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Sample records for takeuchi approach eqn

  1. The Education of a Librarian and Educator: Professor Satoru Takeuchi of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert V.

    2015-01-01

    The early life and professional career of Dr. Satoru Takeuchi, a noted Japanese librarian, educator, and author, are explored here within the context of Japanese library education since World War II. Professor Takeuchi, now retired from the University of Library and Information Science (ULIS) in Tsukuba, Japan, has been an influential educator,…

  2. Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm Following Takeuchi Repair for Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon M. Dunlay; Crystal R. Bonnichsen; Dearani, Joseph A.; Warnes, Carole A.

    2013-01-01

    A 33 year old woman with anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery status post Takeuchi repair at age 7 presented for evaluation. The Takeuchi procedure creates an aortopulmonary window and an intrapulmonary tunnel that baffles the left coronary artery to the aorta. A mediastinal mass was identified as a giant aneurysm of the left coronary artery resulting in compression of the pulmonary artery and left upper pulmonary vein. The patient underwent open repair with patch ...

  3. Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm Following Takeuchi Repair for Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlay, Shannon M.; Bonnichsen, Crystal R.; Dearani, Joseph A.; Warnes, Carole A.

    2013-01-01

    A 33 year old woman with anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery status post Takeuchi repair at age 7 presented for evaluation. The Takeuchi procedure creates an aortopulmonary window and an intrapulmonary tunnel that baffles the left coronary artery to the aorta. A mediastinal mass was identified as a giant aneurysm of the left coronary artery resulting in compression of the pulmonary artery and left upper pulmonary vein. The patient underwent open repair with patch closure at the aortic entrance of the left coronary Takeuchi repair and resection and evacuation of the aneurysm. A saphenous vein graft to the left anterior descending was performed. Postoperative echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular function. This is the first reported case of giant aneurysm formation following Takeuchi repair. Reported complications include the development of pulmonary artery stenosis at the intrapulmonary baffle, baffle leak, decreased left ventricular function, and mitral regurgitation. In conclusion, late complications of the Takeuchi procedure are common, underscoring the importance of lifelong follow-up at a center with experience in treating coronary anomalies. PMID:24169018

  4. Análise da técnica de takeuchi usada para o tratamento da origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar Analysis of the takeuchi procedure for the treatment of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Weirich Lenzi; Leo Solarewicz; Wanderley Saviollo Ferreira; Fábio Sallum; Nelson Itiro Miyague

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: Avaliaçăo dos casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi, analisando o resultado cirúrgico imediato e tardio e a morbidade destes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Relato uma série de casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi. Métodos: Realizou-se a análise com coleta de dados dos prontuários de doze pacientes submetidos ŕ correçăo cirúrgica no período de 1981 a 20...

  5. Una interpretación del concepto de gestión del conocimiento de Nonaka & Takeuchi usando la ficción literaria

    OpenAIRE

    Frías Navarro, Rosalba

    2012-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar el rol de la ficción literaria -narrativa, metáfora, analogía y su expresión a través de la retórica- en contextos organizacionales tales como la investigación y la práctica de la gestión por medio de su uso para la interpretación del concepto de Gestión de Conocimiento planteado por Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995). Esta información es de utilidad para los investigadores, tanto de las ciencias sociales y de las ciencias humanas, como para los directi...

  6. Una interpretación del concepto de gestión del conocimiento de Nonaka y Takeuchi usando la ficción literaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Frías Navarro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como propósito presentar el rol de la ficción literaria -narrativa, metáfora y analogía- en contextos organizacionales tales como la investigación y la práctica de la gestión por medio de su uso para la interpretación del concepto de gestión de conocimiento planteado por Nonaka y Takeuchi (1995. Esta información es de utilidad para los investigadores, tanto de las ciencias sociales y de las ciencias humanas, como para los directivos o estrategas de las organizaciones, ya que se tiene la oportunidad de explorar el potencial de la ficción no solamente como una “forma de entretenimiento” sino como un medio de transferencia de conocimiento al interior de las organizaciones.

  7. Studies on the Asian sawflies of Formosempria Takeuchi (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, with notes on the suitability of F. varipes Takeuchi as a biological control agent for skunk vine, Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosempria Takeuchi, 1929, is distributed in southeastern Asia from Taiwan and China to Vietnam, Myanmar, and possibly northern India. Three species are included: F. crassicornis Wei & Nie, 2002, F. shanensis Malaise, 1961, and F. varipes Takeuchi, 1929 (= F. annamensis Malaise, 1961, syn. n.; = F. metallica Wei, 2003, syn. n.. Formosempria varipes was reared from larvae feeding on Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Hong Kong and was a potential biological agent for the invasive P. foetida in Florida. Larval feeding tests indicate more than one species of Paederia are suitable hosts for F. varipes and further study for use as a biological control agent in Florida is unwarranted. Descriptions and illustration of the species are given, and life history notes on F. varipes are presented.

  8. A Language to Enable Distributed Simulation of Extended Queueing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gianni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed simulators are increasingly being used for their intrinsic advantages in terms of reusability, fault tolerance, performance, and geographic distribution. The development of a distributed simulator, however, requires significant investments in terms of effort if compared to the development of traditional local simulators. This paper introduces jEQN, a Java-based language that significantly reduces the extra effort needed to develop a distributed simulator of extended queueing networks (EQNs, by enabling simulator developers to build distributed simulators as they were to be locally executed. By use of jEQN, simulator developers are enabled to easily switch from a local to a distributed version of an EQN simulator by only modifying few statements of the given local simulator. Moreover, these statements can be easily inferred by a very intuitive graphical procedure. The paper illustrates both the jEQN architecture, based on a layered approach, and the implementation details that contribute to achieve the above mentioned advantages.

  9. Effective Lagrangian approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the global chiral symmetry of the Standard Higgs sector we parametrize the symmetry breaking scheme SU(2)L x SU(2)R ? SU(2)L+R with an effective Lagrangian, which accounts for the low energy behaviour (up to the TeV-scale) of any theory obeying this symmetry pattern. The heavy Higgs Standard Model and rescaled QCD are considered as possible candidates, and the values of the effective coupling constants are calculated or extracted from the literature in both cases. Weak Isospin breaking is taken into account by calculating the fermionic determinant of a fermion doublet with large mass splitting. Finally, contact is made with the recent literature on vacuum polarization effects, in particular, we clarify the relation between the effective coupling L10 and the S-parameter of Peskin and Takeuchi. (orig.)

  10. Risk factors for suicidal behaviors among Filipino Americans: a data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Filipino Americans have lower suicide rates than other Asian ethnic groups. The present study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempt among Filipino Americans with random forest. The data were from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study (Takeuchi, 2011). The results showed that the important predictors for suicide ideation were depressive disorder, substance use disorder, and years in the United States. The important predictors for suicide attempt were the number of family relatives and family conflict. Clinicians are advised to investigate familial and cultural factors among Filipino Americans. How family and cultural factors may affect suicidal behaviors were further discussed. PMID:25110976

  11. Narrative approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Narrative coaching is representative of the new wave – or third generation – of coaching practice . The theory and practice of narrative coaching takes into account the social and cultural conditions of late modern society, and must be seen as intertwined with them. Some initial conceptualizations of narrative coaching were developed by David Drake (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) in the USA and Australia, by Ho Law in the UK (Law, 2007a + b; Law & Stelter, 2009) and by Reinhard Stelter (2007, 2009, 2012, in preparation; Stelter & Law, 2010) in Denmark. In the following chapter the aim is to present coaching as a narrative-collaborative practice, an approach that is based on phenomenology, social constructionism and narrative theory. Seeing narrative coaching as a collaborative practice also leads to reflecting on the relationship between coach and coachee(s) in a new way, where both parts contribute to the dialogue equally and sometimes even symmetrically. The practice of narrative coaching will be examined in relation to the concrete experiences gained in a related field of practice, i.e. narrative therapy (White, 1997, 2007). Narrative coaching is to be understood as a reflective space, either of an individual or of a group or team, where the main focus is on values and on providing opportunities for meaning-making. Problematic experiences or events are reframed by the unfolding of alternative narratives; these are based on re-experiencing and re-collection, as well as on the process of co-creation between coach and coachee. The conceptual framework will be tested by presenting central results of a research project. The ideas discussed in this chapter expand upon earlier concepts of the narrative approach (mainly formulated by White in 2007) by integrating ideas from phenomenology and experiential approaches with collaborative and social constructionist thinking.

  12. Referential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following method for preparing a specific training program for a given trade can be applied to every level (technical, administrative, management, etc.) and at every organizational level. The process is based on a quality-oriented approach: strict application of a methodology, structured organization and involvement of all participants. The recommended methodology is based on three main phases: For each trade, define a ''trade referential'' based on task analysis; from this, deduce the training objectives, thus defining the ''training referential''; prepare the training plan, write the specifications for the different sessions and then prepare the teaching materials

  13. Nuclear knowledge preservation of Atucha type Reactor: Practical approaches and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The nuclear option is born in Argentina in 1950. Since then and after half century, the Argentine nuclear sector reaches a hierarchy and an important technological - scientific dimension in all the issues related to activities linked to the nuclear sector. The export of research reactors, the nuclear fuel production and the installation of nucleoelectrical power stations constitute one of the most outstanding achievements of this activity. The Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, of Siemens-KWU technology with 30 years of operation and Embalse (Candu type) with 20 years of operation, register an efficient and safe performance, within the worldwide standards. In addition, and with Siemens technology the Atucha II NPP is in construction with a 82% of work advance. At the moment Siemens, has transferred his place as designer of reactors LWR to the Framatom ANP Company and consequently Argentina will have to make all the efforts to assure the 'knowledge preservation' of the technology of this line of reactors, if it hopes that Atucha I extends its useful life and Atucha II is finalized. Likewise the aging of the personnel in the sector is worrisome being numerous the great number of people who are close to retire what it worsens if we think that there are a few young people able in this specialty by the lack of the entrance of candidates in compatible races This situation generated the necessity to implement a system of Knowledge Management to capture and to capitalize the tacit and explicit knowledge, to spread it and to share by using techniques and tools adapted through the organization. Practical Approaches and Lessons Learned: A - Analysis of the strategy: The strategy was based on recognizing the critical knowledge by means of the use of a methodology that incorporates the technique of the map of the critical knowledge. That is to say, to recognize the patrimony of the knowledge around the reactor. The layout of the knowledge map of reactor together with the systematic analysis of criticalities generated the architecture of the taxonomies of reactor Atucha type behavior as also it allowed to carried out its own actions of the knowledge management from the diagnosis of the it where proposals and actions arise destined to reduce the criticality and to put into operation the different processes system. (Cycle of Nonaka and Takeuchi) B. - Technical of development and its disadvantages: Factors of analysis How to restore a new methodology that requires of the application of techniques for personal and group interviews. It is essential to consider this time at the time of project planning. The project demands much interaction with experts of different profiles and availability of their time because it involves to all the nuclear sector and the complete service life of the Reactor (project, design, operation, decommissioning, dismantling). Effects of the operation state of plant in the accomplishment of different activities from the project The infrastructure of the ITC of different generations that coexist can force to generate migrations of information and to develop new additional tools. The limited HHRR, financial resources, the administrative circuits, the different corporative cultures that coexist and the critical knowledge that keeps in mind of people close to get their retirement, require of an exhaustive previous analysis to determine their influence in the criticality of the system. (author)

  14. Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Natural Products Mind and Body Practices Safety of Mind and Body Practices Other Complementary Approaches Safety of Other Complementary Approaches Research on Diseases Affecting Older Adults Research on Pain Management Be an Informed Consumer Tell Your Health Care ...

  15. Posterior shoulder approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, L A; Matiko, J A; Terry, G C

    1985-12-01

    A posterior shoulder surgical approach combines the subperiosteal detachment of the deltoid from the scapular spine, described by McWhorter, with a lateral extension to include the lateral deltoid splitting of Codman. The glenohumeral joint is superiorly approached between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons, or inferiorly between the infraspinatus and teres minor tendons. This approach was used in 42 shoulders with rotator cuff tears or posterior instability without complications of infection, failure of deltoid healing, or compromise of suprascapular or axillary nerves. This combined surgical approach provides excellent exposure of the superior and posterior shoulder, which is difficult to obtain by anterior or superior approaches. This approach may be used for repair of rotator cuff tears, posterior instability, and displaced posterior glenoid fractures. PMID:4064401

  16. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SŘrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

  17. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SŘrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  18. Articulating Design Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Břdker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    We are working on an approach for designing CSCW systems since we advocate the importance of generalizing from own work practice as designers and from studies of designers working under industrial conditions. We use the term approach as something in between commodified methods and isolated...... techniques supporting one or a few activities. Our background is computer science. In our design approach we use a combination of intervention and ethnographic techniques. The question for us is how to present our approach: what kind of guidelines and at what level of detail might designers from industry...

  19. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sřrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  20. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sřrensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  1. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sřrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  2. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  3. Project planning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project planning approach utilized by Rockwell Hanford Operations in outdoor cleanup activities is discussed. The discussion addresses the rationale and requirements, as well as a description of the planning documents. In addition, a recommended adaptation of this approach toN a large-scale environmental cleanup process is described

  4. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  5. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  6. Project planning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the project planning approach utilized by Rockwell Hanford Operations in outdoor cleanup activities. The discussion will address the rationale and requirements as well as description of the planning documents. In addition, a recommended adaptation of this approach to a large scale environmental cleanup process is included. The three major elements of Rockwell Hanford's project planning approach are assignment of responsibilities, development of applicable criteria, and alternatives identification, assessment and recommendation. Data gathering and data management are also necessary elements to complete the planning. The specific planning documents that are used at Rockwell Hanford are described. The documents are divided into two major areas: control plans and project plans

  7. Introducing Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  8. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Hřgh

    The rapid development of organic agriculture on a global scale has led to an increased inclusion of producers in developing and transitional countries in the organic food chain. In order to enhance the theoretical frame for the analysis and understanding of the impact that inclusion in the organic...... food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...

  9. VMD approach to ?-?(?,?)?-?? decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a description of ?-?(?,?)?-?? decays in the approach of the vector-meson dominance (VMD) model and compare our results with the conserved vector current (CVC) predictions and experimental data

  10. Approaches to Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  11. ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? Approaches (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??????? ??????

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This year, in May 2011, the journal Approaches: Music Therapy & Special Music Education successfully completes two years of publications. On the occasion of this anniversary, this article presents a review of Approaches’ work, publications and broader actions from 2009 onwards. This review attempts to outline the profile of the journal in Greece and abroad, as this has been formed during the first years of its life. In this context an analysis of Approaches’ publications is made, according to various indicators and criteria: publication categories, types of articles, scientific fields, publication languages, and authors’ countries of origin. Taking into consideration that Approaches is the first (and the only until now journal for music therapy and special music education in Greece, the outcomes emerging from this review and analysis are not limited to the journal. These outcomes offer useful indications for the broader situation and development of the respective fields in Greece.

  12. Approachability in Population Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bauso, Dario; Norman, Thomas W. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reframes approachability theory within the context of population games. Thus, whilst one player aims at driving her average payoff to a predefined set, her opponent is not malevolent but rather extracted randomly from a population of individuals with given distribution on actions. First, convergence conditions are revisited based on the common prior on the population distribution, and we define the notion of \\emph{1st-moment approachability}. Second, we develop a ...

  13. Sustainable fashion: New approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2013-01-01

    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  14. Approaching metric domains

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierres, Gonçalo; Hofmann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    In analogy to the situation for continuous lattices which were introduced by Dana Scott as precisely the injective T$_0$ spaces via the (nowadays called) Scott topology, we study those metric spaces which correspond to injective T$_0$ approach spaces and characterise them as precisely the continuous lattices equipped with an unitary and associative $[0,\\infty]$-action. This result is achieved by a thorough analysis of the notion of cocompleteness for approach spaces.

  15. STUTTERING-PSYCHOLINGUISTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Anca; Carolina Bodea Ha?egan; L?cr?mioara Prihoi

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the linguistic material. Thus, the conclusions of this research study offer the possibility of promoting cross-cultural and cross-linguistic researches, with t...

  16. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  17. Local approach to fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models allowing the prediction of the failure of structures by crack propagation were first introduced in the 50's using linear fracture mechanics whose principles were first proposed by Griffith (1920). This approach was extended to non linear cases (plasticity and visco-plasticity) in the 70's based on the work of Rice (J or C* integrals); it has been largely adopted by the industry. However this so called global approach cannot deal with all practical cases and cannot explain all experimental observations as, for instance, the warm pre-stress effect (WPS). The local approach to fracture, which relies on a fine analysis of strains, stresses and damage of highly solicited regions (cracks, notches...) of structures is an alternative which allows to solve problems encountered while applying the global approach. It has been developed since the 80's in particular in France. Important research efforts are currently undertaken in this field in Europe (France, Germany), United States and Japan. This book presents several aspects of the local approach to fracture: damage mechanisms, experimental techniques, damage evolution law and failure criteria, modelling of damage, numerical simulation. This work is the result of a collective work carried out by the best french specialists (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ecole Centrale Paris, ENS Cachan, Universite de Louvain, INSA Lyon, ONERA, EDF). (authors)

  18. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  19. Revitalizing the setting approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine; Clausen, Laura Tolnov; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Poulsen, Kjeld; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe concept of health promotion rests on aspirations aiming at enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion action is facilitated in settings such as schools, homes and work places. As a contribution to the promotion of healthy lifestyles, we have...... further developed the setting approach in an effort to harmonise it with contemporary realities (and complexities) of health promotion and public health action. The paper introduces a modified concept, the supersetting approach, which builds on the optimised use of diverse and valuable resources embedded......-based. Based on a presentation of żHealth and Local Communityż, a supersetting initiative addressing the prevention of lifestyle diseases in a Danish municipality, the paper discusses the potentials and challenges of supporting local community interventions using the supersetting approach...

  20. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  2. Homogenization approach in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

  3. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  4. The Challenges of Becoming Agile : Implementing and Conducting Scrum in Integrated Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    “In today's fast-paced, fiercely competitive world of commercial new product development, speed and flexibility are essential. Companies are increasingly realizing that the old, sequential approach to developing new products simply won't get the job done.” (Takeuchi & Nonaka, 1986) Now twenty-five years old, the statement from the 1986-edition of Harvard Business Review seems more true than ever before. Commercial markets are moving faster and faster, and time as a strategic source of competi...

  5. The Challenges of Becoming Agile:Implementing and Conducting Scrum in Integrated Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    “In today's fast-paced, fiercely competitive world of commercial new product development, speed and flexibility are essential. Companies are increasingly realizing that the old, sequential approach to developing new products simply won't get the job done.” (Takeuchi & Nonaka, 1986)Now twenty-five years old, the statement from the 1986-edition of Harvard Business Review seems more true than ever before. Commercial markets are moving faster and faster, and time as a strategic source of comp...

  6. Marxian Approaches to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

  7. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  8. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  9. A Fresh Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violino, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Facilities and services are a huge drain on community college budgets. They are also vital to the student experience. As funding dries up across the country, many institutions are taking a team approach, working with partner colleges and private service providers to offset costs and generate revenue without sacrificing the services and amenities…

  10. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraveer Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

  11. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  12. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  13. Islamic approach in counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

    2014-02-01

    A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah. PMID:23563898

  14. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... represents various challenges to more `closed' social science disciplines, notably economics....

  15. Communicational Approach to Copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Vilanka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It may be questioned whether traditional concepts of individualistic droit d' auteur copyright theory apply to digital communication networks such as Internet. Due to mass of information it may be especially questioned whether it is rational to apply the concept of reproduction in an environment where no-one, not to mention individual authors, may rigorously evaluate where and when a copy of a certain piece of content is being produced. Consequently this article suggests an alternative approach to evaluate economic rights of authors in digital network environments. In doing so it theoretically compares economic rights of authors to basic research results from the field of communication studies. This approach is chosen as copyright is often connected to communication. The article offers an alternative, which should not narrow rights of authors but would provide more meaningful way to perceive copyright in digital networks.

  16. Microwave approaches in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The microwave approaches for remote sensing of soil moisture centent, snowpack properties, surface water area, and the detection of precipitation over land are discussed. Both active (radar) and passive (radiometry) approaches are considered, and the advantages of microwave sensing are pointed out, including all-weather capability, especially at the longer wavelengths, and greater penetration depth with optical or infrared sensors. Results obtained from ground-based, aircraft, and spacecraft platforms show that microwave systems can monitor the moisture content in the surface soil layer (5 cm thick), and that passive microwave systems can discriminate between light and heavy snowcover, detect the presence of liquid water in the snow, and qualitatively estimate snow water equivalent.

  17. Dimensional Approach in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In psychiatry there is a traditional categorical conception stating that several disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have distinct etiologies. On the other hand, dimensional approach claims that these entities are actually the same disorder reflecting different clinical aspects of same mental disorder in the course of time. ICD and DSM classifications are based on separate categories of different mental disorders. Howewer, it is quite difficult to consider a mental disorder as a discrete entity that has absolute boundaries from other disorders. There are patients manifesting symptoms of two or more categories but do not fulfill all diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder. Dimensional approach handles the psychopathology as a continuing process and establish the patients to the different ongoing points. According to this view, in fact, multiple diagnosis reflect dimensions of the same disease.

  18. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  19. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard

    2015-01-01

    through this transformation is inevitably a tectonic question. By analyzing three historical examples, Adolf Loos’ Villa Moller, Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation, and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Johnson Wax Administration Building, chosen for their tectonic ability to exploit the technical ‘principle’ defining...... the building envelope as an aesthetic ‘gesture’, this paper discusses the architectural challenges related to energy renovation in a Danish context and tectonic design method as an approach to these challenges in everyday practice....

  20. Approaching Service Innovation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard se...

  1. Disability: a welfarist approach

    OpenAIRE

    Savulescu, J.; Kahane, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species' functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist ter...

  2. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directio...

  3. Topology optimization approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Topology optimization has undergone a tremendous development since its introduction in the seminal paper by Bendsře and Kikuchi in 1988. By now, the concept is developing in many different directions, including “density”, “level set”, “topological derivative”, “phase field”, “evolutionary” and se...... several others. The paper gives an overview, comparison and critical review of the different approaches, their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and dissimilarities and suggests guidelines for future research....

  4. [Subjectivity. A new approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchais, P

    1995-05-01

    The difficulties inherent in a study of subjectivity incite the proposal of a new approach based on the systemal method. The strategy evolves in three stages: introspection by several observers leading to individual models, intersubjectivity expressed by interaction of these models, progressive development of models by increase of the number of observers. This strategy admits of a more precise study of subjective phenomena, systems of knowledge and mutually recurrent types of knowledge. PMID:7668509

  5. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  6. Approach to Dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Koppert, Theresa; Elmslie, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Dyspepsia is a common presenting problem of patients in family medicine. Dyspepsia can be caused by a number of underlying conditions, from peptic ulcer disease to functional disorders. Primary-care physicians need to develop an approach to the investigation and treatment of dyspepsia which maximizes symptom relief while minimizing patient discomfort and health costs. This article assesses the current literature on dyspepsia and outlines the evidence for various management strategies.

  7. Algebraic approach to renormalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Jochen

    1996-01-01

    In close analogy to the Bloch-Feshbach formalism known from the theory of nuclear dynamics, I develop a mathematical framework that allows one to understand renormalization in terms of purely algebraic operations (projections, dilatations) in Hilbert space. This algebraic approach is put to the test in the study of the low-energy dynamics of interacting quantum gases, and proves to be efficient in deriving such diverse results as the renormalization group equation for an int...

  8. Approaching physician recruitment systematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, T

    1998-04-01

    Physician recruitment has become increasingly competitive. Organizations that recruit physicians need to establish a systematic recruitment approach that includes determining the organization's recruitment objectives, using various recruiting sources, assessing the skills and "fit" of all candidates, explaining the benefits to candidates early in the process, checking references carefully, and acting quickly to make an offer. Following a systematic physician recruitment plan can help healthcare organizations hire the best person for the job. PMID:10178070

  9. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this...

