibility contrast between the low-cohesion sandy bedrock and the bouldery colluvial armor. The talus flatiron sequences and relict slope rings mapped in the three studied areas record alternating periods of accumulation and incision in the slopes that are likely controlled by changes in moisture availability and vegetation cover density. The obtained OSL dates place slope accumulation phases at > 124 ka, and ca. 73 ka, 50-40 ka, 15 ka, and 10-6 ka. A comparison of these geochronological data with paleoclimatic records from the region suggests that colluvium deposition occurred during periods of denser vegetation cover, which are controlled by climate changes. Further investigations, including additional and more accurate geochrological data from the relict slopes, will help to better understand the paleoclimatic significance of these largely unknown morphostratigraphic features.

  3. New insights into the ground thermal regime of talus slopes with permafrost below the timberline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Kneisel, Christof

    2013-04-01

    In the central Alps permafrost can be expected above 2400 m a.s.l., at altitudes where mean annual air temperatures are below -1° C. However, isolated permafrost occurrences are present in north-exposed talus slopes, far below the timberline, where mean annual air temperatures are positive. Driving factors are assumed to be a low income of solar radiation, a thick organic layer with high insulation capacities as well as the thermally induced chimney effect (Wakonigg, 1996). Investigated are three talus slopes with permafrost in the Swiss Alps that differ with regard to elevation level, talus material, humus characteristics and vegetation composition as well as the mean annual air temperatures. Aim is to achieve a deeper understanding of the factors determining the site-specific thermal regime, as well as the spatially limited and temporally highly variable permafrost occurrences in vegetated talus slopes. Focus is not solely on the question of why permafrost exists at these sites, but also why permafrost does not exist in the immediate surroundings. To detect the temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of the permafrost occurrences, electrical resistivity tomography monitoring, seismic refraction tomography monitoring, and quasi-3D ERT were applied. To determine the ground thermal regime, air-, ground surface-, and humus temperatures, as well as temperatures within vents of the chimneys were recorded. Furthermore, humus characteristics (thickness, -temperature and -moisture) were mapped in permafrost-affected slope areas and in the immediate surroundings. To test the correlation between solar radiation, permafrost distribution, and humus/vegetation composition, digital elevation models were used to calculate the income of solar radiation. The areal extent of the permafrost bodies coincide precisely with slope sections where the organic layer is thickest, a consistent moss cover is present, and where temperatures at the transition between humus layer and talus material are lowest. The interaction of factors driving the ground thermal regime turned out to be more complex than assumed with differences between the investigated sites. Besides convective heat transport of the chimney effect, conductive heat flow within the humus layer strongly influences the ground thermal regime. Supercooling of the talus material in winter and autumn is aggravated by a high thermal conductivity of the organic material under frozen and wet conditions. The preservation of permafrost is favoured by the high insulation capacity of dry organic material in summer and by a prolonged zero-curtain period of up to 3 months - driven by high water-storage capacity of the organic material - that buffers the propagation of warm temperatures into the subsurface in spring. The income of solar radiation at the foot of the slope does not state a major driving factor for the occurrence of permafrost. Variability is low between areas with and without permafrost. In fact, differences were detected upslope, below the rock-walls, with summer-values being lowest in areas above the permafrost occurrences. It must be assumed that this affects the thermal circulation of the chimney effect during summer and favours the persistence of frozen ground in spatially limited slope areas.

  4. Snow cover and ground surface temperature on a talus slope affected by mass movements. Veleta cirque, Sierra Nevada, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Salvador-Franch, F.

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyses the thermal ground behaviour on an alpine talus slope located at the foot of the north wall of the glacial cirque on the Pico del Veleta (3398 m, 37°03'21''N, 3°21'57''W, MAAT: -0,4°C) in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. There are frequent mass movements on this talus slope, particularly in its central section, caused by the abundant presence of fine-grained sediment and by the water from snowmelt and/or ice degradation in the ground or permafrost (Gómez et al., 2003). To determine the snowmelt pattern and ocurrence of permafrost, a continuous ground surface temperature was kept by installing 6 mini-loggers (HOBO Pendant) along the descending profile of the central talus, which is 170 m long with altitudes ranging from 3180 m at the higher end to 3085 m at the lower end. A thermal borehole was also installed at a depth of 2 m at the base of the slope on an active rock glacier. The results obtained for the period October 2008 - September 2009 show that, in contrast to alpine talus slopes (Luetschg et. al., 2004; Lambiel and Pieracci, 2008), the upper part of the slope is characterized by mean annual ground surface temperatures (MAGST) lower than at the base of the talus, possibly due to the effect of the shadow of the cirque wall. The MAGST oscillate between 0.592°C at the station near the slope apex (S2) and 1.836°C at the station near the base (S5). In winter-spring, when the talus slope is covered with snow, the GST are stabilized at all stations between mid-October and early November. The minimum GST, which express the BTS conditions, oscillate between 0.232 and 0.01°C, depending on the month, with lowest values recorded during the month of April. Only one station (S3, mid-slope) recorded negative values (max. value : - 0.549°C in December and - 0.211 in April ). In summer, the snow disappears fairly quickly between mid- and late July on the intermediate stretch of the talus slope (S3, S4, S6), where the majority of the flows detected occur. In the mid-upper part (S5, S2) the thaw occurs in mid-August. The GST data provide evidence of the current absence of permafrost along the talus slope profile, although some years ago it was detected using BTS methods (Gómez et al., 2003. Gómez-Ortiz, A., Palacios, D., Luengo, E., Tanarro, L. M.; Schulte, L. and Ramos, M., 2003. Talus instability in a recent deglaciation area and its relationship to buried ice and snow cover evolution (Picacho del Veleta, Sierra Nevada, Spain). Geografisca Annaler 85 A (2), 165-182. Lambiel, C. and Pieracci, K. 2008. Permafrost distribution in talus slopes located within the alpine periglacial belt, Swiss Alps. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 19: 293-304 Luetschg, M.; Stoeckli, M.; Lehning, M.; Haeberli, W., and Ammann, W. 2004. Temperatures in two boreholes at Flüela Pass, Eastern Swiss Alps: the effect of snow redistribution on permafrost distribution patterns in high mountain areas. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 15: 283-297. Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  5. Post-last glacial alluvial fan and talus slope associations (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria): A proxy for Late Pleistocene to Holocene climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Diethard; Ostermann, Marc

    2011-08-01

    Near Innsbruck city (Austria, Eastern Alps), following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), an alluvial fan-to-talus slope succession was supplied from a carbonate-rock cliff more than 1000 m in height. 234U/ 230Th ages of 9.5 to 9.37 isotope kyrs of diagenetic cements in the alluvial-fan succession suggest that the fan/talus deposit accumulated mainly during late-glacial to, perhaps, early Holocene times. The deepest-exposed interval of the fan succession contains cracked lithoclasts probably fractured by overburden from late-glacial ice; this interval is topped by an intra-sequence unconformity. Following final glacial retreat, and rapid aggradation of the alluvial fan and talus slope, the geomorphic regime changed to erosion, as recorded by fanhead trenching and cutting of fluvial terraces, abandonment and vegetating of scree slopes, and excavation of 'talus flatirons'. The changeover from the accumulation of fan and talus to abandonment and dissection probably took place during the terminal late-glacial interval to perhaps the early Holocene. This erosional regime persists until present. A record of rapid late-glacial to early Holocene accumulation of an alluvial fan/talus deposit followed by: (i) abandonment and vegetation growth, combined with (ii) cutting of intra-sequence unconformities of limited lateral extent, is typical of Alpine mountain-flank deposystems situated at comparatively low altitudes. This record consists of (a) an autocyclic component, that is, progressive lowering of sediment input due to onlap and burial of freshly-deglaciated mountain flanks supplying alluvial fans and talus slopes, and (b) an allocyclic component, that is, deglacial climatic warming and upward rise of an altitudinal range with a maximum number of freeze-thaw cycles ('talus window'), also leading to progressive vegetation-induced hillslope stabilization and lowering of scree production.

  6. Paediatric talus fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric talus fractures are rare injuries resulting from axial loading of the talus against the anterior tibia with the foot in dorsiflexion. Skeletally immature bone is less brittle, with higher elastic resistance than adult bone, thus the paediatric talus can sustain higher forces before fractures occur. However, displaced paediatric talus fractures and those associated with high-energy trauma have been associated with complications including avascular necrosis, arthrosis, delayed union, neurapraxia and the need for revision surgery. The authors present the rare case of a talar neck fracture in a skeletally immature young girl, initially missed on radiological review. However, clinical suspicion on the part of the emergency physician, repeat examination and further radiographic imaging revealed this rare paediatric injury.

  7. Osteochondral Allograft of the Talus

    OpenAIRE

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Rosso, Federica; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus are being recognized as an increasingly common injury. They are most commonly located postero-medially or antero-laterally, while centrally located lesions are uncommon. Large osteochondral lesions have significant biomechanical consequences and often require resurfacing with osteochondral autograft transfer, mosaicplasty, autologous chondrocyte implantation (or similar methods) or osteochondral allograft transplantation. Allograft procedures have become pop...

  8. [Posterior dislocation of the talus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, P; Hach, J; Tlustý St, Z

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of an open total talar extrusion. The patient was treated by reduction and transarticular Kirschner-wire fixation of the talus, suture of an associated Achilles tendon rupture and plaster cast immobilisation. The plaster cast and Kirschner wires were removed after 6 weeks. At 10 weeks after injury, the patient started to walk with full weight-bearing of the operated extremity. At 18 months after injury, the patient was free from subjective complaints, with persisting slight restriction of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and recurrent perimalleolar oedema. Neither MRI nor radiographic examination showed any avascular necrosis of the talus. The authors discuss the aetiology, diagnosis, therapeutic options and the most serious complications of this injury. PMID:24750970

  9. Completely extruded talus without soft tissue attachments

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    Jin-Soo Suh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A completely extruded talus without any remaining soft tissue attachments is extremely rare. The present report describes treatment of a 45-year-old man who sustained a completely extruded talus injury following a rockclimbing fall. Upon admission, the extruded talus was deep-frozen in our bone bank. The open ankle joint underwent massive wound debridement and irrigation for 3 days. Four days later we performed a primary subtalar fusion between the extruded talus and the calcaneus, anticipating revascularization from the calcaneus. However, aseptic loosening and osteolysis developed around the screw and talus. At 12 months post-trauma we performed a tibiocalcaneal ankle fusion with a femoral head allograft to fill the talar defect. Follow-up at 24 months post-trauma showed the patient had midfoot motion, tibio-talar-calcaneal fusion, and was able partake in 4-hour physical activity twice per week.

  10. Multidisciplinary investigations on coupled rockwall-talus-systems (Turtmann valley, Swiss Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Draebing, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Talus slopes covering the base of steep, unstable rockwalls are characteristic periglacial landforms and major sediment storages in mountain systems. In the Turtmann valley (Swiss Alps), rockfall deposits account for 1/8 of the debris volume stored in the hanging valleys. To evaluate the spatio-temporal efficiency of rockfalls for long-term talus evolution, geophysical measurements on rockwalls and talus slopes are increasingly applied during the last decades. However, the correct interpretation of the geophysical data is still a difficult task due to the landforms' specific material properties. Moreover, no comprehensive geophysical study exists investigating the coupled rockwall-talus-system. Here, we studied two rockwalls and corresponding talus slopes in a tributary of the Turtmann valley. The active rockfall source areas dominate on rockwalls, for which a high permafrost probability was modelled (Nyenhuis et al. 2005). Rockwalls were selected based on their contrasting lithology, activity degree and valley location. By combining geophysical, geotechnical and geomorphological methods, we investigated (i) the rockwalls' mechanical characteristics as well as (ii) the material properties of the talus slopes in order to (iii) gain a further process understanding of the coupled rockwall-talus system. (i) At the rockwalls, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) were applied along 40-50m transects with an electrode/geophone spacing of 1-1.25m. In addition, detailed geotechnical surveys of the rock mass and its discontinuity properties were performed. The combined results reveal that high resistivity (>10'000k?m) and high p-wave velocities (>3'000m/s) correlate with dried bedrock consisting of amphibolites with large joint spacing (52cm) and long persistences (> 220cm). In contrast, the small joint spacing (17cm) and short persistences (reflecting wet bedrock and fractured areas. In both rockwalls, the geophysical surveys disprove the local existence of permafrost. (ii) At the rockwalls' corresponding talus slopes, ERT and SRT were performed along 200m transects. Every 5m, equivalent to the electrode spacing, the block sizes (a, b, c-axis) of rockfall deposits were mapped in detail. The specific ERT seems to indicate the specific material properties, as high resistivities at the talus foot are linked to large block sizes, while patches of fine, relatively wet sediments near the apex are reflected by low resistivities. The very high p-wave velocities at the distal base of one of the talus may indicate the existence of ice. (iii) The synthesis of all data indicates that the joint spacing, lithology and the rock moisture patterns are major small-scale controls on the present-day destabilisation of the rockwalls, favouring the activity of wetting-drying and freeze-thaw cycles. Given the absence of permafrost in both rock faces, permafrost seems not to be relevant for the bedrock stability today, instead, unidirectional freezing on near-surface might be an effective breakdown mechanism. Depending on the contrasting rock mechanical and material properties of the rockwalls, different rockfall block sizes may be involved in the talus evolution, respectively. Therefore, our study reveals that the process understanding of the coupled rockwall-talus-system can be improved when geophysical data are interpreted in the light of the specific geotechnical and geomorphological landform conditions. Nyenhuis, M., M. Hoelzle, and R. Dikau, 2005, Rock glacier mapping and permafrost distribution modelling in the Turtmanntal, Valais, Switzerland, Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 49(3), 275-292.

  11. Simultaneous Bilateral Fracture Dislocation of the Talus: A Case Report

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    Mohammad Hosein Taraz-Jamshidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fracture - dislocations of the talus are typically due to high energy injuries. Displaced fracture - dislocations of the talus have poor outcomes in general and complications are common. Although talar fracture is common and comprises the second most common tarsal fracture, bilateral fracture - dislocations of the talus are rare. Not many reports regarding the subject can be found in the literature.Case Presentation: We report a patient with bilateral fracture - dislocations of the talus treated by open reduction and internal fixation. This patient was a 25 year-old man who sustained bilateral fracture - dislocation of the talus due to a motor vehicle accident.Conclusions: Bilateral talar fracture - dislocation is rare. The surgical approach discussed together with the pathomechanics of this injury can yield good short term results.

  12. Tibiotalar arthrodesis for injuries of the talus

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    Singh Jaswant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fracture-dislocation of the talus is one of the most severe injuries of the ankle. Opinion varies widely as to the proper treatment of this injury. Since Blair?s original description of the tibiotalar fusion in 1943, there is little mention in the literature of his method. The present study reports the results of tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair?s technique. Materials and Methods: Eleven cases of modified Blair ? s tibiotalar arthrodesis were retrospectively studied. The average age was 32.4 years (range, 26-51 years. Six patients had posttraumatic avascular necrosis; five had neglected fracture-dislocation of the talus. Results: The mean followup is 8 years (range 3-12 years. Tibiotalar fusion was achieved in all the ankles at an average of 20.5 weeks (range 16-28 weeks. Nine cases having 15°-20° tibiopedal motion had excellent results and two ankles having 10°-15° of tibiopedal motion had good result. Conclusion: We achieved good long term results with tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair technique. The principal modification in the present study is retention of the talar body while performing arthrodesis with anterior sliding graft. The retention of the talar body provides intraoperative stability and in the long term, the retained talar body shares the load transmitted to the anterior and middle subtalar joints thus resulting in improved hind foot function and gait.

  13. Benign chondroblastoma of talus demonstrated by skeletal scanning.

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    Ulreich, S; Swartz, G; Stier, S A; Philips, E

    1978-02-01

    A patient with a benign condroblastoma of the talus bone is described. A review of the pathogenesis and more common sites of predilection of this unusual tumor is presented. This is the first case, to our knowlege, shown by labeled phosphate scanning. PMID:657655

  14. Mixed approach (numerical modeling / equilibrium analysis) for slope stability analysis: development and application to the dams and open pit mining; Une approche mixte (numerique/equilibre limite) pour le calcul de stabilite des ouvrages en terre: developpement et application aux barrages et talus miniers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourdey, A.

    2002-09-15

    The determination of the sliding surface of slope (dam, slope natural..) is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnics. The Analyze of stability by the methods of Limit Equilibrium like the method of slices are the most used methods. They are able to determine a safety factor for a geometrically defined failure surface. These methods well adapted to the homogeneous mediums, have been developed a lot but they do not integrate the basic relations of mechanics (stress-strain). The numerical methods are better adapted to mediums having more complexity (effect of water, seismicity, fracturing,..). But, they are seldom used to determine a sliding surface and a safety factor. Each family offers appreciable advantages in the analysis of slope stability. For that purpose, we have developed a method that combines the advantages of the numerical methods as well as those of Limit Equilibrium allowing obtaining a slip surface determined by the calculated constraints. This slip surface may be imposed or better optimized, thus providing a minimal safety factor. Methods of operation research are used to obtain this surface. They are search methods by level, dynamic research.. or both at the same time. We integrated these developments in an existing computer code based on the method of Finite Differences known as FLAC. The stresses are determined for a linear behavior and for nonlinear. Interfaces and graphic tools are also produced to facilitate the analysis of stability. The validity of this approach was carried out for a standard case of slope, we analyzed and compared the results with the methods of Limit Equilibrium. The parametric study shows that this approach takes account of different parameters, which influences stability. We also kept a particular place for the application on real cases presenting slopes of different nature (dams, mining slops,...). (author)

  15. A Case Report of Sequela of Operation of Talus Osteonecrosis

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    Choi Sung-Hun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The clinic study or report about Oriental Medical treatment about osteonecrosis is very insufficient. Therefore, we report a case about a sequela of operation of talus osteonecrosis treated by Oriental Medical treatments. Methods : The patient was managed by bee venom and Carthami Flos Herbal-Acupuncture, Sa-am and body acupucture, oxibustion, physical theraphy and herbal medicine. We evaluated the patient through Visual Analogue Scale(VAS. Results : After 25 days of treatment, the patient showed that clinical symptoms was decreased and VAS changed from 10 to 2. Conclusion : In this case, Oriental Medical treatments for a sequela of operation of talus osteonecrosis was effective. But further studies are required to confirm the effect of these methods

  16. Congenital vertical talus: Treatment by reverse ponseti technique

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    Bhaskar Atul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surgery for idiopathic congenital vertical talus (CVT can lead to stiffness, wound complications and under or over correction. There are sporadic literature on costing with mixed results. We describe our early experience of reverse ponseti technique. Materials and methods: Four cases (four feet of idiopathic congenital vertical talus (CVT which presented one month after birth were treated by serial manipulation and casting, tendoachilles tenotomy and percutaneous pinning of talonavicular joint. An average of 5.2 (range - four to six plaster cast applications were required to correct the forefoot deformity. Once the talus and navicular were aligned based on the radiographic talus-first metatarsal axis, percutaneous fixation of the talo-navicular joint with a Kirschner wire, and percutaneous tendoachilles tenotomy under anesthesia was performed following which a cast was applied with the foot in slight dorsiflexion. Results: The mean follow-up period for the four cases was 8.5 months (6-12 months. At the end of the treatment all feet were supple and plantigrade but still using ankle foot orthosis (AFO. The mean talocalcaneal angle was 70 degrees before treatment and this reduced to 31 degrees after casting. The mean talar axis first metatasal base angle (TAMBA angle was 60° before casting and this improved to 10.5°. Conclusion: Although our follow-up period is small, we would recommend early casting for idiopathic CVT along the same lines as the Ponseti technique for clubfoot except that the forces applied are in reverse direction. This early casting method can prevent extensive surgery in the future, however, a close vigil is required to detect any early relapse.

  17. A systematic review of total dislocation of the talus.

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    Weston, John T; Liu, Xiaochen; Wandtke, Meghan E; Liu, Jiayong; Ebraheim, Nabil E

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the treatment and resulting outcomes for total talar dislocation. The PubMed database was searched for articles about humans with total talar dislocation published in the English language in the last twenty years. The following data were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet: type of dislocation, nature of associated fractures (if any), type of reduction/fixation utilized, immobilization, weight-bearing status, outcome, complications and average follow-up time. Thirty-nine articles reporting a total of 86 cases of total talar dislocation are included in this review. Seventy-three of these were open injuries and 13 closed. Forty-three cases had an associated foot or ankle fracture, 32 of those cases specifically having a fracture of the talus. The talus was preserved in the initial management of 74 cases, whereas the remaining 12 cases were managed by primary talectomy. The mean duration of follow-up was 32 months. Twenty-two cases required a secondary arthrodesis or another additional procedure. A good outcome was achieved in 35% of cases, a fair outcome in 37% and a poor outcome in 27%. The complication of avascular necrosis (AVN) occurred in 22 cases and 14 subjects developed clinically significant osteoarthritis. Generally, the outcome of current treatments associated with total talar dislocation is not ideal, only 1/3 of cases achieving good outcomes. So far, preservation of the talus is the best treatment option. AVN is still a relatively common complication even in the absence of fracture or postoperative infection. PMID:26033988

  18. Morphometric Changes in Talus of Club Foot A Gross Observation in Human Foetuses Cambios Morfométricos en Talus del Pie Zambo, una Observación Macroscópica en Fetos Humanos

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    Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the feet of six human foetuses of different age groups having unilateral club feet, were dissected for morphological study. Six morphometric parameters considered for comparing gross anatomical changes in normal and deformed feet, were 1-Maximum length of the talus, 2-Longitudinal dimension of head of talus, 3-Anterior trochlear breadth, 4-Maximum medial talar height, 5-Talar neck and calcaneal angle, 6-Talocalcaneal angle. All the foetuses with congenital club feet have almost similar deformity of foot skeleton. The gross anomalies observed were the smaller size of club foot talus and increased medial and planter deviation of a stunted, misshapen head and neck region. A medial plantar subluxation of the navicular bone with a consequent deformity of the articular facets of the talar head was also observed. Uniformity and consistency of anatomical abnormalities were striking features in present study.Para su estudio morfológico fueron disecados ambos pies de seis fetos humanos de distintas edades, uno de los pies era zambo. Seis parámetros morfométricos fueron considerados para la comparación de graves alteraciones anatómicas en los pies normales y deformes; estos fueron: 1. Longitud máxima del talus, 2. Dimensión longitudinal de la cabeza del talus, 3. Ancho troclear anterior, 4. Altura medial máxima del talus, 5. Cuello talar y ángulo calcáneo, 6. Ángulo talocalcáneo. Todos los fetos con pie zambo congénito tienen una deformidad similar del esqueleto del pie. Las anomalías graves observadas fueron el menor tamaño del talus del pie zambo, aumento de la desviación media y retraso en el crecimiento plantar, deformación de la cabeza y región del cuello talar. También se observó una subluxación medial plantar del hueso navicular, con un consecuente deformidad de las facetas articulares de la cabeza del talus. La uniformidad y consistencia de las anomalías anatómicas fueron los rasgos más llamativos en este estudio.

  19. Morphometric Changes in Talus of Club Foot A Gross Observation in Human Foetuses / Cambios Morfométricos en Talus del Pie Zambo, una Observación Macroscópica en Fetos Humanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Fazal-ur-Rehman; Nafis A, Faruqi.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Para su estudio morfológico fueron disecados ambos pies de seis fetos humanos de distintas edades, uno de los pies era zambo. Seis parámetros morfométricos fueron considerados para la comparación de graves alteraciones anatómicas en los pies normales y deformes; estos fueron: 1. Longitud máxima del [...] talus, 2. Dimensión longitudinal de la cabeza del talus, 3. Ancho troclear anterior, 4. Altura medial máxima del talus, 5. Cuello talar y ángulo calcáneo, 6. Ángulo talocalcáneo. Todos los fetos con pie zambo congénito tienen una deformidad similar del esqueleto del pie. Las anomalías graves observadas fueron el menor tamaño del talus del pie zambo, aumento de la desviación media y retraso en el crecimiento plantar, deformación de la cabeza y región del cuello talar. También se observó una subluxación medial plantar del hueso navicular, con un consecuente deformidad de las facetas articulares de la cabeza del talus. La uniformidad y consistencia de las anomalías anatómicas fueron los rasgos más llamativos en este estudio. Abstract in english Both the feet of six human foetuses of different age groups having unilateral club feet, were dissected for morphological study. Six morphometric parameters considered for comparing gross anatomical changes in normal and deformed feet, were 1-Maximum length of the talus, 2-Longitudinal dimension of [...] head of talus, 3-Anterior trochlear breadth, 4-Maximum medial talar height, 5-Talar neck and calcaneal angle, 6-Talocalcaneal angle. All the foetuses with congenital club feet have almost similar deformity of foot skeleton. The gross anomalies observed were the smaller size of club foot talus and increased medial and planter deviation of a stunted, misshapen head and neck region. A medial plantar subluxation of the navicular bone with a consequent deformity of the articular facets of the talar head was also observed. Uniformity and consistency of anatomical abnormalities were striking features in present study.

  20. Influence of Walking with Talus Taping on the Ankle Dorsiflexion Passive Range of Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Ji-won; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Park, Tae-Jin; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Jae-seop

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of walking with talus taping on the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF PROM) in individuals with limited ankle DF PROM. [Subjects] Fifteen ankles with limited DF PROM were examined. [Methods] After rigid strapping tape was applied to the ankles from the talus to the calcaneus, progressing posteriorly and inferiorly, the subjects walked on a walkway for 10?min. Using a goniometer, the ankle DF PROM was measured with the k...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Clubfoot and Vertical Talus: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Lisa; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hootnick, David; Dobbs, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital vascular alterations of the normal adult arterial pattern have been associated with multiple congenital limb deformities including clubfoot and vertical talus. Investigators have observed absence of the anterior tibial artery and dorsalis pedis artery in most patients with clubfoot, and absence of the posterior tibial artery in all patients with vertical talus. We used magnetic resonance angiography to define the lower extremity vascular anatomy of two patients with left-sided vert...

  2. Sediment storage and transfer on a periglacial mountain slope (Corvatsch, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johann; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Kenner, Robert; Thee, Patrick; Morche, David

    2014-08-01

    High mountain geomorphology is mostly characterized by high elevation, steep gradients, rocky terrain, the presence of snow and ice and the related processes occurring in a high energy environment. Large sources of sediment and sediment storages often exist within high mountain systems and are controlled by the processes occurring within this setting. The purpose of this study is to describe sediment paths on a periglacial mountain slope and quantify geomorphic work within one example year in order to analyze and compare sediment budgets in high mountain geosystems. This energy-related approach helps to characterize a periglacial slope on account of the effectiveness of its geomorphological processes and might help to understand the complex dynamic behavior of its constituent subsystems. A periglacial mountain slope is investigated in Eastern Switzerland (Corvatsch). The environment is characterized by a typical coarse debris cascade: rock wall ? rock fall ? talus slope ? permafrost creep ? rockglacier. Rockglaciers are considered to be sediment traps of the coarse debris system, reflecting the erosion history of the corresponding catchment. Headwall recession and creep processes of the talus slopes and rockglaciers are quantified by a multi-method-approach combining remote sensing and terrestrial methods. Multitemporal DEMs of the last two decades enabled the quantification of sediment transfer of the slow moving landforms (frozen talus slopes and rockglaciers). Sediment input from the rock wall is quantified by repeated laser scanning over the last 4 years. With the introduced cascading approach it is possible to assess dynamics within the coarse debris system. The mountain slope is divided into three subsystems (headwall, talus cone and rockglacier) and their dynamics are analyzed individually but also in relation to the entire mountain slope on a yearly base. A backweathering rate of 2 mm can be derived for the headwall and an energy transfer of 29.8 GJ from the headwall to the slope, 4 GJ from the talus slope to rockglacier where 1.44 GJ of geomorphic work are released by the downwards creep of the landform. This study is the first to include an analysis of the geomorphic work generated on the basis of vertically differentiated sediment production and transport processes.

  3. Rotational stiffness of football shoes influences talus motion during external rotation of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Meyer, Eric G; Braman, Jerrod E; Powell, John W; Haut, Roger C

    2012-04-01

    Shoe-surface interface characteristics have been implicated in the high incidence of ankle injuries suffered by athletes. Yet, the differences in rotational stiffness among shoes may also influence injury risk. It was hypothesized that shoes with different rotational stiffness will generate different patterns of ankle ligament strain. Four football shoe designs were tested and compared in terms of rotational stiffness. Twelve (six pairs) male cadaveric lower extremity limbs were externally rotated 30 deg using two selected football shoe designs, i.e., a flexible shoe and a rigid shoe. Motion capture was performed to track the movement of the talus with a reflective marker array screwed into the bone. A computational ankle model was utilized to input talus motions for the estimation of ankle ligament strains. At 30 deg of rotation, the rigid shoe generated higher ankle joint torque at 46.2?±?9.3 Nm than the flexible shoe at 35.4?±?5.7 Nm. While talus rotation was greater in the rigid shoe (15.9?±?1.6 deg versus 12.1?±?1.0 deg), the flexible shoe generated more talus eversion (5.6?±?1.5 deg versus 1.2± 0.8 deg). While these talus motions resulted in the same level of anterior deltoid ligament strain (approxiamtely 5%) between shoes, there was a significant increase of anterior tibiofibular ligament strain (4.5± 0.4% versus 2.3?±?0.3%) for the flexible versus more rigid shoe design. The flexible shoe may provide less restraint to the subtalar and transverse tarsal joints, resulting in more eversion but less axial rotation of the talus during foot?shoe rotation. The increase of strain in the anterior tibiofibular ligament may have been largely due to the increased level of talus eversion documented for the flexible shoe. There may be a direct correlation of ankle joint torque with axial talus rotation, and an inverse relationship between torque and talus eversion. The study may provide some insight into relationships between shoe design and ankle ligament strain patterns. In future studies, these data may be useful in characterizing shoe design parameters and balancing potential ankle injury risks with player performance. PMID:22667677

  4. Direct coronal computed tomography arthrography of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heare, M.M.; Gillespy, T. III; Bittar, E.S.

    1988-04-01

    Although radiographs, arthrography, tomography, and computed tomography can all be used to diagnose osteochondritis dissecans of the talus, these imaging methods may not demonstrate whether an undisplaced osteochondral fragment has any attachment to the articular cartilage or bony bed of the talus. As lack of such attachment is a relative indication for surgery, we studied the feasibility of using coronal computed tomography (CT) after double contrast arthrography to demonstrate attachment in four patients with osteochondritis dissecans seen on radiographs. Direct coronal CT arthrographic images showed intact articular cartilage in three patients. In the fourth patient, overlying cartilage was virtually absent and contrast tracked beneath the fragment, an appearance that correlated with arthroscopic findings of partial articular cartilage attachment and no union at the osteochondral fracture line. Our initial experience suggests that direct coronal CT arthrography clearly shows the state of attachment of the osteochondritic fragment to the talus.

  5. Direct coronal computed tomography arthrography of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiographs, arthrography, tomography, and computed tomography can all be used to diagnose osteochondritis dissecans of the talus, these imaging methods may not demonstrate whether an undisplaced osteochondral fragment has any attachment to the articular cartilage or bony bed of the talus. As lack of such attachment is a relative indication for surgery, we studied the feasibility of using coronal computed tomography (CT) after double contrast arthrography to demonstrate attachment in four patients with osteochondritis dissecans seen on radiographs. Direct coronal CT arthrographic images showed intact articular cartilage in three patients. In the fourth patient, overlying cartilage was virtually absent and contrast tracked beneath the fragment, an appearance that correlated with arthroscopic findings of partial articular cartilage attachment and no union at the osteochondral fracture line. Our initial experience suggests that direct coronal CT arthrography clearly shows the state of attachment of the osteochondritic fragment to the talus. (orig.)

  6. Impact of land-use change on soil degradation by establishment of terraces with subtropical orchards in sloping areas (Granada, SE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the coast of Granada, an intensive irrigated agriculture based on subtropical crops has been established. These trees have been planted in highly sloped areas, by the construction of terraces. In this fragile Mediterranean agroecosystem, the removal of native spontaneous vegetation cover and substitution by orchards, increase the susceptibility to soil degradation and eventually brings up the destruction of these structures by rainfall events. To study this net change, we monitored the soil loss and runoff over a two-year period in the taluses of terraces with a mature mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchard. The studied treatments were bare soil (BS) and spontaneous vegetation (NSV), each twice replicated. The erosion plots were 4 m x 4 m in area and were located in the taluses of orchard in the taluses of orchard terraces (65 degree centigrade slope). The average annual soil loss by erosion for BS and NSV was 2.5 and 0.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1, and for runoff 34.1 and 6.8 mm yr-1, respectively. Therefore, soil erosion and runoff from BS plot were 8- and 5-times higher than in NSV, showing the importance of plant covers in the taluses of terraces in reducing this impact. Thus, the removal of plant cover from the taluses under these conditions, represent a high risk of slump and collapse, causing serious environmental and economic problems for farmers of subtropical crops. (Author) 11 refs.

  7. Impact of land-use change on soil degradation by establishment of terraces with subtropical orchards in sloping areas (Granada, SE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Duran Zuzo, V. H.; Martin Peinado, F. J.; Franco Tarifa, D.

    2009-07-01

    In the coast of Granada, an intensive irrigated agriculture based on subtropical crops has been established. These trees have been planted in highly sloped areas, by the construction of terraces. In this fragile Mediterranean agroecosystem, the removal of native spontaneous vegetation cover and substitution by orchards, increase the susceptibility to soil degradation and eventually brings up the destruction of these structures by rainfall events. To study this net change, we monitored the soil loss and runoff over a two-year period in the taluses of terraces with a mature mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchard. The studied treatments were bare soil (BS) and spontaneous vegetation (NSV), each twice replicated. The erosion plots were 4 m x 4 m in area and were located in the taluses of orchard in the taluses of orchard terraces (65 degree centigrade slope). The average annual soil loss by erosion for BS and NSV was 2.5 and 0.3 Mg ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1, and for runoff 34.1 and 6.8 mm yr{sup -}1, respectively. Therefore, soil erosion and runoff from BS plot were 8- and 5-times higher than in NSV, showing the importance of plant covers in the taluses of terraces in reducing this impact. Thus, the removal of plant cover from the taluses under these conditions, represent a high risk of slump and collapse, causing serious environmental and economic problems for farmers of subtropical crops. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Osteochondrosis dissicans and osteoid osteoma - two disorders rarely seen together in the talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case is described where osteochondrosis dissicans and osteoid osteoma were encountered at the same time in the talus. These diseases have so far not been reported in the literature to occur in combined form and therefore required some time and effort to be diagnosed, using CT, MRT and scintigraphy as methods of diagnosis. (orig./MG)

  9. Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This activity introduces students to the concept of slope stability (or angle of repose). Using an apparatus they have constructed, the students will work in small groups to test the stability angle of fine gravel, sand, and topsoil, gradually increasing the angle of the apparatus until the test material begins to slide off (angle of first fall) and until all the material slides away (angle of total fall). They will record these values and note which materials held the steepest slopes. As an extension, they can mix the test materials and observe the effects of mixing grain sizes. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Contractile Gene (TNNT3, MYH3, TPM2) Mutations Not Found in Vertical Talus or Clubfoot

    OpenAIRE

    Gurnett, Christina A.; Alaee, Farhang; Desruisseau, David; Boehm, Stephanie; Dobbs, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Arthrogryposis presents with lower limb contractures that resemble clubfoot and/or vertical talus. Recently, mutations in skeletal muscle contractile genes MYH3 (myosin heavy chain 3), TNNT3 (troponin T3), and TPM2 (tropomyosin 2) were identified in patients with distal arthrogryposis DA2A (Freeman-Sheldon syndrome) or DA2B (Sheldon-Hall syndrome). We asked whether the contractile genes responsible for distal arthrogryposis are also responsible for cases of familial clubfoot or vertical talus...

  11. Free chondral fragement involving the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A saucer-shaped defect involving the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus and a radiopaque joint fragment were evident on radiographs of the left tarsus in a 6-month-old Rottweiler. Surgical treatment involved removal of the joint fragment and debridement of the defect. Histologic interpretation of the specimen was a chondral fragment. It is important to realize the possibility of a lesion in the location described, as this may be an additional site for osteochondrosis dissecans of the canine tarsus

  12. Estimação dos parâmetros do modelo do motor de indução usando o algoritmo Talus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Souza Filho Bezerra de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the algorithm Talus is applied to problem of parameter estimation of induction motor. The solution of the estimation problem is achieved minimizing a quadratic cost function. The data source used in the algorithm is the measured value of current end power in standard laboratory. The estimated parameters are compared with classical test (no-load and locked rotor either by simulation and experimentally

  13. Assessment of talus deformity by three-dimensional MRI in congenital clubfoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the morphological deformity of talus in congenital clubfoot by three-dimensional MRI. Material and method: Subjects were five patients (two male, three female, mean age 5 months) with unilateral congenital clubfoot. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed of both feet using 1.5 T magnet. Based on the resulting magnetic resonance imaging volume data, a three-dimensional surface bone model was reconstructed by the Marching Cubes method. The long axis of the reconstructed model was determined, and in relation to the standard planes including this axis, the degree of talar head and neck deviation, and the relative positioning of the talus and navicular in the talonavicular joint were compared between normal foot and clubfoot. Result: The talar head and neck angle in relation to the talus exhibited significant medial deviation in the clubfoot, but the degree of plantar deviation of the talar head and neck did not show significance. The navicular was located more medially in clubfoot than in normal foot. The volume of the total talar and of the ossific nucleus for the clubfoot was smaller than that for the normal foot. Conclusion: The assessment technique presented herein was shown to be useful in ascertaining the various pathological characteristics associated with clubfoot

  14. Neglected lateral process of talus fracture presenting as a loose body in tarsal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Kamal; Prabhakar, Sharad; Gahlot, Nitesh; Dhillon, Mandeep-S

    2011-01-01

    Lateral process fractures of talus are rare injuries with a potential to cause significant morbidity if misdiagnosed. The appropriate management of these fractures is still controversial and only a few reports are avai- lable on this subject. We presented a case of a 37-year-old male with neglected fracture on the lateral process of talus which was misdiagnosed at the time of injury. The patient presented to 7 months after misdiagnosis with a chronic ankle pain. Our case is unique in the sense that it is a rare case of neglected fracture on the lateral process of talus which presented as a loose body in sinus tarsi. However, a surgery with an excision of the loose body presented a satis- factory outcome along with 2 years' follow-up. To our knowledge, it ought to be the first case reported in the English literature. Through this case report, we highlight the importance of high index of suspicion for such rare bony injuries while evaluating trauma to the lateral side of ankle and discuss the principles of management of these fractures. PMID:22152145

  15. Effect of Talus Deposit Excavations on Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Kuvars Spring Water, Maltepe, Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Key

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spring waters consumed for drinking purposes should be clean and quality. These waters with balanced mineral distribution, which do not contain organic substances, whose physical and chemical caharacteristics comply with certain quality parameters and which do not negatively affect human health are identified as healthy water. Kuvars water is a spring water which is pumped out from the draw well at the Camurluk stream basin of Maltepe province of Istanbul and filled into bottles. The Camurluk stream basin is approximately 4.5 km2. The Camurluk stream basin is sedimentary rocks and talus deposit outcrops. Reaching of trace elements, which is found more in the talus deposit samples than outcropping quartzarenite at the basin, to underground aquifer as ions under effect of rains, water rock interaction, leakage and filtration, is prevented by illite type clay levels existing within the talus deposit stack, which have upto 20 cm thickness. However, negative effects of the excavation that were made at the talus deposit reflect on the hydrologic cycle and chemical compositions of well waters. This effect was at first negatively affected the physical characteristics of the well waters. During the rainy periods, the water in the excavated area which was enriched with respect to the suspended sediments was percolated into the groundwaters from the joints and cracks of the quartzarenite. The turbidity value measured in the well waters of K2 and K3 were determined as 40.3 NTU and 34.2 NTU respectively. Although at the basin, the aquifer of underground water and the well waters being managed are quartzarenite, the fact that water types belonging to well waters differ (they are not same according to the Piper diagram and when the heavy metal content of the water of well numbered KS1 is taken as basis, that some heavy metals such as Al3+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ be enriched 3 to 40 times in KS2 and KS3 well waters, are caused by talus deposit—water interaction at the excavation area. After a rainfall, in the water that became turbid with the water-talus deposit interaction at the excavation area, the water-mineral interaction has caused the limit value for drinking water suggested by World Health Organization (WHO to be exceeded with the Al3+ concentration of 189 ppb detected in KS2 well water and Fe2+ concentration of 185 ppb has caused to approach the drinking water limit value of 200 ppb permitted by World Health Organization (WHO, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, European Union (EU and Turkish Standards (TS. Therefore, at the water basins where bottled spring waters consumed for drinking purposes are produced, technical undertakings that shall disturb the stability of geological units should not be permitted.

  16. Epidemiological study on talus fractures / Estudo epidemiológico das fraturas do tálus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Hideyo, Sakaki; Guilherme Honda, Saito; Rafael Garcia de, Oliveira; Rafael Trevisan, Ortiz; Jorge dos Santos, Silva; Túlio Diniz, Fernandes; Alexandre Leme Godoy dos, Santos.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar as características dos indivíduos e das lesões encontradas em pacientes com fraturas de tálus. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos pacientes internados no Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 200 [...] 6 a 2011 com fratura de tálus. Foram estudados parâmetros associados ao perfil do paciente e fatores de risco, características da fratura, dados do tratamento e complicações agudas. Resultados: A análise dos 23 casos mostrou que os homens foram mais afetados do que as mulheres, com uma relação de 4,8:1. O mecanismo de trauma mais frequente foram os acidentes de trânsito, seguido pelas quedas de altura. O tipo de fratura mais frequente foi a do colo do tálus, com 17 casos. Dos 23 casos, sete apresentavam luxação peritalar no momento da apresentação, quatro tinham fratura exposta e 11 apresentavam outras fraturas associadas. O tempo médio entre o trauma e o tratamento definitivo foi de seis dias, enquanto o tempo médio de permanência hospitalar foi de 11 dias. Houve três pacientes que apresentaram complicações pós-operatórias agudas. Conclusão: A fratura do tálus foi mais comum na região do colo e mais frequente em jovens do gênero masculino que sofreram traumatismos de alta energia. Em quase metade dos casos houve fraturas associadas e o tempo de permanência hospitalar foi de 11 dias. Abstract in english Objective: To analyze the characteristics of patients with talus fractures and the injuries that they present. Methods: Retrospective analysis on patients hospitalized in the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, betwe [...] en 2006 and 2011, with talus fractures. Patient profile parameters, risk factors, fracture characteristics, treatment data and acute complications were analyzed. Results: Analysis on 23 cases showed that men were more affected than women, with a ratio of 4.8:1. The most frequent trauma mechanism was traffic accidents, followed by falls from a height. The most frequent type of fracture was at the neck of the talus, with 17 cases. Among the 23 cases, seven had peritalar dislocation at the time of presentation, four had exposed fractures and 11 presented other associated fractures. The mean length of time between the trauma and the definitive treatment was six days, while the mean length of hospital stay was 11 days. Three patients presented acute postoperative complications. Conclusion: Talus fractures occurred most commonly in the region of the talar neck and most frequently in young males who suffered high-energy trauma. In almost half of the cases, there were other associated fractures. The length of hospital stay was 11 days.

  17. Recurrent parosteal osteosarcoma of the talus in a 2-year-old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parosteal osteosarcoma is an uncommon, low-grade malignant bone tumor and is found in an older age group than conventional osteosarcoma. We present a talar parosteal osteosarcoma that recurred twice in a 2-year-old child. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a parosteal osteosarcoma. The talus is an unusual site for parosteal osteosarcoma. Inadequate resection due to a diagnosis of juxtacortical chondroma resulted in recurrence of the tumor. The age of the patient, the thick cartilaginous cap, and well-differentiated trabecular bone all contributed to the critical erroneous diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Osteochondrosis of the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus in seven Rottweiler dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven lesions of osteochondrosis in the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus were diagnosed in seven young Rottweiler dogs. Diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic evaluations. Defects in the lateral trochlear ridge and osteochondral fragments arising from the dorsal and proximal margins of the ridge were visible radiographically. The dorsal 45 degrees lateral-plantaromedial oblique (D45 degrees L-P1MO) projection was the most useful in identifying the lesions. Exploratory arthrotomies were performed in six affected tarsi. In three cases, histologic examination revealed mineralized osteochondral fragments consistent with a diagnosis of osteochondrosis

  19. Groundwater flow and storage within an alpine meadow-talus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. McClymont

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The different types of geological deposits and rock formations found in alpine watersheds play key roles in regulating the rate and timing of runoff to mountain rivers. Talus and alpine meadows are dominant features in these areas, but scant data exist for their capacity to store and transmit groundwater. To gain further understanding of these processes, we have undertaken a combined geophysical and hydrological study of a small (2100 m2 alpine meadow and surrounding talus within the Lake O'Hara watershed in the Canadian Rockies. Several intersecting ground-penetrating radar (GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT profiles and a seismic refraction profile were acquired to map the thickness of the talus and to image the topography of the bedrock basin that underlies the meadow. From analysis of the GPR and seismic profiles, we estimate that the talus deposits are relatively thin (<6 m. Combined interpretations from the GPR and ERT data show that the fine-grained sediment comprising the meadow basin has a total volume of ca. 3300 m3 and has a maximum thickness of ca. 4 m. Annual snow surveys and stream gauging reveal that the total input volume of snowmelt and rainfall to the meadow basin is several times larger than its groundwater storage capacity, giving rise to low total-dissolved species concentrations (14–21 mg/L within the meadow groundwater. Observations from four piezometers established on the meadow show that the water table fluctuates rapidly in response to spring snowmelt and precipitation events but otherwise maintains a relatively stable depth of 0.3–0.4 m below the meadow surface during summer months. A slug test performed on one of the piezometers indicated that the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the shallow meadow sediments is 2.5×10?7 m/s. We suggest that a bedrock saddle imaged underneath the southern end of the meadow forms a natural constriction to subsurface flow out of the basin and helps to maintain the stable water-table depth.

  20. Groundwater flow and storage within an alpine meadow-talus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. McClymont

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The different types of geological deposits and rock formations found in alpine watersheds play key roles in regulating the rate and timing of runoff to mountain rivers. Talus and alpine meadows are dominant features in these areas, but scant data exist for their capacity to store and transmit groundwater. To gain further understanding of these processes, we have undertaken a combined geophysical and hydrological study of a small (2100 m2 alpine meadow and surrounding talus within the Lake O'Hara watershed in the Canadian Rockies. Several intersecting ground-penetrating radar (GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT profiles and a seismic refraction profile were acquired to map the thickness of the talus and to image the topography of the bedrock basin that lies under the meadow. From analysis of the GPR and seismic profiles, we estimate that the talus deposits are relatively thin (<6 m. Combined interpretations from the GPR and ERT data show that the fine-grained sediment, that the meadow basin is comprised of, has a total volume of ca. 3300 m3 and has a maximum thickness of ca. 4 m. Annual snow surveys and stream gauging reveal that the total input volume of snowmelt and rainfall to the meadow basin is several times larger than its groundwater storage capacity, giving rise to low total-dissolved species concentrations (14–21 mg/L within the meadow groundwater. Observations from four piezometers established on the meadow show that the water table fluctuates rapidly in response to spring snowmelt and precipitation events but otherwise maintains a relatively stable depth of 0.3–0.4 m below the meadow surface during summer months. A slug test performed on one of the piezometers indicated that the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the shallow meadow sediments is 2.5×10?7 m/s. We suggest that a bedrock saddle imaged underneath the southern end of the meadow forms a natural constriction to subsurface flow out of the basin and helps to maintain the stable water-table depth.

  1. Accumulation of Lead (Pb in the Talus Lichenes Contained in Mahogany Tree Stands of Roadside of Medan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashar Hasairin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the accumulation of lead (Pb in the talus Lichenes found on roadside stands of mahogany trees in the city of Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Samples were taken by purposive, ie location based on the level of traffic density with different air pollution. Pb analysis was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Identified as many as 8 kinds of Lichens with 2 types, namely talus Crustose and foliose. Type of Lepraria incana and Pertusaria amara, which is found in the three study sites belonging to the cosmopolitan types. Pb accumulated in the talus Pertusaria amara ranged from 5.23 to 15.07 ppm. Being on Lepraria incana ranged 1.19 to 4.88 ppm. Pertusaria amara much larger than the Lepralia incana, have potential as bio-indicators of resistance. Lichenes Pb correlation with traffic density showed Pertusaria amara has a very high level and significant correlation compared with other types.

  2. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Secondary to an Unreported Ossicle of the Talus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweed, Tamer Ahmed; Ali, Seyed Asghar; Choudhary, Surabhi

    2014-10-31

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is a compression neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel. In about 80% of patients, a specific cause can be identified for TTS. We present a case of TTS secondary to an ossicle in close relation to the talus that, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported. A 26-year-old male presented with left ankle and foot pain that increased with activity and playing football. He had a tingling sensation and paresthesia in the sole and medial border of the foot along the distribution of the medial and lateral plantar nerves. Clinically, he had hard swelling at the floor of the tarsal tunnel, and Tinel's sign was positive. Computed tomography showed an accessory ossicle articulating with the posteromedial aspect of the talus, separating the flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus tendons, with tenosynovitis of the tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus tendons. Surgical release of the tarsal tunnel and excision of the ossicle were performed. Postoperatively, the patient showed dramatic improvement and had no complications or recurrence of symptoms after 8 months of follow-up. More interestingly, to the best of our knowledge, this ossicle has not been previously reported to cause TTS. PMID:25441278

  3. Estimates of slope erosion intensity utilizing terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanov, B.; Yermolaev, O.; Gafurov, A.

    2015-03-01

    Despite the large variety of methods for estimating slope erosion intensity, it is still difficult to obtain accurate erosion rates. Therefore, our goal was to develop a method to provide accurate estimates of sheet and rill erosion intensities, and evaluate denudation quantities due to abrasion, landslides and talus processes using a high-precision laser scanning system (Trimble® GX). Differential maps between all stages of surveying and TIN-models were built directly on point clouds in "Trimble® RealWorks" software. Inspection and cross-section tools were used for detailed study of ground movements on the slope surface and the development of linear erosion forms. A new method for accurate estimates of the erosion has been developed using terrestrial laser scanning techniques. It makes it possible to assess the denudation-accumulation balance on erosive slopes, determine the dynamics of the volume of material moved on different parts of the slope in various surface runoff events, and identify spatial regularities forming rill washouts.

  4. Virtually embedded boundary slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    We show that for certain hyperbolic 3-manifolds, all boundary slopes are slopes of immersed incompressible surfaces, covered by incompressible embeddings in some finite cover. The manifolds include hyperbolic punctured torus bundles and hyperbolic two-bridge knots.

  5. Snowboard, wakeboard, dashboard? Isolated fracture of the lateral process of the talus in a high-speed road traffic accident.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ng, Evangeline Shimei

    2013-01-01

    We present a 23-year-old man who sustained an isolated fracture of the lateral process of the talus (LPT) in a head-on vehicle collision at a combined speed of 200 km\\/h. The driver of the other vehicle sustained fatal injuries at the scene. The LPT was openly reduced and fixed with successful outcome at 3 months. This case is unusual in the method of injury, in particular in relation to the isolated relatively minor injury sustained.

  6. Imaging of fractures of the lateral process of the talus, a frequently missed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although if fractures of the lateral process of the talus (LPT) have been considered rare the widespread diffusion in snowboard practice has resulted in a dramatic increase in their frequency. If unrecognized they can result in secondary osteoarthritis of the ankle and/or talo-calcaneal joints and chronic pain and stiffness. Due to the complex anatomy of the region, these fractures are difficult to detect by standard radiographs. A high degree of suspicion is then necessary to diagnose them. Once suspected on the basis of physical examination and/or non concluding radiographs, computed tomography (CT) is the best modality to confirm the diagnosis and accurately appreciate the number of the fragments and their position which have therapeutic consequences (medical vs. surgical treatment). A better knowledge of these lesions seems necessary to the general radiologist to allow an early diagnosis in order to avoid chronic sequel. The purpose of this article is to report three additional cases of LPT fractures and discuss their pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

  7. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimaa, Pekka; Ojala, Risto; Markkanen, Paula; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland); Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Korhonen, Jussi [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oulu (Finland); Hyvoenen, Pekka [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI guidance for percutaneous retrograde drilling in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus (OCDT). Four patients, one juvenile and three adults, with one OCDT lesion each and persisting ankle pain after conservative treatment, were treated with MRI-guided retrograde drilling. All lesions were stable and located in the middle or posterior medial third of the talar dome. Pain relief and the ability to return to normal activities were assessed during clinical follow-up. MRI and plain film radiographs were used for imaging follow-up. Technical success was 100 % with no complications and with no damage to the overlying cartilage. All patients experienced some clinical benefit, although only one had complete resolution of pain and one had a relapse leading to surgical treatment. Changes in the pathological imaging findings were mostly very slight during the follow-up period. MRI guidance seems accurate, safe and technically feasible for retrograde drilling of OCDT. Larger series are needed to reliably assess its clinical value. (orig.)

  8. Where the Slopes Are

    CERN Document Server

    Gouvêa, F Q

    2000-01-01

    Fix a prime number p and choose, once and for all, an embedding of the algebraic closure of Q into Qp. Let k and N be integers, and suppose N is not divisible by p. If f is a modular form of weight k, level N, and trivial character which is an eigenform for the p-th Hecke operator Tp, we define the slope of f to be the p-adic valuation of the eigenvalue of Tp. This paper reports on computations that suggest that there is quite a lot of structure to the set of slopes for eigenforms of varying weight k. In particular, we find that the slopes are often smaller than expected, that they are almost always integers, that there is evidence of a connection between fractional slopes and slopes which are "bigger than usual", and that there are some hints of a connection to the theory of theta-cycles.

  9. Enucleación medial de astrágalo abierta: Evolución a medio plazo / Medial dislocation of the talus: Medium term evolution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., García Mata; A., Hidalgo Ovejero; F., Martínez de Lecea.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 57 años con enucleación abierta medial del astrágalo izquierdo, con fractura suprasindesmal de peroné, por traumatismo indirecto. Se realizó lavado, limpieza del astrágalo y partes blandas, Friedrich, reducción, fijación con agujas de kirschner, sutura del ligamento deltoideo y osteosínt [...] esis del peroné. No hubo infección superficial ni profunda postoperatoria. Permaneció seis semanas de inmovilización y tres meses en descarga. Dos años después no había signos radiológicos de necrosis avascular. En gammagrafía ósea realizada a los 18 meses de la lesión se observaba necrosis avascular parcial astragalina. Tres años después de la lesión realizaba vida normal, sin dolor en reposo pero sí a la marcha y movilidad con limitación de la dorsiflexión (-20º). Cinco años y medio después de la lesión presentaba hundimiento de cúpula astragalina por la necrosis avascular con sintomatología dolorosa a la marcha y diástasis tibio-peronea distal, que requirió realizar artrodesis tibio-astragalina. Abstract in english Fifty-seven year old patient with open medial dislocation of the left talus, with suprasyndesmotic fracture of the fibula, due to indirect traumatism. The following were carried out: washing, cleaning the talus and the soft parts, Friedrich, reduction, fixing with Kirschner needles, suture of the de [...] ltoid ligament, and osteosynthesis of the fibula. There were neither surface nor deep post-operational infections. The patient underwent six weeks of immobilisation and spent three months on discharge. Two years later there were no radiological signs of avascular necrosis. In the osseous gammagraphy carried out 18 months after the lesion, partial avascular necrosis of the talus was observed. Three years after the lesion, the patient was able to carry out a normal life, without pain in repose but with pain whilst moving, and mobility with limitation of dorsoinflection (-20º). Five and a half years after the lesion, the patient presented sinking of the talar dome due to avascular necrosis, with painful symptomatology whilst moving, and tibiofibular distal diastasis, which required ankle arthrodesis.

  10. Snowboard, wakeboard, dashboard? Isolated fracture of the lateral process of the talus in a high-speed road traffic accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evangeline Shimei; O'Neill, Barry James; Cunningham, Laurence Patrick; Quinlan, John Francis

    2013-01-01

    We present a 23-year-old man who sustained an isolated fracture of the lateral process of the talus (LPT) in a head-on vehicle collision at a combined speed of 200 km/h. The driver of the other vehicle sustained fatal injuries at the scene. The LPT was openly reduced and fixed with successful outcome at 3 months. This case is unusual in the method of injury, in particular in relation to the isolated relatively minor injury sustained. PMID:23845688

  11. Elastic slopes and diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that elastic hadronic slopes grow with energy and appear sizeably larger when measured very close to t=0 than at intermediate t-values. This has been confirmed by the recent anti-p p measurements at the CERN SPS-Collider. By comparing the data with a formula derived recently which gives the slope as a function of the four momentum transfer squared t and of the average multiplicity we argue that all the basic properties of hadronic slopes may be attributed to the role of multiparticle unitarity, i.e. to diffraction

  12. Functional anatomy of the calcaneum and talus in Cercopithecinae (Mammalia, Primates, Cercopithecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of the order Primates exist a huge variety of forms and habitats. This heterogeneity has encouraged the evolution and development of a great number of locomotor adaptations to different environments. Thus, nowadays there are both arboreal and terrestrial groups within the order. The subfamily Cercopithecinae present taxa with both kinds of locomotor behaviours, although the most of them are adapted to a ground life-style. This group probably has an arboreal ancestor and its radiation is relatively recent. Consequently, species belonged to this group present mixed features or sometimes not too much derived ones. Likewise, it is important the fact that the evolutionary history and phylogeny of the group could influence in some characteristics. Both the calcaneum and the talus are two of the largest bones of the foot and are good for inferring the kind of locomotion. For this reason, it has been used these two tarsal bones to study the morphology of eight species of cercopithecines and then deduce functional implications of the kind of locomotion.

    Dentro del orden Primates existe una gran variedad de especies distribuidas a lo largo de hábitats muy diversos. Dicha heterogeneidad ha fomentado la evolución y desarrollo de un gran número de adaptaciones locomotoras a los diferentes ambientes en los que habitan. Así, existen en la actualidad tanto grupos arborícolas como terrestres. La subfamilia Cercopithecinae agrupa una serie de taxones que representan ambos comportamientos locomotores, aunque la mayoría de las especies están adaptadas a una vida en el suelo. Se supone que este grupo desciende de un ancestro arborícola y que su radiación es relativamente reciente. En consecuencia, las especies de este grupo presentan características mixtas o poco derivadas en algunas ocasiones. Asimismo, es importante tener en cuenta la influencia que la herencia filogenética puede tener sobre alguno de estos rasgos. El calcáneo y el astrágalo son dos de los huesos más grandes del pie y ambos son buenos indicadores del tipo de locomoción. Por este motivo, se han utilizado estos dos tarsales para llevar a cabo el estudio de la morfología de ocho especies de cercopitecoideos, de tal manera que luego se ha podido hacer una serie de inferencias funcionales en cuanto al tipo de locomocón de las mismas.

  13. A sloping gas duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sloping gas duct of the THTR-300 MWe reactor connects the hot gas collection space to the steam raising unit. A sloping perforated plate is provided to even out the speed and temperature distribution at the angle. The perforated plate has circular holes, which are distributed on a regular grid. The perforated plate is made of metal or ceramic material. The free cross-section is at least 50%. (DG)

  14. Infiltration into pyroclastic slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, L.; Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mountainous areas of Northern Campania, Southern Italy, are characterized by steep slopes covered with pyroclastic deposits, in form of alternating layers of volcanic ashes and pumices, laying upon a pervious fractured calcareous bedrock, in some cases covered by a thin layer of impervious weathered ashes. Slope inclination is often larger than internal friction angle of such ashes (around 38°), thus equilibrium is assured by the contribution of apparent cohesion due to soil suction in unsaturated conditions. That is why, during intense and persistent rainfall events, when soil approaches saturation and consequently suction decreases, shallow landslides are frequently triggered. The physical characteristics of involved soils are such that landslides often evolve in form of debris flows, which can cause huge damages to buildings and infrastructures and, in some cases, even casualties. Understanding the role played by rainfall infiltration processes is essential to develop reliable models of slope response. To this aim, for the slope of Cervinara, where a large debris flow occurred in the past, laboratory infiltration tests and in situ monitoring are being carried out. Infiltration and evaporation tests are performed on artificial deposit reconstituted in a model slope subjected to controlled uniform rainfall, with various inclinations and bottom boundary conditions. The coupled values of soil suction and water content, observed during the experiments, have allowed defining the water retention curves experienced by the pyroclastic soil in the model slope. The performed infiltration experiments have been simulated with a mathematical model based on the integration of Richards equation with the finite volumes technique. The use of the retention curves obtained from the experiments allowed to build up reliable mathematical models of infiltration also in the case of layered slopes. Recently at the slope of Cervinara an automatic in situ monitoring station has been set up. The data of soil water content and suction collected during one year allow distinguishing different hydraulic behaviour of soil layers, and estimating soil hydraulic characteristic curves. In particular, the water retention curves derived from in situ monitoring show some differences compared to that observed in the infiltration tests on model slopes. The use of the in situ retention curves from the monitoring will allow better calibration of mathematical models of infiltration also in the case of complex geometry.

  15. Slope Stability Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides information as well as a downloadable demo version of a slope stability and reinforced soil analysis and design software. The software includes an analysis option which analyzes strata profile and groundwater conditions, surcharge loads and earthquake forces, slip surfaces, and reinforced soil options. Data input and editing can also be performed as well as output from the program and graphics.

  16. Allometric shape vector projection: A new method for the identification of allometric shape characters and trajectories applied to the human astragalus (talus)

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, W. C. H.; Ruto, A.; Soligo, C.; Chatterjee, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The surface morphology of the human astragalus (talus) is difficult to represent accurately using landmarks as it is essentially globular in shape. Advances in laser scanning technology allow fast and accurate capture of bone surface morphology. However, methodologies to utilise these new accurate 3D data have not been fully developed. The present study uses canonical sampling of whole surface morphology attained through laser scanning and for the first time applies the te...

  17. The surgical treatment of children with congenital convex foot (vertical talus): evaluation of midtarsal surgical release and open reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanoudjame, M; Loriaut, P; Seringe, R; Glorion, C; Wicart, P

    2014-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the results of midtarsal release and open reduction for the treatment of children with convex congenital foot (CCF) (vertical talus) and compared them with the published results of peritalar release. Between 1977 and 2009, a total of 22 children (31 feet) underwent this procedure. In 15 children (48%) the CCF was isolated and in the remainder it was not (seven with arthrogryposis, two with spinal dysraphism, one with a polymalformative syndrome and six with an undefined neurological disorder). Pre-operatively, the mean tibiotalar angle was 150.2° (106° to 175°) and the mean calcaneal pitch angle was -19.3° (-72° to 4°). The procedure included talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joint capsulotomies, lengthening of tendons of tibialis anterior and the extensors of the toes, allowing reduction of the midtarsal joints. Lengthening of the Achilles tendon was necessary in 23 feet (74%). The mean follow-up was 11 years (2 to 21). The results, as assessed by the Adelaar score, were good in 24 feet (77.4%), fair in six (19.3%) and poor in one foot (3.3%), with no difference between those with isolated CCF and those without. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society midfoot score was 89.9 (54 to 100) and 77.8 (36 to 93) for those with isolated CCF and those without, respectively. At the final follow-up, the mean tibiotalar (120°; 90 to 152) and calcaneal pitch angles (4°; -13 to 22) had improved significantly (p < 0.0001). Dislocation of the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints was completely reduced in 22 (70.9%) and 29 (93.6%) of feet, respectively. Three children (five feet) underwent further surgery at a mean of 8.5 years post-operatively, three with pes planovalgus and two in whom the deformity had been undercorrected. No child developed avascular necrosis of the talus. Midtarsal joint release and open reduction is a satisfactory procedure, which may provide better results than peritalar release. Complications include the development of pes planovalgus and persistent dorsal subluxation of the talonavicular joint. PMID:24891587

  18. Using Submarine Landslides to Predict Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Doan

    Students use detailed bathymetric maps to find submarine landslides and compare the slope of these slides to the slope of hills near school and home. By comparing the slopes they can consider slope failure, especially during earthquakes.

  19. Root tensile strength relationships and their slope stability implications of three shrub species in the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Matteo

    2007-07-01

    The role of root strength is important in stabilising steep hillslopes which are seasonally affected by storm-induced shallow landslides. In the Italian Apennines, steep (25-40°) slopes underlain by mudstone are generally stable if they are covered by shrubs whose roots anchor into the soil mantle. To quantify the mechanical reinforcement of roots to soil, the root tensile breaking force and the root tensile strength of three autochthonous shrub species commonly growing on stiff clay soils of the Northern Italian Apennines, Rosa canina (L.), Inula viscosa (L.) and Spartium junceum (L.), were measured by means of field and laboratory tests. For each test approximately 150 root specimens were used. The tensile force increases with increasing root diameter following a second-order polynomial regression curve. The tensile strength decreases with increasing root diameter following a power law curve. The field in situ tensile force required to break a root is always smaller than that obtained from laboratory tests for the same root diameter, although their difference becomes negligible if the root diameter is smaller than 5 mm. The influence of root tensile strength on soil shear strength was verified based on the infinite slope stability model. The root reinforcement was calculated using the number and mean diameter of roots. The factor of safety was calculated for three different soil thickness values (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 m) and topographic slopes between 10° and 45°. The factor of safety for the combination of 0.6 m soil thickness, slopes smaller than 30°, and vegetation of I. viscosa (L.) or S. junceum (L.) is always larger than 1. If a slope is steeper, the factor of safety may be smaller than 1 for I. viscosa (L.), although it is still larger than 1 for S. junceum (L.). In the stiff clayey areas of the Northern Italian Apennines, I. viscosa (L.) mainly colonizes fan/cone/taluses and stabilises these zones up to a topographic gradient < 30° for a soil 0.6 m thick. S. junceum (L.) colonizes not only fan/cone/taluses but also headwalls and cliffs and, for a 0.6 m thick soil, it stabilises these areas up to 45°. The effectiveness of this reinforcement, however, depends strongly on the frequency of soil and seasonal grass vegetation removal due to shallow landsliding before the entrance of the shrub species.

  20. Arthroscopic Excision of Bone Fragments in a Neglected Fracture of the Lateral Process of the Talus in a Junior Soccer Player

    OpenAIRE

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Kato, Soki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Marumo, Keishi

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the lateral process of the talus are uncommon and often overlooked. Typically, they are found in adult snowboarders. We report the case of an 11-year-old male soccer player who complained of lateral ankle pain after an inversion injury 6 months earlier. He did not respond to conservative treatment and thus underwent arthroscopic excision of fragments of the talar lateral process. The ankle was approached through standard medial and anterolateral portals. A 2.7-mm-diameter 30° ar...

  1. Car Depreciation (rate and slope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is for students to use the concept of the rate of depreciation in a real world situation to investigate the relationship between rate and slope. Students create ordered pairs, graph depreciating car values, and calculate rates of depreciation, then identify that the rate of depreciation = slope of the line. Using the equation they then solve for future values and times.

  2. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi2 (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives

  3. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  4. Contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of talus skip metastases of Ewing's sarcoma of the calcaneus in a child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikry Tarik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ewing's sarcoma of the calcaneus is rare. About thirty cases with calcaneus involvement have been reported in the literature. Talus skip metastases have rarely been described in the available literature Case presentation We report a case of a 14-year-old Moroccan boy, who presented with Ewing's sarcoma of his right calcaneus, diagnosed by swelling of the calcaneus evolving over a year. Radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an important tumoral process of the calcaneus and talus skip metastases. The diagnosis was confirmed with histology after a biopsy. In spite of amputation and postoperative chemotherapy, our patient died six months later due to secondary respiratory distress after lung metastasis. Conclusion Imaging, especially magnetic resonance, is important in the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma and skeletal skip metastases. Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma consists of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgical resection depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With the exception of lesions in the calcaneus, the prognosis for disease-free survival of Ewing's sarcoma of the foot is excellent.

  5. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage of the ankle joint: Results after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC)-aided reconstruction of osteochondral lesions of the talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess cartilage quality using delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus using autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC). Materials and methods: A three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (SGE) sequence at 3 T was used to obtain quantitative T1 relaxation times before and after Gd-DTPA2 (Magnevist, 0.2 mM/kg bod weight) administration to assess 23 cases of AMIC-aided repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Delta relaxation rates (?R1) for reference cartilage (RC) and repair tissue (RT), and the relative delta relaxation rate (r?R1) were calculated. The morphological appearance of the cartilage RT was graded on sagittal dual-echo steady-state (DESS) views according to the “magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue” (MOCART) protocol. The study was approved by the institutional review board and written consent from each patient was obtained. Results: The AMIC cases had a mean T1 relaxation time of 1.194 s (SD 0.207 s) in RC and 1.470 s (SD 0.384 s) in RT before contrast medium administration. The contrast-enhanced T1 relaxation time decreased to 0.480 s (SD 0.114 s) in RC and 0.411 s (SD 0.096 s) in RT. There was a significant difference (p > 0.05) between the ?R1 in RC (1.372 × 10?3/s, range 0.526–3.201 × 10?3/s, SD 0.666 × 10?3/s) and RT (1.856 × 10?3/s, range 0.93–3.336 × 10?3/s, SD 0.609 × 10?3/s). The mean r?R1 was 1.49, SD 0.45). The mean MOCART score at follow-up was 62.6 points (range 30–95, SD 15.3). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that repair cartilage resulting from AMIC-aided repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus has a significantly lower glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content than normal hyaline cartilage, but can be regarded as having hyaline-like properties

  6. Radioecological reliability of slope ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural and technogenic cataclysms taking place in Ukraine bring to the forefront the problem of estimation and forecast of different ecosystems type. Theory and models of the radio capacity and reliability developed by us allow to describe adequately regularities of radionuclide migration and redistribution in slope ecosystems, and carry out mathematical modeling of investigated phenomena. That will give the possibility to use special countermeasures

  7. Establishing proof of concept: Platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate may improve cartilage repair following surgical treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall A Smyth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries in the athletic patient. They present a challenging clinical problem as cartilage has a poor potential for healing. Current surgical treatments consist of reparative (microfracture or replacement (autologous osteochondral graft strategies and demonstrate good clinical outcomes at the short and medium term follow-up. Radiological findings and second-look arthroscopy however, indicate possible poor cartilage repair with evidence of fibrous infill and fissuring of the regenerative tissue following microfracture. Longer-term follow-up echoes these findings as it demonstrates a decline in clinical outcome. The nature of the cartilage repair that occurs for an osteochondral graft to become integrated with the native surround tissue is also of concern. Studies have shown evidence of poor cartilage integration, with chondrocyte death at the periphery of the graft, possibly causing cyst formation due to synovial fluid ingress. Biological adjuncts, in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC, have been investigated with regard to their potential in improving cartilage repair in both in vitro and in vitro settings. The in vitro literature indicates that these biological adjuncts may increase chondrocyte proliferation as well as synthetic capability, while limiting the catabolic effects of an inflammatory joint environment. These findings have been extrapolated to in vitro animal models, with results showing that both PRP and BMAC improve cartilage repair. The basic science literature therefore establishes the proof of concept that biological adjuncts may improve cartilage repair when used in conjunction with reparative and replacement treatment strategies for osteochondral lesions of the talus.

  8. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Svrkota

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope conditions as well as the present condition of the High Slope Waste Dump.

  9. Plant Distribution - Slope and Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn Koller, Los Angeles Perce College

    This project includes student collection of plant distribution data using GPS and the correlation of this distribution with abiotic factors such as slope and aspect. Students use a field meeting to collect and record longitude and latitude data; back in class the data are entered into an ArcView project containing a DEM of the field area. Students then speculate on the correlation between plant distribution and these abiotic factors.

  10. Kuhse, Singer and slippery slopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fairbairn, G. J.

    1988-01-01

    Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer recently examined the view expressed by John Lorber that whereas at times it is permissible to allow severely handicapped infants to die, killing them must never be allowed. In attempting to demonstrate the mistaken nature of Lorber's fear that allowing active infanticide would lead us onto a slippery slope Kuhse and Singer make much use of John Harris's paper in the Journal of Medical Ethics in which he criticised Lorber's views. This paper examines some aspects ...

  11. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars. The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material. Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity. Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material. In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface. Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km (170.1 miles). At this distance the image scale is 54.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 163 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 03:36 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 53 degrees, thus the sun was about 37 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 150.7 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Summer. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  12. Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, A; A. Carstensen; Pohl, W.

    2004-01-01

    We present a suite of extensions for ARCVIEW GIS™ (ESRI) that allows to map the spatial distribution of first-order mechanical slope-properties in hard rock terrain, e.g. for large slope areas like water reservoir slopes. Besides digital elevation data, this expert-system includes regional continuous grid-based data on geological structures that might act as potential sliding or cutoff planes for rockslides. The system allows rapid automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical slope...

  13. Stability of Volcanic Slopes in Cold Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Shima Kawamura; Seiichi Miura

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall- and earthquake-induced failures of slopes formed by volcanic soils occur frequently in Hokkaido, Japan. This study aims at clarifying failure mechanisms of volcanic slopes caused by both rainfall and freeze-thaw action in cold regions such as Hokkaido. Additionally, the mechanical behavior of volcanic slopes pre-deformed due to cyclic loadings such as seismic loadings were examined to elucidate the effect of initial water content on rainfall-induced failure of volcanic slopes. Using...

  14. A simple limit for slope instability

    CERN Document Server

    Stoppa, J

    2009-01-01

    Ross and Thomas have shown that subschemes can K-destabilise polarised varieties, yielding a notion known as slope (in)stability for varieties. Here we describe a special situation in which slope instability for varieties (for example of general type) corresponds to a slope instability type condition for certain bundles, making the computations almost trivial.

  15. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Svrkota; Radoje Pantovi?; Miodrag Žiki?; Saša Stojadinovi?; Dejan Petrovi?

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope condi...

  16. Graphing Equations on the Cartesian Plane: Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    2007-01-01

    The lesson teaches students about an important characteristic of lines: their slope. Slope can be determined either in graphical or algebraic form. Slope can also be described as positive, negative, zero, or undefined. Students get an explanation of when and how these different types of slope occur. Finally, students learn how slope relates to parallel and perpendicular lines. When two lines are parallel, they have the same slope and when they are perpendicular their slopes are negative reciprocals of one another. Prerequisite knowledge: Students must know how to graph points on the Cartesian plane. They must be familiar with the x- and y- axes on the plane in both the positive and negative directions.

  17. Prótese do tornozelo híbrida em um caso de necrose avascular pós-traumática do tálus Hybrid ankle prosthesis in a case of post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the talus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Gomes de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas do astrágalo originam frequentemente artrose pós-traumática tardia. Nestes casos, a utilização de próteses do tornozelo não cimentadas de última geração tem sido evitada pela presença de necrose avascular. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com 65 anos que se apresenta quatro anos após uma fratura do colo do astrágalo. Apresentava uma artrose do tornozelo dolorosa (escala AOFAS do retropé e tornozelo 19 e necrose avascular com colapso de toda a cúpula astragalina. Dada a extensão da necrose, foi decidido cimentar o componente protésico astragalino. Um ano após a cirurgia, o paciente apresenta bom resultado clínico e radiológico (escala AOFAS do retropé e tornozelo 87 e está satisfeito com o procedimento. Não temos conhecimento de nenhum relato semelhante na literatura.Talus fractures often lead to late post-traumatic arthrosis. In such cases, the use of latest generation, cementless prostheses has been hindered by the presence of avascular necrosis. We report the case of a 65-year-old patient who presented four years after a talus neck fracture. He had painful ankle arthrosis (AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score 19 and avascular necrosis, with collapse of the entire talar dome. Given the extent of the necrosis, it was decided to cement the talus prosthetic component. One year after the surgery, the patient shows good clinical and radiological results (AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score 87 and is satisfied with the procedure. We are not aware of any similar reports in the literature.

  18. Prótese do tornozelo híbrida em um caso de necrose avascular pós-traumática do tálus / Hybrid ankle prosthesis in a case of post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the talus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Jorge Gomes de, Sousa; Ricardo Pedro Ferreira Rodrigues, Pinto; Marta Maria Teixeira de Oliveira, Massada; Manuel Alexandre Negrais Pinho Gonçalves, Pereira; José Muras, Geada; Isabel Maria Gonçalves, Costa.

    Full Text Available As fraturas do astrágalo originam frequentemente artrose pós-traumática tardia. Nestes casos, a utilização de próteses do tornozelo não cimentadas de última geração tem sido evitada pela presença de necrose avascular. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com 65 anos que se apresenta quatro anos após uma [...] fratura do colo do astrágalo. Apresentava uma artrose do tornozelo dolorosa (escala AOFAS do retropé e tornozelo 19) e necrose avascular com colapso de toda a cúpula astragalina. Dada a extensão da necrose, foi decidido cimentar o componente protésico astragalino. Um ano após a cirurgia, o paciente apresenta bom resultado clínico e radiológico (escala AOFAS do retropé e tornozelo 87) e está satisfeito com o procedimento. Não temos conhecimento de nenhum relato semelhante na literatura. Abstract in english Talus fractures often lead to late post-traumatic arthrosis. In such cases, the use of latest generation, cementless prostheses has been hindered by the presence of avascular necrosis. We report the case of a 65-year-old patient who presented four years after a talus neck fracture. He had painful an [...] kle arthrosis (AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score 19) and avascular necrosis, with collapse of the entire talar dome. Given the extent of the necrosis, it was decided to cement the talus prosthetic component. One year after the surgery, the patient shows good clinical and radiological results (AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score 87) and is satisfied with the procedure. We are not aware of any similar reports in the literature.

  19. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in the mid-term follow-up of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle and talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Definition of the prognostic value of clinical and morphological findings in the mid-term follow-up of OCD of the femoral condyle and talus. Demonstration of the consolidation of OCD on MRI depending on different therapies. Materials and Methods: 76 patients were examined before and at an average of 30 months after conservative or surgical therapy using T1 and T2 weighted SE and 3D-FISP sequences and contrast enhanced studies. Six clinical (age, gender, site, duration and severity of symptoms, therapy) and six morphological (size, signal intensity, fragmentation, contrast enhancement, condition of cartilage, staging) data were registered on first MRI and correlated with the degree of consolidation of OCD (partial and complete remission, no change and progression) on control MRI. Results: Patients under 17 years showed partial or complete remissions in 73%, those of 17 years or older in 33%. Conservatively treated patients had a higher remission rate (54%) than those treated with different surgical techniques (drilling 50%, refixation 43%, abrasio 38%). Small OCDs had a higher remission rate than large lesions (63% vs. 33%). OCDs covered with intact cartilage healed better than lesions with chondral defects (61% vs. 26%). Contrast enhancing fragments had a better prognosis than non-enhancing lesions (100% vs. 40%). Conclusions: Prognosis of OCD can be better estimated when size of OCD, condition of cartilage and enhancement of contrast agf cartilage and enhancement of contrast agent is graduated with MRI and patient age is registered. The consequences for therapy planning are great. (orig.)

  20. Construction of embankments with steep slopes

    OpenAIRE

    ?ulsi?, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this degree is different methods for construction of steep slopes. For long-term stability and usefulness of the steep slopes it is necessary to provide additional support forces to ensure safe construction and use of banks. For the safe construction and use of steep slopes, I presented four possible variants of the retaining structures. I considered two types of gravity retaining structures and retaining structures that rely on the reinforcement of soil. The stu...

  1. Error Reduction in Slope Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fleurisson, Jean-alain; Cojean, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Slopes in quarries and open pit mines, as well as all the types of embankments (stockpiles, tailing dams, waste dumps) resulting from mining and mineral processing activities, must be considered as "geotechnical structures". Therefore, the design and implementation of these structures must be conducted with all consideration.The main aim of this chapter is to highlight the basic principles of the slope design process, to review the methods of stability analysis and slope design, as well as th...

  2. Influence of ground water on slope stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujic, J.

    1983-04-01

    This paper outlines the principles and advantages of determining slope stability in the presence of ground water using the finite element method. The impact of ground water on slope stability is taken into account. The calculation of stable slopes using the method is accomplished in 6 phases. This paper deals with the calculations related to the fifth and sixth phases. The advantages and disadvantages of the method compared with the Bishop and Jambo methods are outlined. (13 refs.)

  3. Slope Estimation from ICESat/GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Mahoney

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique to infer ground slope angle from waveform LiDAR, known as the independent slope method (ISM. The technique is applied to large footprint waveforms (\\(\\sim\\ mean diameter from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS to produce a slope dataset of near-global coverage at \\(0.5^{\\circ} \\times 0.5^{\\circ}\\ resolution. ISM slope estimates are compared against high resolution airborne LiDAR slope measurements for nine sites across three continents. ISM slope estimates compare better with the aircraft data (R\\(^{2}=0.87\\ and RMSE\\(=5.16^{\\circ}\\ than the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM inferred slopes (R\\(^{2}=0.71\\ and RMSE\\(=8.69^{\\circ}\\ ISM slope estimates are concurrent with GLAS waveforms and can be used to correct biophysical parameters, such as tree height and biomass. They can also be fused with other DEMs, such as SRTM, to improve slope estimates.

  4. Slope factor and shallow landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2014-05-01

    Elevations in a mature mountain are generally normally distributed and slope gradients do. Shallow landslides occur on hill slopes and involve only regolith on the slopes. The slope gradient distribution of shallow landslides (including rock falls) is also a normal distribution; similar to that of natural slopes in shape, but shifting to a higher gradient. A probability of failure curve, which is defined as the ratio of landslide cells and total cells at each interval of a factor, then shows a shape close to a cumulative normal distribution and may be fitted with a Weibull curve. The probability of failure curve commonly shows an increase of failure from gradient about 0.5 to about 1.5, and then become saturated. There are few landslides located at slope less than about 26 degrees and lost its correlation with slope when slope greater than about 56 degrees, indicating landslide type change (rock falls). This is true for the storm-induced landslides. As to the earthquake-induced landslides, there are differences to the storm-induced landslides both in distribution curve and probability of failure curve. Earthquake-induced landslides most occurred at slope gradient from 20 degrees to 54 degrees and shows a mode about 42 degrees, whereas storm-induced landslides most occurred at slope gradient from 20 degrees to 44 degrees and shows a mode about 33 degrees. There are fewer occurrences of rock falls in a storm event than that in an earthquake event. Also, earthquake-induced landslides do not show saturation at higher slope gradients in the probability of failure curve. Normally distributed topographic pattern may skew in young mountains, like those in southern Taiwan or hilly terrain in western Taiwan, and the characteristic Weibull-shaped probability of failure curve may change also. It even becomes not applicable when a very extreme storm event is involved, like typhoon Morakot event in 2009 in southern Taiwan.

  5. Internal waves and temperature fronts on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thorpe

    Full Text Available Time series measurements from an array of temperature miniloggers in a line at constant depth along the sloping boundary of a lake are used to describe the `internal surf zone' where internal waves interact with the sloping boundary. More small positive temperature time derivatives are recorded than negative, but there are more large negative values than positive, giving the overall distribution of temperature time derivatives a small negative skewness. This is consistent with the internal wave dynamics; fronts form during the up-slope phase of the motion, bringing cold water up the slope, and the return flow may become unstable, leading to small advecting billows and weak warm fronts. The data are analysed to detect `events', periods in which the temperature derivatives exceed a set threshold. The speed and distance travelled by `events' are described. The motion along the slope may be a consequence of (a instabilities advected by the flow (b internal waves propagating along-slope or (c internal waves approaching the slope from oblique directions. The propagation of several of the observed 'events' can only be explained by (c, evidence that the internal surf zone has some, but possibly not all, the characteristics of the conventional 'surface wave' surf zone, with waves steepening as they approach the slope at oblique angles.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (benthic boundary layers; limnology, Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  6. Contribution of terrestrial and helicopter based laser scanning for studying the Sechilienne rock slope instability (Isère, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliez, Cindy; Abellan Fernandez, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Chanut, Marie-Aurélie; Dubois, Laurent; Duranthon, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The Sechilienne landslide, which is located in the Romanche valley (France) is a well instrumented mass movements of about 650 m high and 250 m wide, with a potential volume of 3 million cubic meters of material in the active part (Duranthon, 2004; Kasperski, 2010). The slope, which is mainly composed of micaschist, is characterized by the presence of a NE-SW sub-vertical fracturing system involved in the destabilization of the area. Several investigations are being performed by different research groups on this landslide, including fieldwork investigations, remote sensing, seismic acquisitions, geochemistry, deformation analysis by extensometers, etc. There exists a current concern related with the development of a failure that could dam the Romanche River, which could cause flooding with significant consequences for the valley downstream. The rock slope has continuously moving since the eighties decade, with a progressive acceleration during the last years. Furthermore, a higher rockfall activity has been observed in 2013, with two main events within the upper most active part of the landslide, with volumes of 1500 and 2500 m3. In this work, we used Terrestrial Laser Scanning to obtain high resolution point clouds of the rock slope geometry in order to monitor the rock slide displacements in three dimensions. Eight different fieldwork campaigns were performed during the last five years, as follows: Aug. 2009, Jul. 2010, Nov. 2011, Nov. 2012, Jun. and Nov. 2013, Jul. and Oct. 2014, which provides a set of 3D representations of the rock slope topography over time. Furthermore, three helicopter-based laser scanning campaigns were performed in Jan. 2011, Feb. 2012 and Feb. 2014 (Chanut, 2014). Both the type of data are complementary for the study of the movement and allow to have a good spatial vision of the evolution of the most active part. Data processing was carried out through several steps using Polyworks software, as follows: (a) cleaning of scans, (b) alignment of the scans using only the stable areas of the slope, (c) georeferencing, and (d) comparisons among all the scans. As for the results, we obtained positive and negative values of surface changes between the period of study, which enabled us to characterize rockfalls and displacements on the rock slope. In the upper part, we observed that several areas (from 1 to 1000 m3) suffered higher values of displacements (from several decimeters to a maximum value of 4 meters), indicating the presence of a progressive failure in these parts of the slope. The failure mechanism observed on this areas correspond to a toppling. On the lower part of the rock slope we observed the accumulation of the fallen material and a series of surface processes on the talus. Furthermore, we carried out the tracking of hundred blocks in the upper part of the slope in order to identify potential events. Once the individual blocks fell, we used 3DReshaper for calculating their volumes and for determining a power law distribution of rock falls in the slope. The acquisition of dense and accurate terrain information using LiDAR for study the Sechilienne landslide has been useful for investigating the unstable area as regards the failure mechanism, the magnitude of displacements, the rockfall frequency of the most unstable areas, etc.

  7. Research on the stability evaluation of slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to create the guideline corresponding to a new regulatory standard, such as criteria in the ground-slope stability evaluation method, we have conducted an analysis and discussion of the shaking table test results using a large slope model. As a result, it was found that in that phase of the vertical motion and the horizontal motion affects the amplification characteristics of the ground motion, need to be considered in assessing the safety of the slope and the influence of the phase difference amplification or local. We also conduct a study on countermeasure construction slope by shaking table test, the effect of the countermeasure construction of pile and anchors deterrence could be confirmed. Focusing on the new method can reproduce the behavior of large deformation and discontinuity, with respect to the advancement of slope analysis, we identify issues on the maintenance and code applicability of each analysis method. (author)

  8. Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of extensions for ARCVIEW GIS™ (ESRI that allows to map the spatial distribution of first-order mechanical slope-properties in hard rock terrain, e.g. for large slope areas like water reservoir slopes. Besides digital elevation data, this expert-system includes regional continuous grid-based data on geological structures that might act as potential sliding or cutoff planes for rockslides. The system allows rapid automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical slope properties in hard rock, providing the basis for spatially distributed deterministic sliding-susceptibility evaluations on a pixel base. Changing hydrostatic slope conditions and rock mechanical parameters can be implemented and used for simple predictive static stability calculations. Application is demonstrated for a study area in the Harz Mts., Germany.

  9. Examining the relation of osteochondral lesions of the talus to ligamentous and lateral ankle tendinous pathologic features: a comprehensive MRI review in an asymptomatic lateral ankle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Melissa M; Protzman, Nicole M; Mandelker, Eiran M; Malhotra, Amit D; Schwartz, Edward; Brigido, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Given the frequency and burden of ankle sprains, the pathologic features identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are widely known in the symptomatic population. Ankle MRI pathologic features in the asymptomatic population, however, are poorly understood. Such examinations are rarely undertaken unless an ankle has been injured or is painful. We report the systematic MRI findings from the reports of 108 consecutive asymptomatic lateral ankles (104 patients). Our purpose was to (1) report the prevalence of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) and pathologic features of the medial and lateral ligaments, peroneal tendons, and superior peroneal retinaculum (SPR); (2) correlate the presence of OLTs with the pathologic features of the medial and lateral ligaments, peroneal tendons, and SPR; and (3) correlate ligamentous discontinuity with the peroneal pathologic features, OLTs, and SPR pathologic features. A total of 16 OLTs (14.81%) were present (13 medial and 3 lateral). Of the 16 patients with OLTs, 8 (50.00%) had concomitant peroneal pathologic findings. Healthy medial and lateral ligaments were noted in 41 patients (37.96%), and ligamentous discontinuity was grade I in 25 (23.15%), II in 32 (29.63%), III in 5 (4.63%), and grade IV in 5 patients (4.63%). A weak positive correlation was found between attenuation or tears of the superficial deltoid and medial OLTs (phi coefficient = 0.23, p = .0191) and a moderate positive correlation between tears of the posterior talofibular ligament and lateral OLTs (phi coefficient = 0.30, p = .0017). Additionally, a moderate positive correlation between ligamentous discontinuity and tendinopathy of the peroneus brevis was noted [Spearman's coefficient(106) = 0.29, p = .0024]. These findings add to the evidence of concomitant pathologic features in the asymptomatic population. To definitively assess causation and evaluate the clinical evolution of radiologic findings, future, prospective, longitudinal cohort studies are necessary. PMID:24796886

  10. Tratamento das lesões osteocondrais do talo através da técnica de microperfurações assistidas por artroscopia / Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus by means of thearthroscopy-assisted microperforation technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Everton de, Lima; Felipe de, Queiroz; Osmar Valadão, Lopes Júnior; Leandro de Freitas, Spinelli.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar pacientes acometidos por fratura osteocondral do talo tratados cirurgicamente através de microperfurações assistidas por artroscopia. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 24 pacientes com lesão osteocondral do talo submetidos à microperfurações assistidas por videoart [...] roscopia do tornozelo. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao sistema de avaliação da American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) no pré e pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 19 homens e cinco mulheres, com idade média de 35,3 anos (mínima de 17 anos e máxima de 54 anos). O tempo mínimo de seguimento foi de dois anos (máximo de 39 meses). Todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do escore da AOFAS após o procedimento cirúrgico, com média de elevação do escore em torno de 22,5 pontos. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de microperfurações assistidas por videoartroscopia consiste em boa opção para o tratamento das lesões osteocondrais do talo e fornece bons resultados funcionais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients affected by osteochondral fractures of the talus who were treated surgically by means of arthroscopy-assisted microperforation. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 24 patients with osteochondral lesions of the talus who underwent microperforation assiste [...] d by videoarthroscopy of the ankle. They were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score system before and after the operation. RESULTS: There were 19 men and 5 women, with a mean age of 35.3 years (minimum of 17 years and maximum of 54 years). The minimum follow-up was two years (maximum of 39 months). All the patients showed an improvement in AOFAS score after surgery, with an average improvement of around 22.5 points. CONCLUSION: Videoarthroscopy-assisted microperforation is a good option for treating osteochondral lesions of the talus and provides good functional results.

  11. Stability of Volcanic Slopes in Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kawamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall- and earthquake-induced failures of slopes formed by volcanic soils occur frequently in Hokkaido, Japan. This study aims at clarifying failure mechanisms of volcanic slopes caused by both rainfall and freeze-thaw action in cold regions such as Hokkaido. Additionally, the mechanical behavior of volcanic slopes pre-deformed due to cyclic loadings such as seismic loadings were examined to elucidate the effect of initial water content on rainfall-induced failure of volcanic slopes. Using model slopes of different shapes constructed with volcanic soils, a series of model tests was conducted under several conditions in which spray nozzles and a shaking table were used to simulate rainfall intensity and cyclic loadings. Test results showed that surface failure of volcanic slopes differed depending strongly on their initial moisture content. Based on the results of model testing, the effects of freezing and thawing and cyclic loadings on mechanisms of rainfall-induced failure were drawn upon to propose an evaluation method for slope stability. The model test results indicated that rainfall-induced failure can be uniquely assessed by changes in water content in zones subjected to freezing and thawing or to shearing deformation due to cyclic loadings.

  12. Secondary mathematics teachers' knowledge of slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sheryl

    1999-09-01

    This study, conducted in the United States, investigated secondary mathematics teachers' concept definitions, mathematical understanding, and pedagogical content knowledge of slope. Surveys were collected from 18 preservice and 21 inservice teachers; 8 teachers from each group were also interviewed. Geometric ratios dominated teachers' concept definitions of slope. Problems involving the recognition of parameters, the interpretation of graphs, and rate of change challenged teachers' thinking. Teachers' descriptions of classroom instruction included physical situations more often than functional situations. Results suggest that mathematics teacher education programs need to specifically address slope as a fundamental concept, emphasising its connection to the concept of function.

  13. Quadratic integer programming and the slope conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Garoufalidis, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    The Slope Conjecture relates a quantum knot invariant, (the degree of the colored Jones polynomial of a knot) with a classical one (boundary slopes of incompressible surfaces in the knot complement). The degree of the colored Jones polynomial can be computed by a suitable (almost tight) state sum and the solution of a corresponding quadratic integer programming problem. We illustrate this principle for a 2-parameter family of 2-fusion knots. Combined with the results of Dunfield and the first author, this confirms the Slope Conjecture for the 2-fusion knots.

  14. High slope efficiency liquid crystal lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, Carrie; Morris, Stephen M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Coles, Harry J.

    2010-12-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate high slope efficiency laser emission from reflective liquid crystal laser devices with a silicon backplane. Three different cell architectures were fabricated and each resulting laser device was then characterized in terms of the excitation threshold and the slope efficiency when optically excited close to the absorption maximum of the gain medium (pyrromethene 597). By combining a high gain medium with double-pass geometry, as well as the optimum cell thickness, the results demonstrate that it is possible to reduce thresholds by 25% and achieve slope efficiencies as high as 60%.

  15. The Grass Fires on Slopes Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C. B.; Seto, D.; Heilman, W.

    2010-12-01

    Fire-atmosphere interactions and their role on fire behavior in complex terrain are not well understood. While there have been many accounts of fire behavior in mountainous areas, there exists few, if any, studies that have focused on obtaining in situ meteorological and fire behavior data in complex terrain. The Grass Fires on Slopes Experiment aims to measure fire-atmosphere interactions during experimental head fires on sloped terrain. The first experiment was conducted on 24 June 2010 and was associated with strong (8 m/s) cross-slope winds. Preliminary results show that even under strong cross winds, the sensible heat flux from the fire front of 100 kW m-2 was strong enough to generate updrafts of 7 m/s. Fire-induced winds were also observed as the fire front crossed the slope. A pressure drop of 0.5 mb was observed just before the fire front passage.

  16. Slope movements in Callejón de Huyalas, Peru.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Zapata, M. L.; Stemberk, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 35, supplementum (2003), s. 39-51. ISSN 0300-5402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : slope movements * natural hazards * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Negative magnetoresistance slope in superconducting granular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The theory explaining recently observed negative magneto-resistance slope in ultra-thin YBa2Cu2O7?? films is developed. • Considering film as an array of the Josephson junctions, we solve the sine-Gordon equations including a viscosity term. • The solution yields a negative magneto-resistance slope setting in agreement with the experimental results. - Abstract: A phenomenological theory is developed to explain the recently observed negative magnetoresistance slope in ultra-thin granular YBa2Cu2O7?? films. Viewing this system as a two-dimensional array of extended Josephson junctions, we numerically solve the sine-Gordon equations including a viscosity term that increases linearly with the external field. The solution yields a negative magnetoresistance slope setting in at a field that is determined by the geometry and thus independent of temperature, in agreement with the experimental results

  18. Negative magnetoresistance slope in superconducting granular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Boris Ya., E-mail: shapib@mail.biu.ac.il; Shapiro, Irina; Levi, Daniel; Shaulov, Avner; Yeshurun, Yosef

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • The theory explaining recently observed negative magneto-resistance slope in ultra-thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7??} films is developed. • Considering film as an array of the Josephson junctions, we solve the sine-Gordon equations including a viscosity term. • The solution yields a negative magneto-resistance slope setting in agreement with the experimental results. - Abstract: A phenomenological theory is developed to explain the recently observed negative magnetoresistance slope in ultra-thin granular YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7??} films. Viewing this system as a two-dimensional array of extended Josephson junctions, we numerically solve the sine-Gordon equations including a viscosity term that increases linearly with the external field. The solution yields a negative magnetoresistance slope setting in at a field that is determined by the geometry and thus independent of temperature, in agreement with the experimental results.

  19. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  20. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  1. Slope stability under seismic activity and precipitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, C.; Havenith, H.-B.

    2009-04-01

    Processes leading to slope failures are often difficult to describe / understand since they involve complex interactions of seismic, geological and hydro-meteorological factors. To date, we are still puzzled by the triggering of the Kainama loess earthflow in April 26 2004, in the Gulcha region (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia), in the transitional zone between the Fergana Basin in the north and the Alai Range in the south. Indeed, numerical simulations conducted so far and using the 2D finite difference code FLAC have shown that the Kainama slope failure is not of purely static origin and cannot be related to a high water table. In addition, the modelling of successive small magnitude earthquakes similar to the ones that struck the Kainama slope a few weeks before the triggering of the loess earthflow, has shown that small permanent deformations develop along and within the slope. The remaining question is whether a slope that suffered from repetitive but moderate seismic activity prior to groundwater level rise (spring rains and snow melting) is prone to a delayed failure. The scope of the present study is therefore to incorporate in the modelling the effect of spring rains. Slope stability will be assessed considering various rainfall scenarios characterized by the intensity and the duration of the precipitations. Besides, we will take into account the slope geometry degradation due to previous and small extent failures caused by seismic shaking. The implications of such a work are important to support the need for the maintain of an active protection of populations in mountainous areas hit by earthquakes since slopes that do not fail co-seismically may result in mass movements after heavy rains in mid / long term.

  2. Quadratic integer programming and the slope conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; van der Veen, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The Slope Conjecture relates a quantum knot invariant, (the degree of the colored Jones polynomial of a knot) with a classical one (boundary slopes of incompressible surfaces in the knot complement). The degree of the colored Jones polynomial can be computed by a suitable (almost tight) state sum and the solution of a corresponding quadratic integer programming problem. We illustrate this principle for a 2-parameter family of 2-fusion knots. Combined with the results of Dunf...

  3. "Overburden stability of rock slopes in quarries"

    OpenAIRE

    Oggeri, Claudio; Del Greco, Otello; Fornaro, Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Many ornamental and industrila stone quarries are located along steep slopes or within particular geostructural domains in the Italian Alpine range. The stability of the overburden formations, such as detritic or cohesionless materials, blocky and altered elements or morainic formations, can be compromised by exploitation activities. In other cases there is a natural evolution of the slope, due to singular but diffused phenomena such as block falls, or due to global movements caused by gravit...

  4. Electrokinetic Geotextile Stabilization Of Embankment Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of repair of slope depends on site conditions and cost. This includes reducing the slope, installing horizontal drains, soil nailing and providing stability by structural methods. All these methods have their limitations and some are very costly. Another alternative is the electrokinetic stabilization of slopes. EKG reinforcement or soil nails not only provide reinforcement, but also increase the shear strength of the soil in which they are placed as well as improving soil-reinforcement bond. The development of EKG materials offers slope stabilisation of embankments and cuttings in fine grained soils, which will significantly increase the factor of safety , address pore pressure changes and also avoids importing earthwork materials or aggregates. By inserting a grid of anodes and a cathode into the ground and applying an electrical potential difference across the slope drives water away, via the cathodes and creates physical changes in the embankment, promoting consolidation of the slope materials. Anodes and cathodes were connected to a DC power circuit and electrified for a calculated period based on water content, strength and electrode spacing. The conductive geotextile used was coir geotextile and it was woven with steel filament in weft direction only. The steel filament made the geotextile conductive. The geotextile used was natural geotextile and it is required after the end of construction of embankment only, till the completion of dissipation of pore pressure.

  5. Slope Estimation in Noisy Piecewise Linear Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Bucklew, James; Sethares, William; Varghese, Tomy

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a slope estimation algorithm called MAPSlope for piecewise linear data that is corrupted by Gaussian noise. The number and locations of slope change points (also known as breakpoints) are assumed to be unknown a priori though it is assumed that the possible range of slope values lies within known bounds. A stochastic hidden Markov model that is general enough to encompass real world sources of piecewise linear data is used to model the transitions between slope values and the problem of slope estimation is addressed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach. The set of possible slope values is discretized, enabling the design of a dynamic programming algorithm for posterior density maximization. Numerical simulations are used to justify choice of a reasonable number of quantization levels and also to analyze mean squared error performance of the proposed algorithm. An alternating maximization algorithm is proposed for estimation of unknown model parameters and a convergence result for the method is provided. Finally, results using data from political science, finance and medical imaging applications are presented to demonstrate the practical utility of this procedure. PMID:25419020

  6. Numerical computation of homogeneous slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuangshuang; Li, Kemin; Ding, Xiaohua; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS) to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759) were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS). PMID:25784927

  7. Sequelas a longo prazo de fracturas do corpo e colo do astrágalo / Long-term results of body and neck talus fractures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Jorge Gomes de, Sousa; Marta Maria Teixeira de Oliveira, Massada; Manuel Alexandre Negrais Pinho Gonçalves, Pereira; Isabel Maria Gonçalves, Costa; José Fernando Souzellas da Costa e, Castro.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As fracturas do colo e corpo do astrágalo são lesões infrequentes. O objectivo deste estudo é avaliar a prevalência de sequelas a longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva que incluiu um total de 11 doentes sujeitos a tratamento cirúrgico por fracturas do corpo ou colo do a [...] strágalo entre Janeiro de 1997 e Dezembro de 2005. A avaliação final foi clínica (utilizando a escala AOFAS) e radiológica. RESULTADOS: O seguimento médio foi 58,5 meses. A prevalência de lesões ósseas associadas foi de 60% (6/10). O resultado AOFAS médio foi 72 [19-100] pontos. A necrose avascular e/ou artrose pós-traumática ocorreu em metade dos doentes. A qualidade da redução cirúrgica, as fracturas do corpo e a ausência de alterações degenerativas relacionaram-se com melhores resultados funcionais. As fracturas do colo, a osteonecrose e a presença de artrose pós-traumática conduziram a piores resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Há um grande potencial para sequelas tardias e compromisso funcional devido a artrose e dor crónica após esse tipo de fracturas. A redução anatómica cirúrgica é a melhor hipótese de as evitar, mas não é infalível. A taxa de necrose avascular relaciona-se com o grau de desvio inicial da fractura, mas a sua ocorrência em cada caso específico é imprevisível. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Talar neck and body fractures are unusual fractures. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of long term results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was carried out including 11 patients that underwent surgical treatment for body or neck talus fractures betw [...] een January 1997 and December 2005. Final follow-up examination included a clinical evaluation (AOFAS score) and standard radiographs. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 58.5 months. The prevalence of associated fractures was 60% (6/10). Overall AOFAS score averaged 72 [19-100]. Avascular necrosis and posttraumatic arthritis were present in half of the patients. Quality of surgical reduction, body fractures and absence of degenerative changes were correlated with better functional results. Neck fractures, osteonecrosis and posttraumatic arthritis led to inferior results. CONCLUSION: There is a great potential for long term functional impairment due to posttraumatic arthritis and chronic pain in this kind of fracture. Anatomic surgical reduction is the best chance to avoid them but it is not infallible. The avascular necrosis rate correlates with initial fracture displacement, but its occurrence in each specific case is unpredictable.

  8. Sequelas a longo prazo de fracturas do corpo e colo do astrágalo Long-term results of body and neck talus fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Gomes de Sousa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As fracturas do colo e corpo do astrágalo são lesões infrequentes. O objectivo deste estudo é avaliar a prevalência de sequelas a longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva que incluiu um total de 11 doentes sujeitos a tratamento cirúrgico por fracturas do corpo ou colo do astrágalo entre Janeiro de 1997 e Dezembro de 2005. A avaliação final foi clínica (utilizando a escala AOFAS e radiológica. RESULTADOS: O seguimento médio foi 58,5 meses. A prevalência de lesões ósseas associadas foi de 60% (6/10. O resultado AOFAS médio foi 72 [19-100] pontos. A necrose avascular e/ou artrose pós-traumática ocorreu em metade dos doentes. A qualidade da redução cirúrgica, as fracturas do corpo e a ausência de alterações degenerativas relacionaram-se com melhores resultados funcionais. As fracturas do colo, a osteonecrose e a presença de artrose pós-traumática conduziram a piores resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Há um grande potencial para sequelas tardias e compromisso funcional devido a artrose e dor crónica após esse tipo de fracturas. A redução anatómica cirúrgica é a melhor hipótese de as evitar, mas não é infalível. A taxa de necrose avascular relaciona-se com o grau de desvio inicial da fractura, mas a sua ocorrência em cada caso específico é imprevisível.OBJECTIVES: Talar neck and body fractures are unusual fractures. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of long term results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was carried out including 11 patients that underwent surgical treatment for body or neck talus fractures between January 1997 and December 2005. Final follow-up examination included a clinical evaluation (AOFAS score and standard radiographs. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 58.5 months. The prevalence of associated fractures was 60% (6/10. Overall AOFAS score averaged 72 [19-100]. Avascular necrosis and posttraumatic arthritis were present in half of the patients. Quality of surgical reduction, body fractures and absence of degenerative changes were correlated with better functional results. Neck fractures, osteonecrosis and posttraumatic arthritis led to inferior results. CONCLUSION: There is a great potential for long term functional impairment due to posttraumatic arthritis and chronic pain in this kind of fracture. Anatomic surgical reduction is the best chance to avoid them but it is not infallible. The avascular necrosis rate correlates with initial fracture displacement, but its occurrence in each specific case is unpredictable.

  9. Putting beach slope prediction into perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.J., Jewell.

    Full Text Available The storage capacity of any given tailings storage facility (TSF) is a function of the volume available for the tailings, for which the geometry of the final upper surface of the tailings is most important. One of the advantages that can be obtained from thickening tailings prior to discharge is tha [...] t the tailings can be stacked at a steeper beach angle than is obtainable with conventional low-density slurries. However, there is at present no universally accepted method available for the accurate prediction of tailings beach slopes. This paper examines the current situation with the objective of putting the quest for a method for the accurate prediction of beach slopes into perspective. The paper references published reviews of the best-known beach slope prediction methods. However, there do not appear to be any independently verified projects or published references to projects on which a Class A prediction has been validated for any of these approaches, and in those instances where projects have been implemented correlation of actual with predicted slopes has been poor - often due to differences between the properties of the tailings assumed in the design and those actually achieved in the field. The author also concludes that flume-scale testing cannot be taken as a reliable indicator of full-scale performance, and suggests that the outcome of any current predictive method should be used by experienced practitioners as only one of a range of indicators in order to suggest a range of slope angles likely to result for any given operation. Practice has shown that it is possible to manipulate beach slopes by changes to the disposal technique, such as limiting the rate of discharge per discharge point and by increasing or decreasing yield stress, but the impact of these changes cannot readily be predicted. There are also newly emerging technologies, such as the injection of a polymer into the tailings at discharge, that will enhance the dewatering of tailings and hence expedite the consolidation of the tailings, that could well facilitate the development of steeper beach slopes. The overall conclusion is that with the current state of knowledge, the accurate prediction of beach slopes is not possible. Furthermore, in view of the inherent variability of the tailings parameters from any operation, it may well be of more value to concentrate on developing an understanding of the means by which the tailings parameters may be manipulated by the operators to achieve a given beach slope than to concentrate wholly on developing a generic beach slope prediction model.

  10. Effects of bilayer gelatin/?-tricalcium phosphate sponges loaded with mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and platelet rich plasma on osteochondral defects of the talus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Pil; Tanabe, Takafumi; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2013-12-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common and clinically important joint disorder in horses. However, repair of the OC region is difficult because of the avascular nature of cartilage. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of bilayer gelatin/?-tricalcium phosphate (GT) sponges loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), chondrocytes, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and platelet rich plasma (PRP) for the repair of osteochondral defects of the talus in horses. Full-thickness osteochondral defects were created on both the lateral trochlear ridges of the talus (n = 6). In the test group, a basic GT sponge loaded with MSCs and BMP-2 (MSC/BMP2/GT) was inserted into the lower part of the defect, and an acidic GT sponge loaded with chondrocyte, MSCs, and PRP (Ch/MSC/PRP/GT) was inserted into the upper part of the defect. In the control group, the defect was treated only with bilayer GT sponges. Repair of osteochondral defects was assessed by radiography, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and macroscopic and histological evaluation. The test group showed significantly higher radiographic, QCT, macroscopic, and histological scores than the control group. This study demonstrated that the bilayer scaffolds consisting of Ch/MSC/PRP/GT for the chondrogenic layer and MSC/BMP2/GT for the osteogenic layer promoted osteochondral regeneration in an equine model. The bilayer scaffolds described here may be useful for treating horses with OC. PMID:24054973

  11. Slope evolution at the Calvert Cliffs, Maryland -- measuring the change from eroding bluffs to stable slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Martha; Larsen, Curtis E.; McRae, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Despite a long history of geomorphic studies, it is difficult to ascertain the time required for slopes to change from near vertical exposures to relatively stable slopes due to inadequate age control. Actively eroding coastal bluffs along the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay provide a key for understanding the centennial-scale development of stable slopes from eroding bluff faces. The Calvert Cliffs are composed of sandy silts, silty sands, and clayey silts of Miocene-age. Active wave erosion at the bluff toes encourages rapid sloughing from bluff faces and maintains slope angles of 70-80 degrees and relatively constant bluff-retreat rates. Naturally stabilized slopes are preserved as a fossil bluff line inland from a prograding cuspate foreland at Cove Point. The foreland is migrating southward at a rate of ca. 1.5 m/yr. As it moves south, it progressively protects bluffs from wave action as new beaches are deposited at their toes. Wave erosion is reinitiated at the northern end of the complex as the landform passes. An incremental record of slope change is preserved along the fossil bluff line. 14C dating of swales between beach ridges shows the complex to span 1700 years of progressive migration history. We hypothesized that slopes would change from steep, eroding faces to low-angle slopes covered with vegetation and sought to document the rate of change. Our team measured slope angles at intervals along the fossil bluff line and dated profiles by interpolating 14C ages of adjacent beach ridges. There was no progressive decrease in slope with age. All slopes along the fossil bluff line were 30-40 degrees with a mean of 35 degrees. Constancy in slope angle suggests that steep, actively eroding bluffs were quickly changed to stable slopes by landslides and slumping once they were protected. Given the accuracy of our age control, we conclude that the time required to attain a stable slope under natural processes is less than one century. This indicates that once toe erosion is ended (naturally or through engineering) slopes are reduced to 35-degrees over a period of decades and not centuries.