  10. [Larynx preservation: nonsurgical approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhis, J; Lefebvre, J L; Temam, S; Lusinchi, A; Janot, F; Wibault, P; Pignon, J P

    2004-11-01

    The question of larynx preservation is central in the management of patients with a carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx, especially to preserve the main functions of the larynx. In early stages (T1-earlyT2) Larynx preservation can generally be obtained with partial surgery or radiotherapy. Some other approaches such as exclusive chemotherapy require further investigations. In locally advanced and infiltrating larynx/hypopharynx carcinomas, (advancedT2-T3), several ways have been used to preserve the larynx including exclusive radiotherapy which can be improved by modified fractionation and acceleration. The efficacy of radiotherapy can be also markedly increased by adding concomitant cisplatin based chemotherapy, as reported recently in a large randomized trial. An alternative approach consisted in using induction chemotherapy (cisplatin-5FU) and followed by a local treatment adapted to the response to chemotherapy. The combined analysis of 3 such randomized trials (GETTEC, Veteran et EORTC) showed that this approach has to be used with caution, and could be safer in good responders to induction chemotherapy. Finally, larynx preservation is generally not proposed in patients with deeply infiltrating tumors and or tumor invading the cartilage or soft tissue in the neck (T4). PMID:15679243

  11. Security Management – Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kný

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the contribution is the use of the systems approach to treat security management as a practical field and new scientific discipline. The philosophy of systems approach to the solution of problems generally is an adequate methodological basis even for the theory of management. The path to the real optimization of security situation leads only through the holistic and solid solution. Applications of systems analysis and synthesis back up the fact, that systems approach and systems thinking should not absent in security objects. The truthfulness of the claim, that security management is a well-established discipline, depends on ongoing discussion that represents useful process of development of new scientific discipline. At the same time the rationality of science and systematism works as a counterbalance to irrational fear of the whole society, too. Which questions of security remain open in relation to „our interests“? Current problems of Europe should be solved systematically. It is necessary to define the space of interest (territorially the border of the EU or the Schengen area, to implement the system to the object with respect to the borders of the space, to specify the structure and subjects of decision making and implementation.

  12. Parsec's astrometry direct approaches .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, A. H.

    Parallaxes - and hence the fundamental establishment of stellar distances - rank among the oldest, keyest, and hardest of astronomical determinations. Arguably amongst the most essential too. The direct approach to obtain trigonometric parallaxes, using a constrained set of equations to derive positions, proper motions, and parallaxes, has been labeled as risky. Properly so, because the axis of the parallactic apparent ellipse is smaller than one arcsec even for the nearest stars, and just a fraction of its perimeter can be followed. Thus the classical approach is of linearizing the description by locking the solution to a set of precise positions of the Earth at the instants of observation, rather than to the dynamics of its orbit, and of adopting a close examination of the never many points available. In the PARSEC program the parallaxes of 143 brown dwarfs were aimed at. Five years of observation of the fields were taken with the WIFI camera at the ESO 2.2m telescope, in Chile. The goal is to provide a statistically significant number of trigonometric parallaxes to BD sub-classes from L0 to T7. Taking advantage of the large, regularly spaced, quantity of observations, here we take the risky approach to fit an ellipse in ecliptical observed coordinates and derive the parallaxes. We also combine the solutions from different centroiding methods, widely proven in prior astrometric investigations. As each of those methods assess diverse properties of the PSFs, they are taken as independent measurements, and combined into a weighted least-square general solution.

  13. Conceptual Approach To Architecture ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badi alAbed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that architectural interpretation is experiencing from abuse use of architectural key terms. Notions like: criticism, history and theory; concepts like: beginning and approach; and labels like: style, school and movement were used indiscriminately in architectural interpretation.For instance, Banham (1966:10 indicated that he interpreted New Brutalism as a movement before the conditions of forming a movement were existed. Jencks writings are another example for the abuse use of the former notions, concepts and labels. In his two books: The Language Of Post-Modern Architecture and Late Modern Architecture, he described Post-Modern Architecture: first as a movement, second as a style, third as a school and fourth as an approach. Banham and Jencks were attempting to formulate verbal equivalent to the design of some architects before it was tested and proved to deserve a theoretical coverage, organized in an intellectual discipline as an approach, school or movement. This attempt perhaps, caused this abuse use of the former key terms in architectural interpretation. Commercial architectural press was another source for the abuse use of the previous architectural key terms. As a case in point, the magazine of Architectural Design (AD was a major source of the misinterpretation of those notions, concepts and labels, over the past four decades. It seems that no considerations were made to the specific definitions of those key terms, nor to the scope of their conceptual meaning, limits and context of their theme. Thus this paper endeavors to clear the abuse use of those notions, concepts and labels in architectural interpretation via defining them, refining their conceptual meanings. And exploring their themes, outlining their role, scope and place within architectural interpretation in order to employ them appropriately within architectural interpretation, as they constitute basic themes of the conceptual world of architecture. In so doing an attempt will be made to investigate the origin, structure, meaning and definitions of the said key terms as indicated in key literary, philosophical and architectural sources. Another attempt will be made to highlight the process and emphasize the conditions of forming and establishing architectural approaches, schools and movements via the concept beginning - as a moment in time and as a project underway - as interpreted in architectural sources. It is important to indicate that investigations in this paper are limited only to the notions: criticism, history and theory; concepts: beginning and approach; and labels: style, school and movement; though investigations will include concepts like precedence, generality and creativity, but within the previous architectural key terms.

  14. Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agresta Ferdinando

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal peritonitis emergencies.

  15. HEDR modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the conceptual approaches to be used in calculating radiation doses to individuals throughout the various periods of operations at the Hanford Site. The report considers the major environmental transport pathways--atmospheric, surface water, and ground water--and projects and appropriate modeling technique for each. The modeling sequence chosen for each pathway depends on the available data on doses, the degree of confidence justified by such existing data, and the level of sophistication deemed appropriate for the particular pathway and time period being considered

  16. The Capability Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, I.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance, and second, that freedom to achieve well-being is to be understood in terms of people’s capabilities, that is, their real opportunities to do and be what they have reason to value. This framework c...

  17. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  18. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  19. [Psychosomatic approach in dermatovenerology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánková, R

    2006-01-01

    Psychosomatic approach is a component of psychodermatology, which accentuates a holistic principle and psychosocial unity of man. Research data concerning the neurogenic modulation of skin inflammations, together with the prevalence of psychosocial influences in dermatological patients, motivate an increased interest of dermatovenereologists in psychodermatology and in the interdisciplinary cooperation with clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and other pertinent specialists. The Section of the Psychodermatology of the Czech Dermatovenereological Society was established in September 3rd 2004, in order to improve dermatovenereological care and the quality of life in dermatological patients. PMID:16521399

  20. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.

  1. The collaboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  2. Diagnostic Approach to Dysmorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shajari

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available DW smith coined in 1966 the word dysmorphology to describe the study of human congenital defects, i.e. abnormalities of body structure that originate before birth. Dysmorphic anomalies can occur in any part of the body and mostly arise during the first 3 months of intrauterine life. There are many different types of birth defects, although individually rare, taken together they account for a disproportionately large fraction of childhood morbidity and mortality. This article is intended to provide background and a basic approach to the diagnosis of the child with malformations.

  3. The collaboratory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A open-quotes collaboratoryclose quotes has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students

  4. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  5. Endoscopic approach to achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES. Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia.

  6. Inventory Management : Forecast Based Approach vs. Standard Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dallery, Y.; Babai, Z.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a literature review on inventory management policies. Two approaches are distinguished : the standard inventory management approach and the advance demand information based approach. We focus on the advance demand information based approach. In particular, we study a pure single-stage and single-item inventory system where demand is given in the form of forecasts. Two forecast based inventory management policies are proposed, namely : the (rk,Q) which is a dynamic re...

  7. Laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Nazik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern laparoscopic surgery is widely used throughout the world as it offers greater advantages than open procedures. The laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy has evolved over the last 20 years. Hysterectomies are performed abdominally, vaginally, laparoscopically or, more recently, with robotic assistance. Indications for a total laparoscopic hysterectomy are similar to those for total abdominal hysterectomy, and most commonly include uterine leiomyomata, pelvic organ prolapse, and abnormal uterine bleeding. When hysterectomy is going to be performed, the surgeon should decide which method is safer and more cost-effective. This paper aims to make a review of the indications, techniques and advantages of laparoscopic hysterectomy as well as the criteria to be used for appropriate patient selection.

  8. Integration a functional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bichteler, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    This book covers Lebesgue integration and its generalizations from Daniell's point of view, modified by the use of seminorms. Integrating functions rather than measuring sets is posited as the main purpose of measure theory. From this point of view Lebesgue's integral can be had as a rather straightforward, even simplistic, extension of Riemann's integral; and its aims, definitions, and procedures can be motivated at an elementary level. The notion of measurability, for example, is suggested by Littlewood's observations rather than being conveyed authoritatively through definitions of (sigma)-algebras and good-cut-conditions, the latter of which are hard to justify and thus appear mysterious, even nettlesome, to the beginner. The approach taken provides the additional benefit of cutting the labor in half. The use of seminorms, ubiquitous in modern analysis, speeds things up even further. The book is intended for the reader who has some experience with proofs, a beginning graduate student for example. It might...

  9. Management practice: phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Siqueira da Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the aim of understanding the lived experiences by managers in relation to organizational changes in an enterprise in the food area, located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The role of managers has been constantly evaluated and their capacity of continuous learning and also the ability of transforming the learning in good organizational results is reacquired every instant. In this work, my intention is to show, using an interpretative analysis, real and practical situations, from lived experiences. The methodological way followed was the hermeneutic phenomenological approach, trying to give a global and a contextual treatment to the theme. The results achieved offer subsides for a new look over the management practice and point out the importance of the study of what is lived, as an inspiration source for the strategic decisions in the enterprises.

  10. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  11. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    zero while the polarization field per polariton is essentially the excitonic dipole moment per unit volume. From the wave function of the polariton it is seen that in a very broad spectral range around the resonance the polariton is essentially an exciton that travels through the crystal with the speed......The interaction between excitons and light has been investigated in detail. The perturbational approach turns out to be invalid. However, an exact solution can be obtained directly from the Schrödinger equation for a fixed light field. This solution corresponds to a nonlinear optical response...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions...

  12. A matter of approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; W. U. Appel, Peter; Chibunda, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    by using a simple mercury recycling device known as a retort. While mining legislation in Tanzania dictates the use of retorts for gold recovery, virtually no miners use them, indicating the inadequacy of previous introduction attempts. During action research, retorts were introduced in two mining......The mercury-based gold extraction processes prevalent within small-scale mining are both efficient and harmful. While ensuring relatively high levels of gold recovery, they cause environmental and health problems for people living within mining settlements. This mercury consumption can be minimized...... settlements through a thorough and participatory approach. Twenty miners were given retorts and their attitudes and receptiveness to them were studied. Of the recipients, 18 used the retorts over a period of five months, recycling 10 kilos of mercury. Less mercury was spilled into the environment and miners...

  13. RAMI Approach for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER is an experimental nuclear device with an ambitious scientific and technological programme. To be able to reach its objectives an assessment of the technical risks has to be performed. The RAMI approach is one of the main stages of the technical risk control and it focuses on the operational functions required by the operation of ITER rather than on physical components. The ITER RAMI Process presented in this document, along with elements of the analysis performed on the Tokamak Cooling Water System provided as examples, consists of four major steps: (1) performing functional analysis, (2) analyzing initial failure modes, effects and criticality, (3) initiating risk mitigation actions to ensure compatibility with RAMI objectives, (4) integrating as RAMI requirements.

  14. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  15. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Berend and Roger Emerson as they explore the benefits of the Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly ... many others who have used this approach. The benefits of the approach are operating through an internervous ...

  16. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you were using metal/metal. What is your thinking there? I have been anxiously waiting for some ... anterior approach and going from, initially, the direct lateral approach -- it doesn’t want to sit down ...

  17. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Children and Complementary Health Approaches On This Page Introduction ... in the Use of Complementary Health Approaches in Children According to the 2012 National Health Interview Survey ( ...

  18. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between excitons and light has been investigated in detail. The perturbational approach turns out to be invalid. However, an exact solution can be obtained directly from the Schrödinger equation for a fixed light field. This solution corresponds to a nonlinear optical response contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained. It is discussed whether the magnitude of the exciton-photon interaction energy has any influence on the exciton binding. The concept of polariton fields is introduced (i.e., the electric and polarization field per polariton), and it is seen that close to resonance the electric field per polariton is essentially zero while the polarization field per polariton is essentially the excitonic dipole moment per unit volume. From the wave function of the polariton it is seen that in a very broad spectral range around the resonance the polariton is essentially an exciton that travels through the crystal with the speed of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave function derived in the present work is then sufficient.

  19. Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Agarwal,

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme of missing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a word of cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover and stego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded character determines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach ...

  20. Sudakov effects in BBNS approach

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Dong-Sheng; Huang, Chao-shang; Wei, Zheng-Tao; Yang, Mao-Zhi(School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China)

    2001-01-01

    The end-point singularity is an unsolved problem in BBNS approach. Incorporating the partonic transverse momentum and the Sudakov form factor, this problem can be solved model-independently. We discuss the Sudakov effects in BBNS approach. The BBNS approach is compared with the modified PQCD approach. The main idea of Sudakov form factor is briefly discussed. Our conclusion is that the twist-3 contribution for the hard spectator scattering is numerically not important in $B\\...

  1. Approach to team skills training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US commercial nuclear power industry has recognized the importance of team skills in control room operation. The desire to combine training of team interaction skills, like communications, with technical knowledge of reactor operations requires a unique approach to training. An NRC-sponsored study identified a five-phase approach to team skills training designed to be consistent with the systems approach to training currently endorsed by the NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. This paper describes an approach to team skills training with emphasis on the nuclear power plant control room crew. An approach to team skills training

  2. APPROACH TO ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza ZAMANI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias, also known as organic acidurias, are a group of disorders characterized by increased excretion of organic acids in urine. They result primarily from deficiencies of specific enzymes in the breakdown pathways of amino acids or from enzyme deficiencies in beta oxidation of fatty acids or carbohydrate metabolism. Organic acids also are found in the urine of some patients with mitochondrial disease.Most organic acidemias become clinically apparent during the newborn period or early infancy. After an initial period of well-being, affected children develop a life-threatening episode of metabolic acidosis characterized by an increased anion gap. This presenting episode may be mistaken for sepsis, and if unrecognized, is associated with significant mortality.Children with an organic acidemia are susceptible to metabolic decompensation during episodes of increased catabolism, such as intercurrent illness, trauma, or surgery. Parents and clinicians must be well informed about the initial signs of decompensation and trained in applying an emergency regimen . Surgeons and anesthesiologists should be aware of potential complications and their prevention during anesthesia and surgery.Diagnosis has been facilitated through the use of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and tandem mass spectrometry .Prenatal diagnosis is available for most disorders by detection of diagnostic compounds in amniotic fluid; by analysis of enzyme activities in amniocytes or chorionic villi; by molecular analysis; or by a combination of the three . Diagnosis also may be made through newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry .Laboratory findings are an essential part of the diagnostic approach to organic acidemias. In most organic acidemias, metabolism of glucose, ketone bodies, and ammonia is deranged primarily or secondarily, in addition to derangement of the acid-base balance. Hypoglycemia, lactic and/or ketoacidosis, and hyperammonemia of varying severity accompany the overt or compensated acidosis. In most instances, a definite diagnosis will be achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS studies of the urine.However sometimes definite diagnosis by clinical and laboratory assessments is not conclusive, in this cae diagnostic approach must be supported by loading tests. The majority of organic acidemias may be treated by limiting the source of intake or removing the toxic intermediary metabolite. In the case of disorders lacking an effective treatment, an early diagnosis could lead to proper genetic counseling of the parents and to the option of reliable prenatal diagnosis of future pregnancies.

  3. Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Ruben

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle an electrocardiograph than a medical visit.

  4. Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

  5. APPROACHES TO PUBLIC INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Roxana ULMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both concepts, integrity and public integrity, are always asked qualities in the social and economic environment, but they are never well defined. In this context, finding precise definitions and offering an ample explanation of the concepts are desired and useful for both economic theoretical and practical levels and become the aim of the present paper. Without a good understanding of a concept, no one is capable to attain it. In this context, it is impossible to ask for a public sector of integrity if both public actors and the citizens do not know what it really means. Therefore, the public actors first have to understand what integrity really supposes, and, then, to be capable to respect its principles. Taking into consideration the effects of public integrity or, on its opposite, of the divergence from it, especially represented by the phenomenon of corruption, on the economy at the macro, but also, on the micro level, public integrity in itself becomes a real economic problem that is aimed to be extensively analyzed through our interdisciplinary approach.

  6. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  7. Aquatic environmental remediation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant's nuclear accident contaminated a significant portion of Fukushima Prefecture, and environmental remediation activities have been performed. To reduce the human exposure to the radiation induced by the nuclear contamination, one can reduce the radiation level in the environment, and/or eliminate radionuclide pathways to humans. This paper presents some case studies that are relevant to the Fukushima case. These examples include the Chernobyl nuclear accident's environmental and remediation assessments, U.S. Hanford environmental remediation activities, and the pesticide remediation assessment for the James River Estuary, Virginia, U.S.A. 1-D TODAM, 2-D FETRA and 3-D FLESCOT codes have been applied to the surface waters. TODAM code is currently being applied to the Ukedo and Takase rivers in Fukushima to predict cesium-137 migration in these rivers. A lesson learned from these experiences is that to achieve the effective clean-up, remediation decision makers must include knowledgeable scientists and competent engineers, so that environmental remediation activities are based on a scientifically-valid approach for a given contaminated location. Local participation to the remediation decision making is critically important. (author)

  8. Light cone approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most challenging problems in theoretical high energy physics is to compute the bound state structure of the proton and other hadrons from quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the field theory of quarks and gluons. The goal is not only to calculate the spectrum of hadrons masses from first principles, but also to derive the momentum and spin distributions of the quarks and gluons which control high energy hadron interactions. One approach to these difficult calculations is to simulate QCD on an artificial lattice. Recently, several new methods based on ''light-cone'' quantization have been proposed as alternatives to lattice theory for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD and other field theories. The basic idea is a generalization of Heisenberg's pioneer matrix formulation of quantum mechanics: if one could numerically diagonalize the matrix of the Hamiltonian representing the underlying QCD interaction, then the resulting eigenvalues would give the hadron spectrum, while the corresponding eigenstates would describe each hadron in terms of its quark and gluon degrees of freedom

  9. COMPRENDO : Focus and approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Albanis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates).

  10. Combined approach for gynecomastia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction) to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Patients and methods: Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. Results: All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues). Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first 3 patients showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2nd opinion.

  11. NonMarkov Ito Processes with 1- state memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2010-08-01

    A Markov process, by definition, cannot depend on any previous state other than the last observed state. An Ito process implies the Fokker-Planck and Kolmogorov backward time partial differential eqns. for transition densities, which in turn imply the Chapman-Kolmogorov eqn., but without requiring the Markov condition. We present a class of Ito process superficially resembling Markov processes, but with 1-state memory. In finance, such processes would obey the efficient market hypothesis up through the level of pair correlations. These stochastic processes have been mislabeled in recent literature as 'nonlinear Markov processes'. Inspired by Doob and Feller, who pointed out that the ChapmanKolmogorov eqn. is not restricted to Markov processes, we exhibit a Gaussian Ito transition density with 1-state memory in the drift coefficient that satisfies both of Kolmogorov's partial differential eqns. and also the Chapman-Kolmogorov eqn. In addition, we show that three of the examples from McKean's seminal 1966 paper are also nonMarkov Ito processes. Last, we show that the transition density of the generalized Black-Scholes type partial differential eqn. describes a martingale, and satisfies the ChapmanKolmogorov eqn. This leads to the shortest-known proof that the Green function of the Black-Scholes eqn. with variable diffusion coefficient provides the so-called martingale measure of option pricing.

  12. Radiolab - three different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Stockfelt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lřnstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists: Don Ihde, whose notion of ‘voice’ is understood in a more general sense as the voices of all things, and Lawrence Ferrara, who methodologically operates within tree levels of investigation: 1 the syntax, 2 the semantic and 3 the ontology level. Accordingly, this analysis is conducted, as if the sound object was performed by a vocal ensemble oscillating ‘between a musical and a speech act’. Torben Sangild’s paper focuses on the concrete function of the sound object as a radio signature. This prompts a generic analysis and a semantic model of radio signatures in general, eclectically employing formal, indexical, gestural, discursive and contextual levels of meaning. The analysis of the Radiolab signature focuses on the overall gesture of tension and release as well as the semantic elements in a constellation with the content and style of the radio programme. After the three individual contributions, a brief summary and conclusion will follow, answering any questions that may arise in the process.

  13. Approaches to database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It could be very helpful to use the data previously accumulated by other NPPs in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) modernization. This data can be helpful in doing a more realistic assessment of the task, in understanding the advantages and disadvantages from the planned modernization. Possible difficulties arising from the modernization can be detected and timely eliminated by undertaking the necessary precautions (early elaboration of the needed preventive measures). The database (DB) of modernization projects could be also helpful for finding similar tasks that were implemented with the best benefits for the utility, to decide on the modernization approach and to select well experienced suppliers. That is why a regular collection and international exchange of such data would be beneficial for many utilities. Significance of such DB usage for the managers could be very high, provided the content of the DB is adequate and sufficiently comprehensive. It is expected that it would be difficult to get data for this database with appropriate quality and the level of details. The IAEA responsible officer will have to determine if the potential users want to develop and populate such a database. There are many published documents, reports and papers describing good practices and lessons learned from NPP I and C modernization activities that could provide information for the DB. The database is suggested as a supporting tool for the modernization project teams and the utilities. The DB structure has to support the users and be oriented on data processing optimization (including the data input and presentation). It should be as simple and transparent for the users as possible within the frame of the task to be solved

  14. Morgagni hernia - laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?t.O. Georgescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morgagni hernia is due to a diaphragmatic defect, retrosternal congenital hernia being a rare form of hernie. The diagnosis is usually in childhood but there are cases that are found in adult or as a intraoperative surprise. The condition is asymptomatic or has nonspecific clinical manifestations or clinical dressing of often occlusive complications. The diagnosis is established by Rx thoracic imaging, barium enema or computed tomography (CT eso-gastro-duodenal passage. Treatment consists of reducing the hernia with or without dissection and resection of the hernia sac and diaphragmatic defect closure by suture the fascia endotoracica retrosternal and retrocostala or rectus abdominis sheath or plastic bag. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 49 years old woman admitted in our department for an insidious onset, several months ago, with postprandial upper abdominal pain, flatulence and nausea. CT scan revealed a mass of 95 / 130 / 80 mm, narrowly defined with homogeneous structure and negative densities (fat in the lower and middle mediastinum, outlining opacity described in cardiofrenic sinus radiography. The aspect was characteristic for a Morgagni hiatus hernia. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed using a 30ş laparoscope inserted through a 10 mm supraombilical trocar; it revealed the parietal defect (Morgagni hernia and the herniation of greater omentum. Two additional 5 mm trocars are then inserted; the escaped great omentum was reintegrated and the parietal defect was laparoscopically sutured. To note, the peritoneal hernia sac was abandoned. Postoperative course was uneventful. A review of the literature data was also performed. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive surgery is feasible, safe and tends to become “gold standard” therapeutic approach for the treatment of Morgagni hernia.