  12. The logarithmic slope in diffractive DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logarithmic slope of diffractive structure function is a potential observable to separate the hard and soft contributions in diffraction, allowing to disentangle the QCD dynamics at small-x region. In this paper we extend our previous analyzes and calculate the diffractive logarithmic slope for three current approaches in the literature: (i) the Bartels-Wusthoff model, based on perturbative QCD, (ii) the CKMT model, based on Regge theory and (iii) the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff model which assumes that the saturation phenomena is present in the HERA kinematic region. We analyze the transition region of small to large momentum transfer and verify that future experimental results on the diffractive logarithmic slope could discriminate between these approaches

  13. The great slippery-slope argument.

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Whenever some form of beneficent killing--for example, voluntary euthanasia--is advocated, the proposal is greeted with a flood of slippery-slope arguments warning of the dangers of a Nazi-style slide into genocide. This paper is an attempt systematically to evaluate arguments of this kind. Although there are slippery-slope arguments that are sound and convincing, typical formulations of the Nazi-invoking argument are found to be seriously deficient both in logical rigour and in the social hi...

  14. Radial slope measurement of dynamic transparent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interferometric method to measure the radial slope of dynamic transparent samples is presented. We have implemented a simultaneous phase shifting Mach–Zehnder radial-shear interferometer (SPS-MZRI) using a phase grating to replicate the interference patterns and phase shifts modulated by polarization; the interferometer is capable of processing the optical phase data through the acquisition of n-interferograms captured simultaneously. The SPS-MZRI is capable of obtaining the radial phase derivative and associating it with its corresponding radial slope. The experimental results for static and dynamic samples are presented in this work, as well as the experimental evidence for the generation of spiral patterns. (paper)

  15. Risk-based stabilization planning for soil cut slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, C.; Lu, W.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based slope stabilization planning integrates the failure probability and the failure consequence systematically and shows promise for use in the practice. This paper attempts to develop a risk-based methodology for stabilization planning for deteriorating soil cut slopes. First, a framework of risk-based stabilization planning for slopes is proposed. Then the time-dependent reliability of deteriorating slopes is analyzed based on observed performance. Thereafter, the slope failure conse...

  16. Monitoring hazardous open pit mine slope.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2012, C038/1-C038/5. ISBN 978-90-73834-27-9. [EAGE Conference & exhibition incorporationg SPE EUROPEC 2010 /74./. Copenhagen (DK), 04.06.2012-07.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : tiltmeter * slope monitoring * open-pit mine Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  17. Modern Slope Processes on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pine, P. K.; Shevrel, S. D.; Dadu, I.; Lu, Y.; Skobeleva, T. P.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Rosemberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    Slope movements of material in lunar craters are investigated based on remote spectral studies carried out on board the Clementine spacecraft, and data obtained during the large-scale survey on board the LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbit) spacecraft. The morphological analysis of crater forms based on large-scale images and spectral and spectropolarized assessments of the exposition age (or maturity) of the slope material has led to the conclusion that the formation process of observed outcrops probably is a modern feature. The lower age limit of these structures is estimated at 40-80 years. Thus, slope movements of surface materials can continue at the present time, regardless of the age of the crater studied. Slope movements of crushed granular material lead to fresh outcrops of subsurface layers of marine or continental landscapes and, therefore, extend our capabilities to research the deep material of the Moon. To analyze this phenomenon, craters of 16 and 30 km have been selected. The length of fresh outcrops, while depending strongly on the dimensions of the craters, can be up to several kilometers. In connection with this, the prospect appears of remote analysis of rocks that came to the surface from depths of at least several hundred meters. In this case, there are openings for the contact analysis of subsurface material without the use of labor-intensive operations associated with the delivery of equipment for deep drilling to the lunar surface.

  18. Fractal Rock Slope Dynamics Anticipating a Collapse.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paluš, Milan; Novotná, Dagmar; Zvelebil, Ji?í

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 70 (2004), 036212. ISSN 1063-651X R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/00/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fractal * scaling * unstable rock slope * collapse prediction * engineering geology Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2004

  19. Assessment of slope stability endangered by groundwater.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, P.; Tr?ková, Ji?ina

    Southampton : WIT Press, 2006 - (Brebbia, C.; Conti, M.; Tiezzi, E.), s. 709-718 ISBN 978-1-84564-048-4. [Ravage of Planet. Baryloche (AR), 12.12.2006-14.12.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA2119402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : physical and numerical modelling * slope stability * groundwater Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  20. Advance in prediction of soil slope instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigarán-Loría, C.; Hack, R.; Nieuwenhuis, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    Six generic soils (clays and sands) were systematically modeled with plane-strain finite elements (FE) at varying heights and inclinations. A dataset was generated in order to develop predictive relations of soil slope instabilities, in terms of co-seismic displacements (u), under strong motions with a linear multiple regression. For simplicity, the seismic loads are monochromatic artificial sinusoidal functions at four frequencies: 1, 2, 4, and 6 Hz, and the slope failure criterion used corresponds to near 10% Cartesian shear strains along a continuous region comparable to a slip surface. The generated dataset comprises variables from the slope geometry and site conditions: height, H, inclination, i, shear wave velocity from the upper 30 m, vs30, site period, Ts; as well as the input strong motion: yield acceleration, ay (equal to peak ground acceleration, PGA in this research), frequency, f; and in some cases moment magnitude, M, and Arias intensity, Ia, assumed from empirical correlations. Different datasets or scenarios were created: "Magnitude-independent", "Magnitude-dependent", and "Soil-dependent", and the data was statistically explored and analyzed with varying mathematical forms. Qualitative relations show that the permanent deformations are highly related to the soil class for the clay slopes, but not for the sand slopes. Furthermore, the slope height does not constrain the variability in the co-seismic displacements. The input frequency decreases the variability of the co-seismic displacements for the "Magnitude-dependent" and "Soil-dependent" datasets. The empirical models were developed with two and three predictors. For the sands it was not possible because they could not satisfy the constrains from the statistical method. For the clays, the best models with the smallest errors coincided with the simple general form of multiple regression with three predictors (e.g. near 0.16 and 0.21 standard error, S.E. and 0.75 and 0.55 R2 for the "M-independent" and "M-dependent" datasets correspondingly). From the models with two predictors, a 2nd-order polynom gave the best performance but with a not-significant parameter. The best models with both predictors significant have slightly larger error and smaller R2, e.g. 0.15 S.E., 44% R2 with ay and i. The predictive models obtained with the three scenarios from the clay slopes provide well-constrained predictions but low R2, suggesting the predictors are "not complete", most likely in relation to the simplicity used in the strong motion characterization. Nevertheless, the findings from this work demonstrate the potential from analytical methods in developing more precise predictions as well as the importance on treating different different ground types.

  1. Evaluation of Slope Assessment Systems for Predicting Landslides of Cut Slopes in Granitic and Meta-sediment Formations

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaimi Jamaludin; Haut, Bujang B. K.  .; Husaini Umar

    2006-01-01

    In Malaysia, slope assessment systems (SAS) are widely used in assessing the instability of slope or the probability of occurrence and the likely severity of landslides. These SAS can be derived based on either one particular approach or combination of several approaches of landslide assessments and prediction. This study overviews four slope assessment systems (SAS) developed in Malaysia for predicting landslide at a large-scale assessments. They are the Slope Maintenance System (SMS), Slope...

  2. Characterization of the collagen component of cartilage repair tissue of the talus with quantitative MRI: comparison of T2 relaxation time measurements with a diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state sequence (dwDESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, M.; Hainc, N.; Studler, U. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Bieri, O. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Miska, M. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Heidelberg (Germany); Wiewiorski, M.; Valderrabano, V. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging. Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions and AMIC repair were compared in a cross-sectional design using partially spoiled steady-state free precession (pSSFP) for T2 quantification, and diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state (dwDESS) for diffusion measurement. RT and cartilage were graded with modified Noyes and MOCART scores on morphological sequences. An association between follow-up interval and quantitative MRI measures was assessed using multivariate regression, after stratifying the cohort according to time interval between surgery and MRI. Mean T2 of the AMIC-RT and cartilage were 43.1 ms and 39.1 ms, respectively (p = 0.26). Mean diffusivity of the RT (1.76 ?m{sup 2}/ms) was significantly higher compared to normal cartilage (1.46 ?m{sup 2}/ms) (p = 0.0092). No correlation was found between morphological and quantitative parameters. RT diffusivity was lowest in the subgroup with follow-up >28 months (p = 0.027). Compared to T2-mapping, dwDESS demonstrated greater sensitivity in detecting differences in the collagen matrix between AMIC-RT and cartilage. Decreased diffusivity in patients with longer follow-up times may indicate an increased matrix organization of RT. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of the collagen component of cartilage repair tissue of the talus with quantitative MRI: comparison of T2 relaxation time measurements with a diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state sequence (dwDESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging. Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions and AMIC repair were compared in a cross-sectional design using partially spoiled steady-state free precession (pSSFP) for T2 quantification, and diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state (dwDESS) for diffusion measurement. RT and cartilage were graded with modified Noyes and MOCART scores on morphological sequences. An association between follow-up interval and quantitative MRI measures was assessed using multivariate regression, after stratifying the cohort according to time interval between surgery and MRI. Mean T2 of the AMIC-RT and cartilage were 43.1 ms and 39.1 ms, respectively (p = 0.26). Mean diffusivity of the RT (1.76 ?m2/ms) was significantly higher compared to normal cartilage (1.46 ?m2/ms) (p = 0.0092). No correlation was found between morphological and quantitative parameters. RT diffusivity was lowest in the subgroup with follow-up >28 months (p = 0.027). Compared to T2-mapping, dwDESS demonstrated greater sensitivity in detecting differences in the collagen matrix between AMIC-RT and cartilage. Decreased diffusivity in patients with longer follow-up times may indicaeased matrix organization of RT. (orig.)

  4. Centrifuge model test of rock slope failure caused by seismic excitation. Plane failure of dip slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it is necessary to assess quantitatively seismic safety of critical facilities against the earthquake induced rock slope failure from the viewpoint of seismic PSA. Under these circumstances, it is essential to evaluate more accurately the possibilities of rock slope failure and the potential failure boundary, which are triggered by earthquake ground motions. The purpose of this study is to analyze dynamic failure characteristics of rock slopes by centrifuge model tests for verification and improvement of the analytical methods. We conducted a centrifuge model test using a dip slope model with discontinuities limitated by Teflon sheets. The centrifugal acceleration was 50G, and the acceleration amplitude of input sin waves increased gradually at every step. The test results were compared with safety factors of the stability analysis based on the limit equilibrium concept. Resultant conclusions are mainly as follows: (1) The slope model collapsed when it was excited by the sine wave of 400gal, which was converted to real field scale, (2) Artificial discontinuities were considerably concerned in the collapse, and the type of collapse was plane failure, (3) From response acceleration records observed at the slope model, we can say that tension cracks were generated near the top of the slope model during excitation, and that might be cause of the collapse, (4) By considering generation of the tension cracks in the stability analysis, correspondence of the analytity analysis, correspondence of the analytical results and the experimental results improved. From the obtained results, we need to consider progressive failure in evaluating earthquake induced rock slope failure. (author)

  5. The Alaska North Slope spill analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports Alaska North Slope crude oil spills, provides information to help operators identify risks and presents recommendations for future risk reduction and mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency and severity of future spills from piping infrastructure integrity loss. The North Slope spills analysis project was conducted during 2010 by compiling available spill data, and analyzing the cause of past spills in wells and associated piping, flowlines, process centers with their associated piping and above ground storage tanks, and crude oil transmission pipelines. An expert panel, established to provide independent review of this analysis and the presented data, identified seven recommendations on measures, programs, and practices to monitor and address common causes of failures while considering information provided from regulators and operators. These recommendations must be evaluated by the State of Alaska which will consider implementation options to move forward. Based on the study observations, future analyses may show changes to some of the observed trends.

  6. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to the space needed for representing the input. Our solution is based upon a space-efficient variant of Matoušek’s randomized interpolation search, and we believe that the techniques developed in this paper will prove helpful in the design of space-efficient randomized algorithms using samples. To underline this, we also sketch how to compute the repeated median line estimator in an in-place setting.

  7. Wildlife response on the Alaska North Slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive plan to deal with potentially oiled wildlife on the Alaskan North Slope, a multifaceted wildlife protection strategy was developed and implemented during 1991. The strategy incorporated all aspects of wildlife response including protection of critical habitat, hazing, capture and stabilization, long term rehabilitation, and release. The primary wildlife response strategy emphasizes controlling of the release and spreading of spilled oil at the source to prevent or reduce contamination of potentially affected species and/or their habitat. A secondary response strategy concentrates on keeping potentially affected wildlife away from an oiled area through the use of deterrent techniques. Tertiary response involves the capture and treatment of oiled wildlife. Implementation of the strategy included the development of specialized training, the procurement of equipment, and the construction of a bird stabilization center. The result of this initiative is a comprehensive wildlife response capability on the Alaskan North Slope. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Back analysis of reinforced soil slopes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, P.; Tr?ková, Ji?ina

    Southampton : WIT Press, 2012 - (Mammoli, A.; Brebbia, C.), s. 423-432 ISBN 978-1-84564-602-8. ISSN 1743-3533. [Computational methods and experiments in material characterisation /3./. Material Characterisation 2007. Bologna (IT), 13.06.2007-15.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA2119402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : back analysis * numerical and experimental modelling * slopes Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  9. Slope stability under rapid drawdown conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo; Pinyol Puigmartí, Núria Mercè

    2009-01-01

    The rapid drawdown condition arises when submerged slopes experience rapid reduction of the external water level. Classical analysis procedures are grouped in two classes: the “stress-based” undrained approach, recommended for impervious materials and the flow approach, which is specified for rigid pervious materials (typically a granular soil). Field conditions often depart significantly from these simplified cases and involve materials of different permeability and compressibility arrang...

  10. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant–vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samp...

  11. Viscous liquid flow on Martian dune slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The observed temporary dark streaks on some dune slopes on Mars may be due to thin sheets of water (or some other liquid) trickling downhill. This note corrects conceptual errors in a previous paper (M\\"{o}hlmann and Kereszturi 2010, Icarus 207, 654-658) which affect the velocity profile of such flows, and produce over-estimates of their depths and mass fluxes by factors of almost two.

  12. Motion of rock masses on slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the different ways of how rock masses (stones, rocks, and blocks move along slopes and for each different way of motion (free fall, bouncing, rolling, sliding, slowing down, lubrication, fluidizationadequatedynamicequationsaregiven.Knowingthe kinematics and dynamics of travelling rock masses is necessary for mathematical modeling of motion and by this an assessment of maximal possible rockfall runout distances as an example of a sudden and hazardeous natural phenomenon, threatening man and his property, especially in the natural environment.

  13. Stability of nuclear crater slopes in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group was established in 1962 to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission in a joint research and development program to develop nuclear engineering and construction technology. A major part of this research effort has been devoted to studies of the engineering properties of craters. The program to date has included field investigations of crater properties in various media over a broad range of chemical and nuclear explosive yields, studies of man-made and natural slopes, and studies directed toward the development of analytical and empirical methods of crater stability analysis. From this background, a general understanding has been developed of the effects of a cratering explosion on the surrounding medium and of physical nature of the various crater zones which are produced. The stability of nuclear crater slopes has been a subject of prime interest in the feasibility study being conducted for an Atlantic-Pacific sea-level canal. Based on experimental evidence assembled to date, nuclear crater slopes in dry dock and dry alluvium have an initially stable configuration. There have been five nuclear craters produced to date with yields of 0.4 kt or more on which observations are based and the initial configurations of these craters have remained stable for over seven years. The medium, yield, crater dimensions, and date of event for these craters are summarized. It is interesting to note that the Sedan Crater has been subjected to strong seismic motions from nearby detonations without adverse effects

  14. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Koerner, R.M. [Geosynthetic Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bonaparte, R. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  15. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    2013-01-01

    The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison with the reshaping of a large Norwegian breakwater exposed to the North Sea waves. As a motivation for applying the Van der Meer formula a discussion of design parameters related to berm breakwater stability formulae is given. Comparisons of front erosion predicted by the use of the Van der Meer formula with model test results including tests presented in Sigurdarson and Van der Meer (2011) are discussed. A proposal is presented for performance of new model tests with the purpose of developing more accurate formulae for the prediction of front slope erosion as a function of front slope, relative berm height, relative berm width, method of armour stone placement, and hydraulic parameters. The formulae should cover the structure range from statically stable berm breakwaters to conventional double layer armoured breakwaters.

  16. 30 CFR 716.2 - Steep-slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Steep-slope mining. 716.2 Section 716.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...STANDARDS § 716.2 Steep-slope mining. The permittee conducting...

  17. Martian Slope Streaks Form Sporadically Throughout the Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. M.; Schorghofer, N.; Wagstaff, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Time constraints for the formation of dark slope streaks on Mars are derived from multi-overlap orbital images. We find that slope streaks form sporadically throughout the year, which has implications for possible triggering mechanisms.

  18. The Key Technologies of Steep Rock Slope Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Hongliang Deng; Tingting Ni; Kaijiang Chen; Mingyan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study takes the steep slope of Qianlin Mountain in Beijing National Forest Park as an example. The job of engineering applications and comparative analysis are done as well as estimating the protection effect. Because of the complicated formation and geological conditions of the steep slope, accidents such as slope instability, collapsing are easier to happen. Therefore, the technology of the reinforcement and protection of steep slope are important. Even the methods are improper; it rem...

  19. The Jones polynomial and boundary slopes of alternating knots

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Cynthia L

    2009-01-01

    We show for an alternating knot the minimal integral boundary slope is given by the signature plus twice the minimum degree of the Jones polynomial and the maximal integral boundary slope is given by the signature plus twice the maximum degree of the Jones polynomial. For alternating Montesinos knots, these are the minimal and maximal boundary slopes.

  20. A giant submarine slope failure on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, W.C.; Danforth, W.W.; Scanlon, K.M.; Masson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A large amphitheater-shaped scarp, approximately 55 km across, was imaged on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico using long-range sidescan sonar and bathymetric data. This scarp results from the removal of more than 1500 km3 of Tertiary strata. A review of seismic-reflection profiles, stratigraphic data, and subsidence models of the northern insular margin of Puerto Rico were used to infer that large-scale slope failure was induced by the tectonic oversteepening of the insular slope and was responsible for the formation of the scarp. The oversteepening probably was caused by the most recent episode of convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates, which began between approximately 4 and 2.5 m.y. ago. The Tertiary strata have been tilted approximately 4.5?? to the north in the last 4 m.y. ?? 1991.

  1. Parallel retreat of rock slopes underlain by alternation of strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Nishii, Ryoko; Murakami, Wataru; Daimaru, Hiromu

    2015-06-01

    Characteristic landscapes (e.g., cuesta, cliff and overhang of caprock, or stepped terrain) formed by differential erosion can be found in areas composed of variable geology exhibiting different resistances to weathering. Parallel retreat of slopes, defined as recession of slopes without changes in their topography, is sometimes observed on slopes composed of multiple strata. However, the conditions needed for such parallel retreat have not yet been sufficiently clarified. In this study, we elucidated the conditions for parallel retreat of rock slopes composed of alternating layers using a geometric method. In addition, to evaluate whether various rock slopes fulfilled the conditions for parallel retreat, we analyzed topographic data obtained from periodic measurement of rock slopes in the Aka-kuzure landslide, central Japan. Our geometric analysis of the two-dimensional slopes indicates that dip angle, slope gradient, and erosion rate are the factors that determine parallel retreat conditions. However, dip angle does not significantly affect parallel retreat conditions in the case of steep back slopes (slope gradient > 40°). In contrast, dip angle is an important factor when we consider the parallel retreat conditions in dip slopes and gentler back slopes (slope gradient erosion rate measured by airborne LiDAR scanning and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) roughly fulfills parallel retreat conditions. The Aka-kuzure landslide is characterized by repetition of steep sandstone cliffs and gentle shale slopes that form a stepped topography. The inherent resistance of sandstone to weathering is greater than that of shale. However, the vertical erosion rate within the sandstone was higher than that within the shale, due to direct relationship between slope gradient and vertical erosion rate in the Aka-kuzure landslide.

  2. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  3. Outerplanar graph drawings with few slopes

    CERN Document Server

    Knauer, Kolja; Walczak, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    We consider straight-line outerplanar drawings of outerplanar graphs in which the segments representing edges are parallel to a small number of directions. We prove that Delta-1 directions suffice for every outerplanar graph with maximum degree Delta>=4. This improves the previous bound of O(Delta^5), which was shown for planar partial 3-trees, a superclass of outerplanar graphs. The bound is tight: for every Delta>=4 there is an outerplanar graph of maximum degree Delta which requires at least Delta-1 distinct edge slopes for an outerplanar straight-line drawing.

  4. Derivation of terrain slope from SAR interferometric phase gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmueller, Urs; Werner, Charles L.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the gradient of the interferometric phase and the terrain slope, which, it is thought, would allow a derivation of the terrain slopes without phase unwrapping, is presented. A linear relationship between the interferometric phase gradient and the terrain slopes was found. A quantitative error analysis showed that only very small errors are introduced by these approximations for orbital Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) geometries. An example of a slope map for repeat pass interferometry from ERS-1 SAR data is given. A number of direct and indirect applications of the terrain slope are indicated: erosion and avalanche hazard studies, radiometric calibration of SAR data, and normalization of the interferometric correlation coefficient.

  5. Design principles for optimizing an established survey slope monitoring system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Mphathiwa; F.T, Cawood.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When slope angles are designed during open pit optimization, there is a risk factor applied in steepening the slopes. The steepening of slope angles has implications for the safety and economics of the mining operation. The steeper the slope angles, the greater the probability of slope failure. Alth [...] ough a slope failure will result in added costs, the challenge is to compile an accurate cost-benefit exercise optimizing the economic benefits of the project without exposing mine workers and equipment to unacceptable risk of rockfalls. A balance between the safety of the operation and the economics of the investment is therefore required. The ideal situation is to have a slope monitoring system that will predict slope failure by detecting any ground movement before the actual failure occurs. This early warning will allow the risk factor to be applied with a high degree of confidence, knowing that the risk will be adequately mitigated. The objective of this paper is to provide guidelines on how to design an optimal survey slope monitoring system. It is the authors' view that for a survey monitoring system to yield desirable results, it should adhere to survey principles such as working from the whole to part and consistently cross-checking. The case study used is Jwaneng Mine, and the design strategy outlined can be used as a guideline for developing a new slope monitoring system or to optimize an existing one.

  6. Model tests of geosynthetic reinforced slopes in a geotechnical centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geosynthetic-reinforced slopes and walls became very popular in recent years because of their financial, technical, and ecological advantages. Centrifuge modelling is a powerful tool for physical modelling of reinforced slopes and offers the advantage to observe the failure mechanisms of the slopes. In order to replicate the gravity induced stresses of a prototype structure in a geometrically 1/N reduced model, it is necessary to test the model in a gravitational field N times larger than that of the prototype structure. In this dissertation, geotextile-reinforced slope models were tested in a geotechnical centrifuge to identify the possible failure mechanisms. Slope models were tested by varying slope inclination, tensile strengths of the geotextiles, and overlapping lengths. Photographs of the geotextile reinforced slope models in flight were taken with a digital camera and the soil deformations of geotextile reinforced slopes were evaluated with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experimental results showed that failure of the centrifuge models initiated at midheight of the slope, and occurred due to geotextile breakage instead of pullout. The location of the shear surface is independent of the tensile strength of the geotextile; it is dependent on the shear strength of the soil. It is logical to see that the required acceleration of the centrifuge at slope failure was decreased with increasing slope inclination. An important contribution to the stability of thertant contribution to the stability of the slope models was provided by the overlapping of the geotextile layers. It has a secondary reinforcement effect when it was prolonged and passed through the shear surface. Moreover, the location of the shear surface observed with PIV analysis exactly matches the tears of the retrieved geotextiles measured carefully after the centrifuge testing. It is concluded that PIV is an efficient tool to instrument the slope failures in a geotechnical centrifuge.(author)

  7. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics to prevent the development of slope instability taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, a onedimensional (SDOF) model, based on Newmark’s sliding block model as well as a two-dimensional (plane-strain) dynamic finite-element analyses are conducted in order to investigate the impact of the most significant parameters involved, such as the flexibility of the sliding system, the mechanical properties of the soil and of the geosynthetics material, the frequency content of the excitation and the interface shear strength.

  8. Methodologies for risk analysis in slope instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an approach to the different methodologies used in conducting landslide risk maps so that the reader can get a basic knowledge about how to proceed in its development. The landslide hazard maps are increasingly demanded by governments. This is because due to climate change, deforestation and the pressure exerted by the growth of urban centers, damage caused by natural phenomena is increasing each year, making this area of work a field of study with increasing importance. To explain the process of mapping a journey through each of the phases of which it is composed is made: from the study of the types of slope movements and the necessary management of geographic information systems (GIS) inventories and landslide susceptibility analysis, threat, vulnerability and risk. (Author)

  9. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; van Brussel, Marco; Bongers, Bart C; Hulzebos, Erik H J; Helders, Paul J M; Takken, Tim

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the submaximal Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) in a healthy pediatric population. Bicycle ergometry exercise tests with gas-analyses were performed in 46 healthy children aged 7-17 years. Maximal OUES, submaximal OUES, VO(2)peak, V(E)peak, and ventilatory threshold (VT) were determined. The submaximal OUES correlated highly with VO(2)peak, V(E)peak, and VT. Strong correlations were found with basic anthropometric variables. The submaximal OUES could provide an objective, independent measure of cardiorespiratory function in children, reflecting efficiency of ventilation. We recommend expressing OUES values relative to Body Surface Area (BSA) or Fat Free Mass (FFM). PMID:20814038

  10. Rapid drawdown in slopes and embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyol, Núria M.; Alonso, Eduardo E.; Olivella, Sebastiã

    2008-05-01

    The rapid drawdown condition arises when submerged slopes experience a rapid reduction of the external water level. Classical procedures developed to determine the flow regime within the slope and the resulting stability conditions are reviewed in the paper. They are grouped in two classes: the "stress-based" undrained approach, recommended for impervious materials, and the flow approach, which is specified for rigid pervious materials (typically a granular soil). Field conditions often depart significantly from these simplified cases and involve materials of different permeability and compressibility arranged in a complex geometry. The drawdown problem is presented in the paper as a fully coupled flow-deformation problem for saturated/unsaturated conditions. Some fundamental concepts are first discussed in a qualitative manner and, later, explored in more detail in synthetic examples, solved under different hypotheses, including the classical approaches. Some design rules, which include a few fundamental parameters for the drawdown problem, have also been solved in a rigorous manner to illustrate the limitations of simplified procedures. A significant portion of the paper is devoted to the discussion of a comprehensive case history. In Shira, earth dam pore pressures were recorded at different points inside the embankment during a controlled drawdown. Predictions of four calculation procedures (instantaneous drawdown, pure flow, coupled flow-elastic, and coupled flow-elastoplastic, all of them for saturated/unsaturated conditions) are compared with measured pressure records. Only the coupled analysis provides a consistent and reasonable solution. The role of the different soil properties in explaining the phenomena taking place during drawdown is finally discussed.

  11. Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.

    2013-12-01

    Recent papers have documented the probability that turbidites deposited along and downslope of subduction zone accretionary prisms are likely the result of strong ground shaking from great earthquakes. Given the damaging nature of these earthquakes, along with the casualties from the associated tsunamis, the spatial and temporal patterns of these earthquakes can only be evaluated with paleoseismologic coring and seismic reflection methods. We evaluate slope stability for seafloor topography along the Sunda subduction offshore Sumatra, Indonesia. We use sediment material properties, from local (Sumatra) and analogous sites, to constrain our estimates of static slope stability Factor of Safety (FOS) analyses. We then use ground motion prediction equations (GMPE's) to estimate ground motion intensity (Arias Intensity, AI) and acceleration (Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA), as possibly generated by fault rupture, to constrain seismic loads for pseudostatic slope stability FOS analyses. The ground motions taper rapidly with distance from the fault plane, consistent with ground motion - fault distance relations measured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki subduction zone earthquake. Our FOS analyses include a Morgenstern method of slices probabilistic analysis for 2-D profiles along with Critical Acceleration (Ac) and Newmark Displacement (Dn) analysis of multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor. In addition, we also use estimates of ground motion modeled with a 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) earthquake fault slip model, to also compare with our static FOS analyses of seafloor topography. All slope and trench sites are statically stable (FOS earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. We conclude that for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 9, PGA of 0.4-0.6 to 1.4-2.5 g would be expected, respectively, from existing GMPE's. However, saturation of accelerations in the accretionary wedge may limit actual accelerations to less than 1 g. Arias intensities of 0.4-1.7 to 7.9-33 m/s are estimated for the M = 6 and M = 9 events, respectively, are expected in the source regions of piggyback basins for local slope failures. Typical sites have Dn means of 0.1, 1.6, 7.7, and 16 cm for earthquakes of M = 6, 7, 8, and 9; suggested thresholds for displacement range between 5 and 10 cm. Thus the observed turbidite stratigraphy in the Sumatra piggyback basins can be explained by local ground motions during earthquakes with magnitude greater than ~7, given the static stability and low sedimentation rates. The paleoseismic data to date suggest a repeat time of 240 years, insufficient to destabilize slopes though sediment accumulation alone.

  12. Distinct Element Modelling of Mahabaleshwar Road Cut Hill Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kainthola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of slope stability are essential for safe design and planning of road cut hill slopes which accommo-date a number of tourist destinations around the world. The failure of cut slopes along these hills puts human life in grave danger and it is also disastrous for the economy. In the present study, a section of 100 m high jointed basalt hill slope has been analyzed numerically in a distinct element code, which is apt for simulating the behavior for jointed rock. The analysis was carried out for both the dry and saturated conditions. The distinct element analysis of the hill slope demonstrates it to be marginally stable under dry condition, while for the saturated condition, the hill slope fails along well defined joint planes.

  13. Impact Analysis of Blasting Vibration on the Slope and Dump

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang MR; Li Gang Yan; Xu Yuan

    2014-01-01

    As known that the blasting on the slope is very dangerous in the exploration of the mine andneeds complex analysis and calculation on the slope and dump. In the study it adopts the regression method in the analysis of important parameters of the vibration experiments of iron ore stope which influence the stability of slope and vibration velocity of mine blasting, vibration acceleration, etc., it makes the analysis of power spectrum and dynamic response. Thr...

  14. Slope analysis for elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Okorokov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    The diffraction slope parameter is investigated for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering based on the all available experimental data at low and intermediate momentum transfer values. Energy dependence of the elastic diffraction slopes is approximated by various analytic functions. The expanded "standard" logarithmic approximations with minimum number of free parameters allow to describe experimental slopes in all available energy range reasonably. The esti...

  15. Three-dimensional kinematic controls on rock slope stability conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brideau, Marc-Andre

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the three-dimensional influence of discontinuity sets and topography on kinematics of rock slope stability and failure mechanisms. A field data collection methodology was developed to provide the inputs to a slope stability investigation that utilises three-dimensional geometric, limit equilibrium and distinct element codes. Conceptual slope geometries in addition to three case studies are employed to evaluate the influence of discontinuity set orientation and lateral...

  16. Boundary slopes of immersed surfaces in 3-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Hass, Joel; Rubinstein, J. Hyam; Wang, Shicheng

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some finiteness results for the number of boundary slopes of immersed essential surfaces of given genus g in a compact 3-manifold with torus boundary. In the case of hyperbolic 3-manifolds we obtain uniform quadratic bounds in g for the number of possible slopes, independent of the 3-manifold. We also look at some related quantities, such as how many times the slopes of two such surfaces of specified genus can intersect.

  17. Coherent sea-level fluctuations along the global continental slope

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Chris W.; Meredith, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Signals in sea-level or, more properly, sub-surface pressure (SSP; sea-level corrected for the inverse barometer effect) are expected to propagate rapidly along the continental slope due to the effect of sloping topography on wave modes, resulting in strongly correlated SSP over long-distances. Observations of such correlations around the Arctic and Antarctic are briefly reviewed, and then extended using satellite altimetry to the rest of the global continental slope. It is shown that such lo...

  18. Distinct Element Modelling of Mahabaleshwar Road Cut Hill Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Ashutosh Kainthola; Singh, P. K.; A. B. Wasnik; Singh, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of slope stability are essential for safe design and planning of road cut hill slopes which accommo-date a number of tourist destinations around the world. The failure of cut slopes along these hills puts human life in grave danger and it is also disastrous for the economy. In the present study, a section of 100 m high jointed basalt hill slope has been analyzed numerically in a distinct element code, which is apt for simulating the behavior for jointed rock. The analysis w...

  19. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of differ- ent plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sens- ing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring. PMID:25532352

  20. Overpressure, Flow Focusing, Compaction and Slope Stability on the continental slope: Insights from IODP Expedition 308

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expepedition 308 used direct measurements of pore pressure, analysis of hydromechanical properties, and geological analysis to illuminate how sedimentation, flow focusing, overpressure, and slope stability couple beneath the seafloor on the deepwater continental slope in the Gulf of Mexico. We used pore pressure penetrometers to measure severe overpressures (60% of the difference between lithostatic stress and hydrostatic pressure) that extend from the seafloor for 100’s of meters. We ran uniaxial consolidation experiments on whole core and found that although permeability is relatively high near the seafloor, the sediments are highly compressible. As a result, the coefficient of consolidation (the hydraulic diffusivity) is remarkably constant over a large range of effective stresses. This behavior accounts for the high overpressure that begins near the seafloor and extends to depth. Forward modeling suggests that flow is driven laterally along a permeable unit called the Blue Unit. Calculations suggest that soon after deposition, lateral flow lowered the effective stress and triggered the submarine landslides that we observe. Later in the evolution of this system, overpressure may have pre-conditioned the slope to failure by earthquakes. Results from IODP Expedition 308 illustrate how pore pressure and sedimentation control the large-scale form of continental margins, how submarine landslides form, and provide strategies for designing stable drilling programs.

  1. Small scale tests on the progressive retreat of soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Chrysoula; Utili, Stefano; Castellanza, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the influence due to the presence of cracks on the morphologic evolution of natural cliffs subject to progressive retreat induced by weathering is investigated through small scale laboratory tests. Weathering turns hard rocks into soft rocks that maintain the structure of the intact rocks, but are characterised by higher void ratios and reduced bond strengths; soft rocks are transformed into granular soils generally called residual soils. A number of landslides develop in slopes due to weathering which results in the progressive retrogression of the slope face and the further degradation within the weathering zone. Cracks, that are widely present, can be a result of weathering and they can cause a significant decrease in their stability, as they provide preferential flow channels which increase the soil permeability and decrease the soil strength. The geological models employed until now are mainly empirical. Several researchers have tried to study the stability of slopes through experimental procedures. Centrifuge modelling is widely used to investigate the failure of slopes. Small scale tests are also an important approach, in order to study the behaviour of a slope under certain conditions, such as the existence of water, as they allow the observation of the infiltration processes, the movement of the weathering front, deformation and failure. However, the deformation response of a slope subject to weathering is not yet thoroughly clarified. In this work, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate weathering induced successive landslides. Weathering was applied to the slope model by wetting the slope crest through a rainfall simulator device. The moisture content of the soil during the tests was monitored by soil moisture sensors that were buried inside the slope model. High resolution cameras were recording the behaviour of the slope model. GeoPIV was used to analyse the frames and obtain the deformations of the slope model during the tests. After a short time of rainfall, vertical cracks appear in the slope model and significant vertical deformations start to occur around the crack, until the first failure is reached, the procedure carries on until a second failure is observed. Experimental results indicate that there is a strong connection between moisture content and the occurrence of a landslide. A prediction model of slope failures can be introduced based on the observed moisture content response of the slope models. KEYWORDS: slopes, cracks, landslide, weathering, small scale test

  2. Investigation of Wetting Pattern Dimensions on Sloping Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of irrigation durations and land slopes on wetting pattern dimensions, some experiments were performed using an emitter with constant discharge of 4 liters per hour by 2, 4, and 6 hours irrigation durations. Experiments were conducted on lands with the slopes of 0, 5, 15 an 25 percent, with silty loam soil texture in 3 replications in Fathali region, Mogan plain, Iran. Results showed that increasing the land slope caused an increment in wetting pattern dimensions and bulk, in constant irrigation durations. When slope increased, the depth of infiltrated water along the emitter had a little decrease which wasn’t significant. The upstream and downstream components of wetting pattern were symmetrical on 0 percent slope but not on steep lands. So, optimizing the water use, which is saved in the soil, depends on the land slope and the crop should be planted 10 to 25 centimeters away from the dripper. The investigation of soil moisture distribution on wetting pattern in slope lands showed that contrary to the flat lands the main part of the moisture is accumulated in lower part of the emitter, and wetting pattern in these sloping lands was larger than in flat lands.

  3. Writing a Slope-Intercept Equation from a Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This step by step lesson from Math Ops demonstrates how to write a slope-intercept equation from a graph. Students can read the text on the slides or follow along as it is read aloud. The slope-intercept format of a line is explained as well as how to write an equation for a line. Three examples are given.

  4. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

  5. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum. The choice of the cutoff frequency and the effect on surface scattering simulations are discussed

  6. Katabatic flow observations over a steep alpine slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Holly; Pardyjak, Eric; Calaf, Marc; Giometto, Marco; Huwald, Hendrik; parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Katabatic flows, or downslope drainage flows, are thermally driven winds generated over sloping terrain when the surface is colder than the adjacent air and synoptic forcing is weak. This near-surface temperature inversion generates a buoyancy field such that denser, cooler air near the surface tends to sink down the slope and form the katabatic flow. Often these flows can be exploited for wind energy, and they are important in predicting pollution transport in mountainous regions and the formation of large cold air pools in valleys and basins. Mean characteristics of katabatic flows over gentle slopes are well documented. However, small-scale observations of turbulence inside the katabatic jet are less common, especially over very steep slopes in highly complex topography. Summertime measurements over a steep slope (36.5°) in a narrow alpine valley (Val Ferret, Switzerland) were taken with the aim of better understanding the near-surface turbulent fluxes that govern the local slope flows. Here, a weak katabatic jet with a height less than 1 m characterizes the mean flow. High-resolution, near-surface temperature measurements suggest a shallow internal boundary layer within the katabatic layer. Additionally, the turbulent heat flux varies significantly over the 6 m measurement layer. Hence, Monin-Obukhov Similarity theory (MOST) may be invalid for steep slopes. Turbulent statistics such as velocity and temperature variances, fluxes of momentum and heat, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and turbulent Prandtl number are compared to those obtained in large eddy simulations (LES) of idealized steep sloping terrain.

  7. Culture of Sharing: North Slope Leaders Forge Trail into Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkotak, Elise Sereni

    2010-01-01

    To create a strong local economy, the community needs a workforce. In Native communities, the workforce should be grounded in the local culture and values. On the North Slope of Alaska, this has long been a goal of leaders. To achieve this goal, North Slope leaders came together February 2010 in Barrow, Alaska, for the "Tumitchiat" Leadership…

  8. DOWNWARD SLOPING DEMAND CURVES FOR STOCK AND LEVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Pei Fun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to investigate the effect of downward sloping demand curves for stock on firms' financing decisions. For the same size of equity issuance, firms with steeper slope of demand curves for their stocks experience a larger price drop in their share price compare to their counterparts. As a consequence, firms with a steeper slope of demand curves are less likely to issue equity and hence they have higher leverage ratios. This research finds that the steeper the slope of demand curve for firm's stock, the higher the actual leverage of the firm. Furthermore, firms with a steeper slope of demand curves have higher target leverage ratios, signifying that these firms prefer debt to equity financing in order to avoid the adverse price impact of equity issuance on their share price.

  9. Application of distinct element method of toppling failure of slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have pointed out, in the latest report, that DEM (Distinct Element Method) seems to be a very helpful numerical method to examine the stability of fissured rock slopes, in which toppling failure would occur during earthquakes. In this report, the applicability of DEM for such rock slopes is examined through the following comparisons between theoretical results and DEM results, referring Voegele's works (1982): (1) Stability of one block on a slope. (2) Failure of a rock block column composed of 10 same size rectangular blocks. (3) Cable force required to make a slope stable. Through above 3 comparisons, it seems that DEM give the reasonable results. Considering that these problems may not be treated by the other numerical methods such as FEM and so on, so DEM seems to be a very useful method for fissured rock slope analysis. (author)

  10. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  11. Wave run-up on permeable fixed reveted slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Kantardgi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of surface wave movement and water filtration in saturated-unsaturated porous medium has been developed. The model can be used to define the parameters of the wave run-up on the slope protected with a permeable fixed layer. The model is applied to determine positions of the free wave surface at the different times, including such parameters as the height of wave run-up and wave run-down on the slope. In addition, both flow velocity field in the upper protected layer and moisture distribution in the soil body of the slope were defined. The model is verified with the results of the published large-scale tests that have been conducted at Technical University Braunschweig in the wave flume with the slopes protected according to Elastocoast technology. The numerical model can be applied to calculate the run-up of extreme waves on protected engineering and beach slopes in natural conditions.

  12. Hydrologic design for riprap on embankment slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste impoundments for uranium tailings and other hazardous substances are often protected by compacted earth and clay, covered with a layer of loose rock (riprap). The report outlines procedures that could be followed to design riprap to withstand forces caused by runoff resulting from extreme rainfall directly on the embankment. The Probable Maximum Precipitation for very small areas is developed from considerations of severe storms of short duration at mid-latitudes. A two-dimensional finite difference model is then used to calculate the runoff from severe rainfall events. The procedure takes into account flow both beneath and above the rock layer and approximates the concentration in flow which could be caused by a non-level or slumped embankment. The sensitivity to various assumptions, such as the shape and size of the rock, the thickness of the layer, and the shape of the embankment, suggests that peak runoff from an armored slope could be attenuated with proper design. Frictional relationships for complex flow regimes are developed on the basis of flow through rock-filled dams and in mountain streams. These relationships are tested against experimental data collected in laboratory flumes; the tests provide excellent results. The resulting runoff is then used in either the Stephenson or safety factor method to find the stable rock diameter. The rock sizes determined by this procedure for a given flow have been compared with data on the failure of rock layers in experimental flumes, again with excellent results. Computer programs are included for implementing the method. 15 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn++, indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this processal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Influence of slope steepness on soil erosion modelling with RUSLE, measured with rainfall simulations on subalpine slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    The topographical factor LS are one of the main factors for soil erosion modelling approaches within the RUSLE environment. There exists a large variety of different S-factors, for the most used soil erosion modelling environment, which have highly significant influences on the calculated erosion values. All existing S-factors have only been derived from gently slope inclinations (up to 32 %). Particularly in Switzerland, many cultivated areas are steeper than these critical values. Therefore, there exists a research gap for water soil erosion modelling of slopes beyond this slope inclinations. For the first time rainfall simulation could be made on very steep subalpine slopes (Uri, CH) with a portable field hybrid rainfall simulator. 18 plot measurements on transects ranging from 20 - 90 % slope steepness, were used for a qualitative assessment of the most suitable S-factors for steep subalpine slopes. The collected sediment and runoff amounts indicated a highly signi?cant correlation between the soil loss, runo? and slope steepness. It was possible to make a first selection of an S-factor for slopes above the critical 25 % steepness. Additionally, the C-factor could be extracted from a supervised digital image analysis in ArcGIS.

  15. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n?=?406) and 4.2° during alighting (n?=?405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary skills to safely navigate this environment. Knowing that extent of bus kneeling and ramp deployment level can influence ramp slope, therapists can educate WhMD users to request bus operators further kneel the bus floor and/or redeploy the ramp to a sidewalk level when appropriate, so that the least practicable slope will be presented for ingress/egress. PMID:24785405

  16. A model of Martian slope winds - Implications for eolian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, J.; Gierasch, P.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of dark Martian wind streaks not associated with visible topographic points of origin (coalesced dark streaks) show these features to favor regions with slopes of 1-10 deg. To investigate the circulation over such slopes, a Boussinesq fluid is adopted and a constant eddy diffusivity parameterization is assumed for small-scale mixing. The equations of motion are scaled to determine the range of slopes over which a strong local circulation due to slope winds can exist. For nighttime conditions, the estimated range compares well with the observed range of slopes favored by coalesced dark streaks. For daytime conditions, the slope wind solution is not valid. A simple one-dimensional analytic model is solved to determine friction velocities and velocity and temperature profiles. For reasonable choices of the input parameters, friction velocities and wind velocities suggestive of active downslope eolian transport on slopes of 1-10 deg are found. Friction velocities are largest over surfaces with low thermal inertia and large roughness length.

  17. Management of the Nkomati Mine crusher slope failure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Armstrong; K., Moletsane.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited available level ground, Nkomati Nickel Mine cut a weathered rock slope at the base of a mountain spur in order to create a platform for construction of the primary crusher plant and run-of-mine stockpiles. As space is limited around the mining area, ore processing at Nkomati is based [...] on a high reliability of flow of material through the crusher plant, with minimal usage of other and larger designed stockpiles. Evidently, any crusher plant shutdown will render the mine as a whole unproductive and put excessive strain on the medium- to long-term large ore stockpiles, the deposition rates for which are restricted by founding material consolidation requirements. At the onset of the 2012 rainy season, movement was identified on the slope monitoring system and cracks developed on the slope. After a minor failure on the crusher slope an assessment of the slope stability was conducted and a slope management plan recommended, which included deployment of real-time monitoring. An evaluation of the conditions leading to instability was conducted and the likely causes for the failure identified. A full evaluation of the slope monitoring, rainfall, and mining conditions was undertaken and movement triggers were determined. This paper describes the events leading to the development of the failure and the evaluation of the monitoring data to determine a management plan for the failure that allowed for minimal shutdowns of the primary crusher.

  18. Simulating the seismic behaviour of soil slopes and embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    In the current study the clarification of the main assumptions, related to the two most commonly used methods of seismic slope stability analysis (pseudostatic and permanent deformation) is attempted. The seismic permanent displacements and the corresponding seismic coefficients were determined via parametric dynamic numerical analyses taking into account not only the main parameters dominating the seismic slope stability, but also the inherent assumptions of the applied approaches that affect the obtained results. The investigation conclude to a realistic procedure for seismic slope stability assessment based on the application of two simple methods taking into account the impact of the most important factors involved.

  19. Comparison of slope approximations used in rough surface scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, P J

    2015-02-01

    Two widely used surface slope approximations are compared to an initially exact method that treats the slopes via a differential operator acting on the characteristic function. The differential operator treatment ceases to be exact when the integrand in the scattering integrals is approximated using a Gaussian directivity approximation and Fresnel phase approximation. Analysis is restricted to the Kirchhoff approximation (single scattering). One of the simpler slope approximations agrees with the more comprehensive differential operator approximation for all backscattering geometries, as well as for specular scattering geometries down to grazing angles comparable to the source beamwidth. PMID:25698054

  20. The stability of grounding lines on retrograde slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of marine ice sheets grounded on beds that slope upwards in the overall direction of flow is investigated numerically in two horizontal dimensions. We give examples of stable grounding lines on such retrograde slopes illustrating that marine ice sheets are not unconditionally unstable in two-horizontal dimensions. Retrograde bed slopes at the grounding lines of maritime ice sheets, such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS, do not per se imply an instability, nor do they imply that these regions are close to a threshold of instability. We therefore question those estimates of the potential near-future contribution of WAIS to global sea level change based solely on the notion that WAIS, resting on retrograde slope, must be inherently unstable.

  1. Slope analysis for elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2009-01-01

    The diffraction slope parameter is investigated for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering based on the all available experimental data at low and intermediate momentum transfer values. Energy dependence of the elastic diffraction slopes is approximated by various analytic functions. The expanded "standard" logarithmic approximations with minimum number of free parameters allow to describe experimental slopes in all available energy range reasonably. The estimations of asymptotic shrinkage parameter $\\alpha'_{\\cal{P}}$ were obtained for various $|t|$ domains based on the all available experimental data. Various approximations differ from each other both in the low energy and very high energy domains. Predictions for diffraction slope parameter are obtained for elastic proton-proton scattering at NICA, RHIC and LHC energies, for proton-antiproton elastic reaction in FAIR energy domain for various approximation functions.

  2. Open pit slope deformation monitoring by fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoquan; Xiong, Daiyu; Duan, Yun; Cao, Xiaoshuang

    2015-01-01

    With microstrain resolution and the capability to sample at rates of 2000 Hz or higher, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor offers exciting new possibilities for in situ deformation monitoring induced by blasting load in an open pit slope. Here, we are developing a new technology for measuring deformation in real time on the microstrain in an open pit slope during the blasting. A fiber optically instrumented rock mass strain sensor measured strain at 100-cm intervals along a two anchor rock bolt grouted in the slope intact rock mass. In field testing, a number of transient signals have been observed, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new insight into the slope stability and blasting cumulative effects. Therefore, FBG sensors are a useful tool for measuring in situ strain in intact rock masses.

  3. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS...

  4. Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Wan, Daqing

    2015-01-01

    We fix a monic polynomial f(x) in Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f (x); this is a tower of curves · · · ? Cm ? Cm?1 ? ···?C0 =A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton slopes of L-functions associated to characters of the Galois group of this tower. We prove that, when the conductor of the character is large enough, the Newton slopes of the L-function form arithmetic progressions which are independent of the conductor of the character. As a corollary, we obtain a result on the behavior of the slopes of the eigencurve associated to the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower, analogous to the result of Buzzard and Kilford.

  5. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  6. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (Future)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  7. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Einav; Katz, Oded; Aharonov, Einat

    2013-04-01

    Numerous shallow submarine slope failures (scars and deposits) are observed in recent high resolution bathymetric grids of the continental slope off the Israeli eastern Mediterranean coast. The nature of these slope failures is currently not comprehensively understood as well as the question of whether the eastern Mediterranean continental slope is continuously or episodically unstable. We report here first steps towards understanding the present state of this submarine landslide system, which include mapping and analyzing the geology of the landslides and the hosting slopes. The continental slope extends from water depths of about 150 to more than 1000 meters with a slope of less than 5 degrees in general. Bathymetric grids with pixel resolution of 15 m till water depth of 700 m and 50 m till water depth of 1700 m were used. Analyzing the bathymetry revealed three main submarine surface features: (a) numerous shallow landslides, within the upper sequence of the post-Messenian sediments. Landslide widths range between hundreds to thousand of meters at the scar, with scar heights up to hundred meters. The toes of the landslides are not always mapable and lay up to a few kilometers down slope from the scar. Slope angles within the scars are 5 to more than15 degrees. At least two types of landslides were detected: presumably young slides with sharp scars, and presumably old slides with secondary slides and secondary drainage systems developed within the scar area; (b) a few kilometers long, north striking step-like lineaments. Step heights are up to 100 meters and the slopes are up to 20 degrees. The offset between parallel steps is less than a kilometer to a few kilometers. The steps are interpreted as surface expressions of growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates up to 1.5 kilometers below surface; (c) a few north striking channels were also detected with steep walls of more than 15 degrees, up to two kilometers width and a few kilometers length. The nature of these channels is not clear yet. Field relations show that the landslides, both young and old, either emerge from the over-steepened steps, or are displaced by them, and hence submarine landslides and steps are apparently contemporaneous. In addition this suggests that salt dynamics at depth is a main drive for at least some of these shallow slides. The above preliminary results testify to the complicated and highly dynamic nature of the studied continental slope, yet to be revealed.

  8. No Semiconjugacy to a Map of Constant Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Misiurewicz, Micha?; Roth, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We study countably piecewise continuous, piecewise monotone interval maps. We establish a necessary and sufficient criterion for the existence of a nondecreasing semiconjugacy to a map of constant slope in terms of the existence of an eigenvector of an operator acting on a space of measures. Then we give sufficient conditions under which this criterion is not satisfied. Finally, we give examples of maps not semiconjugate to a map of constant slope via a nondecreasing map. Ou...

  9. Slope One Predictors for Online Rating-Based Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Lemire, Daniel; Maclachlan, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Rating-based collaborative filtering is the process of predicting how a user would rate a given item from other user ratings. We propose three related slope one schemes with predictors of the form f(x) = x + b, which precompute the average difference between the ratings of one item and another for users who rated both. Slope one algorithms are easy to implement, efficient to query, reasonably accurate, and they support both online queries and dynamic updates, which makes the...

  10. Novel Measurement Technique of the Tibial Slope on Conventional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Hudek, Robert; Schmutz, Silvia; Regenfelder, Felix; Fuchs, Bruno; Koch, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    The posterior inclination of the tibial plateau, which is referred to as posterior tibial slope, is determined routinely on lateral radiographs. However, radiographically, it is not always possible to reliably recognize the lateral plateau, making a separate assessment of the medial and lateral plateaus difficult. We propose a technique to measure the plateaus separately by defining a tibial longitudinal axis on a conventional MRI. The medial plateau posterior tibial slope obtained from radio...

  11. Exploring Benthic Biodiversity Patterns and Hotspots on European Margin Slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Danovaro; Miquel Canals; Serge Heussner; Nikolaos Lampadariou; Ann Vanreusel

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that continental slope ecosystems represent one of the major repositories of benthic marine biodiversity. The enhanced levels of biodiversity along slopes are hypothesized to be a source of biodiversity for continental shelves and deeper basins. Continental margins are increasingly altered by human activities, but the consequences of these anthropogenic impacts on benthic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are almost completely unknown. Thus, there is an urgen...

  12. Testing the product of slopes in related regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Christopher H.; Shetty, Veena; Phillips, Terry; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Mattson, Mark P.; Wan, Ruiqian

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted of the relationships among neuroprotective factors and cytokines in brain tissue of mice at different ages that were examined on the effect of dietary restriction on protection after experimentally induced brain stroke. It was of interest to assess whether the cross-product of the slopes of pairs of variables vs. age was positive or negative. To accomplish this, the product of the slopes was estimated and tested to determine if it is significantly different from zero. Si...

  13. Slope Stability Evaluations by Limit Equilibrium and Finite Element Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Krishna Prasad

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with slope stability evolutions carried out by commonly used limit equilibrium (LE) and finite element (FE) methods. The study utilizes two LE based software (SLOPE/W and SLIDE) and one FE based software (PLAXIS). The principal difference between these two analyses approaches is that the LE methods are based on the static of equilibrium whereas FE methods utilise the stress?strain relationship or constitutive law. To fulfil one of the aims of the study, the LE based meth...

  14. A new vision of carbonate slopes: the Little Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Thierry; Gillet, Hervé; Hanquiez, Vincent; Reijmer, John J.; Tournadour, Elsa; Chabaud, Ludivine; Principaud, Mélanie; Schnyder, Jara; Borgomano, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Recent data collected in November 2014 (RV Walton Smith) on the upper slope of the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) between 30 and 400 m water depth allowed to characterize the uppermost slope (Rankey et al., 2012) over a surface of 170 km2. The new data set includes multibeam bathymetry and acoustic imagery, 3.5 kHz very-high resolution (VHR) seismic reflection lines, 21 gravity cores and 11 Van Veen grabs. The upper slope of the LBB does not show a steep submarine cliff as known from western Great Bahama Bank. The carbonate bank progressively deepens towards the basin through a slighty inclined plateau. The slope value is Robin, C., Sianipar, R., Reijmer, J.J.G., and François A. Canyon morphology on a modern carbonate slope of the Bahamas: Evidence of regional tectonic tilting. Geology, 40(9), 771-774. Rankey, E.C, and Doolittle, D.F. (2012). Geomorphology of carbonate platform-marginal uppermost slopes: Insights from a Holocene analogue, Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas. Sedimentology, 59, 2146-2171.

  15. The Spectral Slope and Kolmogorov Constant of MHD turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    The spectral slope of strong MHD turbulence has recently been a matter of controversy. While Goldreich-Sridhar model (1995) predicts Kolmogorov's -5/3 slope of turbulence, shallower slopes were often reported by numerical studies. We argue that earlier numerics was affected by driving due to a diffuse locality of energy transfer in MHD case. Our highest-resolution simulation (3072^2x1024) has been able to reach the asymptotic -5/3 regime of the energy slope. Additionally, we found that so-called dynamic alignment, proposed in the model with -3/2 slope, saturates and therefore can not affect asymptotic slope. The observation of the asymptotic regime allowed us to measure Kolmogorov constant C_KA=3.2+-0.2 for purely Alfv\\'enic turbulence and C_K=4.1+-0.3 for full MHD turbulence. These values are much higher than the hydrodynamic value of 1.64. The larger value of Kolmogorov constant is an indication of a fairly inefficient energy transfer and, as we show in this Letter, is in theoretical agreement with our obse...

  16. Slope stability along active and passive continental margins: a geotechnical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Submarine mass movements are widespread at submarine slopes and play an important role in transporting sediments across the continental slope to the deep basin, as well as potential danger to both offshore infrastructures (e.g., pipeline, cables and platforms) and coastal areas (e.g., slope failure-induced tsunamis). Sliding of the sediments on continental slope takes place when the shear stress within sediments exceeds the shear strength thereby causing slope failure. Slope failures are gene...

  17. Research on the Slope Green and Environment Protection Using Dynamical Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Wan; Henglin Xiao; Jun He; Lihua Li

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the slope green and environment protection in China. In ecological slope protection, the plant roots can achieve the ecological vegetation restoration of the slope surface. Hence the slope environment can be protected significantly. However, there is still lack of efficient policy to support the implementation of nationwide slope green program to facilitate the development of slope green and environment protection technologies. Hence, the reasonable relationship...

  18. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are strongly limited by extreme climatic conditions, resulting in low resistance and resilience with respect to any human-induced changes; therefore, it is key to quantify the impact of ski slope construction and management on such fragile pedo-ecosystems. KEYWORDS: alpine tundra, pedogenesis, ski slope construction, ski slope management

  19. Very rare Q-slope none overcome by electropolishing and baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discovered the very rare Q-slope none overcome by electropolishing and baking at 120degC for 48 hours. The Q-slope is not related to 'Hydrogen disease'. The Q-slope is not improved by the wiping and steam so that we recognize that the Q-slope is not caused by some cohesion things of the cavity's surface. The rare Q-slope is categorized a low, medium and high rare Q-slope. In this paper, we report the Rare Q-slope and the categorized rare Q-slope. (author)

  20. Design of Overall Slope Angle and Analysis of Rock Slope Stability of Chadormalu Mine Using Empirical and Numerical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rasouli Maleki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In engineering projects associated with rock mechanic science like open pit mines, assessment and slope stability of mine walls is one of the important performance in generate of these structures. Estimating and knowledge of stable slope angle is one of main parts that should be occurring to special attention in open pit mines studies phase. Considering the importance of economic costs in mining issues, the need for appropriate design slope angle that can cause an adverse minimize project costs and throws the other hand, the stability conditions in the safe walls of the mine life will provide essential and seems obvious. Therefore, in this study to determine the optimal slope angle of overall and bench of west wall of the Chadormalu ore iron mine, has been trying, first, done field studies on the discontinuity of western wall, engineering classification and geomechanical properties of rock masses of wall, then assess the amount of optimal slope angle using empirical method. Finally, in order to ensure stability and accuracy of the wall slope angle based on the obtained (empirical method tries to analysis is amount of Factor of Safety (FOS, displacements and mean stress condition atwalls calculated from drilling use Phase2D powerful software.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of high-steep slope stability and optimal high-steep slope design by 3D physical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Mei-feng; Ren, Fen-hua; Tan, Wen-hui

    2015-01-01

    High-steep slope stability and its optimal excavation design in Shuichang open pit iron mine were analyzed based on a large 3D physical simulation technique. An optimal excavation scheme with a relatively steeper slope angle was successfully implemented at the northwest wall between Nos. 4 and 5 exploration lines of Shuichang Iron Mine, taking into account the 3D scale effect. The physico-mechanical properties of rock materials were obtained by laboratory tests conducted on sample cores from exploration drilling directly from the iron mine. A porous rock-like composite material was formed for the model, and the mechanical parameters of the material were assessed experimentally; specifically, the effect of water on the sample was quantitatively determined. We adopted an experimental setup using stiff modular applied static loading to carry out a visual excavation of the slope at a random depth. The setup was equipped with acoustic emission (AE) sensors, and the experiments were monitored by crack optical acquirement, ground penetrating radar, and close-field photogrammetry to investigate the mechanisms of rock-mass destabilization in the high-steep slope. For the complex study area, the model results indicated a clear correlation between the model's destabilization resulting from slope excavation and the collected monitoring information. During the model simulation, the overall angle of the slope increased by 1-6 degrees in different sections. Dramatically, the modeled excavation scheme saved over 80 million tons of rock from extraction, generating enormous economic and ecological benefits.

  2. Geotechnical and numerical studies of slope instability in loess deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrova, R.; Stahlmann, J.; Bourdeau, C.; Havenith, Hb.

    2009-04-01

    The mass movements occurred in loess accumulations often cause catastrophic damages to infrastructure and lose to the human lives. The failure in loess deposits can occur in gently terrains as happened in Tajik Republic in 1989. The earthquake with magnitude 5.5 hit the suburb of town. During this event the liquefaction effects developed consequently to lead to the catastrophic landslides. The loess failure related case is Kainama landslide (Fergana Valley, Kyrgyzstan) that killed 33 people. Potential relation between site effects and pore pressure build up causing liquefaction is the main thrust of this research. Methodology of the seismic slope stability investigation included determination of the mechanical strength properties and numerical modelling of a slope failure. In order to simulate the slope it is essential to gather the strength parameters of soil that present the conditions of the material in the nature. The main emphasis has been put to the geotechnical studies. To better understand the slope failure in loess body the two landslide sites in Fergana Valley (Kyrgyzstan) were selected to collect the loess specimens. Mechanism of deformation of loess material determined in terms of standard geotechnical tests. The natural water content in specimens is low, ranging from 12,8 % to 21% . The first investigation site occurred in Tertiary sediments has a low mean of the plasticity index (12% - 16 %). The climate data were analysed in order to correlate with slope failure cases. The development of landslides in investigating areas is truly connected with variation of physical and mechanical properties of loess material that is respectively related to geological and tectonic conditions of an area. To arrange the connection between site effects and pore pressure build up we used the numerical modelling with a finite difference code (FLAC 2D and 3D). These simulations give an opportunity to better clarify site effect impact to the slope and its role to cause liquefaction effects regarding to the slope failure initiation.

  3. Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. ? The configuration sizes are designed separately. ? The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. ? The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant sol low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

  4. Impacts of Habitat Slope on Plant from of Astracantha adscendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Khajeddin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Astracantha adscendens is an endemic species in Iran growing on alpine and above alpine timberline habitats on the Zagross Mountain Range. These habitats are characterized by steep slopes, heavy snowfalls and long ice formation periods. The present study was carried out in Chelgerd, Bakhtiari, and Fereidan, Isfahan. Slopes, elevation above sea-level, and magnetic north azimuth were measured. The canopy cover was also measured along four radii in upward, downward, left and right directions. Regression analysis was performed for the measured values of plant and environmental factors. The results revealed that the upward radius had a high negative correlation with slope changes while the downward radius showed no relationship with slope variations. The two left and right radii had a high and positive relationship with each other, both reducing in length as the slope steepness increased. Shrub volume decreases with increasing slope steepness. Plant shape was classified into seven groups using Sorenson similarity index and constructing the dendrogram. Snow pressure bends the stem toward the soil surface. Snow gliding pressure scratches stem and its base buds above the bent stem. Soil and debris move downward the slope as a result of snow gliding and rainfall runoff as well as wildlife and domestic animals. Snow gliding along with other natural factors have various effects on A. adscendens plant form which can be grouped under three categories: direct mechanical effect of snow, physiological effect of snow, and indirect effect of precipitation and wildlife. The environmental factors and plant physiological responses to them change the A. adscendens plant form from a funnel or ob-conical shape to a semi-funnel or semi ob-conical form.

  5. Development of a GIS-based failure investigation system for highway soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Raghav; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Tanyu, Burak F.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for preparation of an early warning system was developed for Maryland, using a GIS database and a collective overlay of maps that highlight highway slopes susceptible to soil slides or slope failures in advance through spatial and statistical analysis. Data for existing soil slope failures was collected from geotechnical reports and field visits. A total of 48 slope failures were recorded and analyzed. Six factors, including event precipitation, geological formation, land cover, slope history, slope angle, and elevation were considered to affect highway soil slope stability. The observed trends indicate that precipitation and poor surface or subsurface drainage conditions are principal factors causing slope failures. 96% of the failed slopes have an open drainage section. A majority of the failed slopes lie in regions with relatively high event precipitation (P>200 mm). 90% of the existing failures are surficial erosion type failures, and only 1 out of the 42 slope failures is deep rotational type failure. More than half of the analyzed slope failures have occurred in regions having low density land cover. 46% of failures are on slopes with slope angles between 20° and 30°. Influx of more data relating to failed slopes should give rise to more trends, and thus the developed slope management system will aid the state highway engineers in prudential budget allocation and prioritizing different remediation projects based on the literature reviewed on the principles, concepts, techniques, and methodology for slope instability evaluation (Leshchinsky et al., 2015).

  6. Development of a GIS-based failure investigation system for highway soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Raghav; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Tanyu, Burak F.

    2015-06-01

    A framework for preparation of an early warning system was developed for Maryland, using a GIS database and a collective overlay of maps that highlight highway slopes susceptible to soil slides or slope failures in advance through spatial and statistical analysis. Data for existing soil slope failures was collected from geotechnical reports and field visits. A total of 48 slope failures were recorded and analyzed. Six factors, including event precipitation, geological formation, land cover, slope history, slope angle, and elevation were considered to affect highway soil slope stability. The observed trends indicate that precipitation and poor surface or subsurface drainage conditions are principal factors causing slope failures. 96% of the failed slopes have an open drainage section. A majority of the failed slopes lie in regions with relatively high event precipitation ( P>200 mm). 90% of the existing failures are surficial erosion type failures, and only 1 out of the 42 slope failures is deep rotational type failure. More than half of the analyzed slope failures have occurred in regions having low density land cover. 46% of failures are on slopes with slope angles between 20° and 30°. Influx of more data relating to failed slopes should give rise to more trends, and thus the developed slope management system will aid the state highway engineers in prudential budget allocation and prioritizing different remediation projects based on the literature reviewed on the principles, concepts, techniques, and methodology for slope instability evaluation (Leshchinsky et al., 2015).

  7. Slope Stability Analysis of Itakpe Iron Ore Mine, Itakpe, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Muili Akande

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slope stability of the Itakpe Iron Ore Mine has been carried out using computer software, ROCKPACK III. One hundred and twenty three dip and dip direction values were obtained using compass clinometer. The Itakpe Iron Ore Mine was divided into four benches; 241 - 258 m, 263 - 275 m, 276 - 286 m and 308 - 312 m. Joints along the discontinuities were mapped. The data obtained were analyzed using ROCKPACK III. The results indicate that the discontinuities within the critical zone are potentially unstable and can lead to planar failure. The Markland test carried out for wedge failure indicates that the intersection of the discontinuities does not fall within the critical zone hence there cannot be any wedge failure of the slope within the level 241 - 258 m. The presence of discontinuities that plot within the toppling critical zone indicates that there is potential toppling failure on the slope at the 276 - 286 m level. In addition, the toppling failure test shows the absence of discontinuities that plot within the toppling critical zone and this indicates the absence of poten-tial toppling failure of the slope at the 308 - 312 m level. The result of the study will be useful to the man-agement of the Itakpe iron ore mine in having a proper understanding of the failure mechanism of the slopes.

  8. After the slippery slope: Dutch experiences on regulating active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Theo A

    2003-01-01

    "When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward." If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery slope argument, however, is by definition limited by its reference to future developments which cannot empirically be sustained. Experience in the Netherlands--where a law regulating active euthanasia was accepted in April 2001--may shed light on the strengths as well as the weaknesses of the slippery slope argument in the context of the euthanasia debate. This paper consists of three parts. First, it clarifies the Dutch legislation on euthanasia and explains the cultural context in which it originated. Second, it looks at the argument of the slippery slope. A logical and an empirical version are distinguished, and the latter, though philosophically less interesting, proves to be most relevant in the discussion on euthanasia. Thirdly, it addresses the question whether Dutch experiences in the process of legalizing euthanasia justify the fear of the slippery slope. The conclusion is that Dutch experiences justify some caution. PMID:16175719

  9. Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Christopher J.; Banner, Michael L.; Schultz, Howard; Corrada-Emmanuel, Andres; Wolff, Lawrence B.; Yalcin, Jacob

    2008-05-01

    We present a passive optical remote sensing technique for recovering shape information about a water surface, in the form of a two-dimensional slope map. The method, known as polarimetric slope sensing (PSS), uses the relationship between surface orientation and the change in polarization of reflected light to infer the instantaneous two-dimensional slope across the field-of-view of an imaging polarimeter. For unpolarized skylight, the polarization orientation and degree of linear polarization of the reflected skylight provide sufficient information to determine the local surface slope vectors. A controlled laboratory experiment was carried out in a wave tank with mechanically generated gravity waves. A second study was performed from a pier on the Hudson River, near Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. We demonstrated that the two-dimensional slope field of short gravity waves could be recovered accurately without interfering with the fluid dynamics of the air or water, and water surface features appear remarkably realistic. The combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the polarimetric camera gives a robust characterization of the fine-scale surface wave features that are intrinsic to wind-driven air-sea interaction processes.

  10. Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a passive optical remote sensing technique for recovering shape information about a water surface, in the form of a two-dimensional slope map. The method, known as polarimetric slope sensing (PSS), uses the relationship between surface orientation and the change in polarization of reflected light to infer the instantaneous two-dimensional slope across the field-of-view of an imaging polarimeter. For unpolarized skylight, the polarization orientation and degree of linear polarization of the reflected skylight provide sufficient information to determine the local surface slope vectors. A controlled laboratory experiment was carried out in a wave tank with mechanically generated gravity waves. A second study was performed from a pier on the Hudson River, near Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. We demonstrated that the two-dimensional slope field of short gravity waves could be recovered accurately without interfering with the fluid dynamics of the air or water, and water surface features appear remarkably realistic. The combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the polarimetric camera gives a robust characterization of the fine-scale surface wave features that are intrinsic to wind-driven air–sea interaction processes

  11. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  12. Robustness for slope stability modelling under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Landslides can have large negative societal and economic impacts, such as loss of life and damage to infrastructure. However, the ability of slope stability assessment to guide management is limited by high levels of uncertainty in model predictions. Many of these uncertainties cannot be easily quantified, such as those linked to climate change and other future socio-economic conditions, restricting the usefulness of traditional decision analysis tools. Deep uncertainty can be managed more effectively by developing robust, but not necessarily optimal, policies that are expected to perform adequately under a wide range of future conditions. Robust strategies are particularly valuable when the consequences of taking a wrong decision are high as is often the case of when managing natural hazard risks such as landslides. In our work a physically based numerical model of hydrologically induced slope instability (the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model - CHASM) is applied together with robust decision making to evaluate the most important uncertainties (storm events, groundwater conditions, surface cover, slope geometry, material strata and geotechnical properties) affecting slope stability. Specifically, impacts of climate change on long-term slope stability are incorporated, accounting for the deep uncertainty in future climate projections. Our findings highlight the potential of robust decision making to aid decision support for landslide hazard reduction and risk management under conditions of deep uncertainty.

  13. Direct Strain and Slope and Slope Measurement Using 2D DSPSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large variety of optical full-field measurement techniques are being developed and applied to solve mechanical problems. Since each technique possesses its own merits, it is important to know the capabilities and limitations of such techniques. Among these optical full-field methods, interferometry techniques take an important place. They are based on illumination with coherent light (laser). In shearing interferometry the difference of the out of-plane displacement in two neighboring object points is directly measured. Since object displacement does not result in interferometry fringes, the method is suited for localization of strain concentrations and is indeed used in industry for this purpose. DSPSI possesses the advantage over conventional out-of-plane displacement-sensitive interferometry, that only a single difference of the unwrapped phase map is required to obtain flexural strains, thereby relieving problems with noise and reduction in the field of view. A first work in this domain (DSPSI) [1] was made in 1973, later recent studies emerged to provide a quantitative system of measurements [2]. This work aims to present the results of strain and slope measurements using digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry (DSPSI). (author)

  14. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Takacs, Peter Z.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    A collaboration including all DOE synchrotron laboratories and industrial vendors of X-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group, has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler—the Optical Slope Measuring System (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be <50 nrad for the current and future metrology of X-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable, and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  15. Violating the General Density-Slope Anisotropy Inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Jeremy A

    2014-01-01

    We examine the robustness of the well-known empirical relationship between the density slope and the velocity anisotropy of collisionless systems. This relation, known as the Global Density-Slope Anisotropy Inequality (GDSAI) (Ciotti & Morganti, 2010), posits that no collisionless system with a globally positive distribution function exists where the anisotropy exceeds half of the power-law of the density slope. We significantly extend previous indications that the GDSAI is not a universal rule by identifying a class of models where violation occurs. These models possess a globally positive DF, have an isotropic central core, but are not guaranteed to be stable. Our analysis suggests that stability criteria provide a stronger basis for determining if a DF represents an equilibrium solution for a collisionless system.

  16. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of soil water content at the occurrence of slope failure is of key importance, since high soil mo

  17. New idea for solving safety factor of slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yong-Chao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Strength reduce method is an important way to solve the safety factor of slope, it has been applied widely since it was proposed. Based on strength reduce method built-in FLAC-3D software and traditional automatic strength reduce based on method of bisection, the paper introduces a new strength reduce method based on golden section point that it can more quickly find out safety factor of slope. And through the examples help to prove that this new strength reduce method not only can acquire the safety factor of slope more quickly than the method built-in FLAC3D software and traditional automatic strength reduce method but also can has the same accuracy with the other methods.

  18. Slope Stability Analysis Using Radial Slices: A Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gyan Prakash; Das, Adarsha; Rai, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Ashok

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model has been formulated for calculating the factor of safety of a slope. Corresponding computer code has also been developed. Limit equilibrium method (moment equilibrium) has been adopted for calculating the net resulting driving and resisting forces. The probable slip circle region has been divided into radial slices for the simulation process. In this approach, the inter-slice shear forces are zero. Thus, the calculation process becomes simpler as compared to that with vertical slices. The slope stability analyses were done. Validation of the present program was done with existing limit equilibrium based methods. Various models were prepared and analysed with varying geometry and soil strength parameters. These models were also analysed with other limit equilibrium methods like Bishop, Janbu and Spencer method. The results were found to be in agreement with the results of other limit equilibrium methods for the same dump soil properties and slope parameters.

  19. Wetting Front Advance From a Point Source in Sloping Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Mostafazadeh

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of field slope, emitter discharge, irrigation water volume and soil texture on soil moisture profile and soil surface wetted shape from a point source, field data were collected on three different soil types, three emitter discharges (4, 8, and 12 lph, four slopes (0, 2, 5, and 10%, and five irrigation water volumes (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 liters with three replications. The results showed that the surface-wetted area increases as the emitter discharge increases. The surface-wetted area decreased with a corresponding increase in emitter discharge in experimental fields with light-textured soils. In experimental fields with heavy textured soils and slopes greater than 5%, the changes in surface-wetted area due to the emitter discharge increases, were higher compared to slopes of less than 5%. Since, a higher emitter discharge would result in higher surface-wetted area, the results showed that for an equal volume of irrigation water, the soil moisture profile was deeper for lower emitter discharge. In general, the volume of wetted zone was higher for greater emitter discharges. It was found that as the volume of irrigation water increased, the volume of wetted zone would increase correspondingly. This effect is more prominent than that of emitter discharge. In general, the depth of wetting front was lower and the wetted surface area was greater for heavy textured soils as compared to the light textured soils. The wetted-surface area and the shape of wetting front in the direction of slope were affected by the soil infiltration, emitter discharge and volume of irrigation water where these effects were more critical in higher sloping lands.

  20. Recurring Slope Lineae and Future Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred; Byrne, Shane; Chevrier, Vincent; Chojnacki, Matt; Dundas, Colin; Masse, Marion; Mattson, Sarah; Ojha, Lujendra; Pommerol, Antoine; Toigo, Anthony; Wray, James

    2014-05-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) on Mars may be evidence for the seasonal flow or seepage of water on relatively warm slopes. RSL are narrow (250 K to >300 K. Over the past Martian year we have monitored active RSL in equatorial (0°-15°S) regions of Mars, especially in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris [McEwen et al., 2014, Nature Geoscience]. These equatorial RSL are especially active on north-facing slopes in northern summer and spring and on south-facing slopes in southern spring and summer, following the most normal solar incidence angles on these steep slopes. More recently we have confirmed RSL near 35°N in the low-albedo and low-altitude Acidalia Planitia. All RSL locations have warm peak daily temperatures (typically >273 K at the surface) in the seasons when RSL are active, and occur on steep, rocky, low-albedo slopes. However, most times and places with these properties lack apparent RSL, so there are additional, unseen requirements. We do not know what time of day RSL are actively flowing. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric column abundance of water vapor does not match the RSL activity. Seasonal melting of shallow ice best explains the RSL observations, but the origin and replenishment of such ice is not understood, especially in the tropics. Laboratory experiments are consistent with two key MRO observations: (1) that seeping water darkens basaltic soils but may only produce weak water absorption bands undetectable in ratio spectra after partial dehydration during the low-humidity middle afternoon conditions when MRO observes; and (2) the flows are more linear than under terrestrial conditions and do not erode channels under Martian atmospheric pressures [Masse et al., 2014, LPSC]. No dry process is known to create such slowly creeping seasonal flows. The potential for equatorial water activity creates new exploration opportunities, to search for extant life, as well as challenges such as the definition of special regions for planetary protection.

  1. "Taevaredel" sündis Billite talus / Meeli Müüripeal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müüripeal, Meeli, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Billite talust, kus läti kirjanik ja luuletaja Edvards Virza (1883-1940) kirjutas romaani "Taevaredel" ("Straumeni"). Tõlk, kirjanik ja diplomaat Anna Zhigure oma vanaisa E. Virza kirjutatud romaani tähendusest lätlastele ja Billite talust, kus praegu elab A. Zhigure vend. 4 värv. ill

  2. Noncommutative/Nonlinear BPS Equations without Zero Slope Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Sanefumi

    2000-01-01

    It is widely believed that via the Seiberg-Witten map, the linearly realized BPS equation in the non-commutative space is related to the non-linearly realized BPS equation in the commutative space in the zero slope limit. We show that the relation also holds without taking the zero slope limit as is expected from the arguments of the BPS equation for the non-Abelian Born-Infeld theory. This is regarded as an evidence for the relation between the two BPS equations. As a bypro...

  3. Analytical approximation for the recession of a sloping aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, W. L.; Li, L.; Lockington, D. A.; Stagnitti, F.; Parlange, M. B.; Barry, D. A.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2014-11-01

    An approximation is obtained for the recession of a sloping aquifer. The analytical approximation can provide a useful tool to analyze data and obtain physical properties of the aquifer. In contrast to the case of a horizontal aquifer, when plotting the time derivative of the flux versus the flux on a log scale, the result shows that the flux derivative reaches a minimum value and that the curve can have a slope of unity as often observed. Illustration of the application of the analytical results to the Mahantango Creek data is also discussed.

  4. From the European slope to the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Andy; Porter, Marie

    2015-04-01

    The European slope current is a density driven poleward current tracing the shelf edge from the Bay of Biscay into the Nordic Seas. This current is not entirely coherent along its length and is known to be disrupted by the wind, bathymetric irregularities and local circulation, potentially providing a source of relatively warm and nutrient rich water to the local shelf. On the Malin Shelf, to the north of Ireland and the west of Scotland, persistent intrusions of oceanic water occur onto the shelf near a bend in the slope. Additional pathways onto the shelf result from strong wind events, which cause ingress of slope water at multiple locations, while eddies in the Rockall Trough are known to pull water off the slope into deeper, abyssal regions. In July 2013, 30 surface drifters, 15 drogued at 15 m and 15 at 70 m, were deployed on the Malin Shelf slope. Of these drifters, all of those drogued at 15 m and 10 of those drogued at 70 m moved north-eastward from their release onto the shelf. The majority crossed onto the shelf within a relatively small area, within a 30km radius of 55.5°N, 10°W, and continued as a coherent group along the edge of the Irish coastal front for approximately 38 days. This current, estimated to transport approximately 0.5 Sv of water towards the Scottish coast, follows the Irish Coastal front and then the Islay front until it bifurcates around the Outer Hebrides, with half of the drifters passing inside, to the east through the Minch, and half passing outside, to the west. The control over the path taken is likely to have been the position and strength of the Islay Front. The tendency for the shallow drifters to cross onto the shelf more readily than the deeper ones suggests that the ingress onto the shelf varies with depth and is strongest at the surface. The deeper drifters generally spent longer in the slope region and were frequently pulled into the Rockall Trough. The drifter trajectories highlight a pathway for surface water (15 m) from the European slope, around the Scottish coast and islands and into the North Sea. Highly variable subsurface (70 m) water movement is also seen, with flow both onto and away from the shelf as well as stagnation at points along the slope.

  5. Reply to ''Slope parameter and zero trajectories in ?-p scattering''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortcomings of the new zero trajectories of Hoehler and Sabba Stefanescu are pointed out. The errors in the imaginary part could be large enough to make their results consistent with at least one real zero for every energy. Whether or not a real zero exists, it is possible to have convergent polynomial expansion (CPE) without any spurious cut with (very nearly) the same ansatz for the forward slope. We disagree with most of the criticisms on the applications of CPE to scaling without any spurious cuts. Even if one uses slope values obtained from parametrizations in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region, scaling is described in an excellent fashion

  6. Influences of Holocene sea level, regional tectonics, and fluvial, gravity and slope currents induced sedimentation on the regional geomorphology of the continental slope off northwestern India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Almeida, F.

    1993-01-01

    in the geomorphology of the slope of the northwestern continental margin of India are attributed to: (1) Late Pleistocene-Holocene sea levels, (2) regional tectonics, (3) fluvial sedimentation, and (4) gravity and slope currents induced sediment dynamics. The locations...

  7. Study of Geometric Parameters of Slope Streaks on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusnikin, Eugene; Kreslavsky, Mikhail; Karachevtseva, Irina; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Patratiy, Vyacheslav

    2015-04-01

    Slope streaks are a unique active phenomenon observed in low-latitude dusty regions on Mars. They are dark markings formed by an unknown type of run-away downslope propagation of surface disturbance. There are two kinds of hypotheses of their formation mechanism: "dry", involving granular follow, in particular, dust avalanche, and "wet", involving liquid flow, in particular, percolation of concentrated brines in shallow subsurface (1). Study of geometric characteristics of the slope streaks, especially their slopes, is a way to decipher their origin. We are carrying out an extensive set of measurements of geometric parameters of the slope streaks. We use stereo pairs of images obtained by High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard MRO orbital mission to Mars. These stereo pairs potentially allow geometric measurements (both horizontal and vertical) with accuracy on an order of a meter. Unfortunately, the digital terrain model is currently released for only one stereo pair in the regions of slope streak occurrence, and we have to work with raw, unprocessed stereo pairs. We perform direct photogrammetric measurements using PHOTOMOD software complex (http://www.racurs.ru/). We use our custom software to import "raw" HiRISE imgas (EDRs) and supplementary geometric information from SPICE into PHOTOMOD (2). We select tens to a hundred meters long segments in the beginning and the end of selected streaks and register length, azimuth, and slope of each segment. We also search for anomalously gentle parts of streaks. We analyze the obtained results by means of ESRI ArcGIS software. Our survey is in progress. So far we registered over a hundred of streaks. We found that the extent of the streaks varies from several meters to hundreds of meters. The streaks are formed in locales with a slope from 17 to 37 degrees. The lower boundary indicates that the streaks can propagate on slopes that are significantly gentler than the static angle of repose. Distal (downslope) termini of the streaks often are in rather flat sites. So far we have not found any convincing example of a streak propagating uphill. This is consistent with earlier conclusions that the streaks do not have appreciable inertia. We will continue our survey. With more data we will correlate streak formation and their slopes with slope orientation, latitude, etc. This work was carried out in MIIGAiK and supported by Russian Science Foundation, project 14-22-00197. References: 1. Kreslavsky A.M. and J. W. Head, Slope streaks on Mars: A new "wet" mechanism, Icarus 201, 517-527 (2009). 2. Zubarev A., Nadezhdina I. Alignment-Calibration and Processing of HIRISE CCD Data // ISPRS Meeting of the Working Group IV/8 "Advances in Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases", Moscow, Russia, October 09-12, 2013

  8. Effects of bottom drag and shelf slope steepness on the currents along the shelf slope at Ormen Lange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerflaten, Agathe; Berntsne, Jarle; Alendal, Guttorm

    2001-12-01

    An ongoing acquisition program at Ormen Lange, an offshore gas field located in the Storegga region off mid-Norway, has identified several events in which the currents close to seabed exhibit a short peak value in their speed along with a peak in temperature. This may cause problems with near seabed installations needed for exploration of the gas field. It is therefore essential to understand the generation mechanisms behind these events and to investigate the possibility of forecasting them. Mean temporal circulation at OL is strongly dominated by the Norwegian Atlantic Current. Tidal effects are weak. The extreme events are driven by strong pressure gradients. That is, strong atmospheric low pressures and/or internal pressure fronts between warmer Atlantic Water and colder Norwegian Sea Water. Along the shelf slope at OL we may get steepening of the iso-surfaces of density, separating AW and NSW, due to strong Ekman vee ing during storms or approaching internal density fronts. During such events the density surfaces tend to undershoot their equilibrium level, and as the forcing weakens, the suppressed water may run up along the shelf slope. In this run up phase peak values in the velocities are often found. Since the atmospheric forcing is a major forcing mechanism behind the observed events, it would be of interest to investigate the response of atmospheric low pressures on the currents along the shelf slope at Ormen Lange. Of particular interest is the vertical displacements of different density surfaces at the shelf and the shelf slope. The sensitivity of the near sea bed velocities at Ormen Lange to the bottom drag and the shelf slope factor is studied. The results show that the velocities reach maxima a few hours after the pressure disturbance force is turned off. The maximum velocity at different locations close to shelf slope is strongest when there is no bottom drag. The iso-surfaces are undershooting their equilibrium levels and as the forcing weakens buoyancy forces create vertical oscillations. It is demonstrated that bottom drag has a significant effect on how the water masses move up and down the slope close to the sea bed during these oscillations. In particular the front of the water masses is found at the bottom when there is no drag, whereas the corresponding front is found some distance above the bottom when effects of bottom drag are included. The maximum velocities reported in the present study are fairly robust to variations in the slope angle. (author)

  9. Landslides induced by heavy rainfall in July 2012 in Northern Kyushu District, Japan and the influence of long term rainfall increase comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Aditian, Aril

    2013-04-01

    1. Objective We had a deluge in July 2012 in the northern Kyushu district with intense rainfall of 800mm and 108mm/hr. This intensity yielded countless traces of debris flow and landslides, slope failures that induced tremendous damage and causalities in the area. Hence, several field investigations and reconnaissance tasks were conducted to delve into this sediment-related disaster. The various results and the information obtained through this investigation were reported, mentioning the damage, the meteorological condition, geologic-geomorphologic features and hydraulic characteristics of the debris flows, vegetation effects, and the influence of the climate change. Increase in rainfall that may be induced by the global climate change is obvious in Kyushu district, Japan, according to the analysis of rain data observed in various locations including mountainside points that are not influenced by local warming due to urbanization. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide to this increase in rainfall. Hence, its long term impact on this landslide disaster is also analyzed comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking. 2. Method and target areas Field investigation on landslides slopes, slope failures and torrents where debris flows occurred are conducted to obtain the geologic data, geo-structure, vegetation feature, soil samples and topographic data i.e. cross sections, then soil shear tests and soil permeability tests are also conducted. The rainfall data at the nearest rain observatory were obtained from the database of Japan meteorological agency. The long term impact on the slope stability at some slopes in the area is analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) combined with rain infiltration and seepage analysis with the long term rainfall fluctuation data, obtaining factor of safety ( Fs) on real landslide slopes. The results are compared with the destabilized influence on the slopes due to the soil strength reduction by seismic shaking. The target areas are located in northern Kyushu district, western Japan where they often have severe landslide disasters. The geology in research areas consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks (mainly schist, slate) and Quaternary volcanic sediment such as Aso volcano body. The vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress, cedar or bamboo. 3. Result and consideration Consequently, the long term rainfall increase in the region such as increment of approximately 20 mm/hr for rain intensity Ri in 36 years is confirmed statistically using Kendall's rank correlation, and it is found that its impact on slope stability is considerable and critical in other cases. In the sample landslide slopes, even the increase in rain of duration for only 10 years has impact to a certain extent on their stabilities in terms of Fs. The Fs calculated with rains in previous decade is higher than 1.0 that corresponds to stable state, whereas the Fs with present rains is lower than 1.0 such as 0.99 which means unstable state. Extremely heavy rainfall with this impact is generally cause extreme ground water pressure in the slope. It is also obvious that the extreme ground water content rendered even small landslides liquefied to be source of destructive debris flows. In this disaster, especially in the Aso volcanic region, tremendous number of debris flow occurred and even the talus cone slopes which are usually stable collapsed to flow down. However, the influence of the long term rainfall increase on the slopes (such as 1% decrease in Fs) is not relatively small compared with the destabilization of the slopes due to the reduction of soil strength by seismic shaking (8~9 % reduction in Fs after seismic shaking of even 490gal). 4. Conclusion In the disaster in July 2012, many landslides and debris flows originated from landslides induced by concentrated underground water supplied by the heavy rainfall occurred. The increase of rainfall due to climate change with the increasing rate such as 20 mm/hr surely has impact on almost landslide slopes i

  10. Natural dam failure in the eastern slope of the Central Andes of Argentina. Numerical modelling of the 2005 Santa Cruz river outburst flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, I.; Daicz, S.; Zlotnik, S.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Central Andes of Argentina, ephemeral river blockage due to landslides deposition are common phenomena. During the first fortnight of January 2005, 11.5 * 106m3 of rock collapsed from the east slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina). The rock mass displaced from 4300 m a.s.l., down to the valley bottom, at 2900 m a.s.l., and ran up the opposite flank of the valley. This produced the blockage of the Santa Cruz river and generated the Los Erizos lake. The rapid snow melting during the spring season caused the increase of the water level of the reservoir, leading to a process of overtopping on November 12th of 2005. 30 * 106m3 of water were released from the reservoir and the consequent outburst flood displaced along 250 km. From local reports of arrival times, we estimated that the outburst flood reduced its velocity from around 40 km/h near the source area to 6 km/h in its distal section. A road, bridges, and a mining post where destroyed. 75 tourists had to be rescued from the mountains using helicopters, and people from two localities had to be evacuated. Near its distal part, the flood damaged the facilities of the Caracoles power dam, which was under construction, and its inauguration had to be delayed one year due to the damage. The outburst flood produced changes in the morphology of the valley floor along almost all its path (erosion of alluvial fans, talus and terraces, and deposition of boulders). The most significant changes occurred in the first 70 km, especially upstream narrow sections, showing the importance of the backwater effects due to hydraulic ponding. In this work we carried out numerical simulations to obtain the velocity patterns of the flood, and compared them with those obtained from local reports. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between the dynamics of the flood with the patterns of erosion and deposition near the source area.

  11. Slope stability assessment for historical monument management, Machu Picchu, Peru.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan

    Zittau : DGGT, 2009. s. 413. [Conference on Engineering Geology and Forum Young Engineering Geologists /17./. 07.05.2009-10.05.2009, Zittau] R&D Projects: GA ?R GP205/09/P383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : slope stability Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Nonlinear assessment of time series from rock slope monitoring.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvelebil, J.; Paluš, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 9 (2007), A-05649. ISSN 1029-7006. [General Asembly of the European Geophysical Society. 15.04.2007-20.04.2007, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fractal * scaling * unstable rock slope * collapse prediction * engineering geology Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  13. Measurement of Pipe Slope with Laser Scanning Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 2008-01 which provides recommendation and guidance to nuclear power plants for managing gas intrusion and accumulation in safety systems such as Emergency Core Cooling (ECC), Decay Heat Removal (DHR) and Containment Spray (CS) systems. Following the GL2008-01, Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) reported NEI 09-10 that gives industry guidance for effective prevention and management of system gas accumulation. The location of gas accumulation is usually a high point of piping systems. The high point of system is easily identified by investigating as-built isometric drawings of the subjected systems. However, the real plant piping configuration such as a slope might be different from as-built drawings. If there is a small slope on pipe which is a horizontal configuration in as-built drawing, gas can be accumulated at the high point in pipes with wrong slope as shown in Fig. 1. This paper demonstrates a feasibility to measure the slope of piping systems by using the laser scanning and presents a simple example

  14. Slope estimation and viewing distance of the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Heiko; Shaffer, Dennis; Keshavarz, Behrang; Flint, Mariagrace

    2014-08-01

    The overestimation of geographical slant is one of the most sizable visual illusions. However, in some cases estimates of close-by slopes within the range of the observer's personal space have been found to be rather accurate. We propose that the seemingly diverse findings can be reconciled when taking the viewing distance of the observer into account. The latter involves the distance of the observer from the slope (personal space, action space, and vista space) and also the eye-point relative to the slope. We separated these factors and compared outdoor judgments to those collected with a three-dimensional (3D) model of natural terrain, which was within arm's reach of the observer. Slope was overestimated in the outdoors at viewing distances between 2 m and 138 m. The 3D model reproduced the errors in monocular viewing; however, performance was accurate with stereoscopic viewing. We conclude that accurate slant perception breaks down as soon as the situation exits personal space, be it physically or be it by closing one eye. PMID:24927945

  15. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

    2008-08-15

    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  16. Graphing a Slope-Intercept Equation Using Intercepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This step by step lesson from Math Ops teaches students "to use the x and y intercepts to graph a line for an equation in slope-intercept format." Three examples are given which illustrate how to graph these equations. Students may read the text on each slide or follow along and listen as it is read aloud.

  17. How the spatial variation of tree roots affects slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhun; Stokes, A.; Jourdan, C.; Rey, H.; Courbaud, B.; Saint-André, L.

    2010-05-01

    It is now widely recognized that plant roots can reinforce soil against shallow mass movement. Although studies on the interactions between vegetation and slope stability have significantly augmented in recent years, a clear understanding of the spatial dynamics of root reinforcement (through additional cohesion by roots) in subalpine forest is still limited, especially with regard to the roles of different forest management strategies or ecological landscapes. The architecture of root systems is important for soil cohesion, but in reality it is not possible to measure the orientation of each root in a system. Therefore, knowledge on the effect of root orientation and anisotropy on root cohesion on the basis of in situ data is scanty. To determine the effect of root orientation in root cohesion models, we investigated root anisotropy in two mixed, mature, naturally regenerated, subalpine forests of Norway spruce (Picea abies), and Silver fir (Abies alba). Trees were clustered into islands, with open spaces between each group, resulting in strong mosaic heterogeneity within the forest stand. Trenches within and between clusters of trees were dug and root distribution was measured in three dimensions. We then simulated the influence of different values for a root anisotropy correction factor in forests with different ecological structures and soil depths. Using these data, we have carried out simulations of slope stability by calculating the slope factor of safety depending on stand structure. Results should enable us to better estimate the risk of shallow slope failure depending on the type of forest and species.

  18. The Perceptual Experience of Slope by Foot and by Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnal, Alen; Abdul-Malak, Daniel T.; Durgin, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the bodily senses have often been regarded as impeccable sources of spatial information and as being the teacher of vision. Here, the authors report that the haptic perception of slope by means of the foot is greatly exaggerated. The exaggeration is present in verbal as well as proprioceptive judgments. It is shown that this…

  19. Spider (Araneae) communities of scree slopes in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    R?ži?ka, Vlastimil; Klimeš, Leoš

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 33, ?. 2 (2005), s. 280-289. ISSN 0161-8202 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA6007401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : scree slopes * environmental factors * ice formation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2005

  20. Slope impacts on concentrated flow hydraulics in rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have been conducted to describe rill or concentrated flow hydraulics. However, most of these studies used data obtained from either laboratory experiments or field sites located on gently sloping crop lands. The data sets in the few rangeland field studies conducted did not cover a ...

  1. Soil organic carbon redistribution and budget of erosion and deposition in a sloping field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sloping field of black soil in northeast China was selected to conduct soil redistribution for the past nearly 50 and 100 years, and to calculate the carbon budget by using 137Cs and fly ash tracer techniques. The results showed that the depth of original buried layer in foot-slope and toe-slope located at 70 and 80 cm respectively, and the content of SOC was 5.23 and 0.43 g/kg more than those of overlying soil. Summit, shoulder-slope and back-slope suffered erosion with the rate of 0.2, 5 and 2.2 mm/yr, respectively based on distribution of 137Cs and fly ash with soil depth. The depths of fly ash attainment in foot-slope and toe-slope were 70 and 80 cm respectively, and were well consistence with their buried surface horizon, which indicated the depositional areas had been annually plowed before locomotives used. Most of the eroded soil materials in depositional areas were from shoulder-slope and back-slope, accumulated in foot-slope firstly, then transferred to toe-slope gradually according to soil surface of various years. The loss of SOC in summit, shoulder-slope and back-slope was 683 kg in all in the past nearly 100 years, among which 418 kg (about 60%) was accumulated in foot-slope and toe-slope depressions, 257 kg of soil carbon was accumulated in most recent 50 years. (authors)

  2. Granular flow behavior at sharp changes in slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni; De Blasio, Fabio; Locatelli, Michele

    2015-04-01

    This study extends some recent experiments and analyses performed by the authors to examine the behavior of granular flows along path characterised by sharp changes in slope. In particular, various series of experiments along a bi-linear broken slope (an inclined initial sector followed by a horizontal one) have been completed using a uniform (Hostun, 0.32 mm) sand and a uniform fine gravel (2 mm grains). 60 new have been performed by releasing different volumes (1.5, 2.1 and 5.1 L) on surfaces characterized by different slope angles (35-60°), type of materials (wood and plexiglass), with or without an erodible layer (sand), or in presence of a shallow water pond (0.5 cm). These geometrical features are typical of many large rock and snow avalanches, rock falls and of chalk flows. The latter are usually typical of coastal cliffs where a shallow water environment is typical. The evolution of the flow has been monitored through a laser profilometer at 120 Hz sampling frequency and high speed camera, and in this way it has been possible to follow the evolution of the flow and deposition, and to analyse the change in deposition mode at varying the slope angle, the material and the basal friction. This is an extremely interesting development in the study of the evolution of the deposition and of the final morphology typical of such phenomena, and can support the testing of numerical models. Propagation and deposition occur forward or backward accordingly to the slope angle and the basal friction. Forward movement and deposition occur at high slope angles and with low basal friction. The opposite is true for the backward deposition. The internal "layering" within the deposit is also strongly controlled by the combination of such parameters. The time evolution of the flow allowed to determine the velocity of flow and the mode of deposition through the analysis of the change in thickness, position of the front and of the flow tail. Presence of water reduces the runout of the sand on the horizontal sector of the path, whereas the opposite seems true for the gravel. In these cases, as already shown by the authors (Crosta et al., submitted), a partial reflection of the flow occurs and the same holds true when a shallow water reservoir exists. Furthermore, a sort of hydroplaning phenomenon occurs which controls the initial part of the expansion along the subhorizontal sector of the path. Results of the experimental campaign have been compared against those from simple analytical models which assume the energy loss at the slope break and numerical simulations performed by a FEM-ALE (2D and fully 3D) modeling.

  3. Ecohydrological Implications of Contrasting Slope and Aspect in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.; Klos, P. Z.; Patton, N. R.; Lohse, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how complex terrain affects ecohydrological processes is increasingly important as we attempt to understand how water and carbon fluxes are integrated across relatively large domains. Spatial variations of incoming solar radiation are well understood and quantified, but the understanding their impacts on ecohydrologic processes is primarily qualitative. We provide detailed, extensive data quantifying the effects of contrasting slope/aspect on the soil physical environment and document the implications of those differences on ecohydrological processes. The study site, Johnston Draw, is located in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and CZO in southwest Idaho, USA (43° latitude). Johnston Draw flows over granitic bedrock nearly due east, resulting in steep (25 to 40°) side slopes oriented north-south. At the study elevation (1600 m) approximately 50% of the annual precipitation is snow. We measured meteorological variables, snow depth, soil water (SW) and temperature (ST) at three paired locations for two years. Each soil pair consisted of depth profiles from 5 cm to bedrock measured hourly which were supplemented with periodic extensive measurements. Hourly photographs were taken at two of the pairs for one year. Streamflow is monitored at the Johnston Draw outlet and precipitation was measured at stations at the topographic bottom and top of the watershed. Geophysical data were collected in a transect across both slopes. The ST was warmer all year on the south-facing slope, with a mean annual difference of 5°C. This ST difference is effectively equivalent to a 1000 m elevation difference in Reynolds Creek. Despite clear differences in evaporative demand and the timing of spring "green up", the timing of summer SW decline is similar on both slopes. Deeper soil on north-facing slopes resulted in more plant available water and a longer growing season, which is reflected in the vegetation. Geophysical data indicate much deeper weathering on the north-facing slope. As a result of these varying conditions, there are effectively two different: hydrologic regimes, soil types, plant communities and weathering regimes within the single small watershed. These effects are predictably related to solar radiation, and so can potentially be incorporated in larger-scale models of water and carbon flux.

  4. Consequence assessment of large rock slope failures in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Horton, Pascal; Sandøy, Gro; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Steep glacially carved valleys and fjords in Norway are prone to many landslide types, including large rockslides, rockfalls, and debris flows. Large rockslides and their secondary effects (rockslide-triggered displacement waves, inundation behind landslide dams and outburst floods from failure of landslide dams) pose a significant hazard to the population living in the valleys and along the fjords shoreline. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This large number necessitates prioritisation of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic displacement measurements, continuous monitoring and early-warning systems. Prioritisation is achieved through a hazard and risk classification system, which has been developed by a panel of international and Norwegian experts (www.ngu.no/en-gb/hm/Publications/Reports/2012/2012-029). The risk classification system combines a qualitative hazard assessment with a consequences assessment focusing on potential life losses. The hazard assessment is based on a series of nine geomorphological, engineering geological and structural criteria, as well as displacement rates, past events and other signs of activity. We present a method for consequence assessment comprising four main steps: 1. computation of the volume of the unstable rock slope; 2. run-out assessment based on the volume-dependent angle of reach (Fahrböschung) or detailed numerical run-out modelling; 3. assessment of possible displacement wave propagation and run-up based on empirical relations or modelling in 2D or 3D; and 4. estimation of the number of persons exposed to rock avalanches or displacement waves. Volume computation of an unstable rock slope is based on the sloping local base level technique, which uses a digital elevation model to create a second-order curved surface between the mapped extent of the unstable rock slope. This surface represents the possible basal sliding surface of an unstable rock slope. The elevation difference between this surface and the topographic surface estimates the volume of the unstable rock slope. A tool has been developed for the present study to adapt the curvature parameters of the computed surface to local geological and structural conditions. The obtained volume is then used to define the angle of reach of a possible rock avalanche from the unstable rock slope by using empirical derived values of angle of reach vs. volume relations. Run-out area is calculated using FlowR; the software is widely used for run-out assessment of debris flows and is adapted here for assessment of rock avalanches, including their potential to ascend opposing slopes. Under certain conditions, more sophisticated and complex numerical run-out models are also used. For rock avalanches with potential to reach a fjord or a lake the propagation and run-up area of triggered displacement waves is assessed. Empirical relations of wave run-up height as a function of rock avalanche volume and distance from impact location are derived from a national and international inventory of landslide-triggered displacement waves. These empirical relations are used in first-level hazard assessment and where necessary, followed by 2D or 3D displacement wave modelling. Finally, the population exposed in the rock avalanche run-out area and in the run-up area of a possible displacement wave is assessed taking into account different population groups: inhabitants, persons in critical infrastructure (hospitals and other emergency services), persons in schools and kindergartens, persons at work or in shops, tourists, persons on ferries and so on. Exposure levels are defined for each population group and vulnerability values are set for the rock avalanche run-out area (100%) and the run-up area of a possible displacement wave (70%). Finally, the total number of persons within the hazard area is calculated taking into account exposure and vulnerability. The method for conse

  5. Distribution of solar radiation including slope effect in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Shin Chul; Park, Jong-Hwa; Na, Sang Il; Park, Jin-Ki

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture and ecosystems are very solar radiation-sensitive making them useful for monitoring the impact on future food production. Accurate solar radiation data are necessary to evaluate major physiological reaction of crops and an impact of climate change. For most upland crops and orchard plants growing in sloping terrain, however the meteorological data are often limited. Considering the scarcity of detailed meteorological data around the country, there is a need for methods which can estimate reference solar radiation with limited data. This study describes a method to estimate monthly average daily solar radiation of considering the slope distribution. It was calculated using the 2010's meteorological data and KT method which is entered DEM and spatial interpolation data of both monthly average daily extraterrestrial radiation and monthly average daily radiation on land surface. Extracted slope from the DEM in South Korea include range between 0? to 77? and most of the land is mountainous. According to the slope, solar radiation characteristic show to have high value in spring season (April) relatively other season. Summer season interrupt to reach direct solar radiation, cause is unstable atmospheric and cloud. The distributions of monthly accumulated solar radiation indicated that differences caused by the topography effect are more important in winter than in other season because of the dependency on the solar altitude angle and duration of sunshine. Result of KT method is confirmed to overestimate monthly average 1.38MJ?m􀬶?day than solar radiation weather station measurement values. Solar radiation of slope error value will need continuous research and correction through both fields survey and topography factor.

  6. HIRESSS: a physically based slope stability simulator for HPC applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HIRESSS (HIgh REsolution Slope Stability Simulator is a physically based distributed slope stability simulator for analyzing shallow landslide triggering conditions in real time and on large areas using parallel computational techniques. The physical model proposed is composed of two parts: hydrological and geotechnical. The hydrological model receives the rainfall data as dynamical input and provides the pressure head as perturbation to the geotechnical stability model that computes the factor of safety (FS in probabilistic terms. The hydrological model is based on an analytical solution of an approximated form of the Richards equation under the wet condition hypothesis and it is introduced as a modeled form of hydraulic diffusivity to improve the hydrological response. The geotechnical stability model is based on an infinite slope model that takes into account the unsaturated soil condition. During the slope stability analysis the proposed model takes into account the increase in strength and cohesion due to matric suction in unsaturated soil, where the pressure head is negative. Moreover, the soil mass variation on partially saturated soil caused by water infiltration is modeled.

    The model is then inserted into a Monte Carlo simulation, to manage the typical uncertainty in the values of the input geotechnical and hydrological parameters, which is a common weak point of deterministic models. The Monte Carlo simulation manages a probability distribution of input parameters providing results in terms of slope failure probability. The developed software uses the computational power offered by multicore and multiprocessor hardware, from modern workstations to supercomputing facilities (HPC, to achieve the simulation in reasonable runtimes, compatible with civil protection real time monitoring.

    A first test of HIRESSS in three different areas is presented to evaluate the reliability of the results and the runtime performance on large areas.

  7. Recent slope mobilizations in the Storegga Slide area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, C.; Crutchley, G.; Karstens, J.; Dumke, I.; Duennbier, K.

    2012-12-01

    With ~3500 km3 of mobilized material the Storegga Slide off mid-Norway is one of the largest known sub-marine slope failures. It occurred approximately 8150 years ago and there is strong evidence suggesting that the slide caused a large tsunami that propagated through the North Atlantic and affected the coasts of Norway, Iceland and the U.K. In the Nyegga area along the northern side wall of the slide numerous shallow faults exist. These faults detach within the top 100 m below the sea floor at various stratigraphic levels below, at, and above the main slide plain of the Storegga Slide. Previous studies proposed that these faults are evidence for partial slope movements during the Storegga Slide event indicating that the adjacent slopes were deformed due to the stress variations caused by the Storegga Slide. New high-resolution Parasound data that we have collected in May 2012 onboard RV Meteor show offsets of reflectors that are buried less than 3 m below the sea floor. Assuming that the sedimentation rates derived from a near-by Marion Dufresne sediment core, can be extrapolated to the study area, these reflector offsets suggest that the faults are younger than the Storegga Slide. Given a several million year-long history of repeated slope failures in the area it is important to obtain more precise dates for the activity of the faults in order to assess if these faults can be used as an indicator for future slope failures in the area or if they are the result of small-scale adjustments of the head wall topography in the wake of the Storegga Slide.

  8. The Storage Process for Landslides inner Slope During Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Wen; Yoshimi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    In general, there are two main triggering reasons of landslides, one is earthquake and the other is rainfall. And during rainfall, the storage change inner the slope is very difficult to measure. It depends on the soil and geomorphology features not to mention the storage change on the whole watershed. Therefore in this study, we will focus on the storage process of rainfall-induced landslides. The storage process means the rainfall infiltrating into slopes, and its volume change of the water inner the slopes during every rainfall event. In this study, Yamada model would be used to calculate this process. This model combines the tank model and storage model to evaluate the rainfall-storage-runoff process for a watershed by using the rainfall and discharge data. This model will be used to estimate the possible storage change during rainfall and the most important is the observation data of the rainfall and discharge. The rainfall data means the input data and the discharge is the output data. It means that according to the input and output, the change of the storage volume could be estimated. Yamada model first used the kinematic wave model to conduct the relation of rainfall-runoff equation, and then the middle process of the rainfall-runoff can be inverse-estimated. However the parameters of the soil layers are very difficult to measure and decide for whole watershed. Therefore in this paper, Gauss-Newton method has used to estimate the possible parameters by input-rainfall and output-discharge data. And finally the storage process inner the slope during rainfall can be evaluated. And the estimation model for the process with time and region characteristics of watersheds also can be defined by using Yamada model. And in the future, the results of this storage process can apply to the analysis of slope stability and furthermore the early warning application.