  15. Energy Efficient Approaches: Altruist Energy Efficient Approach is the Best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sunil Kumar#1, P. SivaChandrika*2, A. Shiva Kumar*3, K. Srinivasulu*4, Y. Rama Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the energy efficient approaches and the importance of Altruistic approach in the absence of nearest neighboring nodes to the receiver. Two energy-efficient approaches have been proposed one is in-situ energy efficient approach, and the other is altruistic energy efficient approach. In the first approach existing nodes in network are only used and in second approach additional nodes called altruists are used. Generally comparison is done with five protocols with respect to these approaches and identifies altruistic DISH to be the right choice since it conserves 40-80 percent of energy, maintains the throughput advantage, and the cost efficiency compared to protocols without this approach is two times more. Our study also shows that an in-situ energy efficient approach is suitable only in certain confined scenarios. When transmit-receive pair wishes to initiate communication, neighboring nodes share their knowledge of channel usage. This helps to considerably reduce collisions and increases throughput significantly. However, it comes at the cost of increased energy consumption since idle nodes have to stay awake to overhear and acquire channel usage information. In fact this can be as high as 264% of a power-saving protocol without cooperation. The core idea is to introduce specialized nodes called altruists in the network whose only role is to acquire and share channel usage information. All other nodes, termed peers, go in to the sleep mode when idle due to this power consumption will be less. This altruistic approach seems to be complicated because it needs additional nodes to be deployed.

  16. Material Modelling - Composite Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    This report is part of a research project on "Control of Early Age Cracking" - which, in turn, is part of the major research programme, "High Performance Concrete - The Contractor's Technology (HETEK)", coordinated by the Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1997.A composite-rheological model of concrete is presented by which consistent predictions of creep, relaxation, and internal stresses can be made from known concrete composition, age at loading, and climatic conditions. No other existing "creep prediction method" offers these possibilities in one approach.The model is successfully justified comparing predicted results with experimental data obtained in the HETEK-project on creep, relaxation, and shrinkage of very young concretes cured at a temperature of T = 20^o C and a relative humidity of RH = 100%. The model is also justified comparing predicted creep, shrinkage, and internal stresses caused by drying shrinkage with experimental results reported in the literature on the mechanical behavior of mature concretes. It is then concluded that the model presented applied in general with respect to age at loading.From a stress analysis point of view the most important finding in this report is that cement paste and concrete behave practically as linear-viscoelastic materials from an age of approximately 10 hours. This is a significant age extension relative to earlier studies in the literature where linear-viscoelastic behavior is only demonstrated from ages of a few days. Thus, linear-viscoelastic analysis methods are justified from the age of approximately 10 hours.The rheological properties of plain cement paste are determined. These properties are the principal material properties needed in any stress analysis of concrete. Shrinkage (autogeneous or drying) of mortar and concrete and associated internal stress states are examples of analysis made in this report. In this context is discussed that concrete strength is not an invariable material property. It is a property the potentials of which is highly and negatively influenced by any damage caused by stress concentrations such as introduced by eigenstrain/stress actions like shrinkage, temperature, and alkali-aggregate reactions.Based on the overall positive results reported it is suggested that creep functions needed in Finite Element Analysis (FEM-analysis) of structures can be established from computer-simulated experiments based on the model presented - calibrated by only a few real experiments.

  17. Approaches for learning Prolog programming

    OpenAIRE

    Shanshan Yang; Mike Joy

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Prolog programming is a challenge for many beginners, and many instructors and researchers have proposed and adopted varied teaching approaches to help learners to understand Prolog easily. However, it is not known whether any of the teaching approaches currently in use is appropriate from a learner's perspective. This paper reports the results of an investigation into which approaches are suitable for Prolog novices and why they are appropriate.We first categorise the teaching ...

  18. New approaches to protein docking

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    In the first part of this work, we propose new methods for protein docking. First, we present two approaches to protein docking with flexible side chains. The first approach is a fast greedy heuristic, while the second is a branch -&-cut algorithm that yields optimal solutions. For a test set of protease-inhibitor complexes, both approaches correctly predict the true complex structure. Another problem in protein docking is the prediction of the binding free energy, which is the the fin...

  19. Narrative Communication. A Peircean Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yunhee

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] This paper examines how narrative can function as medium of communication. There are various approaches to the study of narrative. Recent approaches have become more concerned with cognition and context than with narrative structure itself. These approaches provide enquirers with a view of narrative as potential medium for communication between the storyteller and the addressee. Particularly insofar as the concept of communication involves context, as well as a shared situation and...

  20. Exploring Innovation - A language approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mabogunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgĺrd; Berg, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    ” Innovation Management is a complex task that requires improved methods to support the exploration of multiple innovation dimensions. We suggest firms to adopt a language inspired approach in order to improve existing methods. The language approach is supported by a graphical innovation profile that maps the innovation features and choices. The paper demonstrates the applications and perspectives of this approach with reference to a qualitative case study.”

  1. Amplitude dependent closest tune approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach.

  2. New approaches to knowledge acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, R-Q

    1994-01-01

    It is well recognized that knowledge acquisition is the critical bottleneck of knowledge engineering. This book presents three major approaches of current research in this field, namely the psychological approach, the artificial intelligence approach and the software engineering approach. Special attention is paid to the most recent advances in knowledge acquisition research, especially those made by Chinese computer scientists. A special chapter is devoted to its applications in other fields, e.g. language analysis, software engineering, computer-aided instruction, etc., which were done in Ch

  3. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  4. Pulmonary embolism: the team approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case has been made for a multidisciplined approach in all cases of suspected pulmonary embolus. There are substantial problems in the clinical recognition of this enigmatic entity. Therefore, all available diagnostic and therapeutic expertise is required. Selected cases have been used for illustration and to support the thesis of a realistic team approach

  5. Artificial intelligence approaches in statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of pattern recognition and knowledge representation methods from Artificial Intelligence within statistics is considered. Two areas of potential use are identified and one, data exploration, is used to illustrate the possibilities. A method is presented to identify and separate overlapping groups within cluster analysis, using an AI approach. The potential of such ''intelligent'' approaches is stressed

  6. Theoretical approaches for studying Astrochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Talbi D.

    2012-01-01

    The most popular ab initio theoretical approaches that are used to study the gas phase astrochemical reactivity are presented. The methods that are needed for the electronic calculation and the statistical approaches that are used for determining the rate coefficients are detailed.

  7. Luria's approach to neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A

    1992-09-01

    A. R. Luria's approach to neuropsychological assessment was examined. Three basic points of departure from Luria are presented: his interpretation of cognitive activity as functional systems, his emphasis on the individualized approach, and the importance of the analysis of the errors. A distinction was introduced between Luria's neuropsychological testing, and Luria's neuropsychological approach; the former refers to the specific set of neuropsychological tests Luria used and developed and the latter, to the specific clinical use of these tests. It is emphasized that Luria's basic contribution to assessment in neuropsychology, refers to the clinical approach he proposed and developed. Problems related to the normalization and validity of neuropsychological tests are analyzed. It is concluded that different approaches in neuropsychological assessment are related to the specific goals for which neuropsychological assessment is performed. PMID:1304568

  8. Surgical Approaches to Breast Augmentation: The Transaxillary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Louis L

    2015-10-01

    The transaxillary approach to breast augmentation has the advantage of allowing breast implants to be placed with no incisions on the breasts. There has been a general perception of a lack of technical control compared with the inframammary approach. This article presents the transaxillary approach from the perspective of the technical control gained with the aid of an endoscope, which allows precise creation of the tissue pocket with optimal visualization. The aspects of technique that allow optimal technical control are discussed, in addition to postoperative processes that aid in stabilizing the device position and allow consistent and predictable outcomes. PMID:26408445

  9. The biogenic approach to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Pamela

    2006-03-01

    After half a century of cognitive revolution we remain far from agreement about what cognition is and what cognition does. It was once thought that these questions could wait until the data were in. Today there is a mountain of data, but no way of making sense of it. The time for tackling the fundamental issues has arrived. The biogenic approach to cognition is introduced not as a solution but as a means of approaching the issues. The traditional, and still predominant, methodological stance in cognitive inquiry is what I call the anthropogenic approach: assume human cognition as the paradigm and work 'down' to a more general explanatory concept. The biogenic approach, on the other hand, starts with the facts of biology as the basis for theorizing and works 'up' to the human case by asking psychological questions as if they were biological questions. Biogenic explanations of cognition are currently clustered around two main frameworks for understanding biology: self-organizing complex systems and autopoiesis. The paper describes the frameworks and infers from them ten empirical principles--the biogenic 'family traits'--that constitute constraints on biogenic theorizing. Because the anthropogenic approach to cognition is not constrained empirically to the same degree, I argue that the biogenic approach is superior for approaching a general theory of cognition as a natural phenomenon. PMID:16628463

  10. “Various Approaches of Requirement Engineering and Comparisons among These Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Anandi Mahajan; Dr. Anurag Dixit

    2013-01-01

    Requirements engineering is the foundation of software engineering, and quality of requirements engineering determines the quality ofprojects. In order to fulfill user's requirement, it is very important to manage user’s requirement effectively. There are many approaches to gather user’s requirement. In this paper we discuss about various approaches of requirement gathering in requirements engineering and comparison among them on the basis of various parameters like reusability, scaling, inte...

  11. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not.

  12. Chain approach, innovation and leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. De Mulder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is available in English and Dutch This contribution deals with a new paradigm of performance, how it promotes innovation and is consistent with the chain approach developed by Jan Grijpink and his research team. The new paradigm of performance will be explained and the parallels with the chain approach will be discussed. The background of both approaches is the frequent failure of the prevailing views, on the one hand, and the importance of innovative intervention in the difficult and often chaotic reality, on the other.

  13. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well as the...... approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  14. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach, if possible, that way we can avoid direct injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve if ... viewership should know that this is done under direct vision. Yeah. You are seeing everything you’re ...

  15. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true Smith- Peterson, you would ...

  16. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which...... may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  17. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to tonight’s webcast. We ... Biomet Orthopedics. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. 25

  18. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  19. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  20. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  1. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation. PMID:26209781

  2. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ...

  3. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to ... should know that this is done under direct vision. Yeah. You are seeing everything you’re doing. ...

  4. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is at the bottom of your screen where it says, “Ask a question.” Since you have tuned ... this approach myself since 2005, and currently use it for most of my primary and even some ...

  5. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the surgery, about this patient being an ideal candidate for this minimally invasive approach, given her valgus ... toothed so I can get down in the canal and then use this to get out laterally. ...

  6. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... would like to thank Biomet for making this possible tonight. Dr. Berend, are you ready? Yes, sir. ... a little more lateral with this approach, if possible, that way we can avoid direct injury to ...

  7. Multifractal approach for seafloor characterization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Haris, K.; Latha, G.; Maslov, N.; Menezes, A.A.A.

    , based on the strange attractor that exhibits multifractal scaling. The second approach is designed as stochastic multifractal fields that connect the image block quantification to the three fundamental parameters, namely, degree of multifractality alpha...

  8. Women's Health and Complementary Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Women’s Health and Complementary Approaches Some health and wellness issues ... our disclaimer about external links Related Topics MedlinePlus Women's Health Resources NIH Office of Research on Women's Health ...

  9. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  10. Necrotizing fasciitis: an alternative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, R; Hargreaves, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of necrotizing fasciitis are presented. The initial management of necrotizing fasciitis remains undisputed. However, following a limited success with a conventional treatment policy, a more radical approach with immediate skin grafting following debridement is suggested.

  11. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there has been high patient satisfaction in my experience. With that said, I’m going to proceed. ... doesn’t have these vessels. And in our experience thus far with this approach, Roger, I would ...

  12. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... where in my hands same approach, same patient population, I have over a 15 percent risk of ... is made by Angiotech. It’s just not a problem. You have to be careful and you have ...

  13. Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, Irina V

    2001-01-01

    Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

  14. Bounding approaches to system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélčne; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  15. Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.

    OpenAIRE

    Mauderly, J L

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants c...

  16. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Ramvi

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher’s own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and also the strong methodological implications of this approach. The researcher’s struggle to remain open is elaborated. Here “openness” is regarded as ...

  17. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-01-01

    Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligat...

  18. The Database State Machine Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pedone, Fernando; Guerraoui, Rachid; Schiper, Andre

    1999-01-01

    Database replication protocols have historically been built on top of distributed database systems, and have consequently been designed and implemented using distributed transactional mechanisms, such as atomic commitment. We present the Database State Machine approach, a new way to deal with database replication in a cluster of servers. This approach relies on a powerful atomic broadcast primitive to propagate transactions between database servers, and alleviates the need for atomic comm...

  19. A Dynamical Approach to Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Rugh, Hans Henrik

    1997-01-01

    We present a new dynamical approach for measuring the temperature of a Hamiltonian dynamical system in the micro canonical ensemble of thermodynamics. We show that under the hypothesis of ergodicity the temperature can be computed as a time-average of the functional, div(grad H/|grad H|^2), on the energy-surface. Our method not only yields an efficient computational approach for determining the temperature it also provides an intrinsic link between dynamical systems theory and the statistical...

  20. Information Hiding: A Generic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Riad jabri; Boran Ibrahim; Hadi A. Zoubiv

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Privacy and security over communication channels are of primary concerns. Due to their complexity and diversity, there is a need for continuous improvements of the adopted solutions. In this study, we consider two of the adopted ones, namely, steganogrphy and cryptography and propose a new information hiding system. Approach: The proposed system was based on a generic approach that incorporates text-based steganography and cryptography methods in a way that permits their co...

  1. SVG 157-nm lithography approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, James A.; DeMarco, Michael A.; Fahey, Thomas J.; Hansen, Matthew E.; Tirri, Bruce A.

    2000-07-01

    SVG Lithography (SVGL) has instigate da comprehensive program for the development of an advanced 157nm lithography exposure system of processing 70nm critical dimensions. This paper presents the need for 157nm technology to be an evolutionary approach and details the present state of the challenges in the development of 157nm lithography. It also describes the SVGL 157nm program approach and provides some insight into the progress made to date addressing the challenges.

  2. [Extended Bauer Approach and Transfemoral Approach in THA Revision.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, O

    2000-01-01

    The number of revision surgeries of the hip joint keeps growing and it brings new problems, especially in cases where the skeleton in the region of the loosened stem is destructed. As we have been pursuing total hip arthroplasty in the Czech Republic for 30 years we know that the life of the implants is reduced, the number of aseptic loosening is increasing. This loosening is associated with the loss of the bone stock, mainly the cortex gets thinner. The revision cemented stem cannot be exactly fixed in the destructed proximal femur and, in addition, the bone is further damaged. Wagner introduces a new concept of the treatment of these severe complications: transfemoral approach, cementless implant - a stem which may be fixed distal to the destruction of the proximal femur. This method provides prerequisites for the formation of the new bone - bone regeneration and the regeneration of the destructed femoral bone stock. The author presents an extended Bauer approach he has been using in revision surgeries since 1983 (in cases where the bone stock has been preserved and the broken stem of the implant or the persisting remnants of the bone cement have to be removed). This technique is used also in the transfemoral approach which differs from the Wagner approach by performing transfemoral osteotomy in the coronal rather than sagittal plane. It allows operating on the patient in the supine position - similarly as during primary implantation. It provides the possibility of a reliable replacement and alignment of the loosened cup and the revision of the medullary canal from the transfemoral approach in the coronal plane, removal of the bone cement, polyethylene granuloma and an exact application of the Wagner stem. It means that the stem must be fixed below the osteotomy level, extending over 10 cm, but minimally 7 cm proximally to the isthmus of the medullary canal. This extended transfemoral approach requires the Wagner stems in the length of 265 mm and 305 mm. With the use of the Wagner stems of the length of 190 mm or 225 mm this approach is usually not indicated. Key words: revision surgery, transfemoral approach, Wagner stem. PMID:20478235

  3. Relativistic particle in a three-dimensional box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the work of Alberto, Fiolhais and Gil and solve the problem of a Dirac particle confined in a 3-dimensional box. The non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits are considered and it is shown that the size of the box determines how relativistic the low-lying states are. The consequences for the density of states of a relativistic fermion gas are briefly discussed. - Research highlights: Solution of Dirac eqn for a relativistic spin-1/2 particle in a 3-dim square box. ? Non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits are related to the size of the box. ? The density of states is shown to be a bit higher than the non-relativistic one. ? In ultra-relativistic limit density of states approaches the non-relativistic one.

  4. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  5. Anomaly Detection Using Behavioral Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benferhat, Salem; Tabia, Karim

    Behavioral approaches, which represent normal/abnormal activities, have been widely used during last years in intrusion detection and computer security. Nevertheless, most works showed that they are ineffective for detecting novel attacks involving new behaviors. In this paper, we first study this recurring problem due on one hand to inadequate handling of anomalous and unusual audit events and on other hand to insufficient decision rules which do not meet behavioral approach objectives. We then propose to enhance the standard decision rules in order to fit behavioral approach requirements and better detect novel attacks. Experimental studies carried out on real and simulated http traffic show that these enhanced decision rules improve detecting most novel attacks without triggering higher false alarm rates.

  6. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  7. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  8. Toward predicate approaches to modality

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach to modality will have to face the paradoxes independently of the grammatical category of the modal notion. By systematizing modal principles with respect to their joint consistency and inconsistency, Stern provides an overview of the options and limitations of the predicate approach to modality that may serve as a useful starting point for future work on predicate approaches to modality. Stern also develops a general strategy for constructing philosophically attractive theories of modal notions conce...

  9. A general approach to bosonization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Girish S Setulur; V Meera

    2007-10-01

    We summarize recent developments in the ?eld of higher dimensional bosonization made by Setlur and collaborators and propose a general formula for the ?eld operator in terms of currents and densities in one dimension using a new ingredient known as a `singular complex number'. Using this formalism, we compute the Green function of the homogeneous electron gas in one spatial dimension with short-range interaction leading to the Luttinger liquid and also with long-range interactions that lead to a Wigner crystal whose momentum distribution computed recently exhibits essential singularities. We generalize the formalism to ?nite temperature by combining with the author's hydrodynamic approach. The one-particle Green function of this system with essential singularities cannot be easily computed using the traditional approach to bosonization which involves the introduction of momentum cutoffs, hence the more general approach of the present formalism is proposed as a suitable alternative.

  10. Systems Science Approach to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

    Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

  11. Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program

  12. International Approaches to Clinical Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja

    2013-01-01

    This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business School’s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data, and provide opportunities for all healthsystems to learn and potentially improve their own approaches. The HFMA hopes to build on this initial baselining exercise to understand more about how key issues are being tackled in some of the health systems that have made the most progress with costing.

  13. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ramvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher’s own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and also the strong methodological implications of this approach. The researcher’s struggle to remain open is elaborated. Here “openness” is regarded as something more than a principle for research practice. It is a way to relate both to oneself and the other, to emotions as well as actions, to the inner as well as the external world.

  14. Synergistic approach to patient dialysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragotoiu, A; Checheri??, AI; Ciocâlteu, A; Rizeanu, S

    2015-01-01

    The stress a patient is subjected to during dialysis treatment can be reduced by using a synergetic approach by the medical team. The integration into therapy of the positive psychical resources such as: active positive coping mechanisms, individual or family mental resilience, improvement of the image and self-esteem, better tolerance to frustration can represent an important part in the improvement of the patient’s quality of life, determination of a positive approach of the situations both for him and close friends and relatives. PMID:26361514

  15. Need for a multidisciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation of oil poses significant environmental risks. Effective reduction of those risks require an integrated approach, including the legal and institutional aspects, waste reception facilities in ports, navigational risk assessment, oil spill modelling, environmental sensitivity mapping and oil spill contingency planning. Proper management starts with an integrated study of oil pollution risk management, covering both oil pollution as a consequence of operational discharges and as a consequence of accidents. However, as the two areas of oil pollution management are different, they therefore require separate approaches

  16. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a �black box� in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the �black box�.

  17. Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Koshelev, M.; Lohrenz, T.; M. VANNUCCI; Montague, P R

    2010-01-01

    We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer ...

  18. Real analysis a constructive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bridger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

  19. The narrative approach in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Picozzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the narrative approach in Bioethics is more and more considered and used. In our paper we would like to explain why – when we need to take a decision – it is essential and crucial that the patient tells his own history; we also indicate the main consequences that this approach has with reference to the choices at the bed of the patient. Selected Papers of the Congress “Narrative Based Medicine and Communication in Clinical Practice” · Cagliari, Italy · April 14th, 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli

  20. The narrative approach in Bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Picozzi

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the narrative approach in Bioethics is more and more considered and used. In our paper we would like to explain why – when we need to take a decision – it is essential and crucial that the patient tells his own history; we also indicate the main consequences that this approach has with reference to the choices at the bed of the patient. Selected Papers of the Congress “Narrative Based Medicine and Communication in Clinical Practice” · Cagliari, Italy · April 14th, 2014 Guest Editors...

  1. Elementary calculus an infinitesimal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Keisler, H Jerome

    2012-01-01

    This first-year calculus book is centered around the use of infinitesimals, an approach largely neglected until recently for reasons of mathematical rigor. It exposes students to the intuition that originally led to the calculus, simplifying their grasp of the central concepts of derivatives and integrals. The author also teaches the traditional approach, giving students the benefits of both methods.Chapters 1 through 4 employ infinitesimals to quickly develop the basic concepts of derivatives, continuity, and integrals. Chapter 5 introduces the traditional limit concept, using approximation p

  2. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true Smith- Peterson, you would ...

  3. Linear models an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Debasis

    2003-01-01

    Linear Models: An Integrated Approach aims to provide a clearand deep understanding of the general linear model using simplestatistical ideas. Elegant geometric arguments are also invoked asneeded and a review of vector spaces and matrices is provided to makethe treatment self-contained.

  4. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  5. A Freudian Approach to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Sandra L.

    This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

  6. ENGLISH WRITING, APPROACHES TO COMPOSITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

    THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS BY STAFF MEMBERS OF THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER FOCUSES ON APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF COMPOSITION IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. THE PAPERS ARE (1) "LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION," BY JAMES F. MCCAMPBELL, (2) "COMPOSING--EPIPHANY AND DETAIL," BY JOSEPH DYESS, (3) "THE LANGUAGE COMPOSITION ACT," BY LESTER E.…

  7. Force approach to radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gustavo V.

    2016-02-01

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  8. A Different Approach to Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach to new school design that looks at architectural issues from a different angle: channeling a wide range of information into a targeted collection of ideas on which the architect can then base a design. It includes the collection of both factual and emotional components that are brought together into a final design. (GR)

  9. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ve got these soft tissue preserving reamers that only have one band of teeth on them, and ... top of the ilium. Yeah. We’re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” ...

  10. Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Harry

    The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

  11. Superbrane actions and geometrical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review a generic structure of conventional (Nambu-Goto and Dirac-Born Infeld-like) worldvolume actions for the superbranes and show how it is connected through a generalized action construction with a double supersymmetric geometrical approach to the description of super-p-brane dynamics as embedding world supersurfaces into target superspaces. (author). 28 refs

  12. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

  13. Cooperative Approaches to Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton F.; Hammond, Martine

    1982-01-01

    Offers three approaches to professional development for faculty and administrators willing to explore cooperative arrangements: cooperative agreements with business and industry for temporary faculty employment; arrangements with nearby community colleges whereby paired faculty explore mutual interests; and paired arrangements between part-time…

  14. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  15. Early Writing: A Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document consists of four papers on the acquisition of writing skills by young children. The first paper provides a historical and developmental perspective on early writing. Children's development of manual dexterity is briefly overviewed and aspects of the educational approaches of Pestalozzi, Montessori, Chomsky, Rogers and Ashton-Warner…

  16. Designing for Uncertainty: Three Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Higher education wishes to get long life and good returns on its investment in learning spaces. Doing this has become difficult because rapid changes in information technology have created fundamental uncertainties about the future in which capital investments must deliver value. Three approaches to designing for this uncertainty are described…

  17. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

  18. Nanoparticle Approaches against Bacterial Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide success of antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infection still faces significant challenges, particularly the emergence of antibiotic resistance. As a result, nanoparticle drug delivery platforms including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and various inorganic nanoparticles have been increasingly exploited to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. This review focuses on areas where nanoparticle approaches hold significant potential t...

  19. Approaching Environmental Issues in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here takes its point of departure in the design process with a specific focus on how it is approached when designing energy efficient architecture. This is done through a case-study of a design process in a Danish architectural office. This study shows the importance of hav...

  20. Thoracoscopy: a collaborative surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, A F

    1995-07-01

    Perioperative nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and pharmacists are meeting the challenge of decreasing thoracic surgical patients' length of hospital stay with thoracoscopy. This innovative alternative to traditional thoracotomy procedures has been achieved through an attentive team approach using the fundamental perioperative skills of assessment, positioning, safety, and sharing of knowledge. PMID:7647761

  1. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  2. Appreciating Music: An Active Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Andrew R.; Pargas, Roy P.

    2005-01-01

    A particularly innovative use of laptops is to enhance the music appreciation experience. Group listening and discussion, in combination with a new Web-based application, lead to deeper understanding of classical music. ["Appreciating Music: An Active Approach" was written with Joshua Austin.

  3. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  4. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Microplasty™ June 16, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, live from Mount Caramel New Albany Surgical Hospital in ... replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and ...

  5. New Approach to Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Davis K.

    2004-01-01

    Examinations profoundly affect students' psychological and emotional well-being. Not surprisingly, in today's test-centered climate test anxiety has become a widespread problem. A new, multi-dimensional treatment approach to test anxiety reduction is presented with both the mental health clinician and educator in mind. Suited to high school,…

  6. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Dr. Roger Emerson from Plano, Texas, and I will be moderating this webcast. I will ask Dr. Berend questions, and we can ... webcast, you have an interest in this procedure. I have used this approach myself since 2005, and ...

  7. International Approaches to Clinical Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza; Angelé-Halgand, Nathalie; Angert, A.; Campenale, C.; Cinquini, Lino; Doyle, G.; Garrot, T.; Hansen, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hinz, V.; Mateus, Cesario; Perego, P.; Sikkut, R.; Tenucci, A.; Quentin, W.

    This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business School’s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data, and...

  8. New Approach for Image Fusion Based on Curvelet Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehad Mohamed Taher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the image fusion work has been limited to monochrome images. Algorithms which utilize human colour perception are attracting the image fusion community with great interest. It is mainly due to the reason that the use of colour greatly expands the amount of information to be conveyed in an image. Since, the human visual system is very much sensitive to colours; research was undertaken in mapping three individual monochrome multispectral images to the respective channels of an RGB image to produce a false colour fused image. Producing a fused colour output image which maintains the original chromaticity of the input visual image is highly tricky. The focus of this paper is developing a new approach to fuse a color image (visual image and a corresponding grayscale one (Infrared image – IR using the curvelet approach using different fusion rules in new fields. The fused image obtained by the proposed approach maintain the high resolution of the colored image (visual image, incorporate any hidden object given by the IR sensor as an example, or complements the two input images and keep the natural color of the visual image.

  9. Approaching death in multicultural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickiss, J Norelle

    2003-09-15

    Culture is a system of shared ideas, concepts, rules and meanings that underlies the way we live--and approach death. Cultural diversity refers to more than ethnic diversity: age, gender, sexual preference, capabilities, education, place of residence, and occupation (including the health professions) contribute to diversity of culture. Clinical decision making involves values and ethical principles, which are influenced by culture--not only of the patient but also of the carers and health professionals. Care of patients approaching death involves the whole healthcare system--but may need, from time to time, palliative care specialist input, including specialised cultural competence. Education and training of palliative medicine specialists in Australia needs to include a focus on cultural competence. PMID:12964928

  10. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  11. Virtualization Approaches in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Gouda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the growing age of cloud computing demands in almost all the sectors like TV channel to online shopping to educational institution etc., the cloud infrastructure cost goes very high. Therefore, the concept of virtualization needs to be understand and implement in the cloud computing syterms, which enables the user as well as the owners for the better and robust management and usage of the cloud. In this paper the virtualization approach in the cloud computing environment are well presented with the concept of the cloud service models. The virtualization process and implementation with their advantages are documented and the different types of virtualizations are presented with some survey on the Indian data centre and the virtualization architecture. This approach needs to be evaluated in different cloud platforms for finding the cost effectiveness in the cloud infrastructure development.

  12. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  13. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  14. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-07-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Bayesian approach to rough set

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to training rough set models using Bayesian framework trained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The prior probabilities are constructed from the prior knowledge that good rough set models have fewer rules. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is conducted through sampling in the rough set granule space and Metropolis algorithm is used as an acceptance criteria. The proposed method is tested to estimate the risk of HIV given demographic data. The results obtained shows that the proposed approach is able to achieve an average accuracy of 58% with the accuracy varying up to 66%. In addition the Bayesian rough set give the probabilities of the estimated HIV status as well as the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

  17. Technology approaches to currency security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C.; Dubbel, Daniel C.; Benson, Richard C.

    1998-04-01

    The continued development of reprographic technology and computer graphics (notably color laser copiers, scanners and color laser printers) has increased the tools available to both professional and casual counterfeiters. The result is an increase in the counterfeit risk to the U.S. dollar and other currencies. To counter these threats improved methods of currency authentication are needed both for use by the general public and by national currency authorities. The growing number of cash transfer machines has increased the importance of machine readable security features. This paper describes some technology based approaches to currency security based on special materials. It also proposes a metaphor for currency authentication which attempts to provide a framework for unifying approaches based on secure features and those based on codes.

  18. Quantum mechanics a paradigms approach

    CERN Document Server

    McIntyre, David H; Tate, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This innovative new text presents quantum mechanics in a manner that directly reflects the methods used in modern physics research—making the material more approachable and preparing students more thoroughly for real research. Most texts in this area start with a bit of history and then move directly to wave-particle problems with accompanying heavy mathematical analysis; Quantum Mechanics provides a foundation in experimental phenomena and uses a more approachable, less intimidating, more powerful mathematical matrix model. Beginning with the Stern-Gerlach experiments and the discussion of spin measurements, and using bra-ket notation, the authors introduce an important notational system that is used throughout quantum mechanics. This non-traditional presentation is designed to enhance students’ understanding and strengthen their intuitive grasp of the subject.

  19. Advanced Vibrations A Modern Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Vibrations: A Modern Approach is presented at a theoretical-practical level and explains mechanical vibrations concepts in detail, concentrating on their practical use. Related theorems and formal proofs are provided, as are real-life applications. Students, researchers and practicing engineers alike will appreciate the user-friendly presentation of a wealth of topics including but not limited to practical optimization for designing vibration isolators, and transient, harmonic and random excitations. This book also: Contains unique material based on statement-proof-examples Derives equations of motion using Newton-Euler and Lagrange methods Presents optimization of vibrating systems not normally covered in standard vibration books Advanced Vibrations: A Modern Approach is an ideal book for designers, practitioner engineers, and students of engineering.

  20. Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

    2008-06-01

    Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

  1. Heterotic compactification, an algorithmic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, L. B.; He, Y; Lukas, A

    2007-01-01

    We approach string phenomenology from the perspective of computational algebraic geometry, by providing new and efficient techniques for proving stability and calculating particle spectra in heterotic compactifications. This is done in the context of complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds in a single projective space where we classify positive monad bundles. Using a combination of analytic methods and computer algebra we prove stability for all such bundles and compute the complete partic...

  2. Clinical approach to young hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Norlela SUKOR

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension affects approximately 30% of the population worldwide. It is a serious disease, expensive to treat, and can lead to long-term morbidity and mortality. Young hypertension, defined as hypertension occurring in patients aged 40 or younger, is now seen more frequently. A correct and holistic approach in the evaluation of patients with suspected young hypertension is essential, as the underlying cause is demonstrable in more than half of the cases. Among these causes include primary a...

  3. Neuromodulation: Selected approaches and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Parpura, Vladimir; Silva, Gabriel A; Tass, Peter A.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Koehne, Jessica; Lee, Kendall H; Andrews, Russell J

    2012-01-01

    The brain operates through complex interactions in the flow of information and signal processing within neural networks. The “wiring” of such networks, being neuronal or glial, can physically and/or functionally go rogue in various pathological states. Neuromodulation, as a multidisciplinary venture, attempts to correct such faulty nets. In this review, selected approaches and challenges in neuromoduation are discussed. The use of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes have proven effective in mo...

  4. Contractarian approaches to intergenerational justice

    OpenAIRE

    Weikard, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    In modern political philosophy social contract theory is the most prominent approach to individual rights and fair institutions. According to social contract theory the system of rights in a society ought to be justified by reconstructing its basic features as a contract between the mutually unconcerned members of society. This paper explores whether social contract theory can successfully be applied to justify rights of future generations. Three competing views are analysed: Rawls's theory o...

  5. Material Systems : a design approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubćk

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behaviour. The project approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting.

  6. Data Integration: Contexts and Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to share and connect between the heterogeneous data sources is increasing more and more, especially with the growing number of data sources from the Web. For decades, research in the field of information systems have focused on the problem of data sharing in sevaral contexts: federated, mediator and more recently in peer-to-peer and Web data (or linked data sources). In this article, we review these approaches by focusing on data integration in the context of the Web

  7. Corporate Governance: An Institutionalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbaut, Robert; LENOBLE, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Even though our understanding of corporate governance has evolved from a rigid model of “command and control” toward a more flexible model of incentive mechanisms, numerous and major shortcomings continue to plague efforts to resolve the conflicts of interest inherent in the managerial approach to corporate control. In this stimulating book the work of ten outstanding scholars in the field converges, along different avenues of research and analysis, toward a vital critique of two assumptions ...

  8. Analytical approach of Auger spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger electron spectroscopy is a powerfull method for identification of elements who are in the first layers near the surface. Quantitative approach needs the finest knowledge of every physical parameters involved in the expression of Auger current: interactions of primary electron beam with target, backscattering, ionisation cross section, Auger emission, and escape depth. Depth profile analysis by combination of Auger electron spectroscopy with ion beam sputtering brings its own incertainties but, in this field also, much progress has been achieved recently

  9. Different approaches to surgical pupilloplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, S; Pedrosa, C.; Azevedo, A.; Ramalho, M.; Pęgo, P; Feijóo, B; Prieto, I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe three different minimal invasive surgical approaches for correction of traumatic and congenital pupil abnormalities. Setting/Venue: Ophthalmology Department, Prof Dr. Fernando Fonseca Hospital EPE. Amadora, Lisboa, Portugal Methods: We describe three clinical cases with pupil abnormalities from different ethiology, all submitted to pupiloplasty in order to improve visual and aesthetic outcome. First patient presented a traumatic aphakia and ectopic pupil in his righ...

  10. Energetic approach for ductile tearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a Ji tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter Gfr is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters Ji and Gfr, intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

  11. Two Approaches to Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Kĺre

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of two different approaches to entrepreneurship education at the lower secondary level of education. The influence of education for entrepreneurship and education through entrepreneurship on pupils' level of school engagement and entrepreneurial intentions is analysed and assessed. The paper builds on and extends research about entrepreneurship education for pupils at the lower secondary and upper secondary levels of education (Johannisson,...

  12. SYNTHETIC APPROACHES TO POLIFUNCTIONALIZED PERHYDRINDANES

    OpenAIRE

    Veaceslav Kulci?ki

    2011-01-01

    The current communication represents an extended abstract of the presentation delivered on the joint Moldo-Italian seminar “New frontiers in natural product chemistry”, held in the Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova on 31 September. An overview of the synthetic methods oriented to the synthesis of functionalized terpenic perhydrindanes is provided. Different synthetic strategies are considered, including those based on biomimetic approach. The array of obtained new struct...

  13. Distributed systems an algorithmic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sukumar

    2006-01-01

    Most applications in distributed computing center around a set of common subproblems. Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach presents the algorithmic issues and necessary background theory that are needed to properly understand these challenges.   Achieving a balance between theory and practice, this book bridges the gap between theoreticians and practitioners. With a set of exercises featured in each chapter, the book begins with background information that contains various interprocess communication techniques and middleware services, followed by foundational topics that cover system

  14. Approaches to antiviral drug development.

    OpenAIRE

    Prusoff, W. H.; Lin, T S; August, E M; Wood, T G; Marongiu, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    At present, only a few drugs have been approved by the FDA for therapy of viral infections in humans. There is a great need for antiviral drugs with increased potency and decreased toxicity, as well as drugs to treat viral diseases for which no drug or vaccine is currently available. Two approaches for development of antiviral drugs are described--an empirical strategy and a rational strategy--with several examples of each. Although many compounds have potent antiviral activity in cell cultur...

  15. A situational approach to composition

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Munoz, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This commentary presents my compositional work of the last two years. It consists of musical pieces that follow a formal approach emphasising static, self-enclosed musical situations. Designed to avoid processual ways of formal organisation, these pieces present collections of rich instrumental textures that do not evolve; they point toward a music of 'being' rather than 'becoming'. Drawing on conceptual traces from discussions of Karlheinz Stockhausen's 'moment form' and Helmut Lachenma...

  16. Industrial ecology: concepts and approaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelinski, L W; Graedel, T E; Laudise, R A; McCall, D W; Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology is a new approach to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies. It is a concept in which an industrial system is viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems but in concert with them. Industrial ecology seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material to finished material, to component, to product, to waste product, and to ultimate disposal. To better characterize the topic, the Nat...

  17. Statistical Physics Approaches to Seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    SORNETTE, D; M. J. Werner

    2008-01-01

    This entry in the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer present a summary of some of the concepts and calculational tools that have been developed in attempts to apply statistical physics approaches to seismology. We summarize the leading theoretical physical models of the space-time organization of earthquakes. We present a general discussion and several examples of the new metrics proposed by statistical physicists, underlining their strengths and weakne...

  18. The supervisory approach: a critique

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Rules suffer from two serious defects. The world is complex, and so the creation and application of rules is difficult; and it changes, so that rules become obsolete. In recent years, the conventional wisdom on financial regulation has shifted away from reliance on rules and back towards a ?supervisory approach?, in which regulators rely more on banks? own estimates of risk, and focus more on banks? risk management systems and controls than on their compliance with crude rules. The Basel Comm...

  19. Combined Approach for Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Shradha Dakhare; Harshal Chowhan; Manoj B. Chandak

    2014-01-01

    Many image segmentation techniques have been developed over the past two decades for segmenting the images, which help for object recognition, occlusion boundary estimation within motion or stereo systems, image compression, image editing. In this, there is a combined approach for segmenting the image. By using histogram equalization to the input image, from which it gives contrast enhancement output image .After that by applying median filtering ,which will remove noise from contrast o...

  20. Dual approaches for defects condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review two methods used to approach the condensation of defects phenomenon. Analyzing in details their structure, we show that in the limit where the defects proliferate until occupy the whole space these two methods are dual equivalent prescriptions to obtain an effective theory for the phase where the defects (like monopoles or vortices) are completely condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where the defects are diluted.

  1. Fulfillment Request Management (The approach)

    OpenAIRE

    Stylianos Gkoutzioupas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the term FRM (Fulfillment Request Management). According to the FRM in a BSS / OSS environment we can use a unified approach to implement a SOA in order to integrate BSS with OSS and handle 1. Orders 2. Events 3. Processes. So in a way that systems like ESB, Order Management, and Business Process Management can be implemented under a unified architecture and a unified implementation. We assume that all the above mentioned are 'requests' and according to ...

  2. Computational approaches for studying proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    ALONSO PÉREZ-ŔVILA, ELENA

    2013-01-01

    Starting with the presupposition that a methodology and a system of classification are vital elements to the description of proverbs, this paper intends to provide a contribution to the study of proverbs. A computational approach based on tools as electronic lexical databases and ontology is presented. The aim of this paper is the semi automatic annotation of Italian and Spanish proverbs, using MultiWordNet resource, and the construction of a conceptual domain-specific model in order to extra...

  3. Contractarian approaches to intergenerational justice

    OpenAIRE

    Weikard, Hans-Peter

    1997-01-01

    In modern political philosophy social contract theory is the most prominent approach to individual rights and fair institutions. According to social contract theory the system of rights in a society ought to be justified by reconstructing its basic features as a contract between the mutually unconcerned members of society. This paper explores whether social contract theory can successfully be applied to justify rights of future generations. Three competing views are analysed: R...

  4. Variational approach in dislocation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Groma, István; Györgyi, Géza; Ispánovity, Péter Dusán

    2009-01-01

    A variational approach is presented to calculate the stress field generated by a system of dislocations. It is shown that in the simplest case, when the material containing the dislocations obeys Hooke's law the variational framework gives the same field equations as Kr\\"oner's theory. However, the variational method proposed allows to study many other problems like dislocation core regularisation, role of elastic anharmonicity and dislocation--solute atom interaction. The aim of the paper is...

  5. Price strategies – a microeconomic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Litr?, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at a microeconomic approach of the price strategies, pointing out the ratio between revenue – cost, or marginal revenue – marginal cost, in the case of different objectives proposed by the enterprise, objectives supported by certain levels of the price. The effects of implementing various price levels, with the contribution of the market through demand quantity, lead the firm to reach diverse goals: actual maximum profit; maximum turnover; an equilibrium state allowing the prot...

  6. Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjřrkmann, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The research on sulfite pulping has been characterized by the attempts to explain its chemistry. The. different approach presented is incited by perceptions about the (still) unsolved problem of the ultrastructural features of lignin in wood. A simple kinetic model has been chosen to describe the reaction order of lignin as "concentration" (weight) in the dissolution kinetics, the cooking liquor being used in substantial excess. Three states of lignin were used: in wood as sawdust (W), in milled...

  7. Flexibility evaluation: A toolbox approach

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulias, Konstantinos; Papakostas, Nikolaos; Mourtzis, Dimitris; Chryssolouris, George

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Flexibility is an important aspect of modern manufacturing systems. Although a system?s capability to monitor, predict and improve flexibility has long been considered as a major competitive advantage, the development of methods and algorithms for the measurement of manufacturing flexibility remains an open issue both from an academic and an industrial point of view. The purpose of this work is to propose a holistic approach for short, mid and long-term flexibility perfo...

  8. Approach to patients with eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophilia is commonly seen in medical practice and can underlie a variety of medical conditions. Eosinophilia, defined as peripheral blood eosinophil counts greater than 500 per microliter, may vary from mild-severe. Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been identified as an unusual cause of moderate to severe eosinophilia. Progress in treatment of this condition has accompanied greater understanding about the basic biology of eosinophils. This review will highlight the approach to patients with eosinophilia, along with associated conditions and syndromes. PMID:22073495

  9. A Theoretical Approach to Telicity

    OpenAIRE

    99 LINGUISTICS, STYLISTICS AND TRANSLATION STUDIES A Theoretical Approach to Telicity Claudia Leah

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the generally admitted idea that telicity is an important concept in the study of aspect, this paper intends to offer a theoretical approach to the telic/atelic and bounded/unbounded distinctions, which have had a long tradition in the linguistic literature. I highlighted the necessity of distinguishing between telicity, viewed as a pragmatic or semantic parameter, and boundedness, considered to be a lexico-grammatical parameter which may depend on the verb and on the semantic p...

  10. Industrial Beamline Technologies And Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnel, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes industrial charged particle beamline technologies and design approaches. Beamlines accommodate myriad constraints in the radioisotope production, electron beam processing, and ion implantation market segments, and some very strange yet interesting solutions result. In this paper, a detailed look at a particular injection beamline solution gives some sense of the complexity of research and development required, and the sophistication of the beamline solutions that are utilized. A brief review of beamline applications in each industrial segment follows.

  11. Unconventional approaches to mortality estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonjoung Choi; Ian Timaeus; Kenneth Hill

    2005-01-01

    Most developing countries do not have complete registration of deaths on which to base mortality estimates. Four broad categories of unconventional methods have been developed to provide mortality estimates in such settings. The first consists of approaches for evaluation adjustment of incompletely recorded deaths by comparison with recorded age distributions. The second consists of alternative data collection methodologies collecting information about deaths by age. The third consists ...

  12. A Flexible Table Parsing Approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frank, Schilder; Ravi, Kondadadi; Yana, Kadiyska.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Relational data is often encoded in tables. Tables are easy to read by humans, but difficult to interpret automatically. In cases where table layout cues are not obtainable (missing HTML tags) or where columns are distorted (by copying from a spreadsheet to text) previous table extraction approaches [...] run into problems. This paper introduces a novel table parsing approach. Our approach is based on a set of simple assumptions: (a) every table can be split up in data cells and headers, and (b) every table can be parsed beginning from a data cell utilizing the overall table structure. The table parsing is defined as "table flattening" in this paper. That is, the parsing starts with a data cell and pulls out all token (i.e., headers and sub-headers) associated with a respective data cell. We propose a parsing technique that uses two simple parsing heuristics: table headers are to the left of and above a data cell. We experimented with trader emails that contained instrument information with bid-ask prices as data cells. We developed a clustering and classifying method for finding prices reliably in the data set we used. This method is transferable to other data cell types and can be applied to other table content.

  13. Neuromodulation: selected approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpura, Vladimir; Silva, Gabriel A; Tass, Peter A; Bennet, Kevin E; Meyyappan, M; Koehne, Jessica; Lee, Kendall H; Andrews, Russell J

    2013-02-01

    The brain operates through complex interactions in the flow of information and signal processing within neural networks. The 'wiring' of such networks, being neuronal or glial, can physically and/or functionally go rogue in various pathological states. Neuromodulation, as a multidisciplinary venture, attempts to correct such faulty nets. In this review, selected approaches and challenges in neuromodulation are discussed. The use of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes has been proven effective in the modulation of neurite outgrowth in culture and in aiding regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. Studying neural circuits using computational biology and analytical engineering approaches brings to light geometrical mapping of dynamics within neural networks, much needed information for stimulation interventions in medical practice. Indeed, sophisticated desynchronization approaches used for brain stimulation have been successful in coaxing 'misfiring' neuronal circuits to resume productive firing patterns in various human disorders. Devices have been developed for the real-time measurement of various neurotransmitters as well as electrical activity in the human brain during electrical deep brain stimulation. Such devices can establish the dynamics of electrochemical changes in the brain during stimulation. With increasing application of nanomaterials in devices for electrical and chemical recording and stimulating in the brain, the era of cellular, and even intracellular, precision neuromodulation will soon be upon us. PMID:23190025

  14. Proteomic approaches to bacterial differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-01-02

    While genomic approaches have been applied to the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to the inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides derived from artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. Detection and validation of predicted peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community was experimentally performed using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second assessment performed in silico of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was also conducted. The experimental data for a simple community, and the in silico data for a complex community revealed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for the identification of a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities.

  15. Proteomic approaches to bacterial differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-01

    While genomic approaches have been applied for the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to their inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides that could potentially be present in the proteomes of artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. A mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to experimentally detect and validate the predicted tryptic peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second in silico assessment of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was conducted to investigate the levels of instrumental performance that would be required to experimentally detect these peptides, as well as how performance varied with complexity (e.g., the number of different microorganisms). The experimental data for a simple community showed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and to quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for identifying a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities and the possible development of community wide markers of perturbations to such communities.

  16. An abstract approach to music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  17. On Approach: Jupiter and Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of On Approach: Jupiter and Io This sequence of images was taken on Jan. 8, 2007, with the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), while the spacecraft was about 81 million kilometers (about 50 million miles) from Jupiter. Jupiter's volcanic moon Io is to the right; the planet's Great Red Spot is also visible. The image was one of 11 taken during the Jan. 8 approach sequence, which signaled the opening of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter. Even in these early approach images, Jupiter shows different face than what previous visiting spacecraft -- such as Voyager 1, Galileo and Cassini -- have seen. Regions around the equator and in the southern tropical latitudes seem remarkably calm, even in the typically turbulent 'wake' behind the Great Red Spot. The New Horizons science team will scrutinize these major meteorological features -- including the unexpectedly calm regions -- to understand the diverse variety of dynamical processes on the solar system's largest planet. These include the newly formed Little Red Spot, the Great Red Spot and a variety of zonal features.