  9. Hydrological modelling of slopes from field monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comegna, Luca; Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Guida, Andrea; Olivares, Lucio; Picarelli, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    A simplified hydrological model of a steep slope covered with loose granular pyroclastic deposits is presented. The slope is located in the mountains northern of Naples, and the soil cover, constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices with a total thickness of 2.5m, lays upon a fractured limestone bedrock. At the interface between the bedrock and the soil cover, a layer of weathered ashes, with significant clay fraction, is sometimes observed. The slope has a fairly regular inclination of 40°, and is covered by chestnut woods and thick brushwood growing in late spring. The inclination of the slope is comparable with the internal friction angle of the ashes, thus the equilibrium is possible thanks to the contribution offered to the shear strength by the soil suction in unsaturated conditions. Indeed, in December 1999, a landslide was triggered by prolonged and intense precipitations. As it frequently happens with similar pyroclastic covers, the triggered slide exhibited a flow-like behavior, covering 2km in few minutes, heavily hitting the nearby town of Cervinara (AV). Since then, the slope has been constantly monitored, and during the last two years an automated station with seven TDR probes for the measurement of soil water content, eight tensiometers for the measurement of soil suction, and a rain gauge, has been operating. The data, collected every two hours, allowed getting more insight of the hydrological behavior of the slope and building up an effective hydrological model. In the model, the layered soil profile has been replaced with a single homogeneous layer, with water retention curve estimated by coupling the values of water content and suction measured at various depths. A seasonal top boundary condition has been introduced, related to the annual cycle of the vegetation: the observed precipitations quickly caused changes of soil suction at the depth of -50cm during the entire year, with the exception of the period between the end of May and the early August. To reproduce the observed behavior of soil suction at the bottom of the profile, a linear reservoir model has been introduced as bottom boundary condition, related to the presence of a small aquifer in the fractured bedrock, which water table, affecting the hydraulic conditions of the soil cover, rapidly deepens during the dry season. The developed model, calibrated with the data of one year of observation, satisfactorily reproduces the observed soil hydraulic behaviour also during other periods.

  10. A critical review of rock slope failure mechanisms: The importance of structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Doug; Wolter, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Geological structures such as folds, faults, and discontinuities play a critical role in the stability and behaviour of both natural and engineered rock slopes. Although engineering geologists have long recognised the importance of structural geology in slopes, it remains a significant challenge to integrate structural geological mapping and theory into all stages of engineering projects. We emphasise the importance of structural geology to slope stability assessments, reviewing how structures control slope failure mechanisms, how engineering geologists measure structures and include them in slope stability analyses, and how numerical simulations of slopes incorporate geological structures and processes.

  11. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  12. Bioengineering case studies sustainable stream bank and slope stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Wendi; McCullah, John

    2014-01-01

    This unique volume describes and evaluates 30 projects from across the United States where bio-stabilization was employed to address a detrimental naturally occurring process or byproduct of the built environment. Bio-stabilization (or soil bioengineering) refers to the use of plant materials, primarily live cuttings, arranged in the ground in different arrays to reinforce soils and protect upland slopes and/or stream banks against surficial erosion and shallow slope failures. Examples included in the collection represent different regions of the country and their specific conditions and challenges. Each project is illustrated with a number of distinctive photographs to support the reader's understanding and showcase the wide scope of projects and techniques presented. This book also: ·         Presents a range of well-documented case studies on key techniques and best practices for bio-stabilization projects ·         Emphasizes evaluation and comparison of different techniques and challeng...

  13. Evaluation of seismic reflector slopes with a Yoyo-CTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmann, G.; Papenberg, C.; Brandt, P.; Vogt, M.

    2009-08-01

    In spring 2007 a dedicated seismic and oceanographic experiment was conducted in the Gulf of Cadiz. Employing two research vessels seismic and hydrographic observations were made contemporaneously and in close proximity. At a 12 hour long station inside a Meddy a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) probe was lowered and raised repeatedly while the seismic vessel conducted a repetitive survey on tracks nearby. Over the period 17 CTD profiles were collected covering the depth interval from 500 to 1700 m. The CTD data show the Meddy's elevated temperatures and salinities as well as varying intrusive features. When converted into reflection coefficients and convoluted with the seismic source signal the CTD data agrees well with nearby seismic data. The comparison of the temporal/spatial slopes of CTD-derived reflectors with those of isopycnals shows a good agreement when the slopes are determined over intervals shorter than 4 hours.

  14. Breaking of Waves over a Steep Bottom Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.

    2004-01-01

    The thesis deals with the wave breaking process of waves propagating over a steep submerged bottom slope. The amount of energy dissipated in the wave breaking process is focused upon. An extensive number of experimental tests (>400) using regular and irregular waves breaking over a simulated reef in the hydraulic laboratory are performed. Based on the experimental tests several formulae developed. Formulae are capable of predicting the transmitted wave height and wave energy flux, respectively. Furthermore, a numerical wave model based on the extended Mild-Slope equation has been developed. The model is capable of generating progressive irregular waves. Wave breaking has been included using a modification of the Battjes and Janssen [1978] periodic bore approach. The results from this study be applicable in the design of coastal structures as submerged breakwaters or artificial reefs.

  15. Integration of Indoor Ski Slopes into the Urban Recreation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Urbonait?

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor ski slope is an innovative type of active indoor recreation. This new urban character is simulating the concept of mountain ski resort and is considered to be a strong attraction point all year-round. Due to a big scale and complexity, sustainable integration into an urban context should be very carefully considered. Economical, social, environmental and aesthetic impact on surrounding territories is an important factor to be evaluated. International practice shows that the appropriate integration of the above mentioned typology into urban parks increase their popularity and use of the recreation zone. On the other hand, the alien architecture and egocentric dominance of complexes can cause conflict with the existing urban territories and natural environment. Having indoor ski slopes in mind at the stages of regional and town territorial planning is an important point. Only complex development can bring positive results for sustainable town development, town economy, tourism and social life. Article in Lithuanian

  16. Speckle correlation method used to detect an object's surface slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a technique employing a speckle pattern correlation method for detection of the slope of an object's surface. Controlled translation of an object under investigation and numerical correlation of speckle patterns recorded during its motion give information used to evaluate the tilt of the object. The proposed optical setup uses a symmetrical arrangement of detection planes in the image field and enables one to detect the tilt of an object's surface within the interval(10 deg. -30 deg. ). Simulation analysis shows how to control the measuring range. The presented theory, simulation analysis, and setup are verified through an experiment by measurement of the slope of a surface of a cube made out of steel

  17. Alaska North Slope oil-field restoration research strategy. Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including at least the following entities: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, EPA, National Marine Fisheries, US FWS, BLM, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, and the North Slope Borough). The purpose of this strategy is to: (1) identify major information or knowledge gaps that have inhibited restoration activities or slowed the regulatory decision process, (2) determine the potential for filling knowledge gaps through research, and (3) suggest tentative priorities for research that are based on the needs identified in steps one and two

  18. Wood-soil interactions in soil bioengineering slope stabilization works

    OpenAIRE

    Mc, Moscatelli; Romagnoli M; Cenfi S; Lagomarsino A; Di Tizio A; Spina S; Grego S

    2009-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of soil quality indicators with the aim of assessing the environmental impact of soil bioengineering works. This study was carried out in central Italy where soil bioengineering slope stabilization works were established using chestnut wood. In particular the goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of a wood-effect, that is changes of soil properties due to the presence of decomposing logs in two sites characterized by different time span since works...

  19. Slope Stability Analysis of Itakpe Iron Ore Mine, Itakpe, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jide Muili Akande; Chinwuba Arum; Adebimpe, Rasheed A.

    2011-01-01

    The slope stability of the Itakpe Iron Ore Mine has been carried out using computer software, ROCKPACK III. One hundred and twenty three dip and dip direction values were obtained using compass clinometer. The Itakpe Iron Ore Mine was divided into four benches; 241 - 258 m, 263 - 275 m, 276 - 286 m and 308 - 312 m. Joints along the discontinuities were mapped. The data obtained were analyzed using ROCKPACK III. The results indicate that the discontinuities within the critical zone are potenti...

  20. Unemployment, tax evasion and the "slippery slope" framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    The proposed theoretical work introduces the basic insights of the ‘slippery slope’ framework into the benchmark macroeconomic model of the labour market in order to study the relation between tax compliance (both voluntary and enforced), tax evasion and unemployment. This paper shows that the firm's decision to evade taxes also depends on trust in tax authorities, and affects one of the most important macroeconomic variables: the unemployment rate. Also, the model is able to mimic the cr...

  1. Downward-sloping term structure of lease rates: a puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Seko, Miki; Sumita, Kazuto; Yoshida, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    A model of the term structure of lease rates in a frictionless economy is developed and its predictions are compared with data on residential leases in Japan. The model shows that the initial lease rate for a cancellable lease must be set higher than that for a non-cancellable lease because the former rate will be repeatedly adjusted downward when the market rent decreases. More importantly, the term structure of lease rates is always upward-sloping for cancellable leases. Empirical findings ...

  2. Spreading of viscous fluids and granular materials on slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Materials can flow down a slope in a wide range of geophysical and industrial contexts, including lava flows on volcanoes and thin films on coated surfaces. The aim of my research is to provide quantitative insight into these forms of motion and their dependence on effects of the topography, the volume and the rheology of the flowing structure. Numerous different problems are investigated through mathematical models, which are developed analytically and confirmed by laboratory experiments. ...

  3. AMS radiocarbon dating on Campos Basin, Southeast Brazilian Continental Slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results on radiocarbon dating of foraminifera shell samples, collected on the upper slope of Campos Basin, in Southern Brazil. This is the first time that the sedimentation rate of this area is measured with a fine scale (cm) stratigraphy. 14C ages vary from (2560 ± 80) years. BP at the top to (7260 ± 80) years. BP at the bottom of the sediment column. The mean accumulation ratio for the whole column is (6.2 ± 0.7) cm/kyears

  4. Semiconjugacy to a map of a constant slope

    OpenAIRE

    Alsedà, Lluís; Misiurewicz, Micha?

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a continuous piecewise monotone interval map with positive topological entropy is semiconjugate to a map of a constant slope and the same entropy, and if it is additionally transitive then this semiconjugacy is actually a conjugacy. We generalize this result to piecewise continuous piecewise monotone interval maps, and as a consequence, get it also for piecewise monotone graph maps. We show that assigning to a continuous transitive piecewise monotone ma...

  5. Olive production systems on sloping land: Prospects and scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Graaff, J.; Duran Zuazo, V. H.; Jones, N.; Fleskens, L.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate objective of the EU Olivero project was to improve the quality of life of the rural population and to assure the sustainable use of the natural resources of land and water in the sloping and mountainous olive production systems (SMOPS) areas in Southern Europe. One specific objective was to develop, with end-users, alternative future scenarios for olive orchards in the five Olivero target areas. This paper discusses the development of these scenarios, and their socio-economic and...

  6. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  7. Slope heuristics for variable selection and clustering via Gaussian mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Maugis, Cathy; Michel, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Specific Gaussian mixtures are considered to solve simultaneously variable selection and clustering problems. A penalized likelihood criterion is proposed in Maugis and Michel (2008) to choose the number of mixture components and the relevant variable subset. This criterion is depending on unknown constants to be approximated in practical situations. A "slope heuristics" method is proposed and experimented to deal with this practical problem in this context. Numerical experiments on simulated...

  8. Stratification mechanisms in slope deposits in high subequatorial mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Francou, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the processes active in the frost environment of high subequatorial mountains makes it possible to propose a model for the stratification of slope deposits. Bedding is generated by solifluction sheets which move at the speed of a few cm y-1. Solifluction involves needle ice, frost creep and gelifluction, and the ground thikness concerned is less than 20 cm. Sorting takes place by frost heaving. Coarse particles are concentrated at the front of the sheets, where matrix materials...

  9. On the Landslide of Daigala Slope-Kurdistan-Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Jassim, Assist Prof Dr Hamed M.; Dr. Zahra’a Noori Rasheed; Bahra Dhahir Ghafour; Dr. Faris Rashied Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The strategic two-lane road (Erbil – Koya) is the main link between Erbil and Suleymaniya governorates. It passes through Daigala bridge whose edge from Koya side is adjacent to a curved section which experienced a slope failure (Fig. 1) in the form of rotational sliding which progressed into a slump failure through the mechanism of “progressive failure” after the overburden soil and sediments were fully saturated with water due to some heavy rain storms which happened at the end of Jan...

  10. Soil slips and debris flows on terraced slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Crosta, G. B.; Dal Negro, P.; Frattini, P.

    2003-01-01

    Terraces cover large areas along the flanks of many alpine and prealpine valleys. Soil slips and soil slips-debris flows are recurrent phenomena along terraced slopes. These landslides cause damages to people, settlements and cultivations. This study investigates the processes related to the triggering of soil slip-debris flows in these settings, analysing those occurred in Valtellina (Central Alps, Italy) on November 2000 after heavy prolonged rainfalls. 260 landslides have been recog...

  11. Experimental Study on Flow Characteristic in Sloping Weir

    OpenAIRE

    Joongu Joongu Kang; Sungjoong Kim; Hongkoo Yeo; Namjoo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Drop structure is a key hydraulic structure used in river improvement projects for flood control purposes. However, as demand for riparian construction techniques with environmental considerations is increasing both domestically and internationally, discontinuation of aquatic organisms as a result of high head is raised as a serious issue associated with the existing drop structures. Accordingly, it has become necessary to install a drop structure with a mild slope r...

  12. Slope parameter and zero trajectories in ?-p scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a comment on several recent papers by Parida and collaborators on diffraction scattering. It is pointed out that these authors use assumptions on ?N zero trajectories which differ strongly from results derived from phase shifts, and that a more critical attitude towards published data for the slopes at t = 0 is needed. The proposed applications of the conformal-mapping method are criticized

  13. Coal database for Cook Inlet and North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Gary D.; Spear, Brianne D.; Sprowl, Jennifer M.; Dietrich, John D.; McCauley, Michael I.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and nonconfidential unpublished coal data from Alaska. Although coal occurs in isolated areas throughout Alaska, this study includes data only from the Cook Inlet and North Slope areas. The data include entries from and interpretations of oil and gas well logs, coal-core geophysical logs (such as density, gamma, and resistivity), seismic shot hole lithology descriptions, measured coal sections, and isolated coal outcrops.

  14. Native plants for erosion control in urban river slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Alvarado; Tania Bermúdez; Marilyn Romero; Lilliana Piedra

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical and structural erosion of soils is produced by the loss of the vegetal cover and the action of rain on unprotected surfaces. Raindrop impact, transport and sediment deposition leads to landslides and slope instability and soil loss. In Costa Rica, water bodies have been negatively impacted by urban development and both water resources and soils have become more vulnerable. This is the case of the Pirro river micro watershed where riverbed vegetation has been replaced by constructio...

  15. Unraveling bed slope from relative roughness in initial sediment motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, Jeff P.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding incipient sediment transport is crucial for predicting landscape evolution, mitigating flood hazards, and restoring riverine habitats. Observations show that the critical Shields stress increases with increasing channel bed slope, and proposed explanations for this counterintuitive finding include enhanced form drag from bed forms, particle interlocking across the channel width, and large bed sediment relative to flow depth (relative roughness). Here we use scaled flume experiments with variable channel widths, bed slopes, and particle densities to separate these effects which otherwise covary in natural streams. The critical Shields stress increased with bed slope for both natural gravel (?s = 2.65 g/cm3) and acrylic particles (?s = 1.15 g/cm3), and adjusting channel width had no significant effect. However, the lighter acrylic particles required a threefold higher critical Shields stress for mobilization relative to the natural gravel at a fixed slope, which is unexpected because particle density is accounted for directly in the definition of Shields stress. A comparison with model predictions indicates that changes in local velocity and turbulence associated with increasing relative roughness for lighter materials are responsible for increasing the critical Shields stress in our experiments. These changes lead to concurrent changes in the hydraulic resistance and a nearly constant critical stream power value at initial motion. Increased relative roughness can explain much of the observed heightened critical Shields stresses and reduced sediment transport rates in steep channels and also may bias paleohydraulic reconstructions in environments with exotic submerged densities such as iron ore, pumice, or ice clasts on Titan.

  16. Native plants for erosion control in urban river slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Alvarado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and structural erosion of soils is produced by the loss of the vegetal cover and the action of rain on unprotected surfaces. Raindrop impact, transport and sediment deposition leads to landslides and slope instability and soil loss. In Costa Rica, water bodies have been negatively impacted by urban development and both water resources and soils have become more vulnerable. This is the case of the Pirro river micro watershed where riverbed vegetation has been replaced by constructions producing erosion problems in its slopes. In order to evaluate how native plants favor sediment control and prevent this sediment from been deposited in the river, eight experimental plots were installed. Four treatments were established: A (Costus pulverulentus Presl, B (Heliconia tortuosa (Griggs Standl., C (Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash and D (control. Sediments were collected weekly during the rainy and transitional seasons. A clear relation between rainfall intensity and sediment production was determined, particularly for intensities higher than 50 mm h-1. Significant differences were also determined between the treatments and the efficiency order was B >A > C >D, with the native plants being the most efficient in terms of sediment control. The use of native plants is recommended for the management and rehabilitation of slopes near urban rivers due to their ecological value and their capability for sediment control.

  17. Tidal and subtidal variability in the sloping benthic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M.

    1994-04-01

    Observations are presented of the benthic boundary layer (BBL) structure for two sites on the continental slope, west of the British Isles. Variability at the tidal (M2) and subtidal frequencies is discussed. A mean poleward, along-isobath current is present at both sites, with periodic (5-8 days) reversals observed in the flow. These reversals cause a change in the water column stratification close (yoyo casts, and its variability through a tidal cycle measured. A background level of 10-4 m2 s-1 is estimated with high values O(10-2 m2 s-1) measured for the times associated with the generation of mixed or inverted density layers. A mean value ofK? = 15-50×10-4 m2 s-1 is found. The observations are compared to recent models of the sloping BBL and laboratory experiments, with particular emphasis on the transient nature of the BBL and the influence of internal wave reflection from the slope.

  18. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  19. Meteorological, elevation, and slope effects on surface hoar formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, S.; Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2015-03-01

    Failure in layers of buried surface hoar crystals (frost) can cause hazardous snow slab avalanches. Surface hoar crystals form on the snow surface and are sensitive to micro-meteorological conditions. In this study, the role of meteorological and terrain factors were investigated for three surface hoar layers in the Columbia Mountains of Canada. The distribution of crystals was observed over different elevations and aspects during 20 days of field observations. The same layers were modelled on a 2.5 km horizontal grid by forcing the snow cover model SNOWPACK with forecast weather data from a numerical weather prediction model. The moisture content of the air (i.e. absolute humidity) had the largest impact on modelled surface hoar growth, with warm and moist air being favourable. Surface hoar was most developed at certain elevation bands, usually corresponding to elevations with warm humid air, light winds, and cold surface temperatures. SNOWPACK simulations on virtual slopes systematically predicted smaller surface hoar on south-facing slopes. In the field, a complex combination of surface hoar and sun crusts were observed, suggesting the model did not adequately resolve the surface energy balance on slopes. Overall, a coupled weather-snow cover model could benefit avalanche forecasters by predicting surface hoar layers on a regional scale over different elevation bands.

  20. Monitoring slope deformation with quadrilaterals for pipeline risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, J.R. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Anaheim, CA (United States); Gailing, R.W. [Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A quadrilateral is a geometric form defined by 4 points in an approximately square plan configuration. Quadrilateral measurements can be used to calculate ground-surface deformation and strain, and can serve as an economical alternative to the placement of strain gauges on pipelines in areas of active or potential slope movements. This paper provided details of a study in which 3 contiguous quadrilaterals were installed in a landslide-prone area of southern California to aid in the monitoring of a slope between the main scarp of a recently active landslide and a pipeline bridge foundation. Repeated measurements of the distances between the points and relative elevations of the quadrilaterals allowed for the calculation of displacements across landslide cracks and strains and tilts on landslide surfaces. Results of the study showed that inferences about pipeline strain may be made based on quadrilateral-based ground surface strain. Quadrilaterals place directly over or in close proximity to the buried pipeline provided the most valuable data. It was observed that while earth movements were transferred to the buried pipeline, soil-pipeline interaction effects resulted in more deformation of the soil than in the pipeline. The study also suggested that quadrilaterals can also be used to provide quantitative slope deformation data for pipeline risk management processes. It was concluded that quadrilaterals are well-suited for the monitoring of ground settlement, lateral, or rotational ground movement, as well as subsidence, uplift, and creep. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Topographic slope from the SAR interferometric phase gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Charles L.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    A new algorithm for the direct calculation of topographic slope maps from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferograms is presented. The algorithm derives slope maps without first requiring the creation of a digital elevational model (DEM) from the interferogram, thus obviating the need for high SNR in the interferogram and altitude calibration points for the scene. SAR data useful for interferometry has been collected by the Active Microwave Imager on board the ERS-1 satellite, when it was in a short period repeat orbit. Two passes of the radar sensor form a cross-track interferometric baseline. For a point target at some position (x,y,h), the interferometric phase difference phi is proportional to the difference in path lengths for the two sensor positions to the scatterer. Given the phase difference as measured in the complex interferogram and an accurate baseline geometry, the position of the scatterer, most significantly the height h, can be determined through triangulation. The interferometric phase measurement however is known only modulo 2-pi, and hence it is necessary to determine the correct multiple of 2-pi to add to the phase at each point to obtain an estimate of the actual phase with respect to an absolute datum. This phase unwrapping process is required for creating DEM's, and is difficult or impossible for regions of low SNR or SAR image layover. The new algorithm described here derives slope maps without requiring phase unwrapping.

  2. Applications and developments of the interferometric strain/slope rosette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjhung, Tana

    Chapter 1 introduces the technical background and concepts assumed in the subsequent chapters of the dissertation. A basic description of ISSR operation and set-up is given. Application of the ISSR to residual stress measurements using incremental-hole drilling is described. Concepts and motivation of Nano-ISSR and Multi-ISSR are introduced. Background is given on digital spatial filtering to separate out individual gauge interference patterns. Chapter 2 details the ISSR method for residual stress measurements, covering: (a) derivation of ISSR residual stress measurement inverse model utilizing both strain and slope, (b) finite element model utilized for calculation of ISSR hole-drilling coefficients, (c) experimental study of ISSR measurement of pure strains/slopes on a thin-plate with hole, (d) experimental measurements of incremental ISSR strains/slopes on a shot-peened Titanium-alloy block, and (e) theory and numerical implementation of Tikhonov regularized residual stress solutions on the Titanium-alloy block. Chapter 3 describes a feasibility study on Nano-ISSR that utilized numerical integration of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld optical scattering equation to predict the sensitivity and feasibility of ISSR measurements with gauge-lengths at the nanometer scale (-1000 nm). The measurement resolution of the Nano-ISSR was estimated to be 0.00 1% for normal strain and 0.1 nm for in-plane relative displacement based on UV laser illumination with 200 nm wavelength and currently available digital cameras.

  3. Performance of the Bowen ratio systems on a 22 deg slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, D.; Flitcroft, I.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1990-01-01

    The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to assess the energy fluxes on inclined surfaces during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). Since air flow over sloping surface may differ from that over flat terrain, it is important to examine whether Bowen ratio measurements taken on sloping surfaces are valid. In this study, the suitability of using the Bowen ratio technique on sloping surfaces was tested by examining the assumptions that the technique requires for valid measurements. This was accomplished by studying the variation of Bowen ratio measurements along a selected slope at the FIFE site. In September 1988, four Bowen ratio systems were set up in a line along the 22 degree north-facing slope with northerly air flow (wind went up the slope). In July of 1989, six Bowen ratio systems were similarly installed with southerly air flow (the wind went down slope). Results indicated that, at distances between 10 to 40 meters from the top of the slope, no temperature or vapor pressure gradient parallel to the slope was detected. Uniform Bowen ratio values were obtained on the slope, and thus the sensible or latent heat flux should be similar along the slope. This indicates that the assumptions for valid flux measurements are reasonably met at the slope. The Bowen ratio technique should give the best estimates of the energy fluxes on slopes similar to that in this study.

  4. Assessment of Rockfall Hazard along the Road Cut Slopes of State Highway-72, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall is a major problem in high hill slopes and rocky mountainous regions and construction of highways at these rockfall prone areas often require stable slopes. The causes of rockfall are presence of discontinuities, high angle cut slopes, heavy rainfall, and unplanned slope geometry etc. Slope geometry is one of the most triggering parameters for rockfall, when there are variations in slope angle along the profile of slope. The Present study involves rockfall hazard assessment of road cut slopes for 15 km distance starting from Mahabaleshwar town along State Highway-72 (SH-72. The vertical to subvertical cut slopes are prone to instability due to unfavorable orientation of discontinuities in slope face of weathered and altered basaltic rockmass. The predominant type of instability has been found as wedge type failure involving medium to large size blocks. In order to investigate the existing stability conditions, analyses were carried out at two locations under different slope conditions. The kinematic analysis was performed using stereographic projection method. RockFall 4.0 numerical simulator software was used to calculate the maximum bounce heights, total kinetic energies and translational velocities of the falling rockmass blocks, and a comparative analysis is presented with increasing the mass of blocks and height of the slope. The result of numerical analysis shows that varying slope angle geometry creates more problems as compared to the mass of blocks in the scenario of rockfall.

  5. Experimental research on a slope destabilization process with a movement of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, N.; Ishizawa, T.; Fukuzono, T.

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, many slope disasters occur by typhoon, long-term rainfall and short-time heavy rainfall, where properties and lives have been annually lost. Slope failure is still the main one of the natural disasters.Slope failure mechanism is not understood well, for example, it unable to predict the timing of failure. Therefore, a method with extensometers were applied for prediction of slope collapse.However, the accurate prediction is very difficult because the allowable time for warning is sometimes too short.The warning system must be improved for the specific each slope.New rational index to predict slope failure with early stage also must be studied through such experiments. Slope failure(shallow landslide) occurs on the weathered layer with a thickness of about 1 to 2m.In such conditions, ease of infiltration by heavy rainfall makes land collapsing quite often and repeatedly. Mechanism of slope failure is induced by 1) water pressure or table by rainfall, 2) reduction of strength like cohesion, 3)increase of self weight by water. This must be verified. So we conducted the large-scale model slope test with rainfall to understand the process of slope destabilization by large-scale rainfall simulator at National research Institute for earth science and disaster prevention. We will express the part of the results to discuss the mechanism of slope failure. In one of the main results, complex movement of groundwater in the slope play the main roll of slope destabilization.

  6. Asymmetric craters on Vesta: Impact on sloping surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Elbeshausen, D.; Kneissl, T.; Schmedemann, N.; Wagner, R.; Voigt, J.; Otto, K.; Matz, K. D.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Stephan, K.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-11-01

    Cratering processes on planetary bodies happen continuously and cause the formation of a large variety of impact crater morphologies. On Vesta whose surface has been imaged at high resolution during a 14 months orbital mission by the Dawn spacecraft we identified a substantial number of craters with an asymmetrical shape. These craters, in total a number of 2892 ranging in diameter from 0.3 km to 43 km, are characterized by a sharp crater rim on the uphill side and a smooth one on the downhill side. The formation of these unusual asymmetric impact craters is controlled by Vesta's remarkable topographic relief. In order to understand the processes creating such unusual crater forms on a planetary body with a topography like Vesta we carried out the following work packages: (1) the asymmetric craters show various morphologies and therefore can be subdivided into distinct classes by their specific morphologic details; (2) using a digital terrain model (DTM), the craters are grouped into bins of slope angles for further statistical analysis; (3) for a subset of these asymmetric craters, the size-frequency distributions of smaller craters superimposed on their crater floors and continuous ejecta are measured in order to derive cratering model ages for the selected craters and to constrain possible post-impact processes; (4) three-dimensional hydrocode simulations using the iSALE-3D code are applied to the data set in order to quantify the effects of topography on crater shape and ejecta distribution. We identified five different classes (A-E) of asymmetric craters. Primarily, we focus on class A in this work. The global occurrence of these crater classes compared with a slope map clearly shows that these asymmetric crater types exclusively form on slopes. We found that slopes, especially slopes >20°, prevent the deposition of ejected material in the uphill direction, and slumping material superimposed the deposit of ejecta on the downhill side. The combination of these two processes explains the local accumulation of material in this direction. In the subset of asymmetric craters which we used for crater counts, our results show that no post-impact processes have taken place since floors and continuous ejecta in each crater show comparable cratering model ages within the uncertainties of the cratering chronology model. Therefore the formation, or modification, of the asymmetric crater forms by processes other than impact can be excluded with some certainty.

  7. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in the La Paz basin provides insights into evolution of the Central Andes and the geologic contribution to the exceptionally high landslide risk in the modern city of La Paz.

  8. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple staluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects

  9. The runup on a multilinear sloping beach model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mauricio A.; Ruiz, Javier A.; Riquelme, Sebastián

    2015-05-01

    A general method of solution for the runup evolution and some analytical results concerning a more general bathymetry than a canonical sloping beach model are presented. We studied theoretically the water wave elevation and runup generated on a continuous piecewise linear bathymetry, by solving analytically the linear shallow water wave equations in the 1+1 dimensional case. Non-horizontal linear segments are assumed and we develop an specific matrix propagator scheme, similar to the ones used in the propagation of elastic seismic wave fields in layered media, to obtain an exact integral form for the runup. A general closed expression for the maximum runup was computed analytically via the Cauchy's residue Theorem for an incident solitary wave and isosceles leading-depression N wave in the case of n + 1 linear segments. It is already known that maximum run-up strongly depends only on the closest slope to the shore, although this has not been mathematically demonstrated yet for arbitraries bathymetries. Analytical and numerical verifications were done to check the validity of the asymptotic maximum runup and we provided the mathematical and bathymetrical conditions that must be satisfied by the model to obtain correct asymptotic solutions. We applied our model to study the runup evolution on a more realistic bathymetry than a canonical sloping beach model. The seabed in a Chilean subduction zone was approximated-from the trench to the shore-by two linear segments adjusting the continental slope and shelf. Assuming an incident solitary wave, the two linear segment bathymetry generates a larger runup than the simple sloping beach model. We also discussed about the differences in the runup evolution computed numerically from incident leading-depression and leading-elevation isosceles N waves. In the latter case, the water elevation at the shore shows a symmetrical behaviour in terms of theirs waveforms. Finally, we applied our solution to study the resonance effects due to the bathymetry modelled by linear segments, which is in agreement with published studies and numerical tests.

  10. Agricultural terraces and slope instability at Cinque Terre (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Pierluigi; Cevasco, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Cinque Terre, located in the eastern Liguria, are one of the most representative examples of terraced coastal landscape within the Mediterranean region. They are the result of a century-old agricultural practice and constitute an outstanding example of human integration with the natural landscape. For this highly unusual man-made coastal landscape, the Cinque Terre have been recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1997 and became National Park in 1999. The complex network of retaining dry stone walls and drainage networks ensured through times the control of shallow water erosion and therefore, indirectly, favoured debris cover stability. The lack of maintenance of terracing due to farmer abandonment since the 1950s led to widespread slope erosion phenomena. The effects of such phenomena culminated during the 25 October 2011 storm rainfall event, when slope debris materials charged by streams gave rise to debris floods affecting both Monterosso and Vernazza villages. As the analysis of the relationships between geo-hydrological processes and land use in the Vernazza catchment highlighted, abandoned and not well maintained terraces were the most susceptible areas to shallow landsliding and erosion triggered by intense rainfall. As a consequence, the thousands of kilometres of dry stone walls retaining millions of cubic metres of debris cover at Cinque Terre currently constitute a potential menace for both villages, that are mainly located at the floor of deep cut valleys, and tourists. Given the increasing human pressure due to tourist activities, geo-hydrological risk mitigation measures are urgently needed. At the same time, restoration policies are necessary to preserve this extraordinary example of terraced coastal landscape. In this framework, the detailed knowledge of the response of terraced areas to intense rainfall in terms of slope instability is a topic issue in order to identify adequate land planning strategies as well as the areas where interventions should be focused primarily. In this study, with the aim to contribute to a better understanding of geo-hydrological hazards at basin scale, the main types of slope instability phenomena that occurred on agricultural terraces at Cinque Terre following the 25 October 2011 rainfall event are presented in relation to different geological and geomorphological conditions. In particular, selected examples of shallow landslides and erosive slope processes due to running water affecting abandoned or cultivated terraces for vineyards and olive grooves will be shown.

  11. Reassessment of seismically induced, tsunamigenic submarine slope failures in Port Valdez, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Haeussler, P.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Locat, Jacques; Suleimani, E.; Alexander, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The M9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 caused major damage to the port facilities and town of Valdez, most of it the result of submarine landslide and the consequent tsunamis. Recent bathymetric multibeam surveys, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and dated sediment cores in Port Valdez supply new information about the morphology and character of the landslide deposits. A comparison of pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry provides an estimate of the net volume of landslide debris deposited in the basin and the volume of sediment removed from the source region. Landslide features include (1) large blocks (up to 40-m high) near the location of the greatest tsunamiwave runup (~50 m), (2) two debris lobes associated with the blocks, (3) a series of gullies, channels and talus, near the fjord-head delta and badly damaged old town of Valdez, and (4) the front of a debris lobe that flowed half-way down the fjord from the east end.

  12. Numerical Internal Tide Scattering, Diffraction, and Dissipation on the Tasman Continental Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymak, J. M.; Simmons, H. L.; MacKinnon, J. A.; Alford, M. H.; Pinkel, R.

    2014-12-01

    Internal tides generated at steep topography tend to propagate far from their source with little local mixing. Where does this energy dissipate? One candidate is via reflection on continental slopes. The upcoming Tasmanian Internal Tide Experiment aims to look at the reflection of internal tide generated near New Zealand and track its reflection from the Tasmanian Continental Slope. Here we consider numerical studies to track the propagation of the internal tide onto this slope and its dissipation. We find a strong interference patterns sets up, as expected from a reflecting tide. The pattern is complicated by the ``Tasman Rise'' positioned near the center of the incoming internal tide beam, causing a diffraction pattern to focus and defocus the tide along the slope. Dissipative mechanisms on the slope include turbulent lee waves from small cross-slope ridges, and along-slope lee-waves trapped and breaking in corrugations in the slope.

  13. The effect of posterior tibial slope on knee stability after Ortholoc total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, L A; Amador, D D

    1988-01-01

    The effect of posterior tibial slope was evaluated in a rotationally unconstrained anterior cruciate ligament-sacrificing total knee replacement (Ortholoc, Dow Corning Wright, Arlington, TN). Sloping the surface 7 degree posteriorly loosened the knee to varus-valgus and anterior-posterior stress in flexion. Eliminating posterior slope improved varus-valgus stability in flexion but slightly increased anterior-posterior laxity in extension. Values for the 3 degree posterior slope knee were between the values for 0 degree and 7 degree sloped surfaces, but not significantly different statistically from either. Total knee replacement designs with a posterior tibial slope are likely to promote anterior-posterior and varus-valgus laxity in flexion, and those with no posterior slope or 3 degree posterior slope are most likely to achieve normal stability in flexion and extension. PMID:3199140

  14. Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

    2009-04-01

    River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (networks is influenced by surface slope (8-11). Steep surfaces develop narrow elongate basins with near-parallel rills, whereas flatter surfaces produce wider basins. Initial surface geometry is also important in setting rivers paths and certain landscape properties such as the slope-area relationship (12). Here we thus investigate the form of river basins developed on surfaces longer than 10 kilometres showing limited dissection such that the initial surface slopes can be measured. We find that, as for small scale basins, the form of large scale river basins is controlled by surface slope, with steep slopes developing narrower basins. This observation is interpreted to originate from the nature of water flow over rough surfaces, with steeper slopes causing less flow convergence and longer-narrower basins. We derive an empirical relationship that can be used to infer the slope of a surface on which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

  15. Soil roughness, slope and surface storage relationship for impervious areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borselli, Lorenzo; Torri, Dino

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThe study of the relationships between surface roughness, local slope gradient and maximum volume of water storage in surface depressions is a fundamental element in the development of hydrological models to be used in soil and water conservation strategies. Good estimates of the maximum volume of water storage are important for runoff assessment during rainfall events. Some attempts to link surface storage to parameters such as indices of surface roughness and, more rarely, local gradient have been proposed by several authors with empirical equations often conflicting between them and usually based on a narrow range of slope gradients. This suggests care in selecting any of the proposed equations or models and invites one to verify the existence of more realistic experimental relationships, based on physical models of the surfaces and valid for a larger range of gradients. The aim of this study is to develop such a relation for predicting/estimating the maximum volume of water that a soil surface, with given roughness characteristics and local slope gradient, can store. Experimental work has been carried out in order to reproduce reliable rough surfaces able to maintain the following properties during the experimental activity: (a) impervious surface to avoid biased storage determination; (b) stable, un-erodible surfaces to avoid changes of retention volume during tests; (c) absence of hydrophobic behaviour. To meet the conditions a-c we generate physical surfaces with various roughness magnitude using plasticine (emulsion of non-expansible clay and oil). The plasticine surface, reproducing surfaces of arable soils, was then wetted and dirtied with a very fine timber sawdust. This reduced the natural hydrophobic behaviour of the plasticine to an undetectable value. Storage experiments were conducted with plasticine rough surfaces on top of large rigid polystyrene plates inclined at different slope gradient: 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. Roughness data collected on the generated plasticine surfaces were successfully compared with roughness data collected on real soil surfaces for similar conditions. A set of roughness indices was computed for each surface using roughness profiles measured with a laser profile meter. Roughness indices included quantiles of the Abbot-Firestone curve, which is used in surface metrology for industrial application to characterize surface roughness in a non-parametric approach ( Whitehouse, 1994). Storage data were fitted with an empirical equation (double negative exponential of roughness and slope). Several roughness indices resulted well related to storage. The better results were obtained using the Abbot-Firestone curve parameter P100. Beside this storage empirical model (SEM) a geometrical model was also developed, trying to give a more physical basis to the result obtained so far. Depression geometry was approximated with spherical cups. A general physical model was derived (storage cup model - SCM). The cup approximation identifies where roughness elevation comes in and how it relates to slope gradient in defining depression volume. Moreover, the exponential decay used for assessing slope effect on storage volume in the empirical model of Eqs. (8) and (9) emerges as consistent with distribution of cup sizes.

  16. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ? the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002 with the aim to combat deforestation, ecological degradation, over cultivation of sloping land and soil erosion. However, we also believe it brings changes to the rural economic structure and household livelihood strategy. Applying and developing some empirical and theoretical methods with a large amount of household survey data, this study aims to improve our understanding of the treatment effect of the SLCP on farm households, which is split into three parts. The first paper ? The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China: Effects on Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification, evaluates the effects of the implementation of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification, which is thought to be the solution to poverty and environmental dilemmas. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings suggest that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification. The Second paper ? The Effects of Sloping Land Conversion Program on Agricultural Households, analyzes whether the program influences farm household behaviour in the form of production, consumption and labor supply. In doing so, we first develop a microeconomic Agricultural Household Model (AHM), which can model the production, consumption, and labor supply decisions of farm households in rural China in a theoretically consistent fashion. Based on this theoretical model, we derive an empirical specification for econometrically estimating the effects of the SLCP and other exogenous factors. Using a large longitudinal farm household survey data set, we estimate the empirical model with the Hausman-Taylor Estimator method. The key results regarding the households’ responses to the program nicely coincide with the results of our theoretical comparative static analysis, i.e. the SLCP decreases agricultural production and increases non-farm labor supply and consumption. In addition, on average, reduction of compensation payment rate lowers the treatment effect of the SLCP on participating households from both River basins. Lastly, the third paper, ? The effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program on farm household productivity in rural China, investigates the treatment effect (the causal effect) of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on farm household productivity. Using the same survey data set as the above two papers, I apply the nonparametric Malmquist index method to estimate the change in farm household productivity. In connection with evaluating the treatment effects, propensity score matching, which can give a randomized evaluation, is employed in a second stage. The main results show that the SLCP significantly improved the productivity of participants in the first funding period which are mostly from efficiency improvements, while the effects decreased in the second round except the positive impact in 2007. Moreover, it is found that there are heterogeneous effects on farm household productivity between the south and north, as well as poor and rich region. In sum, the findings from this thesis highlight that SLCP has significant effects on the farm household in different ways, most of which support the policy intention of central government according to our own understanding, whereas the effects differ depending on the group, region and period. This research provides a detailed understanding of the treatment effects of the SLCP and thus, contributes to the on-going political debate about the revision of the SLCP and also to the scientific knowledge about the effect evaluation of

  17. Stability of slopes in residual soils Estabilidad de taludes en suelos residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Wesley

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and discusses a number of factors that make slope stability assessments, and slope engineering in residual soils somewhat different from sedimentary soils. In particular, slopes are generally steeper and of higher permeability. They are also likely to be more heterogeneous and thus less amenable to analytical assessment than slopes in sedimentary soils. These factors are discussed in some detail. It is explained that climate and weather influence is much greater in residua...

  18. A flume design for the study of slope length effects on runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Stomph, T. J.; De Ridder, N.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent publications from field and simulation studies indicate that runoff per unit area decreases as the length of the slope being observed is increased. This scale effect has been observed and documented for slopes with a uniform infiltration capacity as well as for slopes along which infiltration capacity is variable. This paper presents the design and testing of a laboratory flume for the study of the processes that lead to this scale effect, particularly for the case of slopes covered wi...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1711-2 - Sealing of slope or drift openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sealing of slope or drift openings. 75.1711-2 Section 75...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-2 Sealing of slope or drift openings. Slope or drift openings...

  20. Slope angle studies from multibeam sonar data on three seamounts in Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Slope angles are powerful morphometric tools. Slope angle studies in manganese nodule areas using the Multi Beam Sonar (MBS) data is useful to the mining geologist. A technique to convert depth grid generated from MBS data to slope angle values data...

  1. Slopes To Prevent Trapping of Bubbles in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold E.; Lee, Michael C.; Smith, J. Anthony; Willis, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The idea of designing a microfluidic channel to slope upward along the direction of flow of the liquid in the channel has been conceived to help prevent trapping of gas bubbles in the channel. In the original application that gave rise to this idea, the microfluidic channels are parts of micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. It is necessary to prevent trapping of gas bubbles in these devices because uninterrupted liquid pathways are essential for sustaining the electrical conduction and flows that are essential for CE. The idea is also applicable to microfluidic devices that may be developed for similar terrestrial microCE biotechnological applications or other terrestrial applications in which trapping of bubbles in microfluidic channels cannot be tolerated. A typical microCE device in the original application includes, among other things, multiple layers of borosilicate float glass wafers. Microfluidic channels are formed in the wafers, typically by use of wet chemical etching. The figure presents a simplified cross section of part of such a device in which the CE channel is formed in the lowermost wafer (denoted the channel wafer) and, according to the present innovation, slopes upward into a via hole in another wafer (denoted the manifold wafer) lying immediately above the channel wafer. Another feature of the present innovation is that the via hole in the manifold wafer is made to taper to a wider opening at the top to further reduce the tendency to trap bubbles. At the time of reporting the information for this article, an effort to identify an optimum technique for forming the slope and the taper was in progress. Of the techniques considered thus far, the one considered to be most promising is precision milling by use of femtosecond laser pulses. Other similar techniques that may work equally well are precision milling using a focused ion beam, or a small diamond-tipped drill bit.

  2. A New Formula for Front Slope Recession of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2010-01-01

    The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter for describing the reshaping. The formula has also been calibrated and validated against model test data from other researchers. The significance of the new design formula is that it predicts berm recession much better than the existing methods, especially in case of more stable structures.

  3. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard was somewhat different from what is valid for a conventional rubble mound breakwater. An overtopping formula fitting the results very well is derived. Unfortunately, the formula is not dimensionless, but an example is presented to show how it can be used anyway. The experiments showed good correlation between overtopping and rear side damage.

  4. Conservation laws for shallow water waves on a sloping beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Akyildiz

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Shallow water waves are governed by a pair of non-linear partial differential equations. We transfer the associated homogeneous and non-homogeneous systems, (corresponding to constant and sloping depth, respectively, to the hodograph plane where we find all the non-simple wave solutions and construct infinitely many polynomial conservation laws. We also establish correspondence between conservation laws and hodograph solutions as well as Bäcklund transformations by using the linear nature of the problems on the hodogrpah plane.

  5. Evolution of continental slope gullies on the northern california margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, G.A.; Field, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    A series of subparallel, downslope-trending gullies on the northern California continental slope is revealed on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles imaging the uppermost 50 m of sediment. The gullies are typically 100 m wide and have 1 to 3 m of relief. They extend for 10 to 15 km down the slope and merge into larger channels that feed the Trinity Canyon. In the lower half of the 50 m stratigraphic section, the gullies increase in both relief and number up section, to maxima at a surface 5 to 10 m below the last glacial maximum lowstand surface. Gully relief increased as interfluves aggraded more rapidly than thalwegs. Erosion is not evident in the gully bottoms, therefore gully growth was probably due to reduced sediment deposition within the gullies relative to that on interfluves. As the gullies increased in relief, their heads extended upslope toward the shelfbreak. At all times, a minimum of 10 km of non-gullied upper slope and shelf stretched between the heads of the gullies and the paleo-shoreline; the gullies did not connect with a subaerial drainage network at any time. Gully growth occurred when the gully heads were in relatively shallow water (??? 200 m paleo-water depth) and were closest to potential sediment sources. We suggest that prior to the last glacial maximum, the Mad River, then within 10 km of the gully heads, supplied sediment to the upper slope, which fed downslope-eroding sediment flows. These flows removed sediment from nearly parallel gullies at a rate slightly slower than sediment accumulation from the Eel River, 40 km to the south. The process or processes responsible for gully growth and maintenance prior to the last glacial maximum effectively ceased following the lowstand, when sea level rose and gully heads lay in deeper water (??? 300 m water depth), farther from potential sediment sources. During sea-level highstand, the Mad River is separated from the gully heads by a shelf 30 km wide and no longer feeds sediment flows down the gullies, which fill with sediment from the distal Eel River. Approximately one-half of the subsurface gullies have no expression on the seafloor, because they have completely filled with sediment following the last glacial maximum lowstand of sea level. Copyright ?? 2001, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  6. Ratio of slopes method for quantitative analysis in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis technique developed at University of Sheffield was adopted, rather than the previously widely used internal standard method, to determine the amount of the phases present in a reformulated whiteware porcelain and a BaTiO sub 3 electrochemical material. This method, although still employs an internal standard, was found to be very easy and accurate. The required weight fraction of a phase in the mixture to be analysed is determined from the ratio of slopes of two linear plots, designated as the analysis and reference lines, passing through their origins using the least squares method

  7. Monte-Carlo Modeling of Some Niger Delta Slope Events

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Oladapo; J.S Ojo; M. O. Olorunfemi; B.A. Adetola

    2009-01-01

    Monte-Carlo modeling has been utilized in this study to simulate seismic P-wave events on four horizons (AA, BB, CC and DD) in a Niger Delta Slope environment with the aim of generating AVO attributes. Monte-Carlo modeling undertaken on a well log from the Gulf of Mexico served as a generic model and control. Trends analysis regressions generated in the environment served as input for the models while default parameter in SAVIOR (fluid method) was used for establishing reservoir fluid p...

  8. A Simple Statistic for Comparing Moderation of Slopes and Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    MichaelSmithson

    2012-01-01

    Given a linear relationship between two continuous random variables $X$ and $Y$ that may be moderated by a third, $Z$, the extent to which the correlation $\\rho$ is (un)moderated by $Z$ is equivalent to the extent to which the regression coefficients $\\beta_y$ and $\\beta_x$ are (un)moderated by $Z$ iff the variance ratio $\\sigma_y^2/\\sigma_x^2$ is constant over the range or states of $Z$. Otherwise, moderation of slopes and of correlations must diverge. Most of the literature on this issue f...

  9. A Simple Statistic for Comparing Moderation of Slopes and Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Given a linear relationship between two continuous random variables X and Y that may be moderated by a third, Z, the extent to which the correlation ? is (un)moderated by Z is equivalent to the extent to which the regression coefficients ?y and ?x are (un)moderated by Z iff the variance ratio ?y2??x2 is constant over the range or states of Z. Otherwise, moderation of slopes and of correlations must diverge. Most of the literature on this issue focuses on tests for heterogeneity of vari...

  10. Level, slope, curvature of sovereign yield curve and fiscal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Anto?nio; Martins, Manuel M. F.

    2010-01-01

    We study fiscal behaviour and the sovereign yield curve in the U.S. and Germany in the period 1981:I-2009:IV. The latent factors, level, slope and curvature, obtained with the Kalman filter, are used in a VAR with macro and fiscal variables, controlling for financial stress conditions. In the U.S., fiscal shocks have generated (i) an immediate response of the short-end of the yield curve, associated with the monetary policy reaction, lasting between 6 and 8 quarters, and (ii) a...

  11. Application of reverse engineering for probabilistic assessment of slope stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Almeida Maia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a back-analysis study of a landslide occurred on BR-153 Highway. The landslide history, the climate characteristics of the region and the geotechnical parameters obtained in a laboratory and field experimental program are presented. Retroanalysis shows that the rupture occurred due to groundwater rising to the soil surface. The estimated value of the rupture probability was influenced by the slope geometry, the groundwater position, position of critical surface and method of stability analysis, in addition to the variation in geotechnical parameters.

  12. Circular array of outward sloping monopoles for vehicular diversity antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Rodney G.; Andersen, J. Bach; Langhorn, M. H.

    1988-10-01

    A circular array of outward-sloping monopoles is analyzed as a diversity antenna for vehicle rooftop mounting. The monopoles are assumed to approximate minimum scattering antennas, have sinusoidal current distributions, and reside on an infinite, perfectly conducting ground plane. The envelopes of the received signals are considered Rayleigh distributed. The advantage of the array configuration is that the feedpoint spacing can be made almost arbitrarily small, even for a large number of branches. A three-element array with element lengths of 0.6 wavelengths and feedpoint spacing 0.1 wavelengths operating at 463 MHz was field-tested, and the results are in good agreement with the analysis.

  13. Estimating significances of differences between slopes: A new methodology and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the significance of slope differences is a common requirement in studies of self-thinning, ontogeny and sexual dimorphism, among others. This has long been carried out testing for the overlap of the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the slopes. However, the numerical random re-sampling with repetition favours the occurrence of re-combinations yielding largely diverging slopes, widening the confidence intervals and thus increasing the chances of overlooking significant differences. To overcome this problem a permutation test simulating the null hypothesis of no differences between slopes is proposed. This new methodology, when applied both to artificial and factual data, showed an enhanced ability to differentiate slopes.

  14. Influence of ground parameters on the dynamic responses of anchored bedding rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-xin; Gao, Le; Peng, Ningbo; Gao, Gang

    2013-10-01

    To research the influence of ground parameters on the dynamic responses of anchored bedding rock slope, a dynamic numerical simulation model of bedding rock slope with bolts was established using FLAC3D. The alteration of dynamic response with displacements and accelerations at monitoring points along the slope surface was set as analysis basis. The effects on dynamic responses of slope with different ground parameters, such as waves, frequencies and amplitudes were analyzed. It demonstrated great help for the dynamic stability analysis and slope design when it is supported with anchor under earthquake.

  15. Failure Modes and Stability of Rock Mass Slope Containing Multi-weak Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jie-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of rock mass slope with multi-weak interlayer can be found in real engineering frequently. It is worthy to study the influence of multi-weak interlayer on failure of rock mass slope. Based on the shear strength reduction finite element method, stability and failure surface of rock mass slope with different parameters had been studied, the failure mechanism of rock mass slope containing multi-weak interlayer has been analyzed. It can be found that the stability of consequent rock slope decreased first and increased later with increasing of rock stratum inclination which got its minimal value at 30° of rock stratum inclination. The stability of anti-dip rock slope fluctuated with increasing of rock stratum inclination which got its maximal value at 135° of rock stratum inclination. Whether consequent rock slope or anti-dip rock slope, the stability of slope decreased with angle of slope increased. Although, the stability of rock slope reduced or weakened by multi-weak interlayer, the failure and stability is controlled by parameters of rock mass mostly.

  16. Stability Analysis for Loosened Rock Slope of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, Jinzhong; TIAN, Xiaofu; GUAN, Xudong; YU, Yonggui; YANG, Xiusheng

    On the basis of the status quo of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, some factors such as topography, geological structures, climate, hydrology, and engineering geology that influence the stability of the Buddha slope are considered, and several working situations of the slope that possibly suffered are presented in this article. The Buddha slope stands upright and the rock masses are composed of thick Permian sandstone, which dips slightly inward to the slope. Affected by both the incision of regional joints and the load relief to the free surface, the rock mass of the Buddha slope has turned into loosened blocks. Numerical stability analysis by FLAC-2D on the basis of the strength reduction method reveals that the localized deformation of the rock masses near the vertical surface of the slope may trigger reversing of rock beddings making the back dip slope convert into a dip slope with the possibility of plane sliding failure. Furthermore, the pseudostatic method for the dynamic process and limit equilibrium method for the static process are applied to different working situations of the Buddha slope. The analytical results illustrate that plane sliding failure will not occur when the slope is affected only by seism. However, water filling in the cracks of the loosened rock mass may greatly contribute to the potential plane sliding failure. When horizontal seism-force and hydrostatic pressure are coupled, the Buddha slope can hardly keep stable. Additionally, the loosened rock masses are prone to block toppling failure when influenced by the seism force.

  17. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  18. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  19. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  20. Shock wave propagation along constant sloped ocean bottoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestas, Joseph T; Taylor, Larissa F; Collis, Jon M

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) is a time-domain model used to calculate long-range shock propagation using a wave-following computational domain. Current models are capable of treating smoothly spatially varying medium properties, and fluid-fluid interfaces that align horizontally with a computational grid that can be handled by enforcing appropriate interface conditions. However, sloping interfaces that do not align with a horizontal grid present a computational challenge as application of interface conditions to vertical contacts is non-trivial. In this work, range-dependent environments, characterized by sloping bathymetry, are treated using a rotated coordinate system approach where the irregular interface is aligned with the coordinate axes. The coordinate rotation does not change the governing equation due to the narrow-angle assumption adopted in its derivation, but care is taken with applying initial, interface, and boundary conditions. Additionally, sound pressure level influences on nonlinear steepening for range-independent and range-dependent domains are used to quantify the pressures for which linear acoustic models suffice. A study is also performed to investigate the effects of thin sediment layers on the propagation of blast waves generated by explosives buried beneath mud line. PMID:25480048

  1. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  2. On the Landslide of Daigala Slope-Kurdistan-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Hamed M. Jassim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic two-lane road (Erbil – Koya is the main link between Erbil and Suleymaniya governorates. It passes through Daigala bridge whose edge from Koya side is adjacent to a curved section which experienced a slope failure (Fig. 1 in the form of rotational sliding which progressed into a slump failure through the mechanism of “progressive failure” after the overburden soil and sediments were fully saturated with water due to some heavy rain storms which happened at the end of January 2013 leading to the loss of cohesive force and triggering that failure which was developed into a progressive failure by the action of additional loading which was imposed by the heavy traffic of big oil tankers which were running on the adjacent paved road. The research team tried to study and analyze this failure by collecting some soil samples (both disturbed and disturbed from the study area and performing different laboratory tests in addition to some in-situ field tests by using the “Inspection Vane Tester, H – 60” for the purpose of enabling this study and analysis. The location of the study area was described and illustrated by providing a location map and the geological settings were explained. As a theoretical background, the different modes of soil slopes failures and their conditions were presented. At the end, some conclusions of this study were outlined and few recommendations for future remedial measures were eventually made.

  3. A Simple Statistic for Comparing Moderation of Slopes and Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelSmithson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear relationship between two continuous random variables $X$ and $Y$ that may be moderated by a third, $Z$, the extent to which the correlation $\\rho$ is (unmoderated by $Z$ is equivalent to the extent to which the regression coefficients $\\beta_y$ and $\\beta_x$ are (unmoderated by $Z$ iff the variance ratio $\\sigma_y^2/\\sigma_x^2$ is constant over the range or states of $Z$. Otherwise, moderation of slopes and of correlations must diverge. Most of the literature on this issue focuses on tests for heterogeneity of variance in $Y$, and a test for this ratio has not been investigated. Given that regression coefficients are proportional to $\\rho$ via this ratio, accurate tests and estimations of it would have several uses. This paper presents such a test for both a discrete and continuous moderator and evaluates its Type I error rate and power under unequal sample sizes and departures from normality. It also provides a unified approach to modeling moderated slopes and correlations with categorical moderators via structural equations models.

  4. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 (micro)rad (rms)

  5. Estimation of streamflow by slope Regional Dependency Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altunkaynak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Kriging is one of the most developed methodologies in the regional variable modeling. However, one of its drawbacks is that the influence radius can not be determined by this method. In which distance and in what ratio that pivot station is influenced from adjacent sites is rather often encountered problem in practical applications. Regional weighting functions obtained from available data consist of several broken lines. Each line has different slopes which represent the similarity and the contribution of adjacent stations as a weighting coefficient. The approach in this study is called as Slope Regional Dependency Function (SRDF. The main idea of this approach is to express the variability in value differences [?(d] and distances together. Originally proposed SRDF and Trigonometric Point Cumulative Semi-Variogram (TPCSV methods are used to predict streamflow. Also TPCSV and Point Cumulative Semi-Variogram (PCSV approaches are compared with each other. Prediction performance of all three methods stays below 10% relative error which is acceptable for the engineering applications. It is shown that SRDF outperforms PCSV and TPCSV with very high differences. It can be used for missing data completion, determination of measurement sites location, calculation of influence radius, and determination of regional variable potential. The proposed method is applied for the 38 stream flow measurement sites located in the Mississippi River basin.

  6. Estimation of streamflow by slope regional dependency function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altunkaynak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Kriging is one of the most developed methodologies in the regional variable modeling. However, one of its drawbacks is that the influence radius can not be determined by this method. In which distance and in what ratio that pivot station is influenced from adjacent sites is rather often encountered problem in practical applications. Regional weighting functions obtained from available data consist of several broken lines. Each line has different slopes which represent the similarity and the contribution of adjacent stations as a weighting coefficient. The approach in this study is called as Slope Regional Dependency Function (SRDF. The main idea of this approach is to express the variability in value differences ? and distances together. Originally proposed SRDF and Trigonometric Point Cumulative Semi-Variogram (TPCSV methods are used to predict streamflow. TPCSV and Point Cumulative Semi-Variogram (PCSV approaches are also compared with each other. Prediction performance of all the three methods revealed a relative error less than 10% which is acceptable for most engineering applications. It is shown that SRDF outperforms PCSV and TPCSV with very high differences. It can be used for missing data completion, determination of measurement sites location, calculation of influence radius, and determination of regional variable potential. The proposed method is applied for the 38 stream flow measurement sites located in the Mississippi River basin.

  7. Bird diversity and land use on the slopes Bird diversity and land use on the slopes, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Eija Soini

    2011-01-01

    This study of bird distribution in the main land-use categories of the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro,Tanzania, aims at understanding potential impacts of the land-use changes on birds. A land-use map of the study area was derived from a Landsat image, and land-use change information came from an earlier study by the author. Bird data were collected by observations along timed, standardized walks. Shannon (1948) indices of bird diversity for highlands, bushland and lowlands were 3.29, 2.99, and 2.6...

  8. Morphologic and sedimentologic characteristics of continental slope box slides offshore Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Melissa; Hubble, Thomas; Clarke, Samantha; Airey, David; Yu, Phyllis; Southern Surveyor V01-2013, Scientific Party RV

    2014-05-01

    The Fraser Island Slide complex is located on eastern Australia's continental slope offshore Fraser Island in southern Queensland. Morphologic, sedimentologic and geomechanical properties data for two submarine landslides, the 'North Fraser Island Upper Slope Slide' (upper slope slide) and the 'Fraser Island Middle Slope Slide' (middle slope slide) are described. Both of these features are box-shaped, slide scars from which rectangular slabs of material have been shed. The upper slope slide is situated at a water depth of approximately 750 m at the northern end of the Fraser Canyon. The head of this slide has apparently detached from a structural surface comprised of a Miocene reef complex located beneath the continental shelf edge; this slide is estimated to be 25 square kilometres in area and an average of 100m thick. The middle slope slide is situated in 1500 m of water at the southern end of the Fraser Canyon. It estimated to be 12 square kilometres in area and 50 m thick. Cores taken in the continental slope within both slides are long (upper slope 5.65 m, middle slope 3.64 m) and are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic mud. Cores taken adjacent to both slides are short (upper slope 1.33m, middle slope 0.43m) and terminate in stiff muds of suspected Miocene or Pliocene age. Additionally, the 1.33 m core on the slope adjacent to the upper slide presents a near surface layer of upper-fining of coarse to fine shelly sand which we interpret to be a turbidite deposit, this layer was deposited within hemipelagic muds which are ubiquitously present on the upper eastern Australian Continental Slope in New South Wales and Southern Queensland.

  9. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than 2 000 m2, the distribution exhibits a power-law behaviour with scaling exponent, ?, equal to -2.24. For comparison, we analysed the power-law behaviour of other earthquake-induced landslide inventories, obtaining similar results, although the geological and seismic conditions may have been very different (Buller, New Zealand, ? = -2.42; Iningahua, New Zealand, ? = -2.53; Northridge, USA, ? = -2.39; Chi-Chi, Taiwan, ? = -2.30; Wenchuan Earthquake, China, ? = -2.19). Volume estimates and slope stability modelling have been completed to characterize the phenomena and the possible triggering mechanisms. For volume estimate, we reconstructed the pre-failure surface for tens of landslides, in order to characterize the area-volume relationship. By using this relationship, we assigned a volume to all landslides of the inventory. The study area is subject to a high seismicity associated to earthquakes of different type: interplate (superficial and intermediate depth), subduction zone earthquakes, and earthquake along the Coastal Escarpment. By analysing the frequency size relationships for earthquake-induced landslides from literature, it is possible to observe that the higher the earthquake Magnitude, the higher the frequency density curve. To quantify this observation, we used the power-law relationships derived for each inventory to calculate the frequency density associated to selected areas, and we plotted these frequencies as a function of the magnitude of the respective earthquakes. By fitting these values, we derived the expected Magnitude required to generate the landslide distribution of the study area. In conclusion, we argue that the evolution of these landslides is controlled by: deep valley incision, canyon walls undercutting and lateral migration of the river controlled by valley flank instabilities, the Presence of weak lithologies and weak basal layers, the river incision debuttressing the slope toe and especially brings to daylighting the weak basal layers observed at some landslide sites, the possible deep groundwater flow above the deep imperm

  10. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the bed level. As long as they are not buried by too strong aggradation they allow a 'bed level independence' between reaches. On the long term, as the total inlet flux is kept constant, a decrease in transported volumes induces an increase in the erosion event frequency: sediment releases are more frequent but littler. As proposed by Poncet (1995), check dams participate efficiently in hazard mitigation because 'they release in retail what torrents would too abruptly delivered wholesale'. Reference : Poncet, A. "Restauration et conservation des terrains en montagne." Office national des forêts, Paris (1995).

  11. Weathering-related Slope Instabilities of The Calabrian Arc (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, D.; Parise, M.

    Weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks widely crop out in the Mediterranean area, where in recent years greater attention has been paid to weathering-related slope movements. Calabria, the southernmost region of the Italian peninsula, is one of the most challenging area where to study such topic. Many factors favoured during past times onset and development of the weathering processes in Calabria: huge geody- namic events, still active today as proved by regional seismicity; high uplifting rate; long history of exposition to weathering agents; aggressive climatic conditions, char- acterized by intense, locally clustered, rainfall. In the late '80s a wide research pro- gramme was started in Calabria with the aim of defining an integrated, multidisci- plinary method, suitable to analyse and interpret both the weathering processes and the related instability phenomena. Two were the main goals of the research: a) the engineering-geological characteristics of weathered terrains; and b) the understanding of typology, mechanisms and triggering causes of mass movements. The research was carried out on several test sites distributed over the Calabrian Arc, a complex chain formed by several massifs (Coastal Chain, Sila, Serre, Poro, Aspromonte), largely made up of crystalline rocks. Choice of the sites was also dictated by the presence of important man-made structures (settlements, dams, tunnels, etc.) and the conse- quent availability of specific geological and geotechnical data. A summary of the re- sults so far obtained in the definition of the weathering characteristics of Calabrian crystalline rocks, in type and frequency of slope movements in weathered materials, and in the understandings of the main relations between weathering and instability as well, is here presented. In general terms, weathering in Calabria shows a complex profile, characterized by pronounced irregularity in the spatial distribution of weath- ered horizons. The latter have been recognized up to a depth of 150-200 m from the ground surface, where only occasionally fresh volumes are present. Mass movements range from slide-flows to rock instabilities, including also deep-seated phenomena. Frequency and activity of slope movements seems to be strictly related to outcropping of the more weathered horizons.

  12. Effects of cross slopes and varying surface characteristics on the mobility of manual wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R A; Molinero, A M; Souza, A; Collins, D M; Karmarkar, A; Teodorski, E; Sporner, M

    2012-01-01

    Surface characteristics of a cross slope can impact the ease with which a manual wheelchair (MWC) user propels across a surface. The purpose of this research was two-fold. Phase I of this research surveyed MWC users to identify cross slope scenarios that they reported to be more difficult to traverse compared to other common driving obstacles. Our survey results showed that, overall, cross slopes were harder to propel across than narrow and manual doors, and cross-slopes in inclement weather conditions were equal or more difficult than gravel and rough-surfaces. Cross slopes with severe angles and those with compound angles (slope with cross-slope) were the most difficult to traverse. Phase II focused on identifying the responses (e.g., avoid, explore alternative, experience a sense of insecurity, no effect) people had when viewing pictures of various cross-slopes scenarios (e.g., narrow space, compound angles, extreme weather) that wheelchair users encounter. These results showed that people reported that they would avoid or feel insecure on some cross-sloped surfaces, like the weather, that are not within our control, others, like compound angle and curb-cuts on slopes, that can be addressed in the construction of pathways or sidewalks. PMID:22876732

  13. Energy Dissipation when Internal Wave Beams Reflect from a Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenborn, Bruce; Kiefer, Daniel; Zhang, Hepeng; Swinney, Harry L.

    2015-03-01

    Internal wave reflection from a uniform sloping boundary is often analyzed using linear or a weakly nonlinear inviscid theory. Under these assumptions for a linearly stratified fluid, Thorpe and Tabaei et al. derived predictions for the boundary angle where second harmonic generation should be most intense. We previously conducted experiments and simulations that found the angle that maximizes second harmonic generation is given instead by an empirical geometric relationship between the wave beam and boundary angles. In the previous study, we used integrated kinetic energy as a measure of beam intensity. We compare these results with a method using energy flux. We also study the energy flux into and out of a surface above the reflection region Eout /Ein and find high rates of energy dissipation O(90%). The rates remain high even for weakly nonlinear wave beams and with the viscosity reduced by an order of magnitude. S. A. Thorpe, J. Fluid Mech., 178, 279-302 (1987)

  14. Energetic plumes over the western Ross Sea continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Orsi, Alejandro; Visbeck, Martin; Giulivi, Claudia F.; Whitworth, Thomas; Spezie, Giancarlo

    2004-11-01

    Rapid descent of dense Drygalski Trough (western Ross Sea, Antarctica) shelf water over the continental slope, within 100 to 250 m thick benthic plumes, is described. Speeds of up to 1.0 m/s are recorded flowing at an average angle of 35° to the isobaths, entraining ambient Lower Circumpolar Deep Water en route. This process is predominant in determining the concentration and placement of the shelf water injected into the deep sea as a precursor Antarctic Bottom Water. Nonetheless, a 4-hour duration pulse of undiluted shelf water was observed at depth (1407 m) directly north of the Drygalski Trough, moving at around 90 degrees to isobaths, and at a speed of 1.4 m/s. Thus the export of Ross Sea shelf water to the deep sea is accomplished within plumes descending at moderate angle to isobaths, punctuated by rapid downhill cascades.

  15. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  16. Slope Hazard and Risk Assessment in the Tropics: Malaysia' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Zakaria; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Ahmad, Ferdaus; Manap, Mohamad Abdul; Ramli, Zamri; Ahmad, Azhari; Mohamed, Zainab

    2015-04-01

    The increasing number of geological hazards in Malaysia has often resulted in casualties and extensive devastation with high mitigation cost. Given the destructive capacity and high frequency of disaster, Malaysia has taken a step forward to address the multi-scale landslide risk reduction emphasizing pre-disaster action rather than post-disaster reaction. Slope hazard and risk assessment in a quantitative manner at regional and national scales remains challenging in Malaysia. This paper presents the comprehensive methodology framework and operational needs driven by modern and advanced geospatial technology to address the aforementioned issues in the tropics. The Slope Hazard and Risk Mapping, the first national project in Malaysia utilizing the multi-sensor LIDAR has been critically implemented with the support of multi- and trans-disciplinary partners. The methodological model has been formulated and evaluated given the complexity of risk scenarios in this knowledge driven project. Instability slope problems in the urban, mountainous and tectonic landscape are amongst them, and their spatial information is of crucial for regional landslide assessment. We develop standard procedures with optimal parameterization for susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment in the selected regions. Remarkably, we are aiming at producing an utmost complete landslide inventory in both space and time. With the updated reliable terrain and landscape models, the landslide conditioning factor maps can be accurately derived depending on the landslide types and failure mechanisms which crucial for hazard and risk assessment. We also aim to improve the generation of elements at risk for landslide and promote integrated approaches for a better disaster risk analysis. As a result, a new tool, notably multi-sensor LIDAR technology is a very promising tool for an old geological problem and its derivative data for hazard and risk analysis is an effective preventive measure in Malaysia. Geological, morphological, and physical factors coupled with anthropogenic activities made the spatiotemporal prediction of possible slope failures very challenging. Changing climate and land-use-and-land-cover required a dynamic geo-system approach for assessing multi-hazard in Malaysia and it is still a great challenge to be dealt with. We also critically discussed the capability, limitation and future direction of geo-information tools particularly the active sensors for systematically providing the spatial input towards landslide hazard and possible risk. The cost-and-benefit of developed methods compared to traditional mapping techniques is also elaborated. This paper put forth the critical and practical framework ranging from updating landslide inventory to mitigating landslide risk as an attempt to support the establishment of a comprehensive landslide risk management in Malaysia. The advancement of multistage processing sequence based on airborne-, and ground-based laser remote sensing technology coupling with the sophisticated satellite positioning system, advanced geographical information system and expert knowledge leading to a better understanding of the landslide processes and their dynamics in time and space. Given the state-of-the-art of multi-sensor-LIDAR and complexity of tropical environment, this first landslide project carried out at the national scale provides a better indication and recommendation on the use of modern and advanced mapping technology for assessing tropical landslide geomorphology in an objective, reproducible and quantitative manner.

  17. Hierarchical slope limiting in explicit and implicit discontinuous Galerkin methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a collection of algorithmic tools for constraining high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) approximations to hyperbolic conservation laws. We begin with a review of hierarchical slope limiting techniques for explicit DG methods. A new interpretation of these techniques leads to an unconditionally stable implicit algorithm for steady-state computations. The implicit global problem for the mean values (coarse scales) has the computational structure of a finite volume method. The constrained derivatives (fine scales) are obtained by solving small local problems. The interscale transfer operators provide a two-way iterative coupling between the solutions to the global and local problems. Another highlight of this paper is a new approach to compatible gradient limiting for the Euler equations of gas dynamics. After limiting the conserved quantities, the gradients of the velocity and energy density are constrained in a consistent manner. Numerical studies confirm the accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithms.

  18. Sloped niobium etching using CF4 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sloped etching process for Nb is developed for pilot line operations. Reactive ion etching and plasma processes are compared for a CF4/O2 parallel plate etch system. The higher pressure etches were found to have better characteristics for the numerous combinations of independent variables examined. Process settings tested include rf power, chamber pressure, and etchant flow rates. Higher Nb etch rates, photoresist:niobium etch rate selectivity of 1:1, and adequate selectivity over SiO2 were obtained with the plasma etches. For both types of processes, control of plasma loading affects were determined to be crucial to accomplish successful patterning. Finally, mathematical models of the etch process were derived from the data and used to determine basic etch mechanisms occurring within the reactor

  19. Monte-Carlo Modeling of Some Niger Delta Slope Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Oladapo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte-Carlo modeling has been utilized in this study to simulate seismic P-wave events on four horizons (AA, BB, CC and DD in a Niger Delta Slope environment with the aim of generating AVO attributes. Monte-Carlo modeling undertaken on a well log from the Gulf of Mexico served as a generic model and control. Trends analysis regressions generated in the environment served as input for the models while default parameter in SAVIOR (fluid method was used for establishing reservoir fluid properties. Fourier velocity served as velocity function. The results of the modeling are presented as AVO crossplots for brine sand (background, residual hydrocarbon and commercial hydrocarbon. For each event, offset-dependent synthetic seismograms are also generated using Zoeppritz equations. The AA horizon is typified by incoherent orientations of AVO crossplots. The horizon is thus presumed unconsolidated. The synthetic seismogram generated shows no perceptible amplitude variation with offset on all the models. AVO crossplot of the encountered BB horizon show that most of the commercial hydrocarbon plots and some of the residual hydrocarbon plots fall on quadrant III (bright spot quadrant. Synthetic seismic generated for BB horizon exhibits positive AVO response (soft kick on the commercial hydrocarbon model. A similar but marginal response was obtained on brine saturated BB model. Brine saturated model of the AVO crossplot for CC horizon model plotted mostly on hard sand quadrant. Conversely, presumed commercial hydrocarbon saturated CC is split between the hard sand and soft sand quadrants with low background normal values. The DD horizon is similar to the deep model of the Gulf of Mexico and hence exhibits similar crossplot. Curiously, high background normal (Bn characterized residual hydrocarbon models while unconsolidated gas sand horizons exhibit anomalous characteristics. The AVO crossplot obtained from the Monte-Carlo model could be a robust tool for mapping reservoirs within the Niger Delta Slope.

  20. Effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaïne, M; Hamaoui, A; Zanone, P-G

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern. Twelve asymptomatic participants performed a 5-min reading task while sitting, in six experimental conditions manipulating the table top slope (20° backward slope, no slope) and its height (low, medium, up). EMGs recordings were taken on 9 superficial muscles located at the trunk and shoulder level, and the angular positions of the head, trunk and pelvis were assessed using an inertial orientation system. Results revealed that the sloping table top was associated with a higher activity of deltoideus pars clavicularis (P<0.05) and a smaller flexion angle of the head (P<0.05). A tentative conclusion is that a sloping table top induces a more erect posture of the head and the neck, but entails an overload of the shoulder, which might be harmful on the long run. PMID:25267452

  1. The evolution of the slope breaks in Qiongdongnan Basin and their controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhao, Zhongxian; Liu, Siqing

    2014-12-01

    Qiongdongnan Basin (QB) experienced three main tectonic stages in the Cenozoic: rifting, thermal subsidence, and accelerated subsidence. Corresponding to these stages, the slope breaks also underwent three different evolutionary stages, which differed in space and time between the east and west of QB. Structural slope breaks developed during the rifting stage in the Paleocene. Transitional sedimentary strata without obvious slope break developed in the neritic environment during the thermal subsidence stage in the Neocene. Sedimentary slope breaks and gentle slope zone without slope break developed during the accelerated subsidence stage. The sedimentary slope breaks could be further classified into progradational and aggradational types, the starting points of which varied in space and time. Spatially, the progradational sequences in the Ledong and Lingshui sags started at the north of today's deep central basin, distant from the basin edge. In the Songnan and Baodao sags, the aggradational sequences were close to the sag edge and essentially controlled by the underlying major boundary faults. Temporally, sedimentary slope breaks developed early in the east and late in the west and were initially partitioned and eventually unified. Fault activity controlled the types and ending time of structural slope breaks during the rifting stage, while tectonic subsidence controlled the time and places of progradational slope breaks during the accelerated subsidence stage. Sediment supply controlled the superposition patterns of the sedimentary sequences of the sedimentary slope breaks. It is suggested that the evolutionary history of the slope breaks has been primarily affected by the southward transition of the South China Sea ocean ridge, the westward collision of the Philippine Sea Plate, and the dextral strike-slipping of the Red River Fault.

  2. Slope analysis for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Okorokov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction slope parameter is investigated for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering based on the all available experimental data at intermediate square of momentum transfer in the main. Energy dependence of the elastic diffraction slope is approximated by various analytic functions in a model-independent fashion. The expanded standard logarithmic approximations allow to describe experimental slopes in all available energy range at qualitative level rea...

  3. Diffraction slopes for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Okorokov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction slope parameter is investigated for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering based on the all available experimental data at low momentum transfer values. Energy dependence of the elastic diffraction slopes is approximated by various analytic functions. The expanded "standard" logarithmic approximations allow to describe experimental slopes in all available energy range reasonably. Various approximations differ from each other both in the low en...

  4. The Prym map on divisors, and the slope of A_5

    OpenAIRE

    Grushevsky, Samuel; Manni, Riccardo Salvati; Hulek, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we compute the pullback of divisor classes under the Prym map (extended to the boundary), and apply this result to get a lower bound on the slope of effective divisors on the perfect cone compactification of the moduli space of principally polarized abelian fivefolds. In the appendix by Klaus Hulek, the notion of slope for arbitrary toroidal compactifications is discussed, and the slope bound is shown to hold in general.

  5. Infants’ Perception of Affordances of Slopes Under High and Low Friction Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Adolph, Karen E; Joh, Amy S.; Eppler, Marion A.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether 14- and 15-month-old infants use information for both friction and slant for prospective control of locomotion down slopes. In Experiment 1, high and low friction conditions were interleaved on a range of shallow and steep slopes. In Experiment 2, friction conditions were blocked. In Experiment 3, the low friction surface was visually distinct from the surrounding high friction surface. In all three experiments, infants could walk down steeper slopes in ...

  6. GIS/RS-based Rapid Reassessment for Slope Land Capability Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Chompuchan, C.

    2014-12-01

    Farmland resources in Taiwan are limited because about 73% is mountainous and slope land. Moreover, the rapid urbanization and dense population resulted in the highly developed flat area. Therefore, the utilization of slope land for agriculture is more needed. In 1976, "Slope Land Conservation and Utilization Act" was promulgated to regulate the slope land utilization. Consequently, slope land capability was categorized into Class I-IV according to 4 criteria, i.e., average land slope, effective soil depth, degree of soil erosion, and parent rock. The slope land capability Class I-VI are suitable for cultivation and pasture. Whereas, Class V should be used for forestry purpose and Class VI should be the conservation land which requires intensive conservation practices. The field survey was conducted to categorize each land unit as the classification scheme. The landowners may not allow to overuse land capability limitation. In the last decade, typhoons and landslides frequently devastated in Taiwan. The rapid post-disaster reassessment of the slope land capability classification is necessary. However, the large-scale disaster on slope land is the constraint of field investigation. This study focused on using satellite remote sensing and GIS as the rapid re-evaluation method. Chenyulan watershed in Nantou County, Taiwan was selected to be a case study area. Grid-based slope derivation, topographic wetness index (TWI) and USLE soil loss calculation were used to classify slope land capability. The results showed that GIS-based classification give an overall accuracy of 68.32%. In addition, the post-disaster areas of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, which interpreted by SPOT satellite imageries, were suggested to classify as the conservation lands. These tools perform better in the large coverage post-disaster update for slope land capability classification and reduce time-consuming, manpower and material resources to the field investigation.

  7. Measuring slope to improve energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Glen E.; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    This technical note describes methods to improve activity energy expenditure estimates using a multi-sensor board (MSB) by measuring slope. Ten adults walked over a 2.5-mile course wearing an MSB and mobile calorimeter. Energy expenditure was estimated using accelerometry alone (base) and four methods to measure slope. The barometer and GPS methods improved accuracy 11% from the base (Ps < 0.05) to 86% overall. Measuring slope using the MSB improves energy expenditure estimates during field-b...

  8. Stability of a natural slope under combined effects of reservoir water level drawdown and rainfall infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q. [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). School of Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering; Zhang, L. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Several large-scale soil slopes were immersed when China's Three-Gorge reservoir was filled. The stability of these slopes during subsequent water level fluctuations is a public concern. For that reason, a series of transient seepage and slope stability analyses were performed to analyze the changes in the groundwater table in a landslide under the combined effects of reservoir water level drawdown and rainfall infiltration. The effects of gravel content in the slope soil on the groundwater regimes and the slope stability were also studied. The pore water pressures from these analyses were used for the stability analyses of the slope. The stability of the slope was found to decrease significantly when the reservoir level was lowered quickly during a rainstorm. This study also revealed that the infiltration rate is larger and the ground water level is higher in soil slopes with less gravel content, because the hydraulic conductivity of a soil with less gravel content is larger than that with higher gravel content when the soils are desaturated. It was concluded that the calculated factor of safety of the soil slope with less gravel content is smaller during rainfall. 21 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  9. 78 FR 38358 - Call for Nominations: North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...North Slope traditional and local knowledge, landscape ecology, petroleum engineering, civil engineering, geology, sociology, cultural anthropology, economics, ornithology, oceanography, fisheries, marine biology, landscape...

  10. The Contribution of Particle Swarm Optimization to Three-Dimensional Slope Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Rashid, Ahmad Safuan; Ali, Nazri

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been extensively applied in various geotechnical engineering including slope stability analysis. However, this contribution was limited to two-dimensional (2D) slope stability analysis. This paper applied PSO in three-dimensional (3D) slope stability problem to determine the critical slip surface (CSS) of soil slopes. A detailed description of adopted PSO was presented to provide a good basis for more contribution of this technique to the field of 3D slope stability problems. A general rotating ellipsoid shape was introduced as the specific particle for 3D slope stability analysis. A detailed sensitivity analysis was designed and performed to find the optimum values of parameters of PSO. Example problems were used to evaluate the applicability of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D slopes. The first example presented a comparison between the results of PSO and PLAXI-3D finite element software and the second example compared the ability of PSO to determine the CSS of 3D slopes with other optimization methods from the literature. The results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D soil slopes. PMID:24991652

  11. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside" case captures the full potential of unconstrained development with widely spaced wells. The results of this study indicate that recoverable gas hydrate resources may exist in the Eileen accumulation and that it represents a good opportunity for continued research. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Quantifying the Behavior of Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, E. I.; McEwen, A. S.; Mattson, S.; Ojha, L.

    2014-12-01

    Is liquid water flowing near the surface of Mars today? If recurring slope lineae (RSL) on Mars are effectively ephemeral trickles of water, consistent with observational evidence, where is this water coming from, what is its volume, what is its salinity, is it flowing on the surface or just beneath, and when does it flow during the course of the day? Without an in situ or hovering platform or new orbital instruments, these questions cannot be answered directly, but quantification of RSL behavior seen by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter coupled with physical modeling can be leveraged to infer answers. As a first step, we are mapping all 100+ lineae in Tivat crater (45.93° S, 9.53° E, in Noachis Terra) across 14 images spanning three active seasons (Mars Years 29-31) at the ~25 cm pixel scale of the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). We are simultaneously quantifying these RSL and their evolution using a suite of measurements including length, area, sinuosity, concavity index, etc. By tracking each linea across each season, we are capturing the "life cycle" of each flow rather than merely the general evolution of the population, as has been the focus of previous studies. It is this life cycle, and its variability, that physical models must reproduce. Because so little is known about RSL, we are careful in our analyses to manage the bias caused by assuming a specific mechanism. For example, observed gaps in dark lineae could be interpreted as either separating distinct, aligned surface flows or merely reflecting a patchy expression of a single continuous subsurface flow, so we allow for both interpretations. Preliminary results at Tivat suggest that RSL decelerate over the course of each season, and that the concavity of crater slopes is only a secondary factor in this deceleration. RSL also do not always appear to flow strictly down-gradient, but may be controlled by topography below the resolution of HiRISE terrain models. There may also be a change in the rate of downslope propagation across the season, which would have implications for the source of the water and/or the nature of the coupling of RSL activity to temperature. We will extend our study to other key sites.

  13. Landslide trigger factors on populated, unstable slopes, Tusion, Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    The Pamir region close to the Tajik-Afghan border is regularly affected by severe landslides threatening local population, their livelihood and infrastructure. In addition to landslides appearing as immediate consequence of earthquake, a high number of ground movements without previous seismic activity are also observed. The number of reported events and problem areas has strongly increased within the last ten to fifteen years. Consequently, a study was conducted to determine the triggering factors of these landslides without seismic cause. For accessibility reasons, the community of Tusion, southeast of Khorog, Gorno-Badakhshan, southern Tajikistan, where the capital township is located on a slowly moving slope, was chosen for the pilot project, and geologic mapping as well as seismic refraction and Schlumberger geoelectrics were applied. The geologic survey showed that the valley flanks around Tusion are covered with large amounts of postglacial and fluvial debris as well as moraine deposits. The absence of glacial ice and the retreat of remaining glaciers caused unstable valley flanks at many sites and, in consequence, extensive gravitational mass movements in the past, which are responsible for the today's layered ground structure as well as many secondary slumps. The latter often damage irrigation lines, which tends to further destabilize the slope. To obtain an accurate image of the superposed layers, the geophysical survey was conducted on three inhabited flanks. Arguments in favour for those three locations were not only the possibility of direct risk estimation for the region, but also the fact that the number of landslides increases constantly with population growth. Seismic and electric methods were applied in parallel to distinguish soil types and structural properties as well as to estimate the degree of water saturation. Despite of the methods' simplicity, they revealed precise explanations on triggering factors of landslides. The geophysical survey showed different density and electric conductivity regimes in the upper layers resulting from exposure and decomposition during the last centuries and especially from uncontrolled irrigation since the 1990s. The electric prospection showed a high water saturation in the weathering layers which is explained on one hand by a higher porosity of the material close to the surface, and on the other hand by the fact that crystalline rocks decompose to clay which, in turn, is able to take up water. Almost all landslides start in a depth where surveys show firstly a rapid decrease of water saturation, and secondly a transition to more compact material. Thus, it can be concluded that decomposition and irrigation provoke a (re-)activation of sliding surfaces inside the postglacial debris body. The upper layers slide on a humid surface and create the frequently observed landslides in inhabited areas.

  14. Regional variability of slope stability: Application to the Eel margin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Locat, J.; Dartnell, P.; Israel, K.; Florence, Wong

    1999-01-01

    Relative values of downslope driving forces and sediment resisting forces determine the locations of submarine slope failures. Both of these vary regionally, and their impact can be addressed when the data are organized in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The study area on the continental margin near the Eel River provides an excellent opportunity to apply GIS spatial analysis techniques for evaluation of slope stability. In this area, swath bathymetric mapping shows seafloor morphology and distribution of slope steepness in fine detail, and sediment analysis of over 70 box cores delineates the variability of sediment density near the seafloor surface. Based on the results of ten geotechnical studies of submarine study areas, we developed an algorithm that relates surface sediment density to the shear strength appropriate to the type of cyclic loading produced by an earthquake. Strength and stress normalization procedures provide results that are conceptually independent of subbottom depth. Results at depth are rigorously applicable if sediment lithology does not vary significantly and consolidation state can be estimated. Otherwise, the method applies only to shallow-seated slope failure. Regional density, slope, and level of anticipated seismic shaking information were combined in a GIS framework to yield a map that illustrates the relative stability of slopes in the face of seismically induced failure. When a measure of predicted relative slope stability is draped on an oblique view of swath bathymetry, a variation in this slope stability is observed on an otherwise smooth slope along the mid-slope region north of a plunging anticline. The section of slope containing diffuse, pockmarked gullies has a lower measure of stability than a separate section containing gullies that have sharper boundaries and somewhat steeper sides. Such an association suggests that our slope-stability analysis relates to the stability of the gully sides. The remainder of the study area shows few obvious indications of slope instability except for a feature that has become known as the 'Humboldt Slide,' but it is too deep-seated to be amenable to the slope-stability-prediction techniques presented herein. In general, few slope failures have been mapped in the Eel margin study area despite the high level of seismicity, the relatively high rates of sediment accumulation, and the extent of gas charging observed by others.

  15. Oscillatory turbulent boundary-layer flows along thermally perturbed sloping surfaces (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovich, E.; Shapiro, A.

    2013-12-01

    Buoyantly driven flows of stratified fluid along heated or cooled sloping surfaces conflate three charismatic aspects of geophysical fluid dynamics: buoyant forcing, stratification, and turbulence. Known as slope winds in meteorology, these air motions play an important role in the weather of vast areas of the Earth. It is common to distinguish between anabatic winds, which are driven by surface heating, and katabatic winds, which result from surface cooling. Many questions remain regarding particular physical aspects of these flows. Of specific interest for atmospheric modeling are parameters of slope flows as functions of the surface thermal forcing, ambient stratification, and slope angle. Physics of the slope flows will be briefly reviewed with an emphasis on their two specific features: (i) inherently oscillatory character and (ii) boundary-layer organization of particular slope-flow types (e.g., katabatic flows along shallow slopes). Long-period oscillations of velocity and buoyancy fields in natural and modeled/simulated slope flows have been reported in the literature rather often. The observed oscillation frequency was found to be approximately equal to the product of the environmental Brunt-Väisälä (buoyancy) frequency and the sine of the slope angle. However, evolution of the oscillations and the terminal state of the flow remain among topics of scientific discussion. In this study, the evolution of the oscillations was tracked over considerable time intervals (up to several hundreds of oscillation periods) using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The oscillations were analyzed in terms of velocity and buoyancy integrals as functions of time in conjunction with the time evolution of the surface stress. Analysis of the numerical data indicated that the slope flow system behaves as an imperfect ('dirty') underdamped oscillator: after an initial gradual decay of the oscillation amplitude, the flow evolves into a regime characterized by intermittent, although persistent, oscillatory eruptions whose magnitude remains relatively small but essentially non-zero. Structure of the governing slope-flow equations in the boundary-layer form - which is hypothetically a valid approximation for a katabatic flow along a shallow slope - has been examined. For this approximate flow case, the scaling laws have been deduced that involve only two non-dimensional parameters: the Prandtl number and a modified Reynolds number. The slope angle, which was an additional parameter in the original scaled slope-flow problem, appears in the approximate boundary-layer problem only as a factor in the modified Reynolds number. This feature could mean considerable savings of computer resources in parametric slope-flow studies. The validity of the proposed scaling hypothesis has been assessed using the DNS data.

  16. Temperature statistics above a deep-ocean sloping boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatoribus, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the statistics of temperature in an oceanographic observational dataset. The data is collected using a moored array of thermistors, 100m tall and starting 5m above the bottom, deployed during four months above the slopes of a seamount in the North Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Turbulence at this location is strongly affected by the semidiurnal tidal wave. Mean stratification is stable in the entire dataset. We compute structure functions, of order up to 10, of the distributions of temperature increments. Strong intermittency is observed in particular during the downslope phase of the tide, and farther from the solid bottom. In the lower half of the mooring during the upslope phase, the statistics of temperature are consistent with those of a passive scalar. In the upper half of the mooring, the statistics of temperature deviate from those of a passive scalar, and evidence of turbulent convective activity is found. The downslope phase is generally thought to be more shear dominated,...

  17. Slope instability related to permafrost changes on Mexican volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Granados, Hugo; Molina, Victor Soto

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost is present above 4,500 meters at the three highest Mexican mountains, Citlaltépetl, Popocatépetl and Iztaccihuatl (5,675, 5,452 and 5,286m asl, respectively), all active volcanoes. During the rainy season in the central region of Mexico, the occurrence of small debris-flows in the ice-free parts of the mountains, as well as small lanslides is frequent. At Popocatépetl volcano, flows are mostly related to a combination of the eruptive activity and climatic factors. However, the volcanic activity is different at Citlaltépetl and Iztaccihuatl where there is no eruptive activity, but landslides have occurred in recent years on their steep slopes because its stability has been altered as a result of an increase in the air temperature which in turn has caused variations in the thickness of the active layer of permafrost, causing as a consequence, the increase of an even more unstable soil. Additionally, cracks in the rock walls are subject to an increasing hydrostatic pressure due to continuous daily freezing and thawing of seasonal water produced by a warmer and less solid precipitation accumulating in the cracks over time and in the unconsolidated potentially unstable material.

  18. Material-Point-Method Analysis of Collapsing Slopes :

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, SØren; Andersen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To understand the dynamic evolution of landslides and predict their physical extent, a computational model is required that is capable of analysing complex material behaviour as well as large strains and deformations. Here, a model is presented based on the so-called generalised-interpolation material-point method, combining a Eulerian grid for solving the governing equations of a continuum with a Lagrangian description for the material. The method is extended to analyse interaction between multiple bodies, introducing a master-slave algorithm for frictional contact along interfaces. Further, a deformed material description is introduced, based on time integration of the deformation gradient and utilising Gauss quadrature over the volume associated with each material point. The method has been implemented in a Fortran code and employed for the analysis of a landslide that took place during the night of December 1st, 2008, near Lønstrup, Denmark. Using a simple Mohr-Coulomb model for the soil, the computational model is able to reproduce the change in the slope geometry at the site.

  19. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  20. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting...Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting...airplane unless it is equipped with a ground proximity warning system that meets the...

  1. The Relationship Between Lithology and Slope Morphology in the Tucson Mountains, Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Khanchoul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lithology and slope morphology is investigated at eight sites on granitic, andesitic, andsedimentary hillslopes in the Tucson Mountains, Arizona. Several methods are used in the study. Topographic profi lesare constructed. Skewness indices, slope length, and mean slope angles of the different slope profi les are computed andcompared with each other. Debris size analysis has permitted for some profi les, the determination of hillfront/piedmontjunctions. The nature and structural characteristics of the bedrock are the ones that determine the hillslope morphologyin this semi-arid region. There are, as a matter of fact, variations in profi les on the same bedrock nature but differentlyexposed. More precise morphologic studies have been also done in comparing the different lithologic pairs. They havepermitted to show some similarities in shapes. The granitic-andesitic slopes and andesiic-sedimentary slopes are thebest comparisons which show the relationship between lithology and slope morphology. The granitic-sedimentary sloperelationship is shown in the hillfront concavities, mountain front and piedmont mean slope angles.

  2. Toe clearance and velocity profiles of young and elderly during walking on sloped surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begg Rezaul K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most falls in older adults are reported during locomotion and tripping has been identified as a major cause of falls. Challenging environments (e.g., walking on slopes are potential interventions for maintaining balance and gait skills. The aims of this study were: 1 to investigate whether or not distributions of two important gait variables [minimum toe clearance (MTC and foot velocity at MTC (VelMTC] and locomotor control strategies are altered during walking on sloped surfaces, and 2 if altered, are they maintained at two groups (young and elderly female groups. Methods MTC and VelMTC data during walking on a treadmill at sloped surfaces (+3°, 0° and -3° were analysed for 9 young (Y and 8 elderly (E female subjects. Results MTC distributions were found to be positively skewed whereas VelMTC distributions were negatively skewed for both groups on all slopes. Median MTC values increased (Y = 33%, E = 7% at negative slope but decreased (Y = 25%, E = 15% while walking on the positive slope surface compared to their MTC values at the flat surface (0°. Analysis of VelMTC distributions also indicated significantly (p th percentile (Q1 values in the elderly at all slopes. Conclusion The young displayed a strong positive correlation between MTC median changes and IQR (interquartile range changes due to walking on both slopes; however, such correlation was weak in the older adults suggesting differences in control strategies being employed to minimize the risk of tripping.

  3. Structural highs on the western continental slope of India: Implications for regional tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Rajesh, M.; De, Suritha; Chakraborty, B.; Jauhari, P.

    2008-01-01

    wide western basin by the prominent Upper Slope Ridge. Detailed multibeam swath mapping now over an area of little more than 20,300 km2 within the shelf margin basin located on the upper continental slope now reveals the occurrence of several isolated...

  4. Infants' Perception of Affordances of Slopes under High- and Low-Friction Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Joh, Amy S.; Eppler, Marion A.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether 14- and 15-month-old infants use information for both friction and slant for prospective control of locomotion down slopes. In Experiment 1, high- and low-friction conditions were interleaved on a range of shallow and steep slopes. In Experiment 2, friction conditions were blocked. In Experiment 3, the…

  5. Systematic of the slope-mass-correlations in diffractive dissociation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of several results of the Three Components Deck Model for Diffractive Dissociation Reactions is presented. News and recently published results are summarized to obtain a general overview of the model, its predictions and comparison with experimental results. Two kinds of correlations and amplitudes are given: The slope-mass cos theta sup(GJ) correlation and slope-mass partial wave. (Author)

  6. Slope Winds on Mars in Relation to the Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Taylor, P. A.

    2008-11-01

    Measurements reported from the Phoenix mission by Taylor et al. (also submitted) suggest that slope winds may explain some of the observed features. A simple 1-D model of slope winds on Earth has been adapted to Mars conditions to investigate this possibility.

  7. Laboratory and 3-D-distinct element analysis of failure mechanism of slope under external surcharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient details. There are however increasing interest on the consequences after the initiation of failure which includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more details and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM and laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanism and the post-failure mechanism of slope will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

  8. Slope analysis for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction slope parameter is investigated for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering based on the all available experimental data at intermediate square of momentum transfer in the main. Energy dependence of the elastic diffraction slope is approximated by various analytic functions in a model-independent fashion. The expanded standard logarithmic approximations allow to describe experimental slopes in all available energy range at qualitative level reasonably. Various fitting functions differ from each other both in low energy and very high energy domains. Predictions for diffraction slope parameter are obtained for elastic proton-proton scattering at NICA, RHIC and LHC energies, for proton-antiproton elastic reaction in FAIR energy domain for various approximation functions at intermediate square of momentum transfer. Difference of nuclear slopes for proton-antiproton and proton-proton scattering is investigated in wide momentum transfer range also.

  9. The Effect of Rainfall Patterns on the Mechanisms of Shallow Slope Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Suradi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how rainfall patterns affect the mechanisms of shallow slope failure. Numerical modelling, utilising the commercial software SVFlux and SVSlope, was carried out for a coupled analysis of rainfall-induced slope seepage and instability, with reference to a shallow landslide took place in Jabiru, Northern Territory (NT Australia in 2007. Rainfall events were varied in terms of pattern in this analysis. The results revealed that slopes are sensitive to rainfall pattern when the rainfall intensity has a high degree of fluctuation at around the same value as that of saturated hydraulic conductivity. Average rainfall intensity at the beginning of a rainfall period plays a primary role in determining the rate of decrease in initial factor of safety (Fi towards minimum factor of safety (Fmin. The effect of rainfall events on the slope instability is attributed to the amount of rainwater infiltration into slope associated with rainfall pattern.

  10. The investigation of sloping cultivated land on the Loess Plateau with 3S technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengke; Liu, Anlin; Deng, Fengdong; Zhang, Jinghong; Zhuo, Jing

    2003-07-01

    The hill and ravine area on the Loess Plateau is the typical region of serious soil erosion, excess reclamation, and deteriorated eco-environment in middle reaches of Yellow River. The main project of eco-environment construction is that recover vegetation, and quit high sloping cultivated land to forest or meadow. The local government in the concerned region poses that sloping cultivated land higher than 15 degree should quit. How many are there qualified and how about their distribution? These are the basis problems of the execution of the eco-environment construction project. In this paper, using TM image and digital relief map, the interpretation of land use classification and the calculation of slope are made for Baota , Yan"an, with the software of ARC/INFO and ERDAS IMAGINE. And also the sloping cultivated land is mapped, basing on the composite analysis of land use map and slope map.

  11. The deformation prediction of mine slope surface using PSO-SVM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwen Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the main factors with important influence on thedeformation of the mine slope, a new methodintegrating support vector machine (SVM and particleswarm optimization (PSO was proposed to predict thedeformation of mine slope surface. Themeteorological factors and the deformation data of the research area are acquired using the advanced deformation monitoring equipment GroundBased-Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-SAR.Then the SVM is used to predict the mine slope deformation. The PSO is employed to optimize the structure parameters of the SVM. The proposed newmethod was applied to predict the mine slope surface deformation of theAnjialing diggings in China. The obtained experiments results indicated thatthe proposed method can provide precise prediction of the mining slope surfacedeformation and its performance is superior to its rivals.

  12. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Martín, L.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Pérez-Domingo, S.; Espigares, T.; Nicolau, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope) in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover). Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil) to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata). Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index): when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  13. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  14. Influence of filling-drawdown cycles of the Vajont reservoir on Mt. Toc slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Rigo, Elia; Bolla, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the 1963 Vajont landslide has been back-analyzed in detail to examine the influence of reservoir operations (filling and drawdown) on Mt. Toc slope stability. The combined seepage-slope stability analyses carried out show that the main destabilizing factor that favored the 1963 Vajont landslide was the reservoir-induced water table that formed as a consequence of rapid seepage inflow within the submerged toe of the slope — decrease in the factor of safety (FOS) up to 12% compared to the initial slope stability condition, i.e., in the absence of the Vajont reservoir. Rainfall would only have been a decisive factor if the initial stability condition of the Mt. Toc slope had already been very close to failure (decrease in FOS caused by heavy or prolonged rainfall is about 3-4%, for the worst case scenario analyzed). The permeability of the shear zone material occurring at the base of the prehistoric Vajont rockslide has been evaluated at 5 × 10- 4 m/s, and back-calculated values of the friction angles ? range from 17.5° to 27.5°. When considering mountain reservoirs, slope failures can occur during both filling and drawdown phases. In the Vajont case, owing to the highly permeable materials of the shear zone, slope stability decreased during filling and increased during drawdown. Another displacement-dependent phenomenon of a mechanical nature - progressive failure of the NE landslide constraint - has to be considered to understand the slope collapse that occurred during the last drawdown (26 September-9 October 1963). The results of the combined seepage-slope stability models indicate that permeability of bank-forming material and filling-drawdown rates of reservoirs can strongly influence slope stability. Slow lowering of the reservoir level is a necessary measure to reduce the occurrence of very dangerous transient negative peaks of FOS.

  15. The effect of slope aspect on the response of snowpack to climate warming in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Revuelto, J.; Gilaberte, M.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Pons, M.; Jover, E.; Esteban, P.; García, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of slope aspect on the response of snowpack to climate warming in the Pyrenees. For this purpose, data available from five automatic weather stations were used to simulate the energy and mass balance of snowpack, assuming different magnitudes of an idealized climate warming (upward shifting of 1, 2 and 3 °C the temperature series). Snow energy and mass balance were simulated using the Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM). CRHM was used to create a model that enabled correction of the all-wave incoming radiation fluxes from the observation sites for various slope aspects (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW,W,NW and flat areas), which enabled assessment of the differential impact of climate warming on snow processes on mountain slopes. The results showed that slope aspect was responsible for substantial variability in snow accumulation and the duration of the snowpack. Simulated variability markedly increased with warmer temperature conditions. Annual maximum snow accumulation (MSA) and annual snowpack duration (ASD) showed marked sensitivity to a warming of 1 °C. Thus, the sensitivity of the MSA in flat areas ranged from 11 to 17 % per degree C amongst the weather stations, and the ASD ranged from 11 to 20 days per degree C. There was a clear increase in the sensitivity of the snowpack to climate warming on those slopes that received intense solar radiation (S, SE and SW slopes) compared with those slopes where the incident radiation was more limited (N, NE and NW slopes). The sensitivity of the MSA and the ASD increased as the temperature increased, particularly on the most irradiated slopes. Large interannual variability was also observed. Thus, with more snow accumulation and longer duration the sensitivity of the snowpack to temperature decreased, especially on south-facing slopes.

  16. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables

  17. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits

  18. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  19. Fortuitous Evaporation Pan Observations on the Alaskan North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J. P.; Kane, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a significant role in the hydrologic cycle of all basins, yet is only occasionally measured in the Arctic. The energy environment surrounding the simple evaporation pan varies considerably from that of the natural environment. Yet, an evaporation pan, although simple in concept, is a sound way to estimate the potential ET and also determine an ET pan coefficient assuming there is also a complementary estimate of actual ET. The few existing ET estimates in the Arctic are based on water balance, energy balance and methods like the Priestley-Taylor method that require less input data. An evaporation pan was installed in 1986 on the North Slope of Alaska with the intention of collecting data for only 3 years; but in reality, pan evaporation data has been collected for 22 years at this Arctic site. The summer maximum, average, minimum and standard deviation are 420 mm, 324 mm, 280 mm and 40 mm, respectively from 1986 to 2008 (1989 missing). Both the water balance of the 2.2 km2 Imnavait Creek catchment and the Priestley-Taylor method were used to produce seasonal estimates of actual evapotranspiration. When used in conjunction with the pan evaporation measurements, a pan coefficient of 0.55 was found in both cases; a typical value for the pan coefficient in temperate regions is 0.5. The pan evaporation results can also be correlated with other measured variables (such as air temperature, net radiation, summer precipitation, etc.). For example, we see a very strong correlation (r2 > 0.94 for each of the 22 summer seasons) between pan evaporation amount and thawing degree days (TDD). This should not be too surprising as TDD is an indicator of the thermal regime side of the equation, but it does not account for the amount and timing of summer precipitation that has ranged from a seasonal low of 53 mm to a high of 342 mm at Imnavait Creek.

  20. GPU Accelerated Numerical Simulation of Viscous Flow Down a Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, Remo; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yuri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Numerical simulations are an effective tool in natural risk analysis. They are useful to determine the propagation and the runout distance of gravity driven movements such as debris flows or landslides. To evaluate these processes an approach on analogue laboratory experiments and a GPU accelerated numerical simulation of the flow of a viscous liquid down an inclined slope is considered. The physical processes underlying large gravity driven flows share certain aspects with the propagation of debris mass in a rockslide and the spreading of water waves. Several studies have shown that the numerical implementation of the physical processes of viscous flow produce a good fit with the observation of experiments in laboratory in both a quantitative and a qualitative way. When considering a process that is this far explored we can concentrate on its numerical transcription and the application of the code in a GPU accelerated environment to obtain a 3D simulation. The objective of providing a numerical solution in high resolution by NVIDIA-CUDA GPU parallel processing is to increase the speed of the simulation and the accuracy on the prediction. The main goal is to write an easily adaptable and as short as possible code on the widely used platform MATLAB, which will be translated to C-CUDA to achieve higher resolution and processing speed while running on a NVIDIA graphics card cluster. The numerical model, based on the finite difference scheme, is compared to analogue laboratory experiments. This way our numerical model parameters are adjusted to reproduce the effective movements observed by high-speed camera acquisitions during the laboratory experiments.

  1. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, E [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon (13A), and CIBER-BBN, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Laciar, E [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Anzuola, E [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon (13A), and CIBER-BBN, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Laguna, P [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon (13A), and CIBER-BBN, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Jane, R [Department ESAII, CREB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease.

  2. Investigating spatial variability in channel slope and flow energy within and among watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A. N.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2002-12-01

    Over four decades ago, Hack demonstrated power-law scaling among study sites with differing lithologies when channel slope is regressed against the ratio of median substrate diameter to drainage area. The widespread availability of geospatial data has subsequently facilitated research on the substantial spatial variability in channel slope in and between watersheds with different climatic and geologic regimes. We are examining the spatial variability in channel slope and energy dissipation characteristics within and between watersheds from which channel networks are derived from digital elevation models (DEMs). Key goals of this investigation are to study: (1) the effect of DEM resolution on the observed spatial variability in slope and stream power within a watershed, (2) energy-based methodologies to represent channel initiation in DEMs, and (3) the physical basis for choosing representative lengths of channel over which to compute slope and surrogates for stream power using derived networks. The third goal will ensure representation of the variability in relief of the network structure and minimization of the redundancy in geomorphic attributes. This approach will then be applied to test the hypothesis that measures of spatial variability in slope and/or stream power upstream of a site can, in part, explain inherent variation about the mean condition of Hack's relationship between slope, drainage area, and sediment size. Implications regarding aquatic ecosystem habitat structure and fluvial classification will also be discussed.

  3. Review of Soil Erosion on Purple-soil Sloping Croplands in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Hong-li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purple sloping farmland is an important cropland resource in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, and the main source of soil erosion and sediment into the Reservoir. Soil erosion monitoring methods, soil erosion intensity,sediment particle features,nutrient loss on purple soil sloping croplands in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area are summarized. The erosion monitoring methods mainly include runoff plot observation, artificial simulated rainfall, erosion pin observation, nuclide tracing, model simulation, RS monitoring. The publications show that soil erosion rates of the purple sloping croplands range from 3 464 to 9 452 t/km2·a, and the most serious erosion usually occurs on the slope from 15° to 25°,wich is also the focus slope gradient for preventing soil erosion on sloping cropland in the future. The loss of sediment is dominated by aggregates (?0.02mm and clay (?0.002mm. The silty(0.002~0.02mm and clay soils(?0.002mm are the main carrier of soil nutrient loss on the purple sloping croplands. Hedgerows, contour tillage and terracing are given a significant effect in preventing soil erosion. The erosion simulation using physical model, the structure and function of ridge and suitability evaluations of soil conservation measures are recommended for further study in this particular geographical unit.

  4. Comprehensive Stability Evaluation of Rock Slope Using the Cloud Model-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaobao; Shao, Jianfu; Xu, Weiya; Xu, Fei

    2014-11-01

    This article presents the cloud model-based approach for comprehensive stability evaluation of complicated rock slopes of hydroelectric stations in mountainous area. This approach is based on membership cloud models which can account for randomness and fuzziness in slope stability evaluation. The slope stability is affected by various factors and each of which is ranked into five grades. The ranking factors are sorted into four categories. The ranking system of slope stability is introduced and then the membership cloud models are applied to analyze each ranking factor for generating cloud memberships. Afterwards, the obtained cloud memberships are synthesized with the factor weights given by experts for comprehensive stability evaluation of rock slopes. The proposed approach is used for the stability evaluation of the left abutment slope in Jinping 1 Hydropower Station. It is shown that the cloud model-based strategy can well consider the effects of each ranking factor and therefore is feasible and reliable for comprehensive stability evaluation of rock slopes.