  18. Systems approach in energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several years ago when the author was working in the chemicals division of a paper company in Instrumentation and Controls, one experience had a lasting impact on his work approach which is systems approach. The maintenance manager told the author that a very important piece of boiler instrument of the power plant had broken down and delivery of the replacement needed to be expedited. The instrument was ordered over the phone in another city. The purchase order was personally delivered at the supplier's office and arrangements were made so the instrument was put on the next flight. A week later the maintenance manager indicated that the particular instrument still had not arrived in the plant and he could not run the power plant. Thus the company incurred substantial losses. Further inquiries showed that the instrument did indeed arrive at the plant stores on time. But, in the absence of any instructions thereon, the instrument was not delivered to the power plant. The sense of urgency was lost in the existing delivery process. In other words, the process or system failed. The whole process from requisitioning to delivery of ordered items was analyzed and corrective procedures were incorporated to prevent future repetitions. This brings up the subject of systems approach in engineering management in general and energy management in particular. This involves defining an objective and designing a system for an effective way of getting there

  19. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  20. Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

  1. Towards a Taxonomy of Dynamic Reconfiguration Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Charaf Eddin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic reconfiguration is essential part of software evolution. Several approaches to support dynamic reconfiguration have been proposed in the literature. These approaches are different in various criteria. The goal of this work is to make a comparative study between various dynamic reconfiguration approaches by exploring the features of these approaches and to classify them with respect to these features.

  2. Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

  3. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  4. Stochastic approach to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, both in its early and later versions, shows that, as a model for the individual system, it suffers from severe conceptual difficulties, particularly with regard to the problem of measurement. Nor are the most common hidden variable interpretations free from complications in providing a physical explanation for the properties of the quantum system. A promising alternative interpretation is the stochastic approach, which presumes that every physical system is continually interacting with a hidden thermostat. This thermostat has a randomizing effect on the position variable and necessitates a probabilistic description of the path of the system. If the concepts of both backward and forward diffusion are utilized, it is possible to construct a straightforward stochastic rule for computing the mean value of any observable which has a classical operational definition. Estimates based upon this rule agree with standard quantum predictions up to second order in momentum but disagree in higher order terms. The rule also predicts the average measurement results for observables which cannot, in general, be estimated by the usual operator formalism. The Schroedinger equation is derivable by the stochastic approach if Newton's Second Law is assumed. Also, quantization of energy and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle are readily explained through the stochastic model, but spatial quantization is not predicted by this method. If the magnitude of the free velocity of the relativistic stochastic particle is assumed to be the speed of light, as in Dirac's relativistic theory of the electron, it is possible to provide a relativistic extension of the stochastic approach and to derive (from this extension) the Klein-Gordon equation

  5. Computational approaches for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Chi-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Cellular proteins are the mediators of multiple organism functions being involved in physiological mechanisms and disease. By discovering lead compounds that affect the function of target proteins, the target diseases or physiological mechanisms can be modulated. Based on knowledge of the ligand-receptor interaction, the chemical structures of leads can be modified to improve efficacy, selectivity and reduce side effects. One rational drug design technology, which enables drug discovery based on knowledge of target structures, functional properties and mechanisms, is computer-aided drug design (CADD). The application of CADD can be cost-effective using experiments to compare predicted and actual drug activity, the results from which can used iteratively to improve compound properties. The two major CADD-based approaches are structure-based drug design, where protein structures are required, and ligand-based drug design, where ligand and ligand activities can be used to design compounds interacting with the protein structure. Approaches in structure-based drug design include docking, de novo design, fragment-based drug discovery and structure-based pharmacophore modeling. Approaches in ligand-based drug design include quantitative structure-affinity relationship and pharmacophore modeling based on ligand properties. Based on whether the structure of the receptor and its interaction with the ligand are known, different design strategies can be seed. After lead compounds are generated, the rule of five can be used to assess whether these have drug-like properties. Several quality validation methods, such as cost function analysis, Fisher's cross-validation analysis and goodness of hit test, can be used to estimate the metrics of different drug design strategies. To further improve CADD performance, multi-computers and graphics processing units may be applied to reduce costs. PMID:25195585

  6. Project Supervision – An Engineering Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    For more than twenty years, a group based supervision strategy has been used when supervising engineering bachelor- and master thesis students at our research group. In recent years, we have formalised the approach and used our industry experience to create a very successful framework for project supervision. This paper is a best practice guide aiming at research groups that would like to try to implement our supervision approach or parts of it. The approach is based on the belief that engineering students should be prepared for their new role as development engineers or PhD students as part of their master thesis writing. The supervision principles are: Ownership: The student should feel that their project is their own. Ideally, they should formulate the project themselves. Write early: We strongly encourage the students to write and generate figures and images already from the first week of the project period. Management: The student is considered project manager of his own project. The supervisor is a guide or coach (or a project owner) Plans: The student is asked to write a project plan during the first week of the project together with a risk-analysis. Group Meetings: A group of students and supervisors meet every week on a fixed weekday. In our team, it is normal that one supervisor supervises three to five projects simultaneously. The core of the supervision is the weekly meetings where the students present what they have been doing and what they plan to do. By default, all students are present at all meetings. Weekly meetings are scheduled to be at a specific day at a specific place for the entire process.

  7. Location theory a unified approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  8. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  9. Unified Approach to Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Park, B Y; Vento, V; Kim, J I; Min, D P; Rho, M; Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2004-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large Nc limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons.

  10. Integrated approach to data editing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepins, G.E.; Pack, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Localization of error in particular fields of categorical records from large data sets that fail to fall in a deterministically known constrained space is addressed. This paper reports a simulation study of a compromise in which the weights are related to the number of active failed edits and/or the number of active passed edits for a field. The paper also discusses MWFI formulation problems that must be dealt with to produce a fully integrated approach to data editing - one that will be applicable to continuous fields. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Setup reduction approaches for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1997-04-01

    Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

  12. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Poenaru; R A Gherghescu

    2015-09-01

    Fission theory is used to explain decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a few results of the theoretical approach of decay (ASAF, UNIV and semFIS models), cluster decay (ASAF and UNIV) and spontaneous fission dynamics are described with Werner–Wheeler and cranking inertia. UNIV denotes universal curve and semFIS the fission-based semiempirical formula.

  13. 'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere. PMID:24620487

  14. New approach needed to HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems currently used in nuclear power plants are a development of those used to provide comfort conditions in office blocks and similar buildings. A new approach is required to the design of HVAC systems, whose role in the safety regime of any nuclear power plant often appears to be under-estimated. Experience gained in the British offshore industry is discussed together with control systems, which in addition to controlling the heating/ventilating function, provide information at a central point with feedback to the plant concerned. Opportunities for refurbishment of existing nuclear power plants are described. (U.K.)

  15. SYNTHETIC APPROACHES TO POLIFUNCTIONALIZED PERHYDRINDANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Kulci?ki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication represents an extended abstract of the presentation delivered on the joint Moldo-Italian seminar “New frontiers in natural product chemistry”, held in the Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova on 31 September. An overview of the synthetic methods oriented to the synthesis of functionalized terpenic perhydrindanes is provided. Different synthetic strategies are considered, including those based on biomimetic approach. The array of obtained new structures can serve as leads in structure-activity studies as well as useful building blocks towards other perhydrindanes.

  16. Computational approaches to energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2013-01-01

    The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

  17. Systems approach to energy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.

    1978-11-18

    Many developing countries are embarking on a petroleum-intensive path of development just at a time in history when petroleum is about to become scarce and expensive. At the same time the use of traditional forms of energy--wood, crop residues, and animal waste--is meeting with a variety of problems. Long-range integrative national energy planning has become urgent. That planning should consider a wide range of geographical scales, from the household and village to the world scene. It should extend at least 25 years into the future. An overall framework for analysis is presented based on a normative, scenario approach.

  18. Pharmacological approaches in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, Justin L; Caminero, Alberto; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten, characterized by immune responses toward gluten constituents and the autoantigen transglutaminase 2. The only current treatment available for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet, however there are a plethora of therapies in development for the treatment of celiac disease (e.g. vaccine), management of symptoms while consuming gluten (e.g. Necator americanus) or adjuvant therapies in conjunction with the gluten-free diet (e.g. larazotide acetate). Current approaches in development target barrier function, immune responses, detoxifying gluten or sequestering gluten. Developing therapies include those targeting environmental factors, such as the microbiota or proteases. PMID:26414923

  19. Approach to Mars Field Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

  20. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  1. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies

  2. Integrated approach to software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jalote, Pankaj; Schneider, Fred B

    2006-01-01

    This textbook introduces software engineering to advanced-level undergraduate and graduate students of computer science. It emphasizes a case-study approach whereby a project is developed through the course of the book, illustrating the different activities of software development. The sequence of chapters is essentially the same as the sequence of activities performed during a typical software project. The revised edition updates this sequence for today's standards, and adds a valuable chapter on architecture. All activities, including quality assurance and control activities, are described i

  3. Computer Networks A Systems Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Larry L

    2011-01-01

    This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

  4. Energy storage a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale.  This revolutionary book describes   technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years, but presents new material that could transform the energy industry.  Regardless where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources- energy storage is something that the industry MUST learn and practice.  With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in China

  5. Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Ragelskaja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive advantage and the factors impacting competitive advantage. The integrated model of competitive advantage is proposed in the paper.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Smile detection : A simple Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions analysis is applicable in various vision systems, new interfaces for television and other entertainment systems, diagnosis and monitoring of deceases, speech processing, modern smart digital cameras and perceptual man-machine interfaces etc. Smile is human’s expression for happiness. Detection of smile by a machine is helpful to establish human machine interaction in many situations. Many researchers worked on facial expression recognition, but there is not much research about smile detection. In this paper we proposed a simple image-based approach to identify the smile.

  7. Nonlinear evolution equations kinetic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Maslova, Nina

    1993-01-01

    The book is devoted to the questions of the long-time behavior of solutions for evolution equations, connected with kinetic models in statistical physics. There is a wide variety of problems where such models are used to obtain reasonable physical as well as numerical results (Fluid Mechanics, Gas Dynamics, Plasma Physics, Nuclear Physics, Turbulence Theory etc.). The classical examples provide the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. Investigation of the long-time behavior of the solutions for the Boltzmann equation gives an approach to the nonlinear fluid dynamic equations. From the viewpoint of dy

  8. Operational gaming an international approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stĺhl, Ingolf

    1983-01-01

    Operational Gaming: An International Approach focuses on various research on this method of systems analysis. The text points out the value of this method in decision making, planning, and in the implementation of policies. The book presents a survey that highlights the connection of experimental gaming, game theory, and operational gaming. The value of gaming as a balancing method in assessing multifaceted computer models, most notably about their assumptions on human behavior, is noted. The book also offers an overview of gaming in other countries, such as Bulgaria, Soviet Union, and Japan,

  9. An approach to risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    of Ministers with the task to propose criteria for neurotoxicity. Functional effects on the nervous system, such as reduction in memory and learning ability, decrease in attention, and alteration of behavior due to toxic chemicals in the environment is now being acknowledged as an important public...... results indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major...

  10. Cognitive reasoning a formal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anshakov, Oleg M

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with uncertainty, moving from ignorance to knowledge, is the focus of cognitive processes. Understanding these processes and modelling, designing, and building artificial cognitive systems have long been challenging research problems. This book describes the theory and methodology of a new, scientifically well-founded general approach, and its realization in the form of intelligent systems applicable in disciplines ranging from social sciences, such as cognitive science and sociology, through natural sciences, such as life sciences and chemistry, to applied sciences, such as medicine,

  11. An approach to microbiological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a general approach to modelling of microbiological activity in a geological system constrained by the availability of nutrients and energy sources. Application of this model to determine the possible consequences of such microbiological activity in a repository for low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (L/ILW) is demonstrated both for the repository considered as a whole and for a more realistic sub-section containing a particular waste type (ion-exchange resins immobilised in cement). Possibilities for further development of the model to consider the spatial distribution of components within the near field are also discussed. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs

  12. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  13. Software testing a craftsman's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Since the last publication of this international bestseller, software testing has seen a renaissance of renewed interest and technology. The biggest change comes in the growing prominence and acceptance of Agile Programming. Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach, Third Edition extends the combination of theory and practicality of the first two editions to include agile programming development and discusses the serious effect this emerging area is having on software testing. The third edition of the widely adopted text and reference book is comprised of six parts. It begins by providing the

  14. Nonpharmacologic approach to sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansel, J Keith; Carey, Elise C

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in patients with cancer, occurring throughout the disease trajectory and sometimes well after treatment has concluded. Insomnia often does not occur in isolation; it may be associated with pain, fatigue, depression, and medication usage. Screening for sleep disturbances is an essential part of caring for oncologic patients. The criterion standard for nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia in these patients is cognitive-behavioral therapy, a multimodal approach using sleep hygiene and education, stimulus control, sleep restriction, and relaxation. Exercise and complementary and integrative medicine have been studied with varying results, and no firm recommendation can be made about their efficacy. PMID:25299144

  15. DOE systems approach and integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six sites are now disposing of most of DOE's currently generated waste. These are: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Within DOE, experience with disposal of solid LLW has been that arid site disposal facilities (first four) appear to have performed well, while humid site disposal facilities (last two) have experienced some waste migration. DOE's intent, of course, is to operate all its waste disposal facilities so that public health and safety are not adversely affected. To ensure that this continues to be the case, activities are underway to increase use of waste form stabilization and engineered barriers where appropriate. For the sake of overall economy, these measures are to be applied as and where needed, through use of the systems approach. In this paper the author discusses two topics: the system approach, which DOE has decided to use for resolving waste disposal problems in the management of DOE's low-level wastes; and DOE's intended integration of activities underway at the waste management systems throughout DOE facilities. 2 figures

  16. Theoretical approaches to superionic conductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Sunandana; P Senthil Kumar

    2004-02-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to the understanding of superionic conductivity in polycrystalline, glassy and polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Phase transitions to the superionic conducting state in the AgI family are apparently triggered by cluster formation and strong mobile ion interaction within the clusters. Anomalous conductivity and related physical properties are explained in the cluster induced distortion model. Ionic composites such as AgX : Al2O3 ( = Cl, Br and I) involve conducting and non-conducting phases and the all-important interface between the two whose space charge enhances the conductivity and also trigger phase transitions to exotic polymorphic phases, for which the mechanisms are yet to be explored. Ion hopping dynamics controls the conductivity of superionic glasses. Mode coupling and jump relaxation theories account for the non-Debye relaxation observed in a.c. conductivity of these glasses. The theory of conductivity in polymer electrolytes-still in its infancy-involves their complex structure and glass transition behaviour. Preparative and thermal history, composition and crystallinity control ionic conductivity. New approaches to the synthesis of optimal polymer electrolytes such as rubbery electrolytes, crystalline polymers and nanocomposites must be considered before achieving a comprehensive theoretical understanding.

  17. A new approach to magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?vorovi? Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of traditional practices of magic to suggest ways to incorporate cultural behaviors within the evolutionary paradigm. The first suggestion is to restrict hypotheses to only identifiable variables. This means avoiding the temptation of following the nonevolutionary social sciences in the practice of basing explanations on unverifiable guesses about what beliefs (or memes in evolutionary jargon may or may not inhabit people's brains. In contrast with previous explanations that magical practices result from beliefs and memes whose primarily purpose is to reduce anxiety, we propose that magic is a form of communication that promotes cooperation and often avoids anti-social behavior. This effect of increased cooperation could explain why traditional forms of magic have probably existed and had significant positive consequences for the participants. To be effective as a means of communication, magical rituals must specify both the content of the message and the receiver of the message. Although the content of the communicative message differs with different types of magic, all magical acts serve a purpose to influence the behavior of the party involved and that is the most significant identifiable effect of such behavior. An advantage of this approach over many previous explanations of magic is that because it focuses on identifiable phenomena, the definitions and explanations used in this approach can be falsified.

  18. Semiclassical approaches to mesoscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review semiclassical methods of determining both average trends and quantum shell effects in the properties of finite fermion systems. I. Extended Thomas-Fermi model (ETF): the average, self-consistent mean field can be determined by density variational calculations using the semiclassical gradient-expanded ETF density functional for the kinetic energy. From this, average ground-state properties such as binding energies, densities, separation energies, etc. can be derived. II. Periodic orbit theory (POT): quantum oscillations in a mean-field system can be obtained from the semiclassical trace formula that expresses the quantum-mechanical density of states in terms of the periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system. Only the shortest periodic orbits with highest degeneracy are important for the coarse-grained level density, i.e., for the gross shell effects. Particular uniform approximations are required to treat systems with mixed classical dynamics due to the effects of symmetry breaking and orbit bifurcations. Ill. Local-current approximation (LCA): the collective dynamics of the fermions can be described in linear-response theory, approximating the particle-hole excitation operators semi-classically by local current distributions. The method is suitable in combination with both the ETF density variational approach or with the Kohn-Sham density functional approach for the ground state, and allows one to describe optic response properties such as static polarizabilities and plasmon resonances. Applications of all methods to metal clusters and various mesoscopic nano-structures are given. (author)

  19. Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Zeidmane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

  20. Modeling Approaches in Planetary Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Renee; Knapmeyer, Martin; Panning, Mark; Schmerr, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon over 40 years ago revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure on and of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this chapter, we will review these approaches.

  1. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  2. Neural Approaches to Machine Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander, Igor; Eng., F. R.

    2008-10-01

    `Machine Consciousness', which some years ago might have been suppressed as an inappropriate pursuit, has come out of the closet and is now a legitimate area of research concern. This paper briefly surveys the last few years of worldwide research in this area which divides into rule-based and neural approaches and then reviews the work of the author's laboratory during the last ten years. The paper develops a fresh perspective on this work: it is argued that neural approaches, in this case, digital neural systems, can address phenomenological consciousness. Important clarifications of phenomenology and virtuality which enter this modelling are explained in the early parts of the paper. In neural models, phenomenology is a form of depictive inner representation that has five specific axiomatic features: a sense of self-presence in an external world; a sense of imagination of past experience and fiction; a sense of attention; a capacity for planning; a sense of emotion-based volition that influences planning. It is shown that these five features have separate but integrated support in dynamic neural systems.

  3. Fast approach for toner saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

    2011-01-01

    Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

  4. Information Hiding: A Generic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad jabri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Privacy and security over communication channels are of primary concerns. Due to their complexity and diversity, there is a need for continuous improvements of the adopted solutions. In this study, we consider two of the adopted ones, namely, steganogrphy and cryptography and propose a new information hiding system. Approach: The proposed system was based on a generic approach that incorporates text-based steganography and cryptography methods in a way that permits their combined or stand alone adoption. Thus, achieving message encryption incorporated with its concealing inside another unsuspicious one. Furthermore, two steganography methods (the inter-word spaces method and syntactic methods had been combined with a hybrid text-encoding in a form of binary representation of terns rewriting systems. Results: An information hiding system had been implemented. The system offered encrypting and hiding dynamic and static text within a cover-text. The conducted experiments using static texts had shown a non-noticeable increase (0.02% in the size of their respective stego-texts. For the dynamic texts, cover- texts with a size proportional to the length of the secret messages were needed. Conclusion: A generic model for information hiding with a respective implementation framework had been used as an effective tool to develop a hybrid and scalable steganography system that combined good features from the existing ones.

  5. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  6. Approaching Bose-Einstein condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial role of the bosonic ground level. If so, a correct treatment of the problem, including the ground level population N0 by construction, leads to BEC in a straightforward way. For a density of states of the form G(?)???, the chemical potential ? is explicitly calculated as a function of the temperature T and of the number N of bosons, for various significant values of the positive exponent ?. In the thermodynamic limit, in which the boson number N diverges and BEC is a sharp process, the chemical potential ? is a singular function of T at the critical temperature TB, determined by an appropriate critical exponent. The condensate population N0 is studied analytically and numerically as a function of the temperature, for various values of N and for different ?. This provides an accurate description of the way BEC approaches the character of a sharp phase transition. Some aspects of the real experiments on BEC, involving a finite number of bosons, are also illustrated.

  7. Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

  8. Environmental education and indigenous approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

  9. Hybrid metrology implementation: server approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carmen; Timoney, Padraig; Vaid, Alok; Elia, Alex; Kang, Charles; Bozdog, Cornel; Yellai, Naren; Grubner, Eyal; Ikegami, Toru; Ikeno, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid metrology (HM) is the practice of combining measurements from multiple toolset types in order to enable or improve metrology for advanced structures. HM is implemented in two phases: Phase-1 includes readiness of the infrastructure to transfer processed data from the first toolset to the second. Phase-2 infrastructure allows simultaneous transfer and optimization of raw data between toolsets such as spectra, images, traces - co-optimization. We discuss the extension of Phase-1 to include direct high-bandwidth communication between toolsets using a hybrid server, enabling seamless fab deployment and further laying the groundwork for Phase-2 high volume manufacturing (HVM) implementation. An example of the communication protocol shows the information that can be used by the hybrid server, differentiating its capabilities from that of a host-based approach. We demonstrate qualification and production implementation of the hybrid server approach using CD-SEM and OCD toolsets for complex 20nm and 14nm applications. Finally we discuss the roadmap for Phase-2 HM implementation through use of the hybrid server.

  10. New approaches to embryo selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Markus; Toth, Bettina; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Embryo selection has been an important topic since the introduction of assisted reproduction, with embryo morphology being the most obvious criterion. Although morphology serves as indicator for overall IVF laboratory quality, its statistical assessment limits the possibility to identify the most implantation-competent embryos. In order to reach a direct picture of the developing embryo, invasive procedures such as preimplantation genetic screening or transcriptome and proteome analysis of biopsied embryonic tissue were initially prioritized and are still under investigation. More recently, focus has shifted towards noninvasive techniques that maintain the integrity of the embryo. Metabolomic profiling of culture medium from growing embryos attracted much research. Although successful in a pilot study, that approach failed in a randomized controlled trial. Other metabolomics studies are on their way but not yet available for routine clinical use. The most promising strategy at present is the combined evaluation of morphology and developmental kinetics using time-lapse imaging. This has brought new insights into certain characteristics that enable deselection of embryos at an early stage of development and to identify others with high potential for successful implantation. However, there is still considerable room for improvement. Further strategies will most likely involve the combination of several different approaches. PMID:23933036

  11. Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P Read

    2010-01-01

    We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria. PMID:20975934

  12. Bionanoparticles, a green nanochemistry approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Cauerhff; Guillermo R, Castro.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: In the past decade, considerable attention has been paid for the development of novel strategies for the synthesis of different kind of nano-objects. Most of the current strategies are usually working by the use physical or chemical principles to develop a myriad of nano-objects with mul [...] tiple applications. Main fields of nanotechnology applications range from catalysis, micro- and nano-electronics (semiconductors, single electrons transistors), non-linear optic devices, photo-electrochemistry to biomedicine, diagnostics, foods and environment, chemical analysis and others. Results: Two main avenues for nanoparticles synthesis: cell-free extract and cell cultivation have been reported. The state of art of both biotechnological approaches for different type nanoparticles are reviewed in this work. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a revolutionary field just at its onset, the trend in the next decades being its integration with the green chemistry approach. Several strategies involving exhaustive strain selection, cultivation modes, recombinant gene expression, metabolic engineering, protein re-design and re-engineering, and predictive modeling will allow to create nanobioreactors, a new nanobiotechnology arena with a high potential impact in many fields.

  13. Unconventional approaches to mortality estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjoung Choi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Most developing countries do not have complete registration of deaths on which to base mortality estimates. Four broad categories of unconventional methods have been developed to provide mortality estimates in such settings. The first consists of approaches for evaluation adjustment of incompletely recorded deaths by comparison with recorded age distributions. The second consists of alternative data collection methodologies collecting information about deaths by age. The third consists of approaches based on asking respondents about the survival or otherwise of close relatives. The fourth estimates mortality from changes in age distributions, interpreting cohort attrition as mortality. Methods in the first two categories offer the greatest potential for contributing information on developing country mortality to the Human Mortality Database. Methods in the first category are illustrated here by application to data from the Republic of Korea for the second half of the 20th century. In populations with good age reporting and little net migration, these methods work well and offer the opportunity to include developing country data in the HMD.