  5. POSTERIOR TIBIAL SLOPE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RUPTURE IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin ?en???k

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is the primary stabilizer of the knee. An impairment of any of the dynamic or static stability providing factors can lead to overload on the other factors and ultimately to deterioration of knee stability. This can result in anterior tibial translation and rupture of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of tibial slope on ACL injury risk on soccer players. A total of 64 elite soccer players and 45 sedentary controls were included in this longitudinal and controlled study. The angle between the tibial mid-diaphysis line and the line between the anterior and posterior edges of the medial tibial plateau was measured as the tibial slope via lateral radiographs. Individual player exposure, and injuries sustained by the participants were prospectively recorded. Eleven ACL injuries were documented during the study period. Tibial slope was not different between soccer players and sedentary controls. Tibial slope in the dominant and non-dominant legs was greater for the injured players compared to the uninjured players. The difference reached a significant level only for the dominant legs (p 0.05, a higher tibial slope was observed in dominant legs of injured players (p < 0.05. Higher tibial slope on injured soccer players compared to the uninjured ones supports the idea that the tibial slope degree might be an important risk factor for ACL injury.

  6. Observations of the evening transition processes on opposing slopes of a north-south oriented mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardyjak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The MATERHORN (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observation) Program is a multiuniversity, multidisciplinary research initiative designed to improve numerical weather prediction in complex terrain and to better understand the physics of complex terrain flow phenomena across a wide range of scales. As part of MATERHORN, field campaigns were conducted at Dugway, UT, USA in Autumn 2012 and Spring 2013. A subset of the campaigns included dense observations along the East Slope of Granite Peak (40.096° N, -113.253° W), as well as additional observations on the opposing west facing slope. East Slope observations included five multi-sonic anemometer eddy covariance towers (two with full energy budget stations), eleven small energy budget stations, fifteen automated weather stations, a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system, hot-film anemometry, infrared camera surface temperature observations and up to three Doppler lidars. West Slope operations were less intense with three main towers, two of which included sonic anemometry and one, which included full surface energy balance observations. For this presentation, our analysis will focus on characterizing and contrasting the response of mean wind circulations and thermodynamics variables, as well as turbulence quantities during the evening transitions on both the East Slope and West Slope when solar irradiation differences of the slope surfaces is extremely large.

  7. Intercomparison of algorithms to estimate river depth from SWOT observations of slope and width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M. T.; Fonstad, M. A.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Alsdorf, D.

    2009-12-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will make measurements of surface water elevation, slope and width for all rivers globally having channel widths greater than 100m and, in some cases, smaller channels. Estimation of river discharge from SWOT observations will likely require an estimate of river depth, bathymetry, or cross-sectional flow area. The focus of this paper is to explore methods for estimating river depth from measurements of river slope and river width, for eventual use with SWOT observations. Two methods are investigated within the context of the SWOT hydrology “virtual mission”. The methods are tested against in situ observational datasets of river width, depth and slope measured at kilometer-scale intervals along the Mississippi and Colorado rivers. The width and slope measurements derived from the in situ observations are used to approximate SWOT measurements by corrupting the true values with the expected SWOT observation errors. A stochastic method was derived from conceptualizing the river width, depth and slope as spatially-correlated random variables via an auto-regressive model that has been proposed in the geomorphology literature. Borrowing from this approach, we derive a fixed-lag Kalman smoother to estimate river depth from river width and slope measurements. A deterministic method was derived from applying the classical gradually-varied flow equations to calculate the spatial variations in river depth that would be expected from variations in river width and slope. The two approaches are compared in terms of potential accuracy, applicability, and data requirements.

  8. Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage Between Presplit and Smooth Blasting of High Rock Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingguo; Lu, Wenbo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng; Yang, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of damage induced by smooth blasting and presplit blasting based on the excavation of high rock slope. The whole damage process of the smooth blasting and presplit blasting excavation method is studied by using a cumulative blasting damage numerical simulation technology based on the secondary development of the dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The results demonstrate that, in the case of contour blasting with the method of smooth blasting, the total damage of rock slope is a result of cumulated damage induced by the production hole, buffering hole, and smooth hole. Among the total damage, the blasting of the production hole is the main resource, followed by the smooth and buffering holes. For the presplit blasting, the final damage of rock slope is mainly induced by presplit blasting itself. The spatial distribution characteristics of the final damage zone of two methods are compared. Two classes of damage zone could be found in smooth blasting excavation; one of them is the columnar high-degree damage zone around the slope surface and the other is the low-degree damage zone located in the middle of the slope. But in the case of presplit blasting, there is only the columnar high-degree damage zone around the slope surface. Finally, a damage control suggestion for two blasting excavation methods is proposed and verified based on the excavation of the temporary shiplock slopes of the Three Gorges Project in China.

  9. Methodology to evaluate rock slope stability under seismic conditions at Solà de Santa Coloma, Andorra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mavrouli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An analytical methodology is presented to evaluate rock slope stability under seismic conditions by considering the geomechanical and topographic properties of a slope. The objective is to locate potential rockfall source areas and evaluate their susceptibility in terms of probability of failure. For this purpose, the slope face of a study area is discretized into cells having homogenous aspect, slope angle, rock properties and joint set orientations. A pseudostatic limit equilibrium analysis is performed for each cell, whereby the destabilizing effect of an earthquake is represented by a horizontal force. The value of this force is calculated by linear interpolation between the peak horizontal ground acceleration PGA at the base and the top of the slope. The ground acceleration at the top of the slope is increased by 50% to account for topographic amplification. The uncertainty associated with the joint dip is taken into account using the Monte Carlo method. The proposed methodology was applied to a study site with moderate seismicity in Solà de Santa Coloma, located in the Principality of Andorra. The results of the analysis are consistent with the spatial distribution of historical rockfalls that have occurred since 1997. Moreover, the results indicate that for the studied area, 1 the most important factor controlling the rockfall susceptibility of the slope is water pressure in joints and 2 earthquake shaking with PGA of ?0.16 g will cause a significant increase in rockfall activity only if water levels in joints are greater than 50% of the joint height.

  10. A simplified approach for slope stability analysis of uncontrolled waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Dilek; Turer, Ahmet

    2011-02-01

    Slope stability analysis of municipal solid waste has always been problematic because of the heterogeneous nature of the waste materials. The requirement for large testing equipment in order to obtain representative samples has identified the need for simplified approaches to obtain the unit weight and shear strength parameters of the waste. In the present study, two of the most recently published approaches for determining the unit weight and shear strength parameters of the waste have been incorporated into a slope stability analysis using the Bishop method to prepare slope stability charts. The slope stability charts were prepared for uncontrolled waste dumps having no liner and leachate collection systems with pore pressure ratios of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, considering the most critical slip surface passing through the toe of the slope. As the proposed slope stability charts were prepared by considering the change in unit weight as a function of height, they reflect field conditions better than accepting a constant unit weight approach in the stability analysis. They also streamline the selection of slope or height as a function of the desired factor of safety. PMID:20483879

  11. OBSERVED STABILITY OF NATURAL AND REINFORCED SLOPES DURING THE 2008 WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Deping; Hamada, Masanori

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake with a surface wave magnitude of 8.0 induced numerous landslides along the Longmen Mt. zone in Sichuan Province of China. The authors investigated into various influential factors on the slope stability of 119 landslides in Wenchuan prefecture, such as horizontal peak ground acceleration, slope angle, slope height, rock materials and geological structures. The authors developed hanging wall and footwall's acceleration attenuation formulae from 115 seismic stations and the formulae confirmed hanging-foot wall effect had notable influence on landslide distribution density and occurrence probability. The results of multivariable analysis clarified that slope height, horizontal peak ground acceleration and geological structures were more influential to sliding area and volume than slope angle and rock materials. Furthermore, the authors discussed the effectiveness of reinforcements on the slope stability and showed that anchor cable, frame beam and soil nailing wall had good anti-seismic property, however, shotcrete with bolts had limited ability to enhance slope stability during the earthquake.

  12. Stability calculation method of slope reinforced by prestressed anchor in process of excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical. PMID:24683319

  13. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease

  14. Slopes from Photoclinometry for the Mars InSight Landing Site Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating meter-scale slopes on the Martian surface continues to be an important activity for ascertaining the safety of potential landing sites and for characterizing terrains and their formation and modification processes. The Mars InSight lander is targeting a landing site in Elysium Planitia and the application of the point photoclinometry algorithm that correctly estimated the slope parameters for MER (Beyer et al., 2003) and for MSL (Beyer and Kirk, 2012) is also being applied to HiRISE imagery within the potential landing ellipses being considered. This allows rapid evaluation of slope parameters and also provides a consistency check with terrain models derived from stereo data. The largest source of error in the photoclinometry estimates of slope is the value of the atmospheric haze to subtract for each image. When a stereo-derived terrain model (either from HiRISE or CTX) is present, the slope statistics from that terrain model are used to help 'tune' the photoclinometry-derived slopes for images that overlap that terrain model. In this way better slope data can be extrapolated into nearby regions than the photoclinometry technique alone would be able to accomplish.

  15. Automating slope monitoring in mines with terrestrial lidar scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Static terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have been an important component of slope monitoring for some time, and many solutions for monitoring the progress of a slide have been devised over the years. However, all of these solutions have required users to operate the lidar equipment in the field, creating a high cost in time and resources, especially if the surveys must be performed very frequently. This paper presents a new solution for monitoring slides, developed using a TLS and an automated data acquisition, processing and analysis system. In this solution, a TLS is permanently mounted within sight of the target surface and connected to a control computer. The control software on the computer automatically triggers surveys according to a user-defined schedule, parses data into point clouds, and compares data against a baseline. The software can base the comparison against either the original survey of the site or the most recent survey, depending on whether the operator needs to measure the total or recent movement of the slide. If the displacement exceeds a user-defined safety threshold, the control computer transmits alerts via SMS text messaging and/or email, including graphs and tables describing the nature and size of the displacement. The solution can also be configured to trigger the external visual/audio alarm systems. If the survey areas contain high-traffic areas such as roads, the operator can mark them for exclusion in the comparison to prevent false alarms. To improve usability and safety, the control computer can connect to a local intranet and allow remote access through the software's web portal. This enables operators to perform most tasks with the TLS from their office, including reviewing displacement reports, downloading survey data, and adjusting the scan schedule. This solution has proved invaluable in automatically detecting and alerting users to potential danger within the monitored areas while lowering the cost and work required for monitoring. An explanation of the entire system and a post-acquisition data demonstration will be presented.

  16. Canyon-confined pockmarks on the western Niger Delta slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Uzochukwu; Huuse, Mads; Hodgetts, David

    2015-07-01

    Fluid flow phenomena in the deepwater Niger Delta are important for the safe and efficient exploration, development and production of hydrocarbons in the area. Utilizing 3D seismic data from the western Niger Delta slope, we have identified pockmarks that are confined within a NE-SW oriented submarine canyon system that has been active since the early Quaternary. The pockmarks, subdivided into 'canyon-margin' pockmarks and 'intra-canyon' pockmarks, on the basis of their plan-form distribution patterns, are found to be spatially and stratigraphically related to stratigraphic discontinuities created by erosion cuts associated with the submarine canyon system. We infer that stratigraphic discontinuities provided pathways for fluid migration within the buried canyon system, allowing fluids from deeper parts of the basin to reach the seafloor as indicated by abundant pockmarks above the partly buried canyon. The transportation of fluids from deeper parts of the basin into the buried segment of the canyon system was facilitated by carrier beds expressed as high amplitude reflection packages and by extensional normal faults. The prevalence of the 'canyon margin' pockmarks over the 'intra-canyon' pockmarks is attributed to the direct connection of the buried canyon margins with truncated reservoir facies in hydraulic connection with deeper reservoir facies. The formation of the 'intra-canyon' pockmarks is interpreted to have been limited by fluid flow disconnection often caused by stratigraphic alternation of sand-rich and shale-rich channel deposits that constitute the canyon fill. Muddy canyon fill units act as baffles to fluid flow, while connected sandy infill units constitute pathways for fluid migration. Occurrence of pockmarks throughout the length of the submarine canyon system is an indication of shallow fluid flow within buried reservoir facies. Systematic alignment of seafloor pockmarks are clues to buried reservoirs and provide insights into reservoir architecture which could be crucial in frontier exploration of buried deepwater canyons reservoirs and for risk assessment of development activities on top of submarine canyons. A single mega pockmark linked by a gas chimney to a deeper anticlinal structure was discovered to the north of the canyon system. This structure may be indicative of subsurface geo-pressures close to the fracture gradient, highlighting a significant drilling hazard in this part of the study area.

  17. Fiber Bragg grating-based performance monitoring of a slope model subjected to seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Yan, Jun-Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Bao-Jun

    2014-09-01

    In the past few years, fiber optic sensing technologies have played an increasingly important role in the health monitoring of civil infrastructures. These innovative sensing technologies have recently been successfully applied to the performance monitoring of a series of geotechnical structures. Fiber optic sensors have shown many unique advantages in comparison with conventional sensors, including immunity to electrical noise, higher precision and improved durability and embedding capabilities; fiber optic sensors are also smaller in size and lighter in weight. In order to explore the mechanism of seepage-induced slope instability, a small-scale 1 g model test of the soil slope has been performed in the laboratory. During the model’s construction, specially fabricated sensing fibers containing nine fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors connected in a series were horizontally and vertically embedded into the soil mass. The surcharge load was applied on the slope crest, and the groundwater level inside of the slope was subsequently varied using two water chambers installed besides the slope model. The fiber optic sensing data of the vertical and horizontal strains within the slope model were automatically recorded by an FBG interrogator and a computer during the test. The test results are presented and interpreted in detail. It is found that the gradually accumulated deformation of the slope model subjected to seepage can be accurately captured by the quasi-distributed FBG strain sensors. The test results also demonstrate that the slope stability is significantly affected by ground water seepage, which fits well with the results that were calculated using finite element and limit equilibrium methods. The relationship between the strain measurements and the safety factors is further analyzed, together with a discussion on the residual strains. The performance evaluation of a soil slope using fiber optic strain sensors is proved to be a potentially effective approach.

  18. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment sinks and source patches are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted a field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an overland flow gradient in three reclaimed slopes coming from mining reclamation in a Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated to seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as a "deep sink", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a controlling major factor of hydrological diversity: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  19. Convergent polynomial expansion, lines of zeros, and slopes of diffraction scattering.II. Oscillation of the slope parameter in ?-p scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the simple polynomial approximation of transversity amplitudes using complex zeros of Barrelet type cannot account for the slope-parameter data at any of the energy ranges, except for providing only a qualitative explanation of the bump structure around s approx. = 3 GeV2. At high energies experimentally observed linearly increasing or decreasing trajectories can never account for the slope-parameter data. These results reflect the fact that the sharp forward peak cannot be represented by finite-order polynomials in the conventional scheme of parametrization. Using Mandelstam analyticity and information on the real and complex zeros, we propose a new scheme of parametrization to understand the energy dependence of slope-parameter data for all energies such that the problem of a dynamical understanding of diffraction scattering reduces to the problem of providing a dynamical origin of zero trajectories. This leads to a formula that relates the slope parameter with equations to boundaries of spectral functions and real and complex zero trajectories. An excellent description of the data is obtained for all energies with s > 1.44 GeV2 using theoretical elastic boundaries of spectral functions, experimentally determined real and complex zero trajectories in a limited energy range, and their realistic extrapolations for higher and lower energies. The slope-parameter data are found to be very sensitive to small variations of the real trnsitive to small variations of the real trajectory around its extrapolated value at low energies. Using our formula, real zero trajectory in the range 1.33 2 has been determined from the slope-parameter data. Contrary to the general supposition that the forward peak cannot be represented by true zeros of the amplitude, our new scheme of parametrization strongly suggests that the diffractive parts of transversity amplitudes possess all the complex zeros and the real zero existing away from the forward-peak region

  20. Influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation of unsaturated soil slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behavior of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three-phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

  1. 3-D Biped Robot Walking along Slope with Dual Length Linear Inverted Pendulum Method (DLLIPM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fariz Ali; Ahmad Zaki Hj. Shukor; Muhammad Fahmi Miskon; Mohd Khairi Mohamed Nor; Sani Irwan Md Salim

    2013-01-01

    A new design method to obtain walking parameters for a three-dimensional (3D) biped walking along a slope is proposed in this paper. Most research is focused on the walking directions when climbing up or down a slope only. This paper investigates a strategy to realize biped walking along a slope. In conventional methods, the centre of mass (CoM) is moved up or down during walking in this situation. This is because the height of the pendulum is kept at the same length on the left and right leg...

  2. Process-Modulated Contrasts in Slope Exposure of Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R. J.; Sobieszczyk, S.

    2003-12-01

    Beaty (1956) first quantified the relation between slope exposure (aspect), the compass direction faced by a hillside normal to its contours, and landsliding in the Bay Area; he found that 78 of 112 recent small landslides east of the city of Oakland occupied NW to NE slopes. Frequency distributions of DEM-calculated aspect revisit this relation for two large sets of landslides in seven 1:24,000 quadrangles centered on Oakland: 30-m source areas of the 1,943 debris flows that formed during the severe 3-5 January 1982 storm (Wieczorek et al., 1988), and 116,360 30-m grid cells on 6714 pre-1970 deep-seated landslides of various types exclusive of debris flows (Nilsen, 1975; Pike et al., 2001). Normalizing each distribution of landslide aspect (in percent, in 10o intervals) by the aspect of all slopes in the study area above 75 m in elevation and steeper than 3o corrects for the excess of NE and SW slopes imparted by the NW-SE grain of local topography. Both resulting distributions are skewed, but in directions that reflect contrasting processes of landsliding. The differences suggest that any incorporation of slope aspect into landslide susceptibility in the Bay area must reflect specific types of failure. The deep-seated landslides favor ENE slopes and are deficient on southerly slopes. The prevailing explanation for this observation was first proposed in the study area by Beaty (1956). Compared to steep S-SW slopes, exposed to afternoon sun at near-normal angles of incidence (northern hemisphere), N-NE slopes are more shaded, sustain less evapo-transpiration, and thus accumulate more and deeper moisture over extended periods-conditions favoring deep-seated failure triggered by prolonged rainfall or seismic shaking. Such conditions are unlikely to have controlled location of the 1982 debris flows, which are conspicuously deficient on NE slopes but strongly favor S-SSE slopes. One explanation is wind-driven rainfall, which may have delivered moisture preferentially to steep southerly slopes. This hypothesis is consistent with the 155o median of 33 hourly measurements of wind direction during the January 1982 rainstorm at nearby Oakland International Airport, where recorded wind speed averaged 19 kts. Alternative explanations and other Bay Area locations remain to be explored.

  3. A coupled distributed hydrological-stability analysis on a terraced slope of Valtellina (northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Camera; T. Apuani; Masetti, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to understand and reproduce the hydrological dynamics of a slope, which was terraced using dry-stone retaining walls and its response to these processes in terms of stability at the slope scale. The slope studied is located in Valtellina (northern Italy), near the village of Tresenda, and in the last 30 yr has experienced several soil slip/debris flow events. In 1983 alone, such events caused the death of 18 people. Direct observation of the events of 1983 enab...

  4. Split Quaternions and Spacelike Constant Slope Surfaces in Minkowski 3-Space

    CERN Document Server

    Babaarslan, Murat

    2012-01-01

    A spacelike surface in the Minkowski 3-space is called a constant slope surface if its position vector makes a constant angle with the normal at each point on the surface. These surfaces completely classified in [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 385 (1) (2012) 208-220]. In this study, we give some relations between split quaternions and spacelike constant slope surfaces in Minkowski 3-space. We show that spacelike constant slope surfaces can be reparametrized by using rotation matrices corresponding to unit timelike quaternions with the spacelike vector parts and homothetic motions. Subsequently we give some examples to illustrate our main results.

  5. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively. PMID:17341228

  6. Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS) slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southw...

  7. VE/VCO2 slope and its prognostic value in patients with chronic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEN, YUQIN; ZHANG, XIAOYU; MA, WENLIN; SONG, HAOMING; GONG, ZHU; WANG, QIANG; CHE, LIN; XU, WENJUN; JIANG, JINFA; XU, JIAHONG; YAN, WENWEN; ZHOU, LIN; NI, YI; LI, GUANGHE; ZHANG, QIPING; WANG, LEMIN

    2015-01-01

    The minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope has been widely demonstrated to have strong prognostic value in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and the risk of mortality is believed to increase when the VE/VCO2 slope is >32.8; however, there is little evidence concerning the prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope in Chinese patients. In the present study, the prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope was investigated in patients with CHF. A total of 258 subjects underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and were divided into CHF (113 males and 16 females; LVEF <0.49) and control (106 males and 23 females) groups. The cardiac-related events over a median 33.7-month follow-up period subsequent to the CPET were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The VE/VCO2 slope was significantly different between the CHF and control groups (P<0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for the VE/VCO2 slope in predicting cardiac-related mortalities in the patients with CHF was 0.670 (P<0.05), and the sensitivity and specificity of the VE/VCO2 slope were 0.667 and 0.620, respectively. The optimal threshold of the VE/VCO2 slope for predicting cardiac-related mortalities in patients with CHF was ?39.3. The AUC for the VE/VCO2 slope in predicting cardiac-related hospitalizations in patients with CHF was 0.682 (P<0.05), and the sensitivity and specificity of the VE/VCO2 slope were 0.631 and 0.778, respectively. The optimal threshold of the VE/VCO2 slope for predicting cardiac-related hospitalizations in patients with CHF was ?32.9. In conclusion, ventilatory efficiency decreases in patients with CHF. The VE/VCO2 slope is a strong predictor of cardiac-related mortalities in the patients with CHF analyzed. PMID:25780443

  8. Evidence for pre-Messinian submarine canyons on the Gulf of Lions slope (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Lofi, J; Berne, Serge

    2008-01-01

    On the Gulf of Lions margin, the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) event led to a significant and widespread erosion of the Miocene shelf and slope. It is thus difficult nowadays to restore the morphology of the margin at the beginning of the crisis, and to study the Middle-Upper Miocene series rarely preserved from erosion. In this study, thanks to the use of multichannel seismic reflection data from the Gulf of Lions western slope, it has been possible to image the Miocene slope deposits. Int...

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of rock slope instability in western Norway: : Implications for susceptibility and hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Böhme, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Rock slope failures form a frequent hazard to many populated mountain regions. Especially in western Norway, the topographical and meteorological characteristics increase the vulnerability for rock slope failures. A major focus for studies in Norway is to eciently nd and investigate possible future rock slope failures in order to prevent extensive humanitarian disasters. The determination of the critical parameters involved in the development of rock slope failures is crucial in order to opti...

  10. Alaska North Slope Tundra Travel Model and Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry R. Bader; Jacynthe Guimond

    2006-03-01

    The Alaska Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Division of Mining, Land, and Water manages cross-country travel, typically associated with hydrocarbon exploration and development, on Alaska's arctic North Slope. This project is intended to provide natural resource managers with objective, quantitative data to assist decision making regarding opening of the tundra to cross-country travel. DNR designed standardized, controlled field trials, with baseline data, to investigate the relationships present between winter exploration vehicle treatments and the independent variables of ground hardness, snow depth, and snow slab thickness, as they relate to the dependent variables of active layer depth, soil moisture, and photosynthetically active radiation (a proxy for plant disturbance). Changes in the dependent variables were used as indicators of tundra disturbance. Two main tundra community types were studied: Coastal Plain (wet graminoid/moist sedge shrub) and Foothills (tussock). DNR constructed four models to address physical soil properties: two models for each main community type, one predicting change in depth of active layer and a second predicting change in soil moisture. DNR also investigated the limited potential management utility in using soil temperature, the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants, and changes in microphotography as tools for the identification of disturbance in the field. DNR operated under the assumption that changes in the abiotic factors of active layer depth and soil moisture drive alteration in tundra vegetation structure and composition. Statistically significant differences in depth of active layer, soil moisture at a 15 cm depth, soil temperature at a 15 cm depth, and the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation were found among treatment cells and among treatment types. The models were unable to thoroughly investigate the interacting role between snow depth and disturbance due to a lack of variability in snow depth cover throughout the period of field experimentation. The amount of change in disturbance indicators was greater in the tundra communities of the Foothills than in those of the Coastal Plain. However the overall level of change in both community types was less than expected. In Coastal Plain communities, ground hardness and snow slab thickness were found to play an important role in change in active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. In the Foothills communities, snow cover had the most influence on active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. Once certain minimum thresholds for ground hardness, snow slab thickness, and snow depth were attained, it appeared that little or no additive effect was realized regarding increased resistance to disturbance in the tundra communities studied. DNR used the results of this modeling project to set a standard for maximum permissible disturbance of cross-country tundra travel, with the threshold set below the widely accepted standard of Low Disturbance levels (as determined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). DNR followed the modeling project with a validation study, which seemed to support the field trial conclusions and indicated that the standard set for maximum permissible disturbance exhibits a conservative bias in favor of environmental protection. Finally DNR established a quick and efficient tool for visual estimations of disturbance to determine when investment in field measurements is warranted. This Visual Assessment System (VAS) seemed to support the plot disturbance measurements taking during the modeling and validation phases of this project.

  11. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and Chloride Hydrates within Mars Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Wang, A.

    2012-12-01

    RSL is an important phenomenon revealed by HiRISE-MRO observations on Mars (McEwen et al., 2011). The RSL form and grow on some equator-facing slopes during warm seasons on Mars when temperature (T in afternoon) is in the range of ~250-300K. We hypothesize that chloride hydrates may exist in some areas within the subsurface of southern hemisphere on Mars, and the deliquescence of these chloride hydrates at elevated temperature may have produced large quantity of brine that caused the RSL observed by HiRISE team. This hypothesis is based on three lines of reasoning: (1) chlorine (Cl) is found to be broadly distributed on Mars (GRS-ODY) and has been detected in the chemistry of every surface samples during all Mars surface exploration missions (Vikings, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, and Phoenix). In addition, the existence of chlorides in martian southern hemisphere was suggested by a set of THEMIS-ODY data analyses (Osterloo et al., 2008, 2010). In terrestrial saline playas, large amounts of chlorides invariably appears in the precipitates from salty brines (Zheng et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009), although the precipitation sequence of chlorides on Mars might be different from that on Earth (Tosca et al., 2008, McLennan et al., 2012). (2) A subsurface layer when enriched with ice, or hydrous sulfates or chloride hydrates (all have high thermal inertia) and covered by a dry layer of surface soils (very low thermal inertia) will be able to maintain a lower Tmax and a much smaller delta-T that are not affected by the large temperature variations at Mars surface during diurnal and seasonal cycles (Mellon, 2004). (3) Chloride hydrates (such as MgCl2.12H2O, FeCl2.6H2O, CaCL2.6H2O, etc) would form from Cl-bearing brine at low T; they would be stable in a large T range (beyond room T in lab) and their deliquescence would occur abruptly at elevated temperatures (Baumgartner & Bakker 2009, and many others). We have started a systematic laboratory investigation on the thermodynamics and kinetics properties of chloride hydrates. The goals are to determine (1) the stability fields of Mg-, Fe2+-, Fe3+-, Ca-, Al-, Na-chloride hydrates in RH-T space, especially the phase boundaries of hydrates-deliquescence; (2) the rate of their dehydration, and especially the rate of their deliquescence as function of T, P, and PH2O; (3) the RH level that each chloride hydrate can maintain in an enclosure at T relevant to those within Mars subsurface. We will report the experimental results from (3), and will compare them with a similar set of data from hydrous sulfates (Mg, Fe, Ca, Al). The criticality of learning the property (3) is that the deliquescence of a hydrous salt at a T only occurs when RH is higher than a threshold. For example, deliquescence of ferricopiapite would happen when RH > 75% at 0°C. If the environmental RH is lower, the dehydration of hydrous salt will go through solid-solid phase transition, instead of deliquescence, such that water would be released to the atmosphere and brine would not form. It is possible that deliquescence of both hydrous sulfates and chlorides (as well as the melting of Cl-enriched brines) contributed the RSL. Our working hypothesis favors chloride hydrates because dry chloride (after releasing water) in RSL would not be visible by Vis-NIR spectroscopy, which is consistent with the mission observations.

  12. Data acquisition system for soil degradation measurements in sloping vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoccu, Marcella; Opsi, Francesca; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2013-04-01

    The agricultural management techniques and mechanization adopted in sloping areas under temperate and sub-continental climate can affect the physical and hydrological characteristics of the soil with an increase of the soil erosion rates. Vineyards have been reported among the land uses most prone to erosion. Agricultural operations can be conducted to enhance the soil conservation, it is therefore important to know the site-specific characteristics and conditions of adopted practices. A long-term monitoring to evaluate the influence of management systems in hilly vineyard on erosion and runoff and soil properties has been carried out in the north-western Italy since 2000. Three different inter-rows tillage systems were compared: conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and controlled grass cover (GC). To record the rainfall amount and duration, an agro-meteorological station was located near experimental plots. The three plots are hydraulically isolated, thus runoff and sediment have been collected at the bottom by a drain, connected with a tipping bucket device to measure the discharge of runoff. The system was implemented with electromagnetic counters that allow the automatic accounting with data capture by a control unit, powered by a photovoltaic panel and transmitted to a data collection center for remote viewing via web page. A portion of the runoff-sediment mixture was usually sampled and analyzed for soil and nutrients losses. In order to analyze with more detail the erosion process by means of predictive models, a micro-plot system was placed in the experimental site in 2012. Splash cups have been installed in each plot since 2011 to evaluate how the soil management affects the in-field splash erosion process. Rapid measurement of soil moisture content and temperature were performed starting from August 2011 to allow continuous monitoring of parameters that can provide an evaluation of space-time hydrological processes, determining the surface runoff response to a given precipitation events. Electromagnetic sensors were installed in the topsoil and measures were recorded in one-hour intervals by a data collection device. Some physical and hydrological properties were considered to provide information on the degree of soil compaction and its influence on soil status. The parameters analyzed are bulk density by core method and soil compaction by static and dynamic recording penetrometers. Since autumn 2011 the reduced tillage management was replaced with conventional tillage with a grass strip in the bottom of each inter-row (CTS). At the same time the grass cover of the GC plot was renewed after execution of tillage operation. Recurring measurements of the soil water content up to a depth of 60 cm and hydraulic conductivity tests with the Simplified Falling Head Technique (SFH) have been started in 2012, to observe the spatial and temporal variability of hydraulic behavior in the experimental plots.

  13. Soils as sediment: does aggregation skew slope scale SOC balances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Fister, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The net effect of soil erosion as a source or sink of CO2 in global carbon cycling has been the subject of a heated debate. On one hand, erosion exposes the previously encapsulated soil organic carbon (SOC), which may accelerate the mineralization of eroded SOC. On the other hand, deposition limits the decomposition of SOC upon burial, while incorporation of biomass at eroding sites replaces the lost SOC. So far, effects of erosion on CO2 emissions have largely been assessed by comparing SOC stocks at eroding and depositional sites. The underlying assumption for this approach is a non-selective transport of eroded SOC across a landscape. However, several recent publications showed both an at least temporary on-site enrichment of SOC in sediment as well as a preferential deposition of sediment particles with SOC concentrations that differed from the soil SOC. As a consequence, balances between eroding and depositional sites may over- or underestimate mineralization of eroded SOC during transport. Two Luvisols, from the villages of Möhlin and Movelier in northwest Switzerland, were used in this study. They have different mineral grain size distribution, organic carbon concentration and aggregate stability. Based on the concept of Equivalent Quartz Size (EQS), the eroded sediments were fractionated by a settling tube apparatus into six different size classes, according to their settling velocities and likely transport distances. According to the model developed by Starr et al., 2000, the likely transport distances of six EQS classes were grouped into three likely fates: deposited across landscapes, possibly transferred into rivers, and likely transferred into rivers. Respiration rates of the fractionated sediments were measured by gas chromatograph for 50 days. Our results show that 1) due to aggregation, 60% of the Möhlin eroded fractions and 82% of the Movelier fractions would be re-deposited in the terrestrial system, which strongly contrasts with their grain size distribution; 2) 63% of eroded SOC for the Möhlin soil and 83% for the Movelier soil would be re-deposited in the terrestrial system rather than transferred into the aquatic system. This is much greater than the high concentration of SOC in grain size fraction <32 µm would suggest; 3) the SOC re-deposited in the terrestrial system is more likely to be mineralized than the SOC in fine particles which would be transferred into the aquatic system. Our observations indicate that 1) aggregation reduces the likely transport distances of eroded SOC, and thus decreases the likelihood of eroded SOC to be transferred from eroding hill-slopes to the aquatic system; 2) the re-deposited SOC in the terrestrial system is more likely to be mineralized than the SOC in fine particles that could be transferred into the aquatic system. These findings highlight a potentially higher contribution of erosion to atmospheric CO2 than anticipated by estimating source for sink transfer without considering the effects of aggregation.

  14. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01...false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  15. Net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities on slopes computed by the energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo; Qian, Ping

    1990-01-01

    Energy balance components obtained over five grass-covered sloping surfaces near Manhattan, KS, using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique with the instruments mounted horizontally were compared with calculated values when the instruments were mounted parallel to the surfaces. Hourly values of the components changed when the instruments were parallel to the surfaces. The changes were larger at low solar angles (spring and fall) and on steeper slopes. An area average of daylight totals, assuming that all aspects were equally represented, changed only 0.1 percent on June 6 and 2.3 percent on October 11. The calculations, extended to steeper slopes, indicated small changes in the daylight totals for slopes of less than 10 deg.

  16. The modulation of a radar signal from the ocean surface due to slope and hydrodynamic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James C.; Hwang, Paul A.; Moore, Richard K.; Holtzman, Julian C.; Shemdin, Omar H.

    1990-01-01

    The modulation of the signal level of a tower-based radar scatterometer illuminating a small area of the ocean surface is predicted from direct measurements of the hydrodynamic conditions of the ocean surface and compared with X band radar measurements taken simultaneously. The radar backscatter is assumed to be due to Bragg resonance between the signal and the ripple waves. The effects of the slope of the ocean surface due to passing long waves are modeled by converting a measured wave height series into a slope time series. Laser-slope-gauge measurements of the spectrum of the ripple waves that ride upon the long ocean waves are used to predict the hydrodynamic effects. Comparisons with the measured radar signal show that the slope modulation alone gives a poor prediction of the modulation. Inclusion of the hydrodynamic effects in the simulation appears more promising, although it also is not entirely successful with this data set.

  17. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition, June 4 through July 6, 2007. Additional...

  18. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006. Additional...

  19. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model Monthly Climate Data for the Continental United States.

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created using the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) climate mapping system, developed by Dr. Christopher Daly,...

  20. A comparative study of Pleistocene phosphorites from the continental slope off western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; DileepKumar, M.; Cardinal, D.; Michard, A.; Borole, D.V.; Jacobs, E.; Natarajan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two types of phosphorite recovered from the continental slope off western India are described. The first type, phosphorite 1, comprises a hard, grey nodule composed of carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) and calcite as major minerals. The phosphorite...

  1. Fine-scale analysis of shelf -slope physiography across the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Jauhari, P.; Mahale, V.; Shashikumar, K.; Rajesh, M.

    2006-01-01

    to characterise the outer shelf, upper slope, shelf margin basin, and several structural rises. The scatter diagram analysis shows that the seafloor can be grouped in two distinct clusters. Distinctly different clustering patterns are observed over the structural...

  2. 78 FR 55754 - Second Call for Nominations: North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...of the Alaska Departments of Natural Resources and Fish and Game; the Mayor of the North Slope Borough; and the President...ecology, petroleum engineering, civil engineering, geology, sociology, cultural anthropology, economics, ornithology,...

  3. Some considerations on the seismic stability of large slopes surrounding the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the researches with regard to the seismic stability of large scale slope, the authors have carried out the model test, in which the static failure has been generated by inclining the slope model. In this report, the results of static inclination tests of slope model are described and discussions are done from viewpoints of, 1. the mechanical behaviours and failure state of slope during the inclination test, 2. comparison between the results obtained by the static failure test (that is, inclination test) and those of another report with regard to the dynamic failure test which had been performed using the shaking table, and the relationship between an equivalent seismic coefficient obtained by static failure test and acceleration by dynamic failure test, 3. relationship between the failure state of inclination test and the factor of convensional circular arc slip method. (author)

  4. Direct evidence of double-slope power spectra in the high-latitude ionospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, A.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2014-03-01

    We report direct observations of the double-slope power spectra for plasma irregularities in the F layer of the polar ionosphere. The investigation of cusp irregularities ICI-2 sounding rocket, which was launched into the polar cusp ionosphere, intersected enhanced plasma density regions with decameter-scale irregularities. Density measurements at unprecedented high resolution with multi-Needle Langmuir Probes allowed for a detailed study of the plasma irregularities down to kinetic scales. Spectral analysis reveals double-slope power spectra for regions of enhanced fluctuations associated mainly with density gradients, with the steepening of the spectra occurring close to the oxygen gyrofrequency. These findings are further supported with the first results from the ICI-3 rocket, which flew through regions with strong precipitation and velocity shears. Previously, double-slope spectra have been observed in the equatorial ionosphere. The present work gives a direct evidence that the double-slope power spectra can be common in the high-latitude ionosphere.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Stability Analyzing for Unsaturated Slope with Rainfall Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall infiltration exerts great effect on the stability of soil slopes. Based on the actual rainfall data, saturated-unsaturated seepage theory and the mechanical theory of unsaturated porous media, numerical simulations were conducted to examine the seepage field of saturated-unsaturated slope during rainfall infiltration in this paper. The influence of the coefficient with rainfall duration, rainfall patterns, rainfall intensity and soil saturated permeability on seepage field are studied, and the relationship between the factor of safety and the position of sliding surface is obtained. The simulated results show that the saturated hydraulic conductivity has a great effect on slope stability. If the permeability of soil is relatively large, the changing range and the velocity of the factor of safety increase with the rainfall intensity; and if it is relatively in a low degree, the influence of the rainfall intensity on the slope stability is also low

  6. Prediction of slope stability using artificial neural network (case study: Noabad, Mazandaran, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of failures of soil masses are subjects touching both geology and engineering. These investigations call the joint efforts of engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers. Geotechnical engineers have to pay particular attention to geology, ground water, and shear strength of soils in assessing slope stability. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are very sophisticated modeling techniques, capable of modeling extremely complex functions. In particular, neural networks are nonlinear. In this research, with respect to the above advantages, ANN systems consisting of multilayer perceptron networks are developed to predict slope stability in a specified location, based on the available site investigation data from Noabad, Mazandaran, Iran. Several important parameters, including total stress, effective stress, angle of slope, coefficient of cohesion, internal friction angle, and horizontal coefficient of earthquake, were used as the input parameters, while the slope stability was the output parameter. The results are compared with the classical methods of limit equilibrium to check the ANN model's validity. (author)

  7. Stellwagen Bank bathymetry - Degree slope derived from 5-meter bathymetric contour lines

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Degree slope of Stellwagen Bank bathymetry. Raster derived from 5-meter bathymetric contour lines (Quads 1-18). Collected on surveys carried out in 4 cruises 1994 -...

  8. Real-time slope mapping and defect detection in bent plates using Talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a simple method for obtaining slope contours of bent plates using Talbot interferometry. The technique has been used to map slope contours of polymethyl methacrylate specimens of different shapes. The Talbot image of a coarse grating is projected onto a specimen such that the self-image is backreflected onto the same grating again. As a Talbot interferometer is basically a grating shearing interferometer, it results in the generation of characteristic slope maps of the specimen under test. Results of the investigation match well with other slope-mapping techniques. Validation of experimental results with theoretical predictions in the case of a cantilever beam specimen has been undertaken. Accuracy of about 4.7% with respect to theoretical predictions is obtained.

  9. A study on the creep mechanism of slate slope using model test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meng-Chia; Lo, Chia-Ming; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Chuang, Ting-Feng; Su, Yu-Hsuan

    2013-04-01

    Typhoon Morakot struck southern Taiwan in 2009 and brought the most extreme precipitation ever recorded in this area. The extreme amount of rain triggered lots of enormous landslides in the Lawnon River basin. Therefore, this research aims to explore the mechanism of slate slope failure in the Lawnon River basin. When the slate slope is influenced by wet deterioration and gravitation for a long time, significant creep deformation will develop between the foliation of slate and folds and faults will form in the rock mass. To simulate this phenomenon by discrete element method in the future, a series of physical model experiments with simplified mechanism were firstly performed in the laboratory. Based on the experimental setup, the influencing factors of the sliding behaviors, including the volume of rock block, topography, slope, foliation orientation were investigated. The result of this research showed that the creep deformation may deform more quickly under the condition of higher degree of slopes and foliations.

  10. Evaluation of Slope Assessment System in Predicting Landslides along Roads Underlain by Granitic Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujang B.K. Huat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A slope assessment is to estimate the probability of occurrence and likely severity of landslides in a given area. This study evaluates two existing Slope Assessment Systems (SAS for predicting landslide at the micro level of assessment developed by the Public Works Department of Malaysia, namely the Slope Information Management System (SIMS and the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART. From the results of this study, it appears that none of the existing SAS is satisfactory for predicting landslide in granitic formation, for various reasons such as the use of hazard score developed from another country and use of data-base derived from different rock formation. A new SAS was developed using nine-parameters equation that was based on the stepwise discriminant analysis. The new SAS appears to show a good capability in predicting landslides in granitic formations.

  11. 76 FR 69736 - Primus Solutions, Inc., and Arctic Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0038...Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave.,...

  12. HYDROGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE SOUTHERN SLOPE OF THE BAMBOUTO MOUNTAIN (WESTCAMEROON)

    OpenAIRE

    Kengni, Lucas; Simo Pieam, Joe?l; Temgoua, Emile; Tematio, Paul; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Re?my; Boeglin, Jean Loup

    2013-01-01

    Surface and subsurface waters of the southern slope of the Bambouto mountain (West-Cameroon) were surveyed from year 2000 to 2010 in order to highlight possible water/soil/rock interaction processes. In this framework, in-situ measurements, chemical analysis and geochemical modelling results were examined at 38 sites in the slope including stream, well and spring waters. Waters are generally acidic, poorly mineralised and aggressive. Major ions are dominated by HCO3, Ca and Mg, with a higher ...

  13. Seismic slope stability of embankments: a comparative study on EC8 provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.; Psarropoulos, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to EC8 provisions, seismic stability assessment of natural slopes is currently performed based on simplified methods i.e. the pseudostatic and the Newmark’s sliding block method. The application of these methods requires the beforehand consideration of major assumptions necessary for the selection of either the seismic coefficient or the acceleration time history of the rigid block. Although both ULS and SLS are defined according to acceptable level of deformations at the slope...

  14. A new package in MODFLOW to simulate unconfined groundwater flow in sloping aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanrong; Zhan, Hongbin; Tang, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    The nonhorizontal-model-layer (NHML) grid system is more accurate than the horizontal-model-layer grid system to describe groundwater flow in an unconfined sloping aquifer on the basis of MODFLOW-2000. However, the finite-difference scheme of NHML was based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption that the streamlines were horizontal, which was acceptable for slope less than 0.10. In this study, we presented a new finite-difference scheme of NHML based on the Boussinesq assumption and developed a new package SLOPE which was incorporated into MODFLOW-2000 to become the MODFLOW-SP model. The accuracy of MODFLOW-SP was tested against solution of Mac Cormack (1969). The differences between the solutions of MODFLOW-2000 and MODFLOW-SP were nearly negligible when the slope was less than 0.27, and they were noticeable during the transient flow stage and vanished in steady state when the slope increased above 0.27. We established a model considering the vertical flow using COMSOL Multiphysics to test the robustness of constrains used in MODFLOW-SP. The results showed that streamlines quickly became parallel with the aquifer base except in the narrow regions near the boundaries when the initial flow was not parallel to the aquifer base. MODFLOW-SP can be used to predict the hydraulic head of an unconfined aquifer along the profile perpendicular to the aquifer base when the slope was smaller than 0.50. The errors associated with constrains used in MODFLOW-SP were small but noticeable when the slope increased to 0.75, and became significant for the slope of 1.0. PMID:24299562

  15. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2004-01-01

    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average overtopping discharge that includes these parameters has been derived. The measurements show good correlation between average overtopping discharge and rear slope damage.

  16. AN ANOTHER WAY FOR OPEN PIT MINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION – FLOATING SLOPES METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Jankovi?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the work presents main principles of a new method of design the ultimate pit which is primarily applicable for bedded formations, but also can be acceptable for other types of deposits. On the basis of main criteria of optimum design (profitability and slope stability, the authors have tested theirs procedure and proposed a new method for optimum design of open pit mines, for which the most suitable name would be the Floating Slopes Method.

  17. Structural highs on the western continental slope of India: Implications for regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranadhir; Rajesh, M.; De, Sutirtha; Chakraborty, Bishwajit; Jauhari, Pratima

    2008-04-01

    Integrated geological and geophysical explorations over the last two decades along the central western continental margin of India reveal, from east to west, a terrace-like flat shelf, an advancing shelf break, a NW-SE-oriented wide shelf margin basin, the Upper Slope Ridge, the Prathap Ridge and the Laccadive Ridge. The basin on the continental slope extends between the shelf break and the eastern slope of the Laccadive Ridge, and is divided longitudinally into a relatively narrow eastern and a wide western basin by the prominent Upper Slope Ridge. Detailed multibeam swath mapping now over an area of little more than 20,300 km 2 within the shelf margin basin located on the upper continental slope now reveals the occurrence of several isolated structural highs of variable height. Four of these highs are located over the Upper Slope Ridge and a similar number on the Prathap Ridge. Of these, four highs have summit height > 1000 m, two have heights between 500 and 999 m, while the remaining two have heights less than 499 m. The Digital Terrain Model developed from the processed multibeam swath bathymetry data offers a three-dimensional perspective of these structural highs. The tectonic understanding from multibeam bathymetry findings and satellite gravity data, supported by other geophysical information, suggest that these structural highs are likely to be the peaks of the Upper Slope Ridge and the Prathap Ridge. We discuss the possible origin and mode of emplacement of these structural highs (and ridges) in the light of regional tectonics and suggest that both the Upper Slope and Prathap ridges may have been formed during the separation of India from Madagascar during the middle Cretaceous.

  18. A strategy for GIS-based 3-D slope stability modelling over large areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mergili, M.; Marchesini, I.; Alvioli, M.; Metz, M.; Schneider-muntau, B.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    GIS-based deterministic models may be used for landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas. However, such efforts require specific strategies to (i) keep computing time at an acceptable level, and (ii) parameterize the geotechnical data. We test and optimize the performance of the GIS-based, 3-D slope stability model r.slope.stability in terms of computing time and model results. The model was developed as a C- and Python-based raster module of the open source s...

  19. Slope Instability of the Earthen Levee in Boston, UK: Numerical Simulation and Sensor Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova, N. B.; Jordan, D; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.; Sloot, P. M. A

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a slope stability analysis for a heterogeneous earthen levee in Boston, UK, which is prone to occasional slope failures under tidal loads. Dynamic behavior of the levee under tidal fluctuations was simulated using a finite element model of variably saturated linear elastic perfectly plastic soil. Hydraulic conductivities of the soil strata have been calibrated according to piezometers readings, in order to obtain correct range of hydraulic loads in tidal m...

  20. On finiteness of the number of boundary slopes of immersed surfaces in 3-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Hass, Joel; Wang, Shicheng; Zhou, Qing

    2000-01-01

    For any hyperbolic 3-manifold $M$ with totally geodesic boundary, there are finitely many boundary slopes for essential immersed surfaces of a given genus. There is a uniform bound for the number of such boundary slopes if the genus of $\\partial M$ or the volume of $M$ is bounded above. When the volume is bounded above, then area of $\\partial M$ is bounded above and the length of closed geodesic on $\\partial M$ is bounded below.

  1. Probabilistic model of slope mass movement susceptibility – a case study of Bovec municipality, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Komac

    2005-01-01

    A probabilistic model of slope mass movement susceptibility for the Bovec municipality in north-western Slovenia was developed based on the expert geohazard map at scale 1: 25.000 and several other relevant influence factors. For analytical purposes 10816 modelswere developed, 3142 for landslide susceptibility and 7674 for rockfall susceptibility. In both cases geology / lithology and slope angle showed to be the most important influence factors. Regarding landslides, additional important fac...

  2. Non-deterministic analysis of slope stability based on numerical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In geotechnical engineering, the uncertainties such as the variability and uncertainty inherent in the geotechnical properties have caught more and more attentions from researchers and engineers. They have found that a single “Factor of Safety” calculated by traditional deterministic analyses methods can not represent the slope stability exactly. Recently in order to provide a more rational mathematical framework to incorporate different types of uncertainties in the slope stability estimatio...

  3. A New Method of Construction of Robust Second Order Slope Rotatable Designs Using Pairwise Balanced Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Rajyalakshmi, K.; Re Victorbabu, B.

    2012-01-01

    The following article has been retracted due to the investigation of complaints received against it. Title: A New Method of Construction of Robust Second Order Slope Rotatable Designs Using Pairwise Balanced Designs. Authors: Bejjam Re. Victorbabu, Kottapalli Rajyalakshmi.The paper is a copy of Dr. Rabindra Nath Das’s former article, entitled “Slope rotatability with correlated errors (Vol. 54, pp. 57-70, 2003)” and “Robust second order rotatable designs (Part I)”. The scientific co...

  4. Submarine Landslide Morphology of Box Slides Present on the Continental Slope Offshore Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M. J. A.; Hubble, T.; Clarke, S. L.; Airey, D.; Yu, P. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser Island slide complex is located on eastern Australia's continental slope. Two potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides identified here as the 'North Fraser Island Upper Slope Slide' (25km2 in area, 100m thick) and the 'Middle Fraser Island Middle Slope Slide' (12km2 in area, 50m thick) are described. Morphologic, sedimentologic and geomechanical properties for these slides are compared to data reported for existing submarine landslides located to the south in New South Wales (NSW). The two Fraser Island slides are translational, box-shaped, slab slides. We suspect that the slabs remained intact during downslope transport. The upper slope slide is situated at a water depth of approximately 750m at the northern end of the Fraser Canyon complex. The head of this slide has apparently detached from a structural surface comprised of a Miocene reef complex located beneath the continental shelf edge. The middle slope slide is situated on a large plateau to the south of the Fraser Canyon complex in 1500m of water. Cores taken in the continental slope within both slides are long and present hemipelagic muds. Cores taken adjacent to both slides are short and terminate in stiff muds of suspected Miocene or Pliocene age. Additionally, the core adjacent to the upper slope slide presents a near surface layer of upper-fining of coarse to fine shelly sand which we interpret to be a turbidite deposit. This layer was deposited above hemipelagic muds which are ubiquitously present on the upper eastern Australian continental slope in NSW and Southern Queensland.

  5. Large Submarine Landslides on Continental Slopes: Geohazards, Methane Release, and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Talling, Peter J.; Michael Clare; Morelia Urlaub; Ed Pope; Hunt, James E.; Sebastian Watt

    2014-01-01

    Submarine landslides on open continental slopes can be prodigious in scale. They are an important process for global sediment fluxes, and can generate very damaging tsunamis. Submarine landslides are far harder to monitor directly than terrestrial landslides, and much greater uncertainty surrounds their preconditioning factors and triggers. Submarine slope failure often occurs on remarkably low (< 2°) gradients that are almost always stable on land, indicating that particularly high excess p...

  6. Spatial Arrangement of Branches in Relation to Slope and Neighbourhood Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Sumida, Akihiro; Terazawa, Ikue; Togashi, Asako; Komiyama, Akira

    2002-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the effects of spatial structure on patterns of neighbourhood competition among hardwood trees, the three?dimensional extension of primary branches was surveyed for ten community?grown Castanea crenata (Fagaceae) trees with respect to the positioning of neighbouring branches and the slope of the forest floor. There were significantly more branches extending towards the lower side of the slope than towards the upper side, but structural properties such as ...

  7. Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Fleskens, L.

    2007-01-01

    The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still exist today, the general trend is different. Demographic changes of the rural population, integration in the market economy with its competitive character, and technological innovation have drastica...

  8. Analysis on the Stability of Reservoir Soil Slope Based on Fuzzy Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Lianguang Mo; Zheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the fact that the relation between the reservoir soil slope stability and its influencing factors is complicated and fuzzy, a method-fuzzy neural network to analyze the reservoir soil slope stability is proposed. The method infuses fuzzy reasoning process into the structure of neural network, makes the physical meaning of neuron and weight of neural network clear, reduces the process of regulation match, raises the speed of reasoning and improves greatly the self-adaption capacity of...

  9. Radioactivity of bottom deposits in continental slope of West Africa (sector of the Guinea Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bottom deposits of the Guinea part of the continental slope are characterized by rather high natural radioactivity from 2 to 6 kBq/kg of uranium equivalent. At the upper stage of the slope it's basic part is due to the autigenous component of sediments. In the lower band of this stage a migration of mobile uranium forms from uranium-enriched original neogenic clays to the Pleistocene deposits is probable

  10. Analytical solutions for recession analyses of sloping aquifers in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Hergarten, Stefan; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the discharge recession of sloping aquifers are commonly used to simulate the runoff of shallow aquifers with slope angles of a few degrees and in particular hillslopes. However, in alpine catchments, potentially deeper aquifers represented by debris accumulations such as relict rock glaciers can be found in areas with much steeper slope angles. These aquifers might be important for flood reduction and drought prevention and the discharged water can be used for drinking water supply and small hydroelectric power plants. Here it is attempted to reproduce the recession behavior of such highly inclined aquifers by applying existing analytical solutions for sloping aquifers. More specifically, an analytical solution for the discharge recession of a sloping aquifer is compared to a numerical model (MODFLOW) for a variety of slope angles. In addition a sensitivity analysis is made to reveal the effects of the various approximations introduced in the analytical solution, such as homogeneity, parallel side boundaries and a straight profile. The results show that the deviation between the analytical solution and the numerical model depends on the hydraulic properties and is in general acceptable for all tested slope angles. However, the sensitivity analysis shows that the simplifying assumptions and especially the initial condition have great impact on the discharge recession. Therefore, only the long-term behavior of the analytical solution should be considered if the model is employed for aquifer characterization. In summary, the combined use of analytical solutions and simple numerical models helps to better understand the opportunities and limitations of the recession analysis of sloping aquifers.

  11. Temperature Distribution of Single Slope Solar Still by Finite Difference Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kiam Beng Yeo; Kenneth Tze Kin Teo; Cheah Meng Ong

    2014-01-01

    Single slope solar still utilizes solar distillation technology to clean water from brackish water was investigated. The clean water output of solar still depends on the intensity of sunlight and how well the different mediums in solar still transfer the heat energy around. Thus, the temperature distribution in the single slope solar still was analysed using the explicit finite difference method. Side view of solar still is aligned with a mesh system, which accommodates nodes and specific equ...

  12. Gait Characteristics Associated with Trip-Induced Falls on Level and Sloped Irregular Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Merryweather; Byungju Yoo; Donald Bloswick

    2011-01-01

    Same level falls continue to contribute to an alarming number of slip/trip/fall injuries in the mining workforce. The objective of this study was to investigate how walking on different surface types and transverse slopes influences gait parameters that may be associated with a trip event. Gait analysis was performed for ten subjects on two orientations (level and sloped) on smooth, hard surface (control) and irregular (gravel, larger rocks) surfaces. Walking on irregular surfaces significant...