  14. Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using non-equilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

  15. Nonperturbative approach to quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article a nonperturbative approach to quantum chromodynamics in the confinement phase is developed. The principal idea is to assume confinement, rather than attempting to prove it, and then to examine the consequences of the resulting quantum field theory. We implement confinement by assuming that the gauge field propagator becomes infrared singular like q-4 at small momenta. The consequences of this confinement Ansatz are explored for the quark propagator, ghost propagator, and quark-gluon proper vertex. Slavnov-Taylor-Ward identities are used to fix the low-momentum behavior of the Green's functions, so no approximations are made in the Dyson equations. In both the covariant Landau gauge and the noncovariant axial gauge we obtain differential equations for the quark propagator which are solved. Vacuum ?5 invariance is dynamically broken so the solutions satisfy partial conservation of axial-vector current. We also obtain the solution for the quark propagator in the case in which the flavor symmetry is explicitly broken by a quark mass term. Some implications of this approach, which is an expansion about the infrared behavior of the amplitudes, for the bound-state problem are briefly discussed

  16. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  17. A Novel Approach for Identifying Intruder based on Multiple Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sharma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews of research to identify the intrusion and intruder, most computers authenticate user ID and password before users can login these systems. However, danger soon comes if the two items are known to hackers. In this paper, we propose a system that finds who intrude and how they intrude in to the system. The information about the intruder and their saved information in the data warehouse to the other location without knowing to the intruder and in this duration server will find the information about the intruder. In future when intruder again enter in the network then caught and show the information about him and last time you enter in this network. For this technique I can reduce the network attack. And find more type of Network intrusion Detecting System with using data mining Approach. Our experimental results show that the recognition accuracy of students of computer science department is up to 99%.

  18. Phonetic Ambiguity Approaches, Touchstones, Pitfalls and New Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Juola, P

    1996-01-01

    Phonetic ambiguity and confusibility are bugbears for any form of bottom-up or data-driven approach to language processing. The question of when an input is ``close enough'' to a target word pervades the entire problem spaces of speech recognition, synthesis, language acquisition, speech compression, and language representation, but the variety of representations that have been applied are demonstrably inadequate to at least some aspects of the problem. This paper reviews this inadequacy by examining several touchstone models in phonetic ambiguity and relating them to the problems they were designed to solve. An good solution would be, among other things, efficient, accurate, precise, and universally applicable to representation of words, ideally usable as a ``phonetic distance'' metric for direct measurement of the ``distance'' between word or utterance pairs. None of the proposed models can provide a complete solution to the problem; in general, there is no algorithmic theory of phonetic distance. It is unc...

  19. A Critical Analysis of the Knowledge Creation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Probert

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The topic of knowledge creation (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 will be analysed from a philosophical perspective. To begin with, the key motivations behind the discourse of knowledge creation and management are briefly discussed. The contemporary distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge is then explored. Following this, the work of Lyotard on knowledge in a (postmodern economy will be summarised. The paper then explores how some of the work by Foucault and Adorno may provide a new direction for developing research approaches in this area.

  20. IAEA safeguards approaches and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA safeguards provide a technical means of verifying that political obligations undertaken by States party to international agreements relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are being honored. The Agency assures the international community that States party to Safeguards Agreements are complying with their undertaking not to use facilities and divert nuclear materials from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices. The task of IAEA safeguards can be summed up as to detect diversion of nuclear materials committed to peaceful uses of nuclear energy, or the misuse of equipment or facilities subject to certain safeguards agreements, and to deter such diversion or misuse through the risk of early detection. This lecture concentrates on the factors the Agency takes into account in designing and implementing safeguards approaches at facilities. (author)

  1. Autobot Evolution: A Futuristic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Hariharan#

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SCABOR is an approach for the 3-D lane detection and autonomous driving. Its main attribute is to diagnose the metrology of roads. It has a wide significance in determining the basic structure, the presence of humps and dips and gives a clear and cache information of the way .Our view on this paper is to apply SCABOR along with the application of the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM in autonomous driving system for safe and fast driving. Here the SCABOR technology’s currentapplication is outlined and its use has been extended to traffic system. We have suggested a unique method for flexible driving. We also suggest ways in which SCABOR technology can be enhanced forfuture applications. Among the significant advantages, these techniques perform well even in high risk zones and congested areas with up to 100% accuracy where many other techniques fail.

  2. Gaze disorders: A clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikottil Wilson Vinny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A single clear binocular vision is made possible by the nature through the oculomotor system along with inputs from the cortical areas as well their descending pathways to the brainstem. Six systems of supranuclear control mechanisms play a crucial role in this regard. These are the saccadic system, the smooth pursuit system, the vestibular system, the optokinetic system, the fixation system, and the vergence system. In gaze disorders, lesions at different levels of the brain spare some of the eye movement systems while affecting others. The resulting pattern of eye movements helps clinicians to localize lesions accurately in the central nervous system. Common lesions causing gaze palsies include cerebral infarcts, demyelinating lesions, multiple sclerosis, tumors, Wernicke's encephalopathy, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy. Evaluation of the different gaze disorders is a bane of most budding neurologists and neurosurgeons. However, a simple and systematic clinical approach to this problem can make their early diagnosis rather easy.

  3. Computational approach to Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

  4. Managerial Leadership - A Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper endeavors to offer an overview of the major theories on leadership and the way in which it influences the management of contemporary organizations. Numerous scholars highlight that there are numerous overlaps between the concepts of management and leadership. This is the reason why the first section of the paper focuses on providing an extensive overview of the literature regarding the meaning of the two aforementioned concepts. The second section addresses more in depth the concept of leadership and managerial leadership and focuses on the ideal profile of the leader. The last section of the paper critically discusses various types of leadership and more specifically modern approaches to the concept and practices of leadership.

  5. The thermodynamic approach to market

    CERN Document Server

    Sergeev, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The first (Russian) edition of the book was among the first monographs on econophysics. The book gives an explanation of several intriguing phenomena, providing new insights and answers to some deeply vexing questions. Why the economic "shock therapy" implemented in Eastern Europe was doomed to a failure whereas the approach adopted by China and Vietnam should inevitably lead to economic growth (damped, perhaps, by corruption and inconsistencies)? Why some restrictions imposed on markets are dangerous? Politicians (and laymen) usually believe that the more restrictions you impose on the society, the easier it is to govern. The reality seems to be more subtle. Some restrictions are necessary for the markets to function. However, restrictions on salary, for example, seem to always result in unemployment, as a simple "spin" model shows. Evidently, optimizing freedom is an equilibrium problem, and none of the extrema is devoid of danger. Why should crooked dealings be prevented? What is a reasonable rate of taxat...

  6. Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahiminejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

  7. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  8. Diffraction operators in paraxial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Ańez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

  9. Elliptic curves a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Susanne; Pethö, Attila

    2003-01-01

    The basics of the theory of elliptic curves should be known to everybody, be he (or she) a mathematician or a computer scientist. Especially everybody concerned with cryptography should know the elements of this theory. The purpose of the present textbook is to give an elementary introduction to elliptic curves. Since this branch of number theory is particularly accessible to computer-assisted calculations, the authors make use of it by approaching the theory under a computational point of view. Specifically, the computer-algebra package SIMATH can be applied on several occasions. However, the book can be read also by those not interested in any computations. Of course, the theory of elliptic curves is very comprehensive and becomes correspondingly sophisticated. That is why the authors made a choice of the topics treated. Topics covered include the determination of torsion groups, computations regarding the Mordell-Weil group, height calculations, S-integral points. The contents is kept as elementary as poss...

  10. Multivariate approaches in plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, D.M.; Schultz, j.; Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Jacobsen, Susanne; Sřndergaard, Ib

    2004-01-01

    . Characterization includes labor intensive work in order to manage, handle and analyze data. The field of classical proteomics should therefore be extended to also include handling of large datasets in an objective way. The separation obtained by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry gives rise to...... huge amount of data. We present a multivariate approach to the handling of data in proteomics with the advantage that protein patterns can be spotted at an early stage and consequently the proteins selected for sequencing can be selected intelligently. These methods can also be applied to other data...... generating protein analysis methods like mass spectrometry and near infrared spectroscopy and examples of application to these techniques are also presented. Multivariate data analysis can unravel complicated data structures and may thereby relieve the characterization phase in classical proteomics...

  11. Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Gorban

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant “additivity” properties: (i existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i and (ii are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the Markov order. The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally “most random” distributions.

  12. A New Approach for FCSRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Francçois; Berger, Thierry; Lauradoux, Cédric; Minier, Marine; Pousse, Benjamin

    The Feedback with Carry Shift Registers (FCSRs) have been proposed as an alternative to Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) for the design of stream ciphers. FCSRs have good statistical properties and they provide a built-in non-linearity. However, two attacks have shown that the current representations of FCSRs can introduce weaknesses in the cipher. We propose a new “ring” representation of FCSRs based upon matrix definition which generalizes the Galois and Fibonacci representations. Our approach preserves the statistical properties and circumvents the weaknesses of the Fibonacci and Galois representations. Moreover, the ring representation leads to automata with a quicker diffusion characteristic and better implementation results. As an application, we describe a new version of F-FCSR stream ciphers.

  13. Postoperative singultus: an osteopathic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petree, Kristie; Bruner, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Singultus, or hiccups, is a common medical condition. Despite exponential leaps in medicine, the pathophysiologic cause remains poorly defined. Persistent singultus has been associated with conditions such as pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction. Singultus is also a well-known postoperative complication. The criterion standard of care for patients with singultus involves ruling out lethal pathologic causes, attempting physical stimulation with Valsava maneuvers or drinking water, and, if no relief has been achieved, administering drugs to ease the symptoms. The authors report a case of a man whose postoperative singultus was successfully managed with osteopathic manipulative treatment. This approach addresses many of the possible underlying neuromechanical causes of the aberrant reflex with minimal potential for adverse effects. Physicians should consider osteopathic manipulative treatment in the care of patients with singultus. PMID:25722363

  14. Inverse approach to design magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inverse approach is always better to design an optimised magnet, where the field profile is known, rather than tuning the geometry of the magnet till the desired profile is achieved. We have developed an optimizer based on standard multi dimensional Newton-Raphson technique. The optimum geometry of a magnet is obtained by a combination of analytical and numerical methods. This code is versatile and can be used to design various magnets used in different applications. Here we present two different cases to show the efficiency of the code. First, we present the design of a solenoid magnet for a.c. susceptibility set up. Second, we describe the design of two pairs of Helmholtz coils for ion beam deflection. (author)

  15. LED instrument approach instruction display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

  16. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Hřjlund

    Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization...... is often narrowly defined to meet specific needs for information. This may however limit the general usefulness of the information gained, for example, if the specific purpose limited the characterization to a subset of variables. In general, data available in the solid waste area are limited and...... often with limited representation. This chapter describes common approaches and methods in waste characterization including common terms, sampling, characterization methods and data evaluation. The focus is on the characterization of waste as it is generated or collected, while specific issues on...

  17. Nanotechnology approaches for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Karin E; Simonson, Oscar E; Moreno, Pedro M D; Zaghloul, Eman M; Oprea, Iulian I; Svahn, Mathias G; Smith, C I Edvard

    2009-09-01

    In both basic research as well as experimental gene therapy the need to transfer genetic material into a cell is of vital importance. The cellular compartment, which is the target for the genetic material, depends upon application. An siRNA that mediates silencing is preferably delivered to the cytosol while a transgene would need to end up in the nucleus for successful transcription to occur. Furthermore the ability to regulate gene expression has grown substantially since the discovery of RNA interference. In such diverse fields as medical research and agricultural pest control, the capability to alter the genetic output has been a useful tool for pushing the scientific frontiers. This review is focused on nanotechnological approaches to assemble optimised structures of nucleic acid derivatives to facilitate gene delivery as well as promoting down regulation of endogenous genes. PMID:19488829

  18. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'''' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry'' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the practicing analytical chemist.''''.The book first introduces the reader to the fundamentals of experimental design. Systems theory, response surface concepts, and basic statistics serve as a basis for the further development of matrix least squares and hypothesis testing. The effects of different experimental designs and different models on the variance-covariance matrix and on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are exte...

  19. RBE from a microdosimetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the current status of microdosimetry and knowledge regarding the response of biological systems to radiation fields of differing linear energy transfer (LET). The primary objective is to investigate the potential application to radon daughter lung dosimetry. The concept of track structure and its statistical behaviour is discussed and applied to estimate the yield of double strand breaks (DSBs). The general microdosimetric approach to modelling radiation response is presented in terms of the hit-size effectiveness function and the behaviour for specific proposed functions is examined. Radiobiological investigations of the DSB, chromosome aberration and oncogenic transformation end points are reviewed with emphasis on recent developments. A simplified model system is developed illustrating the potential for analysis of the risk from radon daughter inhalation and published research directed towards this goal is discussed. (author). 66 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

  20. Episodic memory: A comparative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GemaMartin-Ordas

    1900-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has certainly adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research.

  1. Project Supervision – An Engineering Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbřll, Bjarne Kjćr; Conradsen, Knut

    2011-01-01

    project period. Management: The student is considered project manager of his own project. The supervisor is a guide or coach (or a project owner) Plans: The student is asked to write a project plan during the first week of the project together with a risk-analysis. Group Meetings: A group of students and......For more than twenty years, a group based supervision strategy has been used when supervising engineering bachelor- and master thesis students at our research group. In recent years, we have formalised the approach and used our industry experience to create a very successful framework for project...... master thesis writing. The supervision principles are: Ownership: The student should feel that their project is their own. Ideally, they should formulate the project themselves. Write early: We strongly encourage the students to write and generate figures and images already from the first week of the...

  2. The two-brain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Measuring brain activity simultaneously from two people interacting is intuitively appealing if one is interested in putative neural markers of social interaction. However, given the complex nature of interactions, it has proven difficult to carry out two-person brain imaging experiments in a...... methodologically feasible and conceptually relevant way. Only a small number of recent studies have put this into practice, using fMRI, EEG, or NIRS. Here, we review two main two-brain methodological approaches, each with two conceptual strategies. The first group has employed two-brain fMRI recordings, studying...... (1) turn-based interactions on the order of seconds, or (2) pseudo-interactive scenarios, where only one person is scanned at a time, investigating the flow of information between brains. The second group of studies has recorded dual EEG/NIRS from two people interacting, in (1) face-to-face turn...

  3. A programming approach to computability

    CERN Document Server

    Kfoury, A J; Arbib, Michael A

    1982-01-01

    Computability theory is at the heart of theoretical computer science. Yet, ironically, many of its basic results were discovered by mathematical logicians prior to the development of the first stored-program computer. As a result, many texts on computability theory strike today's computer science students as far removed from their concerns. To remedy this, we base our approach to computability on the language of while-programs, a lean subset of PASCAL, and postpone consideration of such classic models as Turing machines, string-rewriting systems, and p. -recursive functions till the final chapter. Moreover, we balance the presentation of un solvability results such as the unsolvability of the Halting Problem with a presentation of the positive results of modern programming methodology, including the use of proof rules, and the denotational semantics of programs. Computer science seeks to provide a scientific basis for the study of information processing, the solution of problems by algorithms, and the design ...

  4. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes. PMID:20658172

  5. Crohn's disease: current imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This paper discusses the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: We present a concept, which emphasizes different diagnostic aspects with regard to primary diagnosis, follow-up and assessment of complications of CD. The most effective imaging approach to various diagnostic problems of CD is discussed in detail. Discussion: With regard to the primary diagnosis barium studies should contribute to differentiate between CD and ulcerative colitis. Beyond that, these studies should evaluate location and extent of disease. During the follow-up bowel sonography provides staging of disease and enables the detection of complications at an early stage. CT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of complications, such as fistuale and abscesses. (orig.)

  6. Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

  7. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  8. An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

    1990-01-01

    An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

  9. A property rights based consolidation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Casajus, André; Labrenz, Helfried

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a full consolidation approach that takes into account the property rights structure whithin the subsidiaries, in particular, the majority requirements on restructurings. Our approach employs a property rights index based on cooperative game theory.

  10. Symbolic Tensor Calculus -- Functional and Dynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Woszczyna, A; Czaja, W; Golda, Z A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly discuss the dynamic and functional approach to computer symbolic tensor analysis. The ccgrg package for Wolfram Language/Mathematica is used to illustrate this approach. Some examples of applications are attached.

  11. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.

  12. Approaches to legal ontologies theories, domains, methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sartor, Giovanni; Biasiotti, Mariangela; Fernández-Barrera, Meritxell

    2010-01-01

    Plugging a gap in the market with its exploration of current methodologies and theoretical approaches to legal ontologies, this volume will enhance the retrieval and processing of legal data from the Semantic Web. It covers a range of ontological approaches.

  13. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Imhof, H. [University and General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics

    2006-07-01

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear security standard: Argentina approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has a comprehensive regulatory system designed to assure the security and safety of radioactive sources, which has been in place for more than fifty years. In 1989 the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission created the 'Council of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations' (CAPFMIN). This Council published in 1992 a Physical Protection Standard based on a deep and careful analysis of INFCIRC 225/Rev.2 including topics like 'sabotage scenario'. Since then, the world's scenario has changed, and some concepts like 'design basis threat', 'detection, delay and response', 'performance approach and prescriptive approach', have been applied to the design of physical protection systems in facilities other than nuclear installations. In Argentina, radioactive sources are widely used in medical and industrial applications with more than 1,600 facilities controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in spanish ARN). During 2005, measures like 'access control', 'timely detection of intruder', 'background checks', and 'security plan', were required by ARN for implementation in facilities with radioactive sources. To 'close the cycle' the next step is to produce a regulatory standard based on the operational experience acquired during 2005. ARN has developed a set of criteria for including them in a new standard on security of radioactive materials. Besides, a specific Regulatory Guide is being prepared to help licensees of facilities in design a security system and to fulfill the 'Design of Security System Questionnaire'. The present paper describes the proposed Standard on Security of Radioactive Sources and the draft of the Nuclear Security Regulatory Guidance, based on our regulatory experience and the latest international recommendations. (author)

  15. A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Sulis, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The process approach to NRQM offers a fourth framework for the quantization of physical systems. Unlike the standard approaches (Schrodinger-Heisenberg, Feynman, Wigner-Gronewald-Moyal), the process approach is not merely equivalent to NRQM and is not merely a re-interpretation. The process approach provides a dynamical completion of NRQM. Standard NRQM arises as a asymptotic quotient by means of a set-valued process covering map, which links the process algebra to the usual space of wave fun...

  16. Surgical Approaches to the Hypoglossal Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Gabriel; Isaacson, Brandon; Yoshor, Daniel; Oghalai, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe and illustrate three distinct surgical approaches that permit exposure and resection of extradural, intradural, and transdural lesions involving the hypoglossal canal. Study design: Case series. Setting: University medical center. Patients: Four patients with lesions of the hypoglossal canal were reviewed to illustrate our philosophy when selecting a surgical approach to the hypoglossal canal. Interventions: Three separate surgical approaches were used to approach lesio...

  17. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  18. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

  19. Constrained Ratio Approach to Allocating Instructional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Principal budgetary approaches underlying the allocation of instructional resources to an institution of higher education to maintain its continuing programs are briefly considered from several standpoints, and an alternative approach is developed. The constrained ratio approach is conducive to innovation but maintains resource control. (LBH)

  20. A Quantum Information Retrieval Approach to Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kitto, Kirsty; Bruza, Peter; Gabora, Liane

    2013-01-01

    As computers approach the physical limits of information storable in memory, new methods will be needed to further improve information storage and retrieval. We propose a quantum inspired vector based approach, which offers a contextually dependent mapping from the subsymbolic to the symbolic representations of information. If implemented computationally, this approach would provide exceptionally high density of information storage, without the traditionally required physica...

  1. Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Talebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating whether task-based approaches bear any superiority to that of more traditional ones evident in presentation-practice- and production phase .to fulfill the purpose of the study, the participants within the age range of 11-19, took part in the study. Following a pretest, treatment, and a posttest, the obtained data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to examine the effects of the variables. The results of the analysis showed that participants in the PPP group did significantly better in the grammar recognition of the posttest than that of the task group. However, their counterparts in the task group gained better scores in the writing section of the test .this research study provided evidence in support of task proponents' claim in the merit of task-based activity in raising learners' implicit knowledge claiming to play the primary role in spontaneous speech.Keywords: Task-based language teaching, PPP model, focus on form, focus on meaning

  2. Two approaches to physics tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomaniuck, Tania

    One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

  3. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word van die norme wat ter sprake is, veral dié norme wat die getroue nakoming van pligte vereis. Daar is egter gevind dat die Kantiaanse kategoriese imperatief ’n ideale rasionele gemeenskap veronderstel. Die imperatief moet dus ‘versag’ word deur, in die lig van Christus se liefdesopdrag, plek te maak vir oorwegings in verband met die korrupte agent se persoonlike omstandighede. Die studie is uitgevoer deur ’n oorsig van die belangrikste standpunte van twee filosofiese teorieë, naamlik utilitarisme (’n variant van konsekwensialisme en deontologie te gee. Daar is aangevoer dat gekwalifiseerde deontologiese en utilitaristiese benaderings belofte inhou om korrupsie op die langtermyn te beteuel. Die gevolgtrekking was dat die staat dringend aandag moet skenk aan die sosiale konteks deur die inwerkingstelling van ’n proses van ‘sosiale vernuwing’, gebaseer op die effektiewe toepassing van die wet, die voorsiening van voldoende onderwys en die bestryding van armoede. Daar is ook ’n dringende behoefte aan die ‘morele vernuwing’ van die bevolking, met die fokus op Christelike waardes, geoperasionaliseer vir die Suid-Afrika van vandag. Hierin lę ’n groot taak vir die kerk.

  4. Reactor protection system, diverse approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defence in depth design criteria, applied to nuclear instrumentation, in particular to reactor protection systems (RPS), includes redundancy, diversity and fail-safe behaviour. Typical two out of three, majority-voting systems meet redundancy criteria. A careful analysis of signal levels and polarity and the use of several techniques such as lives zeros, bias toward safe state, etc. guarantee same degree of fail-safe behaviour. Diversity criteria, in general, is met by the whole system using more than one method to protect the integrity of reactor (i.e. rod drop plus boron injection), but it is not met by a single instrumentation chain. Moreover, the increased information needs of supervision systems encourage the use of digital instrumentation in RPS; if the digital instrumentation has software based implementation, the diversity requirement could be mandatory for the instrumentation of each system. In this work three possible configuration of the First Reactor Protection System (rod drop) are analysed, the first is the traditional hardware approach, the second is a software based system, and the third is a proposed mix system. For all configurations, a redundant system two out of four (2004) is assumed. Availability and reliability points of view are taken into account. For the unreliability/unavailability analysis global values are assumed (order of magnitude). For hardware a value H lower than 10-3 is assumed and for software an S value is assumed. The first possible configuration is a hardwired architecture. By means of unreliability tree and using the gates formulas the value for unreliability UR = H is calculated. In similar way is possible compute total unavailability UA = H. The use of non-redundant final actuation logic lead to this result. The second possible configuration is a software based architecture. In this case field bus and serial bus are used, the unreliability and the unavailability computed is UR = UA 5 S + H. Finally, the proposed configuration, a software based with programmable hardware backup architecture is analysed. In this case the unreliability computed is UR = 15 H2 and the unavailability is UA S + 6 H With this approach reliability lies on hardware and availability/functionality lies on software. In addition, the proposed architecture makes practical the use of redundant Rod Voting and Actuation Logic (one by rod) and pushes the reliability to H2. Implementing the hardware backup by programmable logic we gain in flexibility, in order to fit the system in different facilities. But a new question is arisen; is programmable logic real hardware? To address this matter, a CPLD based system was developed and now it is under test in the experimental reactor RA1

  5. Approaches for Assessing Downscaled Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Fan, X.; Ma, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Most of the global modeling outputs, including the IPCC projections, global reanalyses such as the European 40-year reanalysis and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project, are at very coarse resolution (>100 km) for the purpose of a global coverage within the existing computational capability. However, most of natural and ecological resource management activities need climate data to be at ecologically and hydrologically relevant regional scales. To match this requirement, downscaling of climate model output to regional scale is necessary. In addition to statistical downscaling, dynamical downscaling of climate has been conducted at various institutions in order to obtain a full set of dynamically consistent regional climate. Although utilization of nudging techniques in regional climate simulation techniques have been demonstrated to be able to keep the simulated states to the driving state at large scales while generating small-scale features, questions about the assessment and evaluation of the downscaled climate arise as more and more institutions and individuals are involved in climate downscaling and more and more downscaled climate datasets becomes available. What are the confidence levels at which a downscaled climate can be a real downscaled climate? How much freedom should the regional climate model have to deviate from the large-scale driving field? Does the downscaled climate retains all large scale features at original coarse resolution, while it adds valuable subscale information but not too noisy? This study investigates and suggests approaches that can quantitatively evaluate downscaled climate from different configurations and/or from different modeling systems. The methods are used here to evaluate three downscaled climates of NCEP/NCAR reanalyses (NNRP), using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 108-36-12km. The three types of downscaling experiments were performed for a total of one month. The first type is serving as a base whereas the large scale information is communicated through lateral boundary conditions only; the second is using an internal nudging to grid analysis which is also called four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA); and the third is using spectral nudging, which constrains internal model states to large scale waves. The evaluation methods proposed and examined in this study provide an objective measure of how a downscaling approach is performing.

  6. Approaches to teaching primary level mathematics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caroline, Long; Tim, Dunne.

    Full Text Available In this article we explore approaches to curriculum in the primary school in order to map and manage the omissions implicit in the current unfolding of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement for mathematics. The focus of school-based research has been on curriculum coverage and cognitive dep [...] th. To address the challenges of teaching mathematics from the perspective of the learner, we ask whether the learners engage with the subject in such a way that they build foundations for more advanced mathematics. We firstly discuss three approaches that inform the teaching of mathematics in the primary school and which may be taken singly or in conjunction into organising the curriculum: the topics approach, the process approach, and the conceptual fields approach. Each of the approaches is described and evaluated by presenting both their advantages and disadvantages. We then expand on the conceptual fields approach by means of an illustrative example. The planning of an instructional design integrates both a topics and a process approach into a conceptual fields approach. To address conceptual depth within this approach, we draw on five dimensions required for understanding a mathematical concept. In conclusion, we reflect on an approach to curriculum development that draws on the integrated theory of conceptual fields to support teachers and learners in the quest for improved teaching and learning.

  7. New approaches to treating pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Handler, Norbert; Buschmann, Helmut

    2016-02-15

    Pain is the most common reason for patients seeking medical care resulting in an estimated world market for analgesics of more than USD 50billion. Pain is a highly complex, heterogeneous and dynamic process characterized by specific patterns of phenotypic sensory neuronal change. Current treatment options for pain include opioids and non-opioid analgesics, acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drug classes such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants and a combination thereof. Novel approaches are focusing on the optimization of side-effect profiles of opioid based analgesics, the improvement of selectivity for specific opioid receptors, or by addressing molecular gateways implicated in pain. Promising candidates in development target various types of voltage-gated ion channels and receptors for capsaicin and analogs. Currently, after decades of pain research it has to be stated that the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain in industrialized countries as well as in low-income and middle-income countries are neither adequate nor equitable. Further research is needed so that specifically chronic pain control can be improved and individualized. PMID:26774577

  8. New approaches to building plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are here today with a group of representatives from a good number of the companies capable of building nuclear power plants to hold a roundtable discussion on a subject of importance, namely New approaches to building plants. I would mention that despite the hard times suffered by our industry, a significant number of Main Suppliers have stayed in business, along with an important associated industry in the fields of equipment goods, engineering and construction. In fact, not only has it been possible to maintain the high level of technology and experience achieved, but also to update and improve it. While navigating this sea of troubles our companies have continued to provide and efficient support to nuclear power plants in operation, develop solutions to upgrade them, build the few new power plants demanded by the market and create advanced designs for new programmes. It has not been easy, but the results are there for everyone to see. Our industry is prepared to tackle new projects based on the lessons learned from the construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants worldwide, and the efforts of firms and authorities around the world to prepare for the launching of future generations of power plants. The conclusion is that we can count on an industry that is alive, healthy and has a large potential for growth, and which is convinced that there is a need for nuclear energy and that the conditions for its future revival are swiftly improving

  9. Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M. J.

    2009-09-01

    In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

  10. Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallwitz, Baptist

    2016-01-01

    This chapter deals with novel therapeutic approaches, predominantly for type 2 diabetes. Incretin-based therapies utilize the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which stimulates insulin and inhibits glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Incretin-based therapies comprise injectable GLP-1 receptor agonists and orally active dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors. Both have a low hypoglycaemia risk. GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, albiglutide) reduce glycated haemoglobin levels more effectively than oral antidiabetic agents do and lead to weight loss as well as a slight decrease in systolic blood pressure. The most common side effects are nausea and fullness, especially during the start of therapy. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, vildagliptin) are not inferior to sulfonylureas, causing significantly less hypoglycaemia and not inducing weight gain. Specific adverse effects have not been discovered yet, and cardiovascular safety has been demonstrated in respective studies. Sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin) were introduced recently. They block the tubular reabsorption of glucose in the kidney and represent an insulin-independent mode of action, with low hypoglycaemia risk and allowing weight loss. The most common side effects are genital and urinary tract infections. Other novel drugs in development (G-protein-coupled receptor agonists, interleukin-1 antagonists) are also described. PMID:26824365

  11. Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Usha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

  12. Understanding Progress: A Heterodox Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lemus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of understanding and measuring well-being as a result of “progress” on the basis of today’s dominant epistemological framework. Market criteria distort social values by allowing purchasing power to define priorities, likening luxury goods to basic needs; in the process they reinforce patterns of discrimination against disadvantaged social groups and women, introducing fatal distortions into the analysis. Similarly, because there are no appropriate mechanisms to price natural resources adequately, the market overlooks the consequences of the abuse of natural resources, degrading the quality of life, individually and collectively, or—in the framework of Latin American indigenous groups—foreclosing the possibility of “living well”. We critique the common vision of the official development discourse that places its faith on technological innovations to resolve these problems. The analysis points to the need for new models of social and environmental governance to promote progress, approaches like those suggested in the paper that are inconsistent with public policies currently in place. At present, the social groups forging institutions to assure their own well-being and ecological balance are involved in local processes, often in opposition to the proposals of the political leaders in their countries.

  13. Dosimetric approaches: pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern to the evaluation of radiation dose since radiation protection point of view: a)- The females overall body size and organ sizes are generally smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics), the effective doses could be 25 per cent higher than a man; b)- Female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry; female gonads doses could be up to 10 or 30 higher than male gonads (usually 3 order); c)- Risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; d)- During the pregnancy due to placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation exposure from the urinary bladder the embryo/fetus could receive doses that must be avoid; e)- In the case of nursing infant is of special concern in such an analysis to determine the interruption period to avoid doses in the nursing infant. The dosimetric approaches to take account to assess internal doses in the pregnant woman and during the breast feeding are discussed. (author)

  14. Conceptual Approach to Forecasting Demand ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreishina Nataliia B.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a conceptual approach to forecasting demand on products of a production or trading company using economic and mathematical methods. It justifies importance of modelling and forecasting consumer demand on goods. It provides a classification of methods of forecasting demand in two dimensions: from subjective to objective ones and from na?ve to cause-effect ones. It systemises groups of factors that influence demand and analyses character of their influence. It develops a concept of forecasting demand on products of a company using economic and mathematical methods, which consists of four stages: identification of factors that influence demand, selection of mathematical dependence, check of adequacy and accuracy of the model and forecast of demand. It builds forecast demand models for a specific trading company: Brown’s adaptive polynomial model of the first order; and two-factor model, demand in which depends on the price of a good and its changes. It checks adequacy of each model and performs forecast of demand on products of a company.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ??????. ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????: ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? ? ????????-????????????. ????????????????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????. ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????: ??????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????: ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????; ????????????? ??????, ? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ?? ?????????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????.

  15. Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (106 to 1022 Hz), Photonic Energy (10-4 to 109 eV) and Wavelengths (10-2 to 10-15 m). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

  16. Metabolomic Approaches in Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Verma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is the study of low molecular weight molecules or metabolites produced within cells and biological systems. It involves technologies such as mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR that can measure hundreds of thousands of unique chemical entities (UCEs. The metabolome provides one of the most accurate reflections of cellular activity at the functional level and can be leveraged to discern mechanistic information during normal and disease states. The advantages of metabolomics over other “omics” include its high sensitivity and ability to enable the analysis of relatively few metabolites compared with the number of genes and messenger RNAs (mRNAs. In clinical samples, metabolites are more stable than proteins or RNA. In fact, metabolomic profiling in basic, epidemiologic, clinical, and translational studies has revealed potential new biomarkers of disease and therapeutic outcome and has led to a novel mechanistic understanding of pathogenesis. These potential biomarkers include novel metabolites associated with cancer initiation, regression, and recurrence. Unlike genomics or even proteomics, however, the degree of metabolite complexity and heterogeneity within biological systems presents unique challenges that require specialized skills and resources to overcome. This article discusses epidemiologic studies of altered metabolite profiles in several cancers as well as challenges in the field and potential approaches to overcoming them.

  17. Semantic Approach for Query Explication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

  18. Innovative approach towards understanding optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Bharadwaj, Sadashiv Raj; Kumar, Raj; Shudhanshu, Avinash Kumar; Verma, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a decline in the students’ interest towards Science and Optics. Use of technology in the form of various types of sensors and data acquisition systems has come as a saviour. Till date, manual routine tools and techniques are used to perform various experimental procedures in most of the science/optics laboratories in our country. The manual tools are cumbersome whereas the automated ones are costly. It does not enthuse young researchers towards the science laboratories. There is a need to develop applications which can be easily integrated, tailored at school and undergraduate level laboratories and are economical at the same time. Equipments with advanced technologies are available but they are uneconomical and have complicated working principle with a black box approach. The present work describes development of portable tools and applications which are user-friendly. This is being implemented using open-source physical computing platform based on a simple low cost microcontroller board and a development environment for writing software. The present paper reports the development of an automated spectrometer, an instrument used in almost all optics experiments at undergraduate level, and students’ response to this innovation. These tools will inspire young researchers towards science and facilitate development of advance low cost equipments making life easier for Indian as well as developing nations.

  19. Development planning: A systematic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary goal of an oil or gas field development is to maximize the present value of the investment. A systematically-prepared Plan of Development (POD) can assist operators in achieving the goal by ensuring that all factors are considered in evaluating, planning, and carrying out the field development. A POD should contain an evaluation of all major events that realistically may occur during the field development cycle. By considering these events in the planning stage their probability of occurrence, effect on operations, and risk-weighted financial impact can be analyzed before field development begins. Depending upon the financial impact of the event, the field development strategy can be planned to alter the probability of occurrence or to reduce the consequences of the event. The contents of a systematic plan of development are presented and discussed: design basis, exploitation, operations and maintenance, engineering, and economics. Two Southeast Asian Field examples are used to illustrate how field economics would have been enhanced had a development plan been prepared using a systematic approach

  20. Quantitative risk approaches for formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, C T; Mathias, R; Friess, S

    1989-01-01

    Formaldehyde presents unique data that highlight significant issues in the extrapolation of animal studies to human risk assessments. Formaldehyde causes rare nasal cancer in rats at 15 ppm, but not at lower levels of 2 ppm and 0.5 ppm in the range of human exposures. Mice and hamster studies even at high levels have results similar to low dose rats. Higginson et al. reviewed the human epidemiology studies and concluded that no excess cancer risk was observed; and if a risk exists, it is very low. Formaldehyde is a natural metabolite--the human body turns over 51 g/day. Cells, therefore, have detoxification and other defence mechanisms to formaldehyde. Recent CIIT biomechanism results elucidate these factors. These data raise two issues: First, the appropriateness of linear quantitative risk methodology given the non-linear nature of the biological data. Either a non-linear (threshold) statistical model or NOEL approach are appropriate risk assessment techniques for formaldehyde. Second, the rare nasal cancer observed in rats also occurs in control animals. A comparison of relative risk between background and low formaldehyde exposures has been calculated for both groups. Non-linear (MLE) 5 stage multistage models estimate 0 per million risk from both background and 1 ppm of formaldehyde exposure. Linear or upperbound (95%) estimates are 7,200/million from background and 5,000/million from 1 ppm formaldehyde. These estimates have a significant impact on formaldehyde regulatory programs for warning labels and "safe" exposure levels. PMID:2700168

  1. Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Faghih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

  2. Natural approach to quantum dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, David; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2015-12-01

    The dissipative dynamics of a quantum system weakly coupled to one or several reservoirs is usually described in terms of a Lindblad generator. The popularity of this approach is certainly due to the linear character of the latter. However, while such linearity finds justification from an underlying Hamiltonian evolution in some scaling limit, it does not rely on solid physical motivations at small but finite values of the coupling constants, where the generator is typically used for applications. The Markovian quantum master equations we propose are instead supported by very natural thermodynamic arguments. They themselves arise from Markovian master equations for the system and the environment which preserve factorized states and mean energy and generate entropy at a non-negative rate. The dissipative structure is driven by an entropic map, called modular, which introduces nonlinearity. The generated modular dynamical semigroup (MDS) guarantees for the positivity of the time evolved state the correct steady state properties, the positivity of the entropy production, and a positive Onsager matrix with symmetry relations arising from Green-Kubo formulas. We show that the celebrated Davies Lindblad generator, obtained through the Born and the secular approximations, generates a MDS. In doing so we also provide a nonlinear MDS which is supported by a weak coupling argument and is free from the limitations of the Davies generator.

  3. Australia: Approaching an energy crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers energy policy in Australia in the context of its considerable energy resources, climate change and a recent change in government. It examines the possible paths that future energy use and policy in Australia could take, including published projections based largely on a 'business as usual' approach and projections based on a dramatic shift towards more efficient use of energy and renewable energy technologies. It also considers the various factors affecting future policy direction, including energy security, the advocacy in Australia for establishing nuclear electricity generation and other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle, responses to climate change, and carbon sequestration. It concludes that while the Australian Government is currently reluctant to move away from a dependence on coal, and unlikely to adopt nuclear energy generation, a low-emissions future without waiting for the deployment of carbon capture and storage and without resorting to nuclear power is within reach. However, in the face of strong pressure from interest groups associated with energy intensive industry, making the necessary innovations will require further growth of community concern about climate change, and the development of greater understanding of the feasibility of employing low carbon-emissions options.

  4. Approaching invasive species in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Kull

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While a number of plants, animals, and insects in Madagascar have been called ’invasive’, the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both negative and positive effects on landscapes, on native biodiversity, and on livelihoods. Examples include the prickly pear (raketa, the silver wattle (mimosa, and, recently, the Asian common toad (radaka boka. Building on a conceptual approach to ’invasive species’, this paper emphasizes the importance of inclusive and deliberative site- and population - specific management of invasive species. It analyses three separate concepts commonly used in definitions of invasion: the origin, behaviour, and effects of particular species. It places these concepts in their broader social and ecological context, with particular attention to local perspectives on invasive species. We illustrate these concepts with Malagasy examples and data. The examples demonstrate that while invasions can have dramatic consequences, there can be multiple, often competing, interests as well as site - specific biophysical, environmental, and cultural considerations that need to be taken into account when designing policy and management interventions. We conclude with a number of lessons learned.

  5. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  6. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  7. Approach to crevice chemistry inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to crevice chemistry inferences is presented. NWT reviewed the ionic species return after plant cooldown data for twelve PWRs. The data are limited since, generally, only data for sodium, magnesium and calcium cations, and chloride and sulfate anions are included. The solution chemistries were reviewed with respect to cation to anion equivalence ratios based on the following assumptions: all sodium, potassium, chloride and fluoride remain soluble; sulfate precipitates to the extent that calcium is present with residual sulfate remaining soluble; and all remaining calcium and magnesium precipitates as silicates. Plant chemistries were inferred as basic if their cation to anion equivalence ratio was greater than about 1.2 and acidic if the ratio was less than about 0.8. The total return chemistries after shutdown for various outages for the twelve plants were identified. The inferred pH conditions are also identified for each of those outages. These inferred pH conditions were then compared with the occurrence of intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the plants' steam generators. The occurrence of IGA and IGSCC appeared to correlate with an inferred pH that was basic. Plants with acidic conditions or with basic conditions and a phosphate buffer did not experience this corrosion

  8. Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions.

  9. The wonder approach to learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L'Ecuyer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder, no end or meaning (no beauty and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment, the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole.

  10. ECG Signal Analysis: Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thulasi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several challenges in solving biomedical problems and making Digital Signal Processing as an essential and effective pedagogical approach to solve a problem of detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG signals. The detection of QRS complex has many clinical applications as it marks the beginning of the left ventricular contraction. A lot of possible heart malfunctions such as cardiac arrhythmias, transient ischemic episodes and silent myocardial ischemia or failures will be slow while monitoring of ECG signal in real-time during normal activity. Introducing an efficient method for arrhythmia detection can be very useful for better conceptual understanding of signal processing. In this paper, we discussed two methods to clean ECG signal corrupted by noise and to extract required parameters for detecting arrhythmia condition. One method is Hilbert Transform method and another method is Filter Bank method. These methods involve using filter techniques, algorithms of finding peaks & valleys, local maxima & minima etc, for determining R peaks, R-R intervals and QRS complexes.

  11. Semilocal approach to nonlocal equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One can classify nonlocal equations according to the value of a parameter, defined as the ratio between the range of nonlocality and the characteristic length of the diagonal part of the integral kernel. When this ratio is small, one can derive a local (differential) equation, which approximately reproduces the solutions of the nonlocal equation. Then using the methods already existing for the analysis of differential equations one can, with a relatively small effort, describe the properties of the solutions of nonlocal equations. It is not possible to attach to every nonlocal Schroedinger equation an equivalent local one (i.e. a differential equation of second order). The reason is that the spectrum of nonlocal equations is much richer and cannot be reproduced with a second order differential equation. When this is the case, the behaviour of the solutions of nonlocal equations is similar to that corresponding to nonlinear equations. The method presented here provides one not only with a quite simple approach for studying the properties of nonlocal equations, but also with a fairly accurate method of approximate solution, when the above-mentioned parameter is reasonably small. (orig.)

  12. Reactor Protection Systems. Diverse Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defence in depth design criteria applied to nuclear instrumentation, in particular, to reactor protection systems (RPS), include redundancy, diversity and fail-safe behaviour. Typically, two out of three ('2oo3'), majority-voting systems meet redundancy criteria. A careful analysis of signal levels and polarity and the use of several techniques, such as lives zeros, bias toward safe state, etc. guarantee the same degree of fail-safe behaviour. Diversity criteria, in general, are met by the whole system using more than one method to protect the integrity of reactor (i.e. rod drop plus boron injection), but not for the single instrumentation chain. Moreover, the increasing information needs of supervision systems encourage the use of digital instrumentation in RPS; if the digital instrumentation has software based implementation, the diversity requirement will be mandatory for the instrumentation of each system. In the paper, three possible configurations of the first protection system (rod drop) are analysed. The first one is the traditional hardware approach, the second one is a software based system, and the last one is a proposed mix system. For all configurations, a redundant system two out of four ('2oo4') is assumed. Availability and reliability points of view are taken into account. The proposed mix system is explained in full detail. A discussion about programmable logic and its considerations are introduced. A CPLD based system in a research reactor (RA1) and its functionality are explained. (author)

  13. Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavitian, B. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 22} Hz), Photonic Energy (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 9} eV) and Wavelengths (10{sup -2} to 10{sup -15} m)). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

  14. [Current Approaches in Cancer Immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otáhal, P; Trn?ný, M

    2015-01-01

    Methods of cancer immunotherapy have finally entered clinical medicine after years of preclinical research. Currently, there are several methods, which have proven to be very effective even in cases of incurable cancer. Antitumor monoclonal antibodies are among major therapeutic anti-cancer drugs and have been successfully used for many ears. Novel group of antibodies are immunomodulatory antibodies which can break tumor?-specific immune tolerance and induce regression of tumors by nonspecific activation of immune system. Bispecific antibodies represent a novel class of anticancer agents which can induce expansion of T cells in vivo, blinatumomab is an example of such agents and is currently available for the treatment of acute B?-cell leukemia. Cellular immunotherapy is also very effective, especially the use of Chimeric receptor modified T-cells for the therapy of B-?cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Although it is a very complicated and expensive method, it is highly effective approach which can induce remission even in previously hopeless conditions. The goal of this article is to explain the basic principles of cancer immunotherapy and summarize the newest findings in this field. PMID:26489509

  15. Fulfillment Request Management (The approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gkoutzioupas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the term FRM (Fulfillment Request Management. According to the FRM in a BSS / OSS environment we can use a unified approach to implement a SOA in order to integrate BSS with OSS and handle 1. Orders 2. Events 3. Processes. So in a way that systems like ESB, Order Management, and Business Process Management can be implemented under a unified architecture and a unified implementation. We assume that all the above mentioned are 'requests' and according to the system we want to implement, the request can be an event, an order, a process etc. So instead of having N systems we have 1 system that covers all the above (ESB, Order Management, BPM etc With the FRM we can have certain advantages such as: 1. adaptation 2. Interoperability. 3. Re-usability 4. Fast implementation 5. Easy reporting. In this paper we present a set of the main principles in order to build an FRM System.

  16. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A possible scenario of the Boomerang mission includes the approach to Deimos prior to the landing of Phobos. The needed excess ?V w.r.t. simple scenario (elliptical orbit ŕ near-Phobos orbit) amounts to 0.67 km s-1 (1.6 vs 0.93 km s-1). The Boomerang mission basically repeats the Phobos-SR (2011) architecture, where the transfer-orbiting spacecraft lands on the Phobos surface and a small return vehicle launches the return capsule to Earth. We consider the Boomerang mission as an important step in Mars exploration and a direct precursor of Mars Sample Return. The following elements of the Boomerang mission might be directly employed, or serve as the prototypes for the Mars Sample return in future: Return vehicle, Earth descent module, Transfer-orbital spacecraft. We urge the development of this project for its high science value and recognize its elements as potential national contribution to an international Mars Sample Return project. Galimov E.M., Phobos sample return mission: scientific substantiation, Solar System Res., v.44, No.1, pp5-14, 2010. Chappaz L., H.J. Melosh, M. Vaguero, and K.C. Howell, Material transfer from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos, 43rd Lunar and planetary Science Conference, paper 1422, 2012.

  17. Multivariate approaches in plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, D.M.; Schultz, j.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of proteomics is to get an overview of the proteins expressed at a given point in time in a given tissue and to identify the connection to the biochemical status of that tissue. Therefore sample throughput and analysis time are important issues in proteomics. The concept of proteomics is to encircle the identity of proteins of interest. However, the overall relation between proteins must also be explained. Classical proteomics consist of separation and characterization, based on two-dimensional electrophoresis, trypsin digestion, mass spectrometry and database searching. Characterization includes labor intensive work in order to manage, handle and analyze data. The field of classical proteomics should therefore be extended to also include handling of large datasets in an objective way. The separation obtained by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry gives rise to huge amount of data. We present a multivariate approach to the handling of data in proteomics with the advantage that protein patterns can be spotted at an early stage and consequently the proteins selected for sequencing can be selected intelligently. These methods can also be applied to other data generating protein analysis methods like mass spectrometry and near infrared spectroscopy and examples of application to these techniques are also presented. Multivariate data analysis can unravel complicated data structures and may thereby relieve the characterization phase in classical proteomics. Traditionally statistical methods are not suitable for analysis of the huge amounts of data, where the number of variables exceed the number of objects. Multivariate data analysis, on the other hand, may uncover the hidden structures present in these data. This study takes its starting point in the field of classical proteomics and shows how multivariate data analysis can lead to faster ways of finding interesting proteins. Multivariate analysis has shown interesting results as a supplement to classical proteomics and added a new dimension to the field of proteomics.