  13. Effects of ramp slope on physiological characteristic and performance time of healthy adults propelling and pushing wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Oh; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Myoung Hee; Kwon, Oh Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of ramp slope (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) on physiological characteristics and performance times of wheelchair users and the performance times of caregivers to determine which slope would be the best for wheelchairs, in order to propose a ramp slope that incorporates a universal design. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Fifteen of these subjects also volunteered to participate as caregivers. A wooden ramp with an adjustable slope was constructed. As manual wheelchair users, the participants performed propulsion of a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. Four ramp slopes (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) were used, and the participants sequentially ascended them in order from the gentlest to the steepest slope. The caregivers also pushed a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. The blood pressure and pulse of participants after the ascent, as well as the performance times of the caregivers and manual wheelchair users, were measured on each of the different ramp slopes. The measured data, pulse, blood pressure, and performance time, were analyzed using repeated ANOVA. [Results] Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. The participants' pulses tended to increase significantly with an increase in slope. An assessment of the propulsion performance times revealed significant differences among the slopes. [Conclusion] Considering the results of the wheelchair users and caregivers, the 1:12 and 1:10 slopes are suitable ramp slopes for wheelchairs. PMID:25642025

  14. The effect of plant root system on the stability of road cutting slope in seasonal frozen regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, W.; Guo, Y.

    2009-04-01

    When highway is built in seasonally frozen regions of Northeast China, it is inevitable to excavate the mountain slope in order to meet the route requirement. During highway construction, a mass of extraction damage the surface vegetation and cut off the runoff passage of groundwater, cause the outcrop of underground water on the cutting slope and affect the intrinsic ground stress equilibrium of the slope body, lead to the redistribution of ground stress and the heat balance change in near-surface of the cutting slope. Under influence of rainfall in autumn and the cold climate in winter, the moisture transfer to frozen zone of cutting slope and lead to the frost heave in shallow depth of the slope. During the thawing period in spring, with effect of integrated factors including rainfall and increasing temperature, ice kernels both on the surface and near the surface of cut slope thaw quickly. The water melting from frozen soil, will hampered by frozen layer in process of infiltration. As a result, the water content of the intersection between the freezing and melting layer is high enough to be saturation or even over-saturation, and accordingly cause the intrinsic effective stress on the slope body decreased. Under the function of gravity, near-surface slope collapses partially or entirely. Adopted the method combined field test and lab test, this article analyzed the mechanism of slope landslide, studied quantitatively the effect of root system of slope plant on the slope stability. The results showed that the mechanical indicators of the soil changed obviously after the first freeze-thaw cycle, but changed little in later freeze-thaw cycles. The shear strength of root-soil systems is 2 times of soil system. Compared with masonry body, protecting the slope by the plant, such as Amorpha, Lespedeza could reduce the slope load and was more stability. Key words: road slope, seasonal frozen regions, plant protection, stability, landslide

  15. Usefulness of forced expiration slope ratios for detecting mild airway abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J M; Peslin, R; Bohadana, A B; Racineux, J L

    1980-08-01

    To assess their value for early recognition of airway abnormalities, forced expiration slope ratios as recently defined by Mead, were measured at 5 lung volumes in 114 healthy nonsmokers and in 76 cigarette smokers. In healthy nonsmokers, slope ratios were independent of sex and body height, but were significantly correlated with age. They tended to be higher at low lung volume, particularly in older subjects. In male smokers with a tobacco consumption of less than 5 pack-years, slope ratios were increased at both ends of the volume range, suggesting nonhomogeneous lung emptying and peripheral airway obstruction. With increasing tobacco consumption, slope ratios tended to return to normal values at low lung volume, perhaps because of airway closure. In female smokers, slope ratios were decreased at high lung volume and increased at low lung volume, suggesting that both central and peripheral airways were abnormal. Mead's analysis appeared to be a useful tool for discussing the data in terms of functional abnormalities. However, because of their large variability, slope ratios were not as successful as transit time indices for recognizing abnormal subjects. PMID:7416600

  16. Large Submarine Landslides on Continental Slopes: Geohazards, Methane Release, and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Talling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides on open continental slopes can be prodigious in scale. They are an important process for global sediment fluxes, and can generate very damaging tsunamis. Submarine landslides are far harder to monitor directly than terrestrial landslides, and much greater uncertainty surrounds their preconditioning factors and triggers. Submarine slope failure often occurs on remarkably low (< 2° gradients that are almost always stable on land, indicating that particularly high excess pore pressures must be involved. Earthquakes trigger some large submarine landslides, but not all major earthquakes cause widespread slope failure. The headwalls of many large submarine landslides appear to be located in water depths that are too deep for triggering by gas hydrate dissociation. The available evidence indicates that landslide occurrence is either weakly (or not linked to changes in sea level or atmospheric methane abundance, or the available dates for open continental slope landslides are too imprecise to tell. Similarly, available evidence does not strongly support a view that landslides play an important role in methane emissions that cause climatic change. However, the largest and best-dated open continental slope landslide (the Storegga Slide coincides with a major cooling event 8,200 years ago. This association suggests that caution may be needed when stating that there is no link between large open slope landslides and climate change.

  17. Specific design requirements for a reliable slope and curvature measurement standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the domain of surface metrology, direct altitude measurements are increasingly being challenged by slope and curvature measuring methods because of the numerous advantages of the latter measurands. Reference standards are needed to assess the quality of these slope and curvature measuring systems and thus to allow their spread into industry. Up to now, no specific slope or curvature measurement standard has been defined; rather, existing standards are designed in terms of altitude profile specifications. This paper details our experience on a reference manufactured piece intended for deflectometric slope measurement validation. An important discrepancy between the piece specifications and the measurements led us to cross-check our deflectometric measurements with differential interferometry. The results obtained using the two measurement methods matched very well. A plausible explanation of the discrepancy between the piece specifications and the measurement results is that small altitude variations may have considerable effects on slopes and curvatures. This real example raises the question of the specific design features for slope and curvature measurement standards and highlights the importance of the chosen altitude profile

  18. Early Warning Monitoring of Natural and Engineered Slopes with Ground-Based Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, C.; Barla, M.; Pieraccini, M.; Antolini, F.

    2015-01-01

    The first application of ground-based interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (GBInSAR) for slope monitoring dates back 13 years. Today, GBInSAR is used internationally as a leading-edge tool for near-real-time monitoring of surface slope movements in landslides and open pit mines. The success of the technology relies mainly on its ability to measure slope movements rapidly with sub-millimetric accuracy over wide areas and in almost any weather conditions. In recent years, GBInSAR has experienced significant improvements, due to the development of more advanced radar techniques in terms of both data processing and sensor performance. These improvements have led to widespread diffusion of the technology for early warning monitoring of slopes in both civil and mining applications. The main technical features of modern SAR technology for slope monitoring are discussed in this paper. A comparative analysis with other monitoring technologies is also presented along with some recent examples of successful slope monitoring.

  19. Study of Real-Time Slope Stability Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network(WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Ta Teh Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monitoring instruments have been found difficult to meet the requirement for real-time monitoring. This study applied Wireless Sensor Network (WSN to slope stability monitoring, In recent years, the slopes in Taiwan have frequently caused disasters after heavy rains, and traand understand the process of slope instability from the characterization variation of new concepts. In the first stage, the Mems Sensors were selected and calibrated, and the accuracy was selected as 0.1 ?and 0.5?. The self-made tilt calibration apparatus was used to calibrate the accuracy of 33 Mems Sensors respectively placed on the side slope. The stability and repeatability were validated multiple times. The field monitoring was carried out at the second stage. National Highway No. 3 3K+100 and TW PHW62 were selected at test locations, and 23 and 10 sensors were placed at these locations respectively. The data were collected in the in-situ industrial computer, and were transmitted via 3G wireless network card to the remote management unit as the basis of monitoring side slope. This study is now at the overall distribution stage, hoping to use the wireless sensor technology to develop an effective, real-time and energy-saving environmental monitoring system and management platform, so as to construct an intelligent WSN early warning and reporting system, which can be applied to the slope disaster prevention engineering.

  20. Numerical modelling of hydrologically-driven slope instability by means of porous media mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakogiannou, Evanthia; Sanavia, Lorenzo; Lora, Marco; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainfall can trigger slope failure which generally involves shallow soil deposit of different grading and origin usually in a state of partial saturation. In this case of slope instability, the behaviour of the soil slope is closely related not only to the distribution of pore-water pressure but also to the stress state during rainfall infiltration involving both mechanical and hydrological processes. In order to understand better these physical key processes, in this research work, the modelling of rainfall induced slope failure is considered as a coupled variably saturated hydro-mechanical problem. Therefore, the geometrically linear finite element code Comes-Geo for non-isothermal elasto-plastic multiphase solid porous materials is used, as developed by B.A. Schrefler and his co-workers. In this context, a detailed numerical analysis of an experimental slope stability test due to rainfall infiltration is presented. The main goals of this work are to understand the triggering mechanisms during the progressive failure, the effect of using different constitutive models of the mechanical soil behavior on the numerical results and the use of the second order work criterion on the detection of slope instability.

  1. Infiltration on sloping surfaces: Laboratory experimental evidence and implications for infiltration modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Cifrodelli, Marco; Corradini, Corrado; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration on sloping surfaces occupies an important role in our understanding of surface and subsurface hydrology. Previous studies have provided conflicting results about the role of slope on infiltration. Here, our main objective is to highlight, by well-controlled experiments, the slope role in the absence of the conflicting contributions generated by other physical processes observed in previous studies under natural or laboratory conditions. The experimental program was designed to resolve some of the confounding factors such as lower impermeable boundary condition, range of rainfall rates relative to soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, surface sealing, and erosion of top soil. The experimental apparatus consists of a box containing a natural bare soil with slope angle ? chosen between 0° and 10°, two sensors of surface and deep flow, one probe for moisture content and an artificial rainfall generator. The primary experimental results suggest that under steady conditions and rainfall rate, r, greater than saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, the deep flow, Qd, decreases with increasing slope angle, ?, up to a value leading to Qd(? = 1°)/Qd(? = 10°) equal to ?4 which is in contrast with the results provided in a few earlier papers. Furthermore, in sloping bare soils surface runoff is produced even for r < Ks. Finally, we discuss the link between Qd(?) and the shear stress at the soil surface as a guideline in the determination of an effective saturated hydraulic conductivity to be incorporated in the existing horizontal infiltration models.

  2. Cyclic settlement behavior of strip footings resting on reinforced layered sand slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the behavior of model strip footings supported on a loose sandy slope and subjected to both monotonic and cyclic loads. The effects of the partial replacement of a compacted sand layer and the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement were investigated. Different combinations of the initial monotonic loads and the amplitude of cyclic loads were chosen to simulate structures in which loads change cyclically such as machine foundations. The affecting factors including the location of footing relative to the slope crest, the frequency of the cyclic load and the number of load cycles were studied. The cumulative cyclic settlement of the model footing supported on a loose sandy slope, un-reinforced and reinforced replaced sand deposits overlying the loose slope were obtained and compared. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the replaced sand not only significantly increases the stability of the sandy slope itself but also decreases much both the monotonic and cumulative cyclic settlements leading to an economic design of the footings. However, the efficiency of the sand–geogrid systems depends on the properties of the cyclic load and the location of the footing relative to the slope crest. Based on the test results, the variation of cumulative settlements with different parameters is presented and discussed.

  3. Análisis Comparativo de métodos de cálculo de estabilidad de taludes finitos aplicados a laderas naturales / Comparative analysis of slope stability methods applied to natural slopes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, SANHUEZA PLAZA; L, RODRÍGUEZ CIFUENTES.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo corresponde a una investigación aplicada sobre un talud natural ubicado en la Quinta Región del país, donde uno de los objetivos fue comparar diferentes métodos de cálculo de estabilidad de taludes, bajo condiciones estáticas y pseudoestáticas. Para este último caso, se consider [...] aron dos de los sismos más importantes que se han producido en Chile, el terremoto de Valparaíso en 1985 (Mw = 8,0) y el del Maule en el año 2010 (Mw = 8,8). La comparación de los resultados ha sido llevada a cabo mediante la obtención de los factores de seguridad de las superficies potenciales de falla, a través del empleo del software GeoSlope, considerando los casos más desfavorables y empleando los modelos propuestos por Fellenius, Bishop y Janbú (método de las dovelas). Como resultado, se ha podido observar la influencia del sismo sobre un talud finito, la cual depende tanto de la magnitud Richter del terremoto, como de los valores de los coeficientes de aceleración sísmica (horizontal y vertical). Abstract in english This article is about an applied research on a natural slope located in the fifth region of the country, where one of the objectives was to compare different methods of calculating slope stability under static and pseudostatic conditions. In the latter case, we considered two major earthquakes that [...] have occurred in Chile, such as the 1985 Valparaiso earthquake and 2010 Maule earthquake, with magnitudes of Mw = 8.0 and Mw = 8.8, respectively. Comparison of the results was carried out by obtaining safety factor of potential failure surfaces, through the use of software GeoSlope considering the worst case and using the models proposed by Fellenius, Bishop and Janbu (method of slices). As a result, it was possible to observe the influence of the earthquake on a finite slope, which depends on the Richter scale earthquake, and the values of the coefficients of seismic acceleration (horizontal and vertical).

  4. The role-share-influence of the posterior tibial slope on rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijak Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Posterior tibial slope is one of the most citated factors wich cause rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. The aim of this study was to determine the association of a greather posterior tibial slope on the lateral condyle, that is a lesser posterior tibial slope on the medial condyle, with ACL rupture. Methods. The patients were divided into two groups. The study group included the patients with chronic instability of the knee besause of a previous rupture of ACL. The control group included the patients with knee lesion, but without ACL rupture. Posterior tibial slope measuring was performed by sagittal MR slices supported by lateral radiograph of the knee. We measured posterior tibial slope on lateral and medial condyles of the tibia. Using these values we calculated an average posterior tibial slope as well as the difference between slopes on lateral and medial condyles. Results. Patients with ACL rupture have highly statistically significantly greather posterior tibial slope (p < 0.01 on lateral tibial condyle (7.1° : 4.5° as well as statistically significantly lesser posterior tibial slope (p < 0.05 on medial tibial condyle (5.0° : 6.6° than patients with intact ACL. Conclusion. Great posterior tibial slope on lateral tibial condyle associated with the small posterior tibial slope on the medial tibial condyle, that is a positive differentce between lateral and medial tibial condyles are factors wich may cause ACL rupture.

  5. Three-dimensional stability analysis of curved clayey slope against toe failure; Wankyokushita nenseido shamen no sanjigen shamensaki antei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, T.; Miura, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Takahara, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    By the limit equilibrium method using the spheroidal sliding plane, a study was conducted of stability of the toe fracture sliding of the winding and planely unshaped clayey slope. At the linear slope, the stability factor decreased with an increase in sliding area and tends to gradually approach to a certain value, but at the curved slope, the stability factor showed the minimum value to the sliding plane width both on concave and convex planes. It was found that there existed the critical sliding plane. It was clarified that the smaller the curvature radius becomes on both concave and convex slopes, the smaller the critical sliding plane becomes. It was also found that at the slope with the same height and same slope, the stability factor is larger and more stabilized to sliding on the concave slope than on the linear slope, and on the other hand, the stability factor is smaller and less stabilized on the convex slope than on the linear slope. On the concave slope, in particular, dependence upon the curvature radius was clear, and the smaller the curvature radius was, the larger and more stabilized the stability factor was. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Channel Slope From SRTM Water Surface Elevations in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, G. A.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Sheng, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A lack of hydrologic observations exists globally, particularly for large rivers in remote, non-industrialized regions. Considering the combined global decline in gauging stations as well as a prohibitive cost in increasing gauges to a reliable number for discharge prediction, remote sensing observations are both a necessary and efficient means for measuring certain hydraulic variables. Remote sensing observations allow for an unparalleled spatial scale and consistency in temporal acquisition. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) provides an initial means of measuring surface water elevations. Typically, open water flowing in channels yields specular radar pulse travel paths, however a roughened water surface can allow for partial radar return to the antennae. These water surface elevations combined with associated distances can be used to determine channel slope, which is an important component of the Manning equation and ultimately can be used to predict river discharge. Distance along each channel was extracted from the SRTM DEM by first determining flow vectors for each pixel from evaluation of the surrounding eight pixels, and then by linking the vectors. The resulting water slopes were calculated for the area from 0S-8S, 72W-54W. The Amazon mainstem was found to have a slope of 3.26 cm/km upstream of Manaus, while the slope is only 0.64 cm/km for the reach downstream of Manaus. The Tapajos slopes ranged from nearly flat near the mouth (0.29 cm/km) to a greater slope (17.57 cm/km to 11.47 cm/km) in the middle and upper reaches respectively, which are drained from a higher relief region. The Japura, Branco, Ica, and Madiera tributaries drain relatively higher relief regions and have slopes that range from 4.79 to 3.65 cm/km. The Purus and the Negro are more moderate with slopes of 3.09 cm/km and 2.47 cm/km respectively. These values are consistent with topographic relief and show that channel surface slopes can be measured on a vast spatial scale from SRTM provided that water surfaces are roughened. These slopes will be used in conjunction with depth values attained from nautical charts (for the mainstem Amazon) and width measurements obtained from classifications of JERS-1 low water data to estimate discharge of the Amazon and its major tributaries.

  7. Monitoring and stability analysis for characterization of the unsaturated slope at a mine waste dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Chan; Song, Young-Suk

    2015-04-01

    In Korea, a shallow slope failure often occurs due to the effect of wetting front to the critical depth by infiltration of rainfall. This failure is mostly triggered by a decrease of shear strength as a process of reducing matric suction induced by the water infiltration after rainfall. To monitor the unsaturated slope at a mine waste dump, a monitoring system for characteristics of the unsaturated slope was installed at a disposal site of mine waste dump in Imgi mine located in Busan, Korea. The tensiometers, piezometrs, and TDR sensors were installed at three different depths under the ground surface. The monitoring was carried out from July 2013 to November 2014 at this site. The maximum daily rainfall during the monitoring period was 234 mm and the maximum hourly rainfall was 87.5 mm/h. The change of volumetric water content of soil showed the tendency to an increase after rainfall by water infiltration and to a gradual decline in the dry season with the most distinguished changes at 0.5 m below the ground surface. The increase of volumetric water content started to increase when the rainfall intensity was 10 mm/h or higher. The matric suction of unsaturated soil increased after rainfall and decreased back in the dry season. The variation of matric suction is the smaller near the surface and a larger variation was observed at the deeper subsurface. For the highest rainfall events, SEEP/W and SLOPE/W simulations were performed and the results showed that the minimum slope stability was calculated as 1.67 and the depth of failure was estimated as 1.5 m after the rainfall event has ended. During the rainy, the slope stability decreased over time until it was reached to 1.59 and the slope stability started to gradually increase when the rainfall has ended. This gradual increase of slope stability seems to be attributed to the increase of effective stress of soil induced by the change of soil from saturated to unsaturated condition, resulting in the increase of matric suction. Key Words: unsaturated slope, volumetric water content, matric suction, slope stability

  8. Using Opposing Slope Aspects to Understand Water and Energy Flow Controls on Critical Zone Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.; Barnhart, K. R.; Kelly, P. K.; Foster, M. A.; Langston, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem is to understand how climate controls the structure of the critical zone, including the depth of weathering, thickness and character of soils, and morphology of hillslopes. We exploit microclimates on opposing aspects in a watershed in the Boulder Creek CZO to investigate the role of water and energy fluxes on development of critical zone architectures. The 2.6 km2 Gordon Gulch, located at ~2500 m a.s.l. at 40°N latitude, is elongated east-west, and consequently is predominantly composed of north and south-facing soil-mantled slopes, dotted with tors, developed on Precambrian gneiss. The depth to fresh rock ranges from about 8 to 12 m, and is up to 2 m deeper on north-facing slopes. In addition to greater thickness, weathered rock is measurably lower in tensile strength on north-facing slopes. While characteristics of weathered rock vary with aspect, the overlying mobile regolith is relatively uniform in thickness at ~0.5 m across the catchment, and its mineralogy shows only minor chemical alteration from parent rock. These features of the critical zone architecture arise in the face of systematic differences in energy and water delivery by aspect. About 40-50% of the ~500 mm annual precipitation is delivered as snow. During spring, the south-facing slopes receive up to 50% greater direct solar radiation than the north-facing slopes. Consequently, snow cover is ephemeral in the open Ponderosa forests on south-facing slopes, and soil wetting and drying events are frequent. Frost penetration is shallow, and short lived. On north-facing slopes, less direct radiation and a dense Lodgepole pine forest cover leads to snowpack retention. Soils are colder and soil moisture stays elevated for long periods in spring on these slopes. We postulate that deeper and more sustained frost penetration on north-facing slopes enhances the damage rate by frost cracking. Deeper water delivery further aids this process, and supports chemical alteration processes. The uniformity of mobile regolith depths suggests equal mobility on these slopes despite differing conditions.

  9. Sub-microradian Surface Slope Metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of X-ray optics for 3rd and 4th generation X-ray light sources with a level of surface slope precision of 0.1-0.2 (micro)rad requires the development of adequate fabrication technologies and dedicated metrology instrumentation and methods. Currently, the best performance of surface slope measurement has been achieved with the NOM (Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine) slope profiler at BESSY (Germany) [1] and the ESAD (Extended Shear Angle Difference) profiler at the PTB (Germany) [2]. Both instruments are based on electronic autocollimators (AC) precisely calibrated for the specific application [3] with small apertures of 2.5-5 mm in diameter. In the present work, we describe the design, initial alignment and calibration procedures, the instrumental control and data acquisition system, as well as the measurement performance of the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP) slope measuring instrument recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Optical Metrology Laboratory (OML). Similar to the NOM and ESAD, the DLTP is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator. However, this is a reasonably low budget instrument used at the ALS OML for the development and testing of new measuring techniques and methods. Some of the developed methods have been implemented into the ALS LTP-II (slope measuring long trace profiler [4]) which was recently upgraded and has demonstrated a capability for 0.25 (micro)rad surface metrology [5]. Performance of the DLTP was verified via a number of measurements with high quality reference mirrors. A comparison with the corresponding results obtained with the world's best slope measuring instrument, the BESSY NOM, proves the accuracy of the DLTP measurements on the level of 0.1-0.2 (micro)rad depending on the curvature of a surface under test. The directions of future work to develop a surface slope measuring profiler with nano-radian performance are also discussed

  10. Evolution of Submarine Gullies on a Prograding Slope: Insights from 3D Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, L.; Jobe, Z. R.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine gullies are common features on continental slopes on both passive and active margins, but the processes dictating gully formation and the role of gullies in deep-water sediment transport are topics of debate. The geometries of gullies can provide clues to understanding the processes by which they initiate and grow, particularly when considered in the context of surrounding submarine geomorphology. Further confidence in these interpretations can be gained by tracking the temporal history of gullies with evolution of the continental margin. The 500 km2 Tui 3D seismic survey from the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, shows continental slope gullies and other channel features in a ~1 km-thick package of prograding shelf-slope clinoforms that developed over Pliocene-Pleistocene time. This dataset allows for documentation of gullies over ~3 Ma, through numerous cycles of initiation and burial. For this study, we manually interpreted clinoform packages to generate 'paleo-seafloor' surfaces that provide context such as position of the shelf edge, slope gradient and azimuth, and relative progradation and aggradation magnitudes. Gully geometries were obtained from detailed seismic interpretation guided by semblance and RMS amplitude imaging on these surfaces. Gullies are low sinuosity, with widths ranging from ~50-150 m and depths from a few tens to 150 m of stratigraphy, indicating that they are long-lived features on the slope. This further indicates that the frequency of flows along the gullies was enough to maintain their topographic expression during slope progradation and aggradation, and suggests that gullies play an integral role in transport processes on the slope.

  11. Geophysical investigation and dynamic modelling of unstable slopes: case-study of Kainama (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, G.; Bourdeau, C.; Torgoev, I.; Havenith, H.-B.

    2008-10-01

    The presence of massive Quaternary loess units at the eastern border of the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) makes this area particularly prone to the development of catastrophic loess earthflows, causing damages and injuries almost every year. Efficient disaster management requires a good understanding of the main causes of these mass movements, that is, increased groundwater pressure and seismic shaking. This paper focuses on the Kainama earthflow, mainly composed of loess, which occurred in 2004 April. Its high velocity and the long run-out zone caused the destruction of 12 houses and the death of 33 people. In summer 2005, a field survey consisting of geophysical and seismological measurements was carried out along the adjacent slope. By combination and geostatistical analysis of these data, a reliable 3-D model of the geometry and properties of the subsurface layers, as shown in the first part of the paper, was created. The analysis of the seismological data allowed us to point out a correlation between the thickness of the loess cover and the measured resonance frequencies and associated amplification potential. The second part of this paper is focused on the study of the seismic response of the slope by numerical simulations, using a 2-D finite difference code named FLAC. Modelling of the seismic amplification potential along the slope confirmed the results obtained from the seismological survey-strong amplifications at the crest and bottom of the slope where there is a thick loess cover and almost no amplification in the middle part of the slope. Furthermore, dynamic slope stability analyses were conducted to assess the influence of local amplifications and increased groundwater pressures on the slope failure. The results of the dynamic modelling, although preliminary, show that a combination of seismic and hydrologic origin (pore pressure build-up during the seismic shaking) is the most probable scenario responsible for the 2004 failure.

  12. Slope-Based Stochastic Resonance: How Noise Enables Phasic Neurons to Encode Slow Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Yan; Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental properties of phasic firing neurons are usually characterized in a noise-free condition. In the absence of noise, phasic neurons exhibit Class 3 excitability, which is a lack of repetitive firing to steady current injections. For time-varying inputs, phasic neurons are band-pass filters or slope detectors, because they do not respond to inputs containing exclusively low frequencies or shallow slopes. However, we show that in noisy conditions, response properties of phasic neuron models are distinctly altered. Noise enables a phasic model to encode low-frequency inputs that are outside of the response range of the associated deterministic model. Interestingly, this seemingly stochastic-resonance (SR) like effect differs significantly from the classical SR behavior of spiking systems in both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal response pattern. Instead of being most sensitive to the peak of a subthreshold signal, as is typical in a classical SR system, phasic models are most sensitive to the signal's rising and falling phases where the slopes are steep. This finding is consistent with the fact that there is not an absolute input threshold in terms of amplitude; rather, a response threshold is more properly defined as a stimulus slope/frequency. We call the encoding of low-frequency signals with noise by phasic models a slope-based SR, because noise can lower or diminish the slope threshold for ramp stimuli. We demonstrate here similar behaviors in three mechanistic models with Class 3 excitability in the presence of slow-varying noise and we suggest that the slope-based SR is a fundamental behavior associated with general phasic properties rather than with a particular biological mechanism. PMID:20585612

  13. Slope-Area Computation Program Graphical User Interface 1.0—A Preprocessing and Postprocessing Tool for Estimating Peak Flood Discharge Using the Slope-Area Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The slope-area method is a technique for estimating the peak discharge of a flood after the water has receded (Dalrymple and Benson, 1967). This type of discharge estimate is called an “indirect measurement” because it relies on evidence left behind by the flood, such as high-water marks (HWMs) on trees or buildings. These indicators of flood stage are combined with measurements of the cross-sectional geometry of the stream, estimates of channel roughness, and a mathematical model that balances the total energy of the flow between cross sections. This is in contrast to a “direct” measurement of discharge during the flood where cross-sectional area is measured and a current meter or acoustic equipment is used to measure the water velocity. When a direct discharge measurement cannot be made at a gage during high flows because of logistics or safety reasons, an indirect measurement of a peak discharge is useful for defining the high-flow section of the stage-discharge relation (rating curve) at the stream gage, resulting in more accurate computation of high flows. The Slope-Area Computation program (SAC; Fulford, 1994) is an implementation of the slope-area method that computes a peak-discharge estimate from inputs of water-surface slope (from surveyed HWMs), channel geometry, and estimated channel roughness. SAC is a command line program written in Fortran that reads input data from a formatted text file and prints results to another formatted text file. Preparing the input file can be time-consuming and prone to errors. This document describes the SAC graphical user interface (GUI), a crossplatform “wrapper” application that prepares the SAC input file, executes the program, and helps the user interpret the output. The SAC GUI is an update and enhancement of the slope-area method (SAM; Hortness, 2004; Berenbrock, 1996), an earlier spreadsheet tool used to aid field personnel in the completion of a slope-area measurement. The SAC GUI reads survey data, develops a plan-view plot, water-surface profile, cross-section plots, and develops the SAC input file. The SAC GUI also develops HEC-2 files that can be imported into HEC–RAS.

  14. The Morphologic Difference between Crater Slopes with and without Gullies on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, S. J.; Mangold, N.; Balme, M. R.; Ansan, V.

    2012-04-01

    Gullies on Mars are km-scale landforms that resemble small fluvial features on Earth. Their discovery [1] challenged the paradigm that over the last ~2 Ga, Mars has been a dry, frozen desert. The gullies are found commonly in the mid-latitudes, have a pole-facing preference [e.g., 2] and are found many kinds of steep slope (valley wall, dunes, etc.). We have chosen to concentrate on gullies found on impact crater interior wall slopes, as this is the most common type [2]. The aim of our study is to determine whether the morphology of crater walls with and without gullies is different. We chose three study areas, two in the southern hemisphere (where gullies are most common), Terra Cimmeria and Noachis Terra and one in the northern hemisphere, Acidalia Planum. All study areas extend over at least 30° of latitude, from ~25° to 55° North or South. We mapped all craters using the catalog of [3] as a basis. We used HRSC elevation data at better than 100 m/pix to extract the slope and curvature of crater walls in the four cardinal directions. We mapped all the gullies on crater walls in the three areas with the aid of HiRISE, MOC, CTX and HRSC images, using polygons to delimit a slope section that contained gullies. Consistent with previous investigations we found gullies concentrated around 40° latitude, with a pole-facing preference. We also found that east-facing gullies were common in both hemispheres. Gullies were most common in Terra Cimmeria and uncommon in Noachis Terra. We found that for a given latitude band and orientation gullies tend to be found on craters with the steepest slopes and the highest curvature. The lack of gullies in Noachis Terra can be explained by the lack of steep, concave slopes in the mid-latitudes of this region. In Terra Cimmeria we found that almost all steep, concave crater slopes hosted gullies, whereas in Acidalia, in the north, only 10-20% of steep concave slopes had gullies. Crater slopes with gullies in the north are steeper and more concave than those with gullies in the south. From previous studies we know that northern hemisphere gullies are more muted in appearance [4]. These differences between hemispheres point to a difference in formation conditions that we suggest is related to the climatic difference between the two hemispheres. We propose that the relative lack of seasonal CO2 frost in the north, particularly at high obliquity, means underlying water ice is less effectively preserved, so less melt is available for gully formation.

  15. Structurally-controlled instability, damage and slope failure in a porphyry rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Meloni, F.; Valle, C.; Rivolta, C.

    2013-10-01

    Rock slopes fail through structurally-controlled mechanisms, global circular failures, or complex mechanisms depending on structural patterns and rock mass damage. Here, structural geology, rock mass characterisation, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), ground-based radar interferometry (GB-InSAR) and Finite Element modelling are integrated to explore relationships between structure, damage and global slope failure at Mt. Gorsa (Trentino, Italy). There a porphyry quarry has been excavated in complex, strongly anisotropic rhyolitic ignimbrite rock masses. The slope was affected by a major rockslide in 2003 and undergoes continuing instability. Site investigations and GB-InSAR monitoring revealed that the 2003 failure was a roto-translational rockslide involving about 400,000 m3 of disrupted rock. Structural analysis of TLS and field data shows that the slope is affected by widespread structurally-controlled mechanisms (sliding, toppling, strain localization in kink bands). The non-obvious relationships between structurally-controlled and global roto-translational slope failure mechanisms are investigated by characterising rock mass damage in different slope sectors. A new approach to quantify rock mass damage by mapping the Geological Strength Index and interpreting its topographic signatures in TLS point clouds is presented. A persistent geological marker is systematically mapped in TLS point clouds, and correlations between attitude variability statistics and rock mass damage are established, providing an efficient assessment tool. Rock mass damage increases in kinematic domains affected by structurally-controlled instability (GSI = 35-40) and is maximum in areas of ongoing global instability (GSI = 15-20). The 2003 rockslide occurred inside a damaged rock mass zone with GSI < 35-40, also suggested to be a threshold condition for the onset of global slope displacements by GB-InSAR data. Finite-Element numerical modelling allows integrating available data and observations. It is suggested that rock mass damage induced by local, structurally-controlled slope instability provides the required conditions (loss of structural pattern, block size reduction, cohesion loss) for transition to equivalent continuum behaviour and global slope failure.

  16. Slovenian National Landslide DataBase – A promising approach to slope mass movement prevention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ribi?i?

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.

  17. Effect of Bottom Slope on Determining Optimum Coefficients and Performance of PID Controller in Irrigation Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Zamani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of irrigation canals as an operation improvement tool is essential to promote the performance of canal networks and indeed requires control systems. Proportional integral derivative (PID algorithms have more applications than the other controllers in different places of the world, but tuning these controllers for different hydraulic conditions of canals is considered as a major problem for designing control algorithms. Since the bottom slope is one of the effective factors in the water flow dynamic behavior, in this research, the distant downstream Proportional Integral Derivative feedback control with decouplers was designed with a change in longitudinal slope in a reference canal and its performance was investigated. The canal characteristics were used to tune this controller and the system identification as a new method was applied for determining canal characteristics. SOBEK hydrodynamic model modulated with MATLAB software was used to design and run the control algorithms, and slope influence on water flow behavior, tuning controller, and coefficients of controller were investigated with different values of slope. Then, controller performance for hypothetical period of operation in various scenarios was evaluated with computation performance indices. The results showed less resonance behavior of water flow and less potential of controller in steep slope

  18. Significances of differences between slopes: An upgrade for replicated time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In some ecology subjects the slope of the line fit between x and y variables is the focus of concern. Such is the case of self-thinning theory, developed for plant demography and later verified also occurring in algae and animals. Different slopes identify statistical populations subject to different conditions. Therefore, it is fundamental that a test is able to identify honestly significant differences between slopes. The most used tested for the overlap of the 95% confidence intervals of the bootstrapped slopes. However, Vieira and Creed (2013 demonstrated it to possess weak theoretical grounds having proposed a permutation methods alternative. Unfortunately, both were fallible upon small sample sizes and/or large data scatter. Data about self-thinning, as well as other subjects, often comes in replicated time series enabling upgrading the test algorithm to randomize sampling units only within the respective time frame. This was added to the previous software, increasing outstandingly the capacity of the permutation test in identifying both true and false differences between slopes.

  19. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf and slope: SEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) Program, which began in 1980 or 1981, had as its goal the testing of a hypothesis with respect to the fate of particulate matter formed in and introduced into the waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the northern east coast of the US, i.e., the MAB. The original hypothesis was that a large proportion of the particles in general, and of the particulate organic carbon (POC) in particular, was exported from the shelf, across the shelf/slope break and front, into the waters of, and, to some degree, deposited in the sediments of the continental slope. This hypothesis was based on budgets of organic carbon and lead-210 that did not account for a large proportion of those species in the waters or sediments of the shelf, and on a carbon-rich band of sediments centered on the slope at ?1,000 m water depth. The results of the first SEEP experiment, south of New England and Long Island (SEEP-1) suggested, but did not prove, that there was only a relatively small proportion of the carbon which was exported from the shelf to the slope. The objective of the second experiment -- SEEP-2 -- done under the subject grant, was to tighten the experiment in terms of the kinds of data collected, and to focus it more on the shelf and only the upper slope, where shelf-derived particles were thought to be deposited

  20. Assisted death and the slippery slope—finding clarity amid advocacy, convergence, and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper unpacks the slippery slope argument as it pertains to assisted death. The assisted-death regimes of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and the states of Washington and Oregon are discussed and examined with respect to the slippery slope analytical rubric. In addition to providing a preliminary explanation of how the slippery slope argument has been academically defined and constructed, the paper examines assisted-death models from the perspective of considering what might exist at the top and at the bottom of the slippery slope. It also explores the nature and scope of safeguards implemented to avoid slippage, and shows that what lies at the top and bottom of the slippery slope may be different from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. After identifying some of the recent concerns that have arisen within each of the jurisdictions (concerns that might be viewed by some as evidence of slide), the paper concludes by making note of certain critical issues in the current assisted-death debate that merit deeper examination. PMID:22670093

  1. GPS and GIS study of the western slope of the Chiquihuite hill in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez–Yáñez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The demographic explosion of the City of Mexico has forced the anarchical growth of urban development in its mountain slopes. The geologic risk conditions that prevail in such areas are rock falls and down slope creep. The topographic slope analysis shows that these some areas pose a high risk condition for the housing developments located down slope. A geodetic net work was thus developed for the establishment of a reference frame to detect medium and long term slope movement. The location of these benchmarks included rock out crops, structural containment civil structures and street sidewalks. This network was designed to be occupied using GPS fast static methods, with times of occupation no greater to 45 minutes per station. In order to keep short baselines to the reference station and its position errors within low levels we installed a reference GPS site (U CHI on the Southern part of Cerro del Chiquihuite. The Chiquihuite GPS network was monitored for 5 years. The GPS solutions were obtained by differential techniques with ambiguity solution and precise or bits, and using UCHI stations as a reference. The Chiquihuite GPS network does not show significant variations, except for the vertical component at station CH55. This site is likely to be affected by regional subsidence.

  2. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  3. Impact of underground mining to slope deformation genesis at Doubrava Ujala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals with the evaluation of possible impact of undermining on a slope deformation Doubrava Ujala nearby the city of Karvina in the north-east of the Czech Republic. Undermining is a phenomenon caused by underground mining of black coal in the active Karvina part of the Ostrava-Karvina District. It is on the boundary of the working districts Karvina - Mines I and Poruba, which are operated by the Karvina Mine. In order to assess the possible impact, isocatabase maps in different time sections were used documenting the chronology of the subsidence trough formation and next, ground deformation parameters. The activity of slope movement was registered by means of zone extensometry on the surface and in the depth by means of precise inclinometry measuring. Apart from the impact of undermining, the effects of climatic conditions were taken into consideration, correlating the movement size with precipitation depth in the nearest rainfall gauging stations. As for the mechanism of undermining impact there is an apparent influence of additional stress from undermining caused by elongation of the ground surface, which is evidenced by the position of the slope deformation in the convex part of the subsidence trough slope. All the above mentioned factors influence the stability conditions of the slope deformation. (authors)

  4. Efficiency of subsoiling depth according to the slope of the land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pena Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of subsoiling by measuring the depths achieved in different classes of slope of a forest plantation was evaluated. This operation was made with a fertilizer trawling subsoiler with a single smooth parabolic rod depending on seven groups of slope and the maximum lateral inclination of the tractor to perform the subsoiling. It was determined the number and breadth of slope classes by Sturges formula. Data were assessed by regression analysis for data with repetition at 5% significance level. The proposed regression model was adequate to describe the values given that it presented significant result for the F test. For the adjustment of the regression equation, the coefficient of determination was 78.95%, representing the the depth values that are explained by the slope. Thus, it can be said that the depth of subsoiling decreases as the steepness of the ground increases and is a limiter for the quality of the mechanized soil preparation. The results demonstrate that slopes up to 40% allowed the operation of subsoiling to reach the minimum depth of 0.50 m for forest cultivation.

  5. Naturalistic Engineering for risk prevention in two slopes in southern Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Argüello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/11/01 - Accepted: 2013/12/12Naturalistic engineering is a technical-scientific modern science cobining civil, environmental and geotechnical engineerings. It studies and uses building materials, plants, organic and synthetic materials for holding slopes. San Luis de Chillogallo and El Recreo are located in the South of Quito, where two projects for erosion control, containment and environmental recovery, have been implemented. These are pilot interventions that allow applying strategies and capabilities of estimation and reduction of risks from disasters. To implement the works, the ground was shifted, the organic and inorganic matter was wiped out, and unstable parts of the slope were removed, reshaping the slope through land exclusion and relocation. Subsequently, depending on the shape of each slope, specific techniques where designed and implemented. Double Wall Crib and Latin Triangular Branching techniques were used in San Luis de Chillogallo. Live Grating and Latino Triangular Branching techniques were used in El Recreo. Plants such as: Alder, Alnus glutinosa; paper tree, Polylepis sp.; chilca, Baccharis latifolia; lechero Euphorbia lactiflua and Tilo, Tilia platyphyllos; have been used in these projects. These plants are fast growing species and they have adapted successfully on the two slopes intervened.

  6. Monitoring slope movement using time domain reflectometry (TDR) technology and early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many options of electronic instrumentation are available for monitoring unstable and/or potentially unstable slopes. One of the tools is applying TDR technology which is now regarded as a cost effective and alternative means for locating the depth to a shear plane or zone in a landslide. TDR uses an electronic voltage pulse that is reflected like radar from a damaged or deformed location in a coaxial cable. To monitor slope movement, coaxial cables are grouted in boreholes and interrogated using a TDR cable tester, which is attached to a programmed data logger. Characteristic cable signatures can be stored and compared over time for any changes indicating slope movement. This paper describes a case study documenting TDR installation procedure, data acquisition system and on-site TDR data collection of an unstable hill slope in Kampong Bharu -Bukit Tinggi, Bentong. A possibility of using a remotely automated monitoring system (advanced telemetry and data logger) that can incorporate with other types of sensors (e.g. rain gauge, vibrating wire piezometer, in-place inclinometer) together with many TDR sensor cables as an integrated package for early-warning of potential unstable slope movement around the area was highlighted and proposed. (Author)

  7. Geoinformation technologies in the process of terrain slope detection in the area of Fruska Gora with reference to potential development of slope processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badnjarevi? Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the analysis of geoinformation technologies and systems and its usage in detection of terrain slope with reference to timely detection and mapping sites with a high risk of slope movement and activation of landslides. Special attention is referred to the remote sensing technology and data acquisition. In addition to acquisition, data processing is performed: the production of digital terrain model, calculating of the vegetation index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index based on satellite image and analyses of pedology maps. The procedures of processing the satellite images in order to identify locations of high risk of slope processes are described. Several factors and identifiers are analyzed and used as input values in automatic processing which is performed through a unique algorithm. Research results are presented in raster format. The direction of further research is briefly defined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37017: Modeliranje stanja i strukture padinskih procesa primenom GNSS i tehnologija skeniranja laserom i georadarom

  8. Numerical study of the sub-threshold slope in T-CNFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most attractive merit of tunneling carbon nanotube field effect transistors (T-CNFETs) is the ultra-small inverse sub-threshold slope. In order to obtain as small an average sub-threshold slope as possible, several effective approaches have been proposed based on a numerical insight into the working mechanism of T-CNFETs: tuning the doping level of source/drain leads, minimizing the quantum capacitance value via tuning the bias condition or increasing the insulator capacitance, and adopting a staircase doping strategy in the drain lead. Non-equilibrium Green's function based simulation results show that all these approaches can contribute to a smaller average inverse sub-threshold slope, which is quite desirable in high-frequency or low-power applications. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Dead wood relative to slope severity in mesic loess bluff hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    To aid in identification of land within Vicksburg National Military Park that was subjected to forest restoration during the 1930s, I evaluated the hypothesized relationships between maximum live tree diameter or dead wood (standing and down) and severity of slope. Disproportionate mortality among early-successional, pioneer tree species suggested maturation of pioneer upland hardwood forests. As such, input and decomposition of dead wood have likely approached equilibrium. Thus, I did not detect a useful predictive relationship between dead wood (standing or down) or maximum diameter of live trees and severity of slope. Lack of relationships between slope and large diameter trees or volume of dead wood resulted in an inability to evaluate former land use based on these parameters.

  10. Distribution patterns, properties and ages of Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits in the eastern Rhenish Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Scholten, Thomas; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Kadereit, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits (PPSD) cover almost continuously the low mountain areas of Germany. They are interpreted as the result of frost weathering, gelisolifluction, cryoturbation, meltwater outwash processes and loess incorporation. Four types of PPSD are distinguished in the German classification system: A Basal Layer consists entirely of debris of the underlying rock, which it usually directly overlies. It occurs in almost every relief position, and several Basal Layers may have formed on top of each other. An Intermediate Layer contains varying proportions of loess. It is only found in relief positions favourable for loess accumulation and preservation. Its position within a vertical sequence of PPSD is usually on top of a Basal Layer. An Upper Layer consists of a mixture of rock debris and loess, and contains generally a lower amount of loess than a possibly underlying Intermediate Layer. It has a remarkably steady thickness of around 50 cm, as confirmed in many studies. The Top Layer is mostly restricted to the surroundings of outcrops of particularly resistant rock in higher regions and mainly consists of rock debris. PPSD were investigated in the eastern Westerwald area, at the eastern edge of the Rhenish Massif, Germany. Parent rock, exposition, position and shape of slope were expected to be factors influencing the occurrence, thickness and properties of the different types of PPSD. Therefore, profiles were excavated on the main rock types in the area, which are shale, quartzite and diabase. On each rock type, profiles were studied along catenas in NW, SW, SE and NE exposition, each catena including a profile in upper, middle and footslope position. In upper slope positions on shale an Upper Layer covers directly the rock, independent of exposition. In downslope direction, still above the mid slope profiles, a Basal Layer appears between the Upper Layer and the rock. In upper slope positions on quartzite, a Basal Layer is already present between an Upper Layer and the rock in all expositions. The total thickness of the PPSD sequence on quartzite grows downslope, mainly due to an increasing thickness of the Basal Layer. In addition, Intermediate Layers contribute to the thickness of the PPSD profile on the lower slopes in SE- and NE-exposition. This can be partly explained by enhanced loess sedimentation on the leeward slopes in an area of predominantly westerly winds. Additionally, sediments were best preserved on E slopes, because thaw-processes leading to remobilization and removal of formerly deposited sediments were less intensive there. In most of the upper slope profiles on diabase, an Upper Layer covers directly the rock. A Basal Layer starts between the upper and middle slope sites. In SE exposition, an Intermediate Layer appears already on the mid slope. The total thickness of the PPSD sequence reaches its maximum on the footslope, where several Basal Layers may occur on top of one another. With regard to the formation time of the different layers, it is assumed that Basal and Intermediate Layers could have formed during several cold periods of the Pleistocene. It is however most likely that pre-Wurmian layers were preserved only on footslopes, where several Basal Layers occur on top of each other. All other layers are probably of Wurmian age, because the steep slopes did not allow preservation of older sediments (in contrast to areas of Tertiary peneplains in the central Rhenish Massif). Infrared stimulated luminescence datings confirm the assumption that the Upper Layer was subject to gelisolifluction for the last time during the Younger Dryas, and that the remarkably constant thickness of about 50 cm of the Upper Layer represents the thickness of the active layer at that time.

  11. Uranium in the bottom sediments of shelf and continental slope in the Northern Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium content, distribution and genesis are considered for the bottom sediments of shelf and continental slope in the Northern Indian Ocean. Uranium content varies from 0.7 up to 7.5x10-4% and increases from littoral terrigenous sediments of various granulometric composition up to biogenic limestones and up to calcified sand-aleurite sediments of external shelf zone and of the high part of the continental slope. Under these conditions perklark uranium contents at Andaman and Arabian seas shelf are connected with relic carbonate sediment material, and at the continental slope - with high content of aganic substance in sediments. Uranium contents in the Bay of Bengal and the Persian Gulf do not excess klark values and are connected with terrigenous material

  12. Gross Error Denoising Method for Slope Monitoring Data at Hydropower Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are mainly two types of errors existed in monitoring displacement of a rock slope: gross errors and random errors. Monitoring data is very important for the safety construction and operation of the Hydropower Station. The use of slope monitoring data for safety evaluation is influenced by the gross errors during the monitoring process. This paper presents a gross error denosing method for a nonlinear time series based on the three-standard-deviation rule (3-? rule, and then reconstructing the time series by a first-order Lagrange interpolation method. The present method is applied to the gross error analysis of the slope displacement monitoring data collected at the Jinping I Hydropower Station. Computed results show that the first-order difference values of the gross errors can be above or below the upper or lower three-standard-deviation boundary, and the gross errors can be removed effectively.

  13. Energy dependence of slope parameter in elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The study of slope parameter is presented for elastic proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering with taking into account the resent experimental data at high energies. The expanded logarithmic approximations allow the description of the experimental slopes in all available energy range reasonably. Accounting for the LHC results leads to the dramatic change of behavior of the quadratic in logarithm approximation at high energies and to the closer trends for all fitting functions under study in comparison with the analysis at collision energies up to the 200 GeV. The estimations of the asymptotic shrinkage parameter $\\alpha'_{\\cal{P}}$ are discussed. Predictions for diffraction slope parameter are obtained for some proton-proton and antiproton-proton facilities.

  14. The slippery slope: how small ethical transgressions pave the way for larger future transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David T; Ordóñez, Lisa D; Snyder, Deirdre G; Christian, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Many recent corporate scandals have been described as resulting from a slippery slope in which a series of small infractions gradually increased over time (e.g., McLean & Elkind, 2003). However, behavioral ethics research has rarely considered how unethical behavior unfolds over time. In this study, we draw on theories of self-regulation to examine whether individuals engage in a slippery slope of increasingly unethical behavior. First, we extend Bandura's (1991, 1999) social-cognitive theory by demonstrating how the mechanism of moral disengagement can reduce ethicality over a series of gradually increasing indiscretions. Second, we draw from recent research connecting regulatory focus theory and behavioral ethics (Gino & Margolis, 2011) to demonstrate that inducing a prevention focus moderates this mediated relationship by reducing one's propensity to slide down the slippery slope. We find support for the developed model across 4 multiround studies. PMID:24865577

  15. Evolution of skewness and kurtosis of weakly nonlinear unidirectional waves over a sloping bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H.; Trulsen, K.

    2012-03-01

    We consider the effect of slowly varying depth on the values of skewness and kurtosis of weakly nonlinear irregular waves propagating from deeper to shallower water. It is known that the equilibrium value of kurtosis decreases with decreasing depth for waves propagating on constant depth. Waves propagating over a sloping bottom must continually adjust toward a new equilibrium state. We demonstrate that weakly nonlinear waves may need a considerable horizontal propagation distance in order to adjust to a new shallower environment, therefore the kurtosis can be notably different from the equilibrium value for each corresponding depth both on top of and beyond a bottom slope. A change of depth can provoke a wake-like spatially non-uniform distribution of kurtosis on the lee side of the slope. As an application, we anticipate that the probability of freak waves on or near the edge of the continental shelf may exhibit a rather complicated spatial structure for wave fields entering from deep sea.

  16. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope - a possible source for tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, O.; Reuven, E.; Aharonov, E.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous shallow submarine slope failures (scars and deposits) are observed in recent high resolution bathymetric grids of the continental slope off the Israeli eastern Mediterranean coast. The nature of these slope failures is currently not comprehensively understood as well as the question of whether the eastern Mediterranean continental slope is continuously or episodically unstable. This question is relevant to tsunami hazard along the densely populated eastern Mediterranean shores. We report here first steps towards understanding the present state of this submarine landslide system, which include mapping and analyzing the geology of the landslides and the hosting slopes. The continental slope extends from water depths of about 150 to more than 1000 meters with a slope of less than 5 degrees in general. Bathymetric grids with pixel resolution of 15 m till water depth of 700 m and 50 m till water depth of 1700 m were used. Analyzing the bathymetry revealed three main submarine surface features on the continental slope: (a) numerous shallow landslides, within the upper sequence of the post-Messenian sediments. Landslide widths range between hundreds to thousand of meters at the scar, with scar heights up to hundred meters. The toes of the landslides are not always mapable and lay up to a few kilometers down slope from the scar. Slope angles within the scars are 5 degrees to more than 15 degrees. In general landslides size decreases from south to north where their head scar depth turns to be shallower northwards. At least two types of landslides were detected: presumably young slides with sharp scars and presumably old slides with secondary slides and secondary drainage systems developed within the scar area; (b) a few kilometers long, north striking step-like lineaments. Step heights are up to 100 meters and the slopes are up to 20 degrees. The offset between parallel steps is less than a kilometer to a few kilometers. Analyzing seismic lines, the steps are interpreted as surface expressions of growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates up to 1.5 kilometers below surface; (c) a few north striking channels were also detected with steep walls of more than 15 degrees, up to two kilometers width and a few kilometers length. The nature of these channels is not clear yet although apparently they are also a surface expressions of the growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates. Field relations show that the landslides, both young and old, either emerge from the over-steepened steps, or are displaced by them, and hence submarine landslides and steps are apparently contemporaneous. In addition this suggests that salt dynamics at depth is a main drive for at least some of these shallow slides. The above preliminary results testify to the complicated and highly dynamic nature of the studied continental slope, yet to be revealed.

  17. Integrated Use of Soil Amplification and Dynamic Slope Stability in the Microzonation Studies : Esenyurt (Istanbul) Example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microzonation studies for seismic hazard have many uses. It can provide input for seismic design, land use management and estimation of the potential for liquefaction and landslides. Earthquake-induced landslides have caused tremendous amounts of damage throughout history. In many earthquakes, landslides have been responsible for as much or more damage than all other seismic hazards combined. When an earthquake occurs, the effects of earthquake-induced ground shaking is off en sufficient to cause failure of slopes. Resulting damage can range from insignificant to catastrophic depending on geometric and material characteristics of the slope. The amplified motions have devastating effects on structures with periods close the site periods. The site conditions includes rock properties beneath the site to depths of up to about few kilometers, the local site conditions, and the topography of the site. In this study, soil amplifications and slope stability analysis will be evaluated in microzonation studies

  18. The zero-slope limit of Witten's string field theory with Chan-Paton factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I demonstrate that open-string field theory with Chan-Paton factors has Yang-Mills theory as its off-shell zero-slope limit. I first add Chan-Paton group factors both to Witten's string field theory and to a non-oriented extension of it. The quadratic and cubic interactions between massless fields are calculated in the zero-slope limit by means of the Neumann functions computed for Witten's theory by Gross and Jevicki and by Cremmer, Schwimmer and Thorn. I show that the only other terms (up to renormalisation) appearing in the zero-slope limit are those from tree-level interactions between four massless fields. These are evaluated off-shell using the conformal mapping and Neumann function techniques developed by Giddings, by Sloan, and by Samuel. The resulting lagrangian is Yang-Mills theory in the Feynman-Lorentz-Baulieu-Thierry-Mieg gauge. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of SRTM Precision for River Slope and Cross Section by Comparison with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Bonnet, M.; Santos da Silva, J.; Leon, J. G.; Medeiros, D. M.; Roux, E.

    2008-12-01

    Slope of the river is a widely used parameter for discharge estimation. In poorly monitored basins, SRTM have been used to determine river slope (Le Favour et Alsdorf, 2005). Also, SRTM is expected to constrain long wavelength slope in future altimetry mission, such as SWOT. It is then important to assess the quality of SRTM data over river surface, floodplains and wetlands, in particular in case of dense vegetated cover of the river banks, in order to evaluate if such data can reach modeling requirements. We present two types of analysis : river longitudinal profiles and river cross sections extracted from SRTM compared with altitudes computed from altimetry data (ENVISAT, T/P, ICESAT, GPS surveys).

  20. Maximum-Entropy Method for Evaluating the Slope Stability of Earth Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The slope stability is a very important problem in geotechnical engineering. This paper presents an approach for slope reliability analysis based on the maximum-entropy method. The key idea is to implement the maximum entropy principle in estimating the probability density function. The performance function is formulated by the Simplified Bishop’s method to estimate the slope failure probability. The maximum-entropy method is used to estimate the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. A numerical example is calculated and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS and the Advanced First Order Second Moment Method (AFOSM. The results show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. The proposed method should be valuable for performing probabilistic analyses.