  18. Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

  19. Physics in an Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirela, Bulgariu

    2010-01-01

    Organizing information in a rigid system does not fit the necessity of shaping a general culture with the pupils de declared objective of any educational system. The contribution of each school subject is expressed not by what is specific to it, but by what it shares with other school subjects, what is generalized and transferable. It is on the basis of this general culture that we can achieve profound specializations with efficient and lasting results for the spiritual and material life of the individual and of the society which supports and integrates hem. A first situation which must be solved theoretically is to specify the objective and to define interdisciplinary. According to the dictionary of pedagogy, interdisciplinary is "a report of interpretation (cooperation- coordination) among the school subjects, among the structures of the educational content corresponding to the modern organization of the type of institute of education." Interdisciplinary does not mean only dealing with a phenomenon simultaneously from the points of view of several, but also a integrated and integral approach of this each science bringing its own conceptual system, way of thinking and specific methods of research and representation. In order to achieve a good interdisciplinary some exigencies have to be observed: •the teacher should have a thorough general cultural •the teacher should know the methodology of his particular discipline well but also the methodology of the other subjects in the curriculum area •the pupils should be aware of the existence of interdisciplinary of the school subjects •the achieving of some programs with themes of an interdisciplinary character.

  20. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media. PMID:3602645

  1. Quality Products - The CANDU Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime focus of the CANDU concept (natural uranium fuelled-heavy water moderated reactor) from the beginning has economy, heavy water losses and radiation exposures also were strong incentives for ensuring good design and reliable equipment. It was necessary to depart from previously accepted commercial standards and to adopt those now accepted in industries providing quality products. Also, through feedback from operating experience and specific design and development programs to eliminate problems and improve performance, CANDU has evolved into today's successful product and one from which future products will readily evolve. Many lessons have been learned along the way. On the one hand, short cuts of failures to understand basic requirements have been costly. On the other hand, sound engineering and quality equipment have yielded impressive economic advantages through superior performance and the avoidance of failures and their consequential costs. The achievement of lifetime economical performance demands quality products, good operation and good maintenance. This paper describes some of the basic approaches leading to high CANDU station reliability and overall excellent performance, particularly where difficulties have had to be overcome. Specific improvements in CANDU design and in such CANDU equipment as heat transport pumps, steam generators, valves, the reactor, fuelling machines and station computers, are described. The need for close collaboration among designers, nuclear laboratories, constructors, operators and industry is discussed. This paper has reviewed some of the key components in the CANDU system as a means of indicating the overall effort that is required to provide good designs and highly reliable equipment. This has required a significant investment in people and funding which has handsomely paid off in the excellent performance of CANDU stations. The close collaboration between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian industry and the Canadian utilities has been the most important factor in this success

  2. Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjŘrkmann, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The research on sulfite pulping has been characterized by the attempts to explain its chemistry. The. different approach presented is incited by perceptions about the (still) unsolved problem of the ultrastructural features of lignin in wood. A simple kinetic model has been chosen to describe the reaction order of lignin as "concentration" (weight) in the dissolution kinetics, the cooking liquor being used in substantial excess. Three states of lignin were used: in wood as sawdust (W), in milled. wood (MW) and as milled wood lignin (MWL). Cooks were performed at pH 1.5, and 6. (measured at room temperature). The lignin was also modified chemically in two ways: alkaline borohydride reduction and diazomethane methylation. The reaction order (with the kinetics used) was found to be about 2/3, which is the value to be expected for particles of equal size reacting, at the particle surface. The cooks were carried onto completion, defined as the maximum amount of dissolved lignin. Depending on the state of lignin, apart dissolved more or less "immediately". The kinetic results are presented in dissolution/time and Arrhenius diagrams. Some experiments were made to ensure that counterfeit results were evaded. It was found that lignin is very reactive, that is why the sulfonation chemistry alone does not necessarily determine its dissolution rate. It became evident that the ultrastructure dispersion of lignin in wood is beneficial for its dissolution. For W, the rate was much higher at pH 1.5 than at 6. MW lignin and MWL dissolved (after extraction of the "immediate" lignin) at higher rates than W lignin. For MWL, the rate difference between pH 1.5 and 6 was moderate, compared to W lignin. Borohydride reduction did not affect the lignin dissolution from W, but gave a large decrease of sulfonation rate for MWL. Methylation had also a small rate effect for W, but again a large decrease for MWL.

  3. Biotechnology approaches to rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern rice varieties developed at the International Rice Research Institute and by the National Rice Improvement Programs have had a dramatic impact on the increase in rice production. World rice production has doubled within a 25 year period, from 257 million tonnes in 1966 to 520 million tonnes in 1990, and most of the rice growing countries in Asia have attained self-sufficiency. However, the population of rice eaters continues to increase at an alarming rate and the demand for rice is likely to exceed production by the end of this century. To meet this demand in the next century, rice varieties are needed with a higher yield potential, multiple resistance to diseases and insects, and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Recent breakthroughs in cellular and molecular genetics have provided tools that can increase the efficiency of breeding methods and allow unconventional approaches to rice improvement. Application of these tools will permit us to develop improved rice varieties for meeting the challenges of increased rice production. Some of the exciting developments in rice biotechnology include: successful regeneration from protoplasts of japonica and indica rices; production of transgenic plants; development of a comprehensive molecular map consisting of more than 1500 DNA markers; tagging of genes of economic importance with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers; molecular characterization of pathogen populations based on restriction fragment patterns; and transfer of genes from wild species across crossability barriers. Thus, anther culture, marker aided selection and molecular analysis of pathogen populations are being employed to improve the efficiency of conventional rice breeding. Wide hybridization, protoplast fusion and transformation permit us to introduce nove genes into rice. (author). 54 refs, 2 figs

  4. Current chemotherapeutic approaches for hepatoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenichiro

    2013-12-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has markedly improved the survival of patients with standard-risk hepatoblastoma (HB). However, treatment results for patients with metastatic disease remain unsatisfactory. As a result, the current therapeutic strategy for HB is to decrease dose intensity for standard-risk tumors in order to reduce chemotherapy-related toxicity and to intensify chemotherapy in combination with new drugs to develop new therapies and improve the outcome of patients with metastatic disease. Results from various trials of The North American Cooperative Study demonstrated that patients with localized disease achieved long-term survival following treatment with a combination of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine (C5V). In the ongoing Children's Oncology Group (COG) trial, AHEP0731, patients with stage I pure fetal histology are classified as very low risk and treated with resection only, and patients with any stage IV disease or any stage plus an alpha-fetoprotein level at diagnosis of <100 ng/ml are classified as high risk and receive up-front window therapy followed by C5V + doxorubicin in an attempt to discover novel efficacious agents. The early International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (SIOPEL) trial, SIOPEL-1, demonstrated that a combination of cisplatin + doxorubicin (PLADO) is effective. In the SIOPEL-3SR trial, cisplatin alone was proved to be non-inferior to PLADO for standard-risk HB. In the SIOPEL-4 trial, intensified preoperative cisplatin was administered on a weekly basis, and this approach achieved the highest survival rate ever reported for patients, even those with metastatic disease. SIOPEL, COG, and the Japanese Study Group for Pediatric Liver Tumor (JPLT) have established the Children's Hepatoma International Collaboration (CHIC) to create a common risk classification and initiate international clinical trials in order to further improve the outcome of children with HB. PMID:24052132

  5. Approaches for improving cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and cancer are intricately related. Radiotherapy, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy, is used for treatment of 60% of cancers. It will continue to be the mainstay for multi-modality treatment protocols unit new molecular therapies can be developed and brought to the stage of clinical trials. It will continue to be relevant thereafter, to compare the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the novel drugs under development. And it could also be useful as an adjuvant therapy, to augment the effects of novel drugs, at optimum dose levels. However, radiation is a well documented carcinogenic agent. Several studies have shown a statistically significant, though small enhancement in the risk of second malignancies, particularly in long-term survivors. The above discussions suggest that it is imperative to carry out preclinical radiobiological research for increasing tumor cell damage, while reducing the effective radiation doses. Development of radiobiological research programs in our institutions of higher learning such as post graduate medical institutions, cancer centers and universities could lead to the generation of a wealth of radiobiological data with potential clinical applications. Radiobiologists could utilize the infra-structure such as expensive radiotherapy equipment as well as clinical materials. For example, tumour biopsies readily available in the medical and cancer centers. However, if these studies have clinically meaningful implications it will be important to facilitate very close interactions between the basic scientists and clinicians. Some of the approaches for improving radiotherapy of cancer will be very briefly reviewed. Our current work about the effects of radiation-drug and drug-drug interactions for increasing cellular damage and death in brain tumor cells will also be presented. (author)

  6. Functional dyspepsia: a pragmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurcan, Roxana; Voiosu, T A

    2010-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia includes one or more of four cardinal symptoms: postprandial fullness, early satiety, pain or burning in the epigastrum. According to the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia, these symptoms must be present for the last 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months prior to diagnosis. Functional dyspepsia is not the result of an underlying structural abnormality, but rather the consequence of multiple pathophysiological mechanisms such as abnormal gastric motility, gastric and duodenal hypersensitivity to acid, Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspeptic patients over 50 or those with alarm symptoms should be investigated to detect any structural abnormality such as cancer, peptic ulcer or esophagitis. After structural abnormalities and gastroesophageal reflux disease are excluded the management of functional dyspepsia consists of either a test and treat approach (non invasive detection of Helicobacter pylori infection followed by eradication therapy) or empirical therapy. Although endoscopy was traditionally reserved for those patients without symptom relief after 6-8 weeks of therapy, the significant percentage of patients with functional dyspepsia with symptom breakthrough or relapse after antisecretory or prokinetic therapy discontinuation makes an initial endoscopic study a logical choice. Therapy with proton pump inhibitors yields results especially in those patients with regurgitation and epigastric burning sensation, while prokinetic agents with no extrapyramidal side effects (such as Domperidone and Itopride) alleviate satiation, bloating and nausea by accelerating gastric emptying. Second-line drugs with encouraging results in clinical trials which can be used in functional dyspepsia are low-dose tricyclic antidepressants as well as selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors. PMID:21180236

  7. Auditory detection and localization of approaching vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Benjamin K; Ulrich, Thomas A; Lew, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Pedestrians must use a variety of cues when making safe decisions, many of which require processing of auditory information. We examined detection and localization of approaching vehicles using auditory cues. 50 adults ages 18-49 were presented with actual sounds of vehicles approaching at 5, 12, 25, and 35 mph. Three indices were of interest: the distance at which vehicles were detected, participants' decision regarding the direction from which vehicles were approaching, and their determination of the vehicles' arrival at their location. Participants more easily detected vehicles moving at higher speeds and vehicles approaching from the right. Determination of the direction of approach reached 90% accuracy or better when vehicles were traveling at, or greater than, 12 mph, and were more approaching from the right. Determination of vehicle arrival deteriorated significantly as speeds increased. Implications of the use of auditory cues in pedestrian settings, and future directions, are discussed. PMID:22658950

  8. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnology researchers with very practical benefits. Even as far back as 1995 David Whitehouse—Editor-in-Chief of Nanotechnology when the journal was launched almost 25 years ago—and W L Wang reported on the relevance of neural networks in scanning probe imaging [10]. Couple the progress in applying artificial intelligence with the advances in mimicking biological neurons with nanostructures that has been highlighted in our recent synaptic electronics special issue [11] and it seems we may be on the cusp of a new phase in the relationship between man and machine. References [1] Sacha G M and Varona P 2013 Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology Nanotechnology 24 452002 [2] Park K H, Im S H and Park O O 2011 The size control of silver nanocrystals with different polyols and its application to low-reflection coating materials Nanotechnology 22 045602 [3] Pradhan N, Pal A and Pal T 2002 Silver nanoparticle catalyzed reduction of aromatic nitro compounds Colloids Surf. A 196 247-57 [4] Ma K, Cui Q, Liu G, Wu F, Xu S and Shao Y 2011 DNA abasic site-directed formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters for selective nucleobase recognition Nanotechnology 22 305502 [5] Doering W E and Nie S 2002 Single-molecule and single-nanoparticle SERS: examining the roles of surface active sites and chemical enhancement J. Phys. Chem. B 106 311-7 [6] Wang J X, Sun X W, Yang Y, Huang H, Lee Y C, Tan O K and Vayssieres L 2006 Hydrothermally grown oriented ZnO nanorod arrays for gas sensing applications Nanotechnology 17 4995-8 [7] Kong X Y, Ding Y and Wang Z L 2004 Metal-semiconductor Zn-ZnO core-shell nanobelts and nanotubes J. Phys. Chem. B 108 570-4 [8] Zhang H, Yang D, Ma X, Ji Y, Xu J and Que D 2004 Synthesis of flower-like ZnO nanostructures by an organic-free hydrothermal process Nanotechnology 15 622-6 [9] Romano G, Mantini G, Carlo A D, D'Amico A, Falconi C and Wang Z L 2011 Piezoelectric potential in vertically aligned nanowires for high output nanogenerators Nanotechnology 22 465401 [10] Wang W L and Whitehouse D J 1995 Application of neural networks to the reconstruction of scanning probe microscope images distorted by finite-size tips Nanotechnology 6 45-51 [11] Demming A, Gimzewski J K and Vuillaume D 2013 Synaptic electronics Nanotechnology 24 380201

  9. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of biomarkers: those from extant life, such as DNA, those from extinct life such as hopanes, and those from organic compounds not necessarily associated with life such as PAHs, rocket exhaust contamination and other a/pre-biotic chemicals. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be used. Monoclonal antibodies react with a very specific compound, but polyclonal antibodies may react to any of a whole family of compounds. Furthermore the technique of phage display to raise antibodies against classically non-antigenic molecules is also being considered. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Physical approach to complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapie?, Jaros?aw; Dro?d?, Stanis?aw

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but turned out to be very useful also in physics - like, for example, fractal geometry. Further methods discussed borrow from the formalism of complex networks, from the theory of critical phenomena and from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Each of these methods is helpful in analyses of specific aspects of complexity and all of them are mutually complementary.

  11. CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, S

    1982-03-01

    Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information and sales to lower income clients. PROFAMILIA CSM and community-based program sales are in a period of relative stagnation. Sales projections show only modest increases between 1981-85, despite the fact that a significant number of potential consumers remain unserved. Ultimately, PROFAMILIA may be faced with the need to reduce their number markedly as sales revenue is eroded by inflation while costs rise. A shift in duties back to motivation rather than distribution, combined with increased media promotion seems the clearest short-term response to the problem of unserved consumers. PMID:12264180

  12. Neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, M R; Schroeder, H W

    1999-04-15

    Object. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in patients with intraventricular tumors. Methods. A series of 30 patients with endoscopically treated intraventricular lesions is reported. The lesions included seven colloid cysts, six astrocytomas, three subependymomas, two ependymomas, and one each of the following: pineoblastoma, pineocytoma/pineoblastoma (intermediate type), epidermoid cyst, pineal cyst, medulloblastoma, arteriovenous hemangioma, cavernoma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, melanoma, and germinoma. Total tumor resections, partial resections, biopsies, stent implantations, septostomies, and third ventriculostomies were performed. In two cases (two subependymomas > 2 cm in diameter), piecemeal endoscopic resection was ineffective because of the very firm consistency of the tumors. Therefore the endoscopic procedure was discontinued and the tumors were removed microsurgically. In the remaining cases the procedures were completed as planned. Even in the presence of difficulties such as poor orientation or significant bleeding, there was no need to abandon the endoscopic procedure. A total of 28 strictly endoscopic interventions were performed, in which the average duration was 85 minutes (range 35-170 minutes). All colloid cysts and the epidermoid lesion were completely evacuated and the capsules were widely resected. Total extirpation of solid tumors was achieved in five cases, whereas most astrocytomas were partially resected. The hydrocephalus-related symptoms resolved in all of the 22 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pathway obstruction. There were no endoscopy-related deaths. In two cases, major bleeding occurred and was controlled endoscopically. The authors observed one case of meningitis, one of mutism, two of memory loss attributed to forniceal injury, one of transient trochlear palsy after a biopsy specimen of an aqueductal tumor was obtained, and one of transient confusion after a biopsy specimen of a germinoma was obtained. Conclusions. In the authors' preliminary experience, the endoscopic approach was found to be safe and effective. In this series, it was possible to achieve relief of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, tumor resections, and even complete tumor removals by using endoscopic techniques. Based on the results, the authors believe that endoscopic techniques should be considered in the treatment of selected intraventricular lesions. PMID:16681359

  13. A Geometric Approach to Noncommutative Principal Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    From a geometrical point of view it is, so far, not sufficiently well understood what should be a "noncommutative principal bundle". Still, there is a well-developed abstract algebraic approach using the theory of Hopf algebras. An important handicap of this approach is the ignorance of topological and geometrical aspects. The aim of this thesis is to develop a geometrically oriented approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal bundles based on dynamical systems and the representation theory of the corresponding transformation group.

  14. Extended frontobasal approach to the skull base.

    OpenAIRE

    Banerji D; Behari S; Tyagi I; Pandey T; Jain V; Chhabra D

    2001-01-01

    The extended frontobasal approach provides an adequate midline exposure from the anterior cranial fossa to the sphenoclival region. Between November 1991 and August 1999, 13 patients with extensive anterior and anterolateral skull base tumours extending to supra and parasellar regions, cavernous sinus and sphenoclival regions were operated upon using this approach alone (7 patients) or in combination with subtemporal -infratemporal (4 patients) or transfacial (2 patients) approaches. Gross to...

  15. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Technology Education

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    "The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the instructional strategy of the interdisciplinary approach to teaching. The development of education has resulted in a separation of subjects in the school setting. Technology is not a "stand-alone" entity but rather is intertwined with nearly every aspect of our lives. Thus, an interdisciplinary approach to the study of technology is more logical than a segregated approach." [p. 66

  16. A structural approach for measuring fiscal disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Langřrgen, Audun; Aaberge, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    Fiscal disparities arise from differences in costs and capacity to produce a standard package of public services. This paper proposes to use a structural modelling approach as basis for measuring fiscal disparities across municipalities. This approach differs from the widely used reduced-form approach, in the sense that identification of minimum required costs or expenditure need is made by reference to a structural model of the fiscal and spending behavior of local governments. The empirical...

  17. A Learning Approach for Adaptive Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Vincent; Thonnat, Monique

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we have proposed a learning approach for three major issues of image segmentation: context adaptation, algorithm selection and parameter tuning according to the image content and the application need. This supervised learning approach relies on hand-labelled samples. The learning process is guided by the goal of the segmentation and therefore makes the approach reliable for a broad range of applications. The user effort is restrained compared to other supervised methods since...

  18. Limit Design Approach of the Reinforced Soils

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vaní?ek

    2000-01-01

    Since now the design of slope stability was calculated by means of safety ratio, but nowadays we are going to change this approach to limit states - according to Eurocode 7. For the limit states approach it is necessary to define design values not only of soil properties but also of reinforcing elements. The proposed calculation method of the slope stability using limit states approach was transferred into a computer program SVARG. By this program it is possible to calculate the internal and ...

  19. Implementing Loss Distribution Approach for Operational Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Pavel V.

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the operational risk capital charge under the current regulatory framework for banking supervision, referred to as Basel II, many banks adopt the Loss Distribution Approach. There are many modeling issues that should be resolved to use the approach in practice. In this paper we review the quantitative methods suggested in literature for implementation of the approach. In particular, the use of the Bayesian inference method that allows to take expert judgement and parameter uncerta...

  20. Design for Development: A Capability Approach:

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterlaken, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I suggest a ‘capability approach’ towards designing for society, and particularly, the world’s poor. I will explain that this approach assigns a central place to human capabilities in our discussions of justice and development and criticizes a focus on utility or preference satisfaction. In the literature on the capability approach technical artifacts have hardly been acknowledged as an input for human capabilities, although Sen and some other authors sometimes refer to the ex...

  1. Belene nuclear power plant contracting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, three main types of project execution and contractual approaches have been applied to energy and industrial projects, including nuclear projects. These approaches are grouped into three broad categories: 1) Turnkey Approach; 2) Split Package (Island) Approach; and 3)Multiple Package Approach. Based on a preliminary screening done by an ongoing feasibility study work for NPP Belene (NEK contract to Parsons E and C), the recommended approach is going to follow that general trend i.e., with some variation between the Split Package and the Turnkey approach. Before deciding on an execution approach or at least before issuing bid specifications for the nuclear power plant, it is prudent, even for a country with existing nuclear power program (like Bulgaria), to re-check/verify capabilities of the interested bidders to handle contracts of this size and nature. During the last decades, nuclear energy went through a substantial restructuring and most of the capabilities (human and financial) that existed before are not any more available. This re-checking should mainly cover the experience of the bidders as regards the design, construction and operation of the stations where they were involved, but also include items such as local experience, capability to bring favorable financing, liability coverage, general background, potential and organizational structures. The advantages and disadvantages for the Owner of the three contracting approaches can be briefly summarized as follows: Turnkey Approach - main advantages: all responsibilities rest in a Contractor or Consortium. Main disadvantages - limited project control by Owner and restricted local participation. For Split Package Contract Approach main advantage are more favorable financing conditions and increased local participation. Main disadvantage is the increased interface problems. For Multiple package Contract Approach main advantages are the opportunity to tailor the plant and maximum increase of local participation. Main disadvantages are maximum responsibility to the Owner due to interfaces and compatibility of systems and technologies. (author)

  2. A Progressive Approach to Content Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Mr Julian; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    PCGapproachesarecommonlycategorisedasconstructive,generate- and-test or search-based. Each of these approaches has its distinctive advantages and drawbacks. In this paper, we propose an approach to Content Generation (CG)– in particular level generation – that combines the advantages of construc- tive and search-based approaches thus providing a fast, flexible and reliable way of generating diverse content of high quality. In our framework, CG is seen from a new perspective which differentiat...

  3. Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambovska Maya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

  4. Approaching the notion of place by contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Winter; Christian Freksa

    2012-01-01

    Place is an elusive notion in geographic information science. This paper presents an approach to capture the notion of place by contrast. This approach is developed from cognitive concepts and the language that is used to describe places. It is complementary to those of coordinate-based systems that dominate contemporary geographic information systems. Accordingly, the approach is aimed at explaining structures in verbal place descriptions and at localizing objects without committing to geome...

  5. Two Approaches to Calibration in Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Inferring mathematical relationships with quantified uncertainty from measurement data is common to computational science and metrology. Sufficient knowledge of measurement process noise enables Bayesian inference. Otherwise, an alternative approach is required, here termed compartmentalized inference, because collection of uncertain data and model inference occur independently. Bayesian parameterized model inference is compared to a Bayesian-compatible compartmentalized approach for ISO-GUM compliant calibration problems in renewable energy metrology. In either approach, model evidence can help reduce model discrepancy.

  6. The N body problem. Relativistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We shall detail in a first part the physical motivation of relativistic approaches by investigating the underlying elementary mechanisms. The second part will be devoted to the understanding of nuclear matter and finite nuclei in these approaches. We shall see, in particular, how one can easily derive an effective interaction of Skyrme type from these relativistic approaches. We shall discuss, in the third part, some recent results obtained in nuclear structure. (author)

  7. Approach Merotopies and Associated Near Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Peters

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces associated near sets of a collection of sets. The proposed approach introduces a means of defining as well as describing an ?-approach merotopy in terms of the members of associated sets of collections that are sufficiently near. A characterization for continuous functions is established using associated near sets. This article also introduces p-containment considered in the context of near sets. An application of the proposed approach is given in terms of digital image classification.

  8. Information Security Awareness: An Innovation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Corona, Carlos Orozco

    2010-01-01

    Scholars and security practitioners seem to converge in the understanding that Information Security is in great part a problem about people; hence the need for a more holistic approach in order to understand human behaviour in the Information Security field which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Recent events such as the “Interdisciplinary Workshop on Security and Human Behaviour” hosted in Boston, Massachusetts in June 2008, are considering this approach and they have conveyed a multi...

  9. Information Retrieval Using a Middleware Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boberi? Krsti?ev, Danijela

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a mediator/wrapper approach to enable the search of an existing library management system using different information retrieval protocols. It proposes an architecture for a software component that will act as an intermediary between the library system and search services. It provides an overview of different approaches to add Z39.50 and Search/Retrieval via URL (SRU) functionality using a middleware approach that is implemented on the BISIS library management sy...

  10. Probabilistic game approaches for network cost allocation

    OpenAIRE

    bhakar, Rohit; sriram, V.s.; padhy, Narayana prasad; Gupta, Hari Om

    2010-01-01

    In a restructured power market, the network cost is to be allocated between multiple players utilizing the system in varying capacities. Cooperative game approaches based on Shapley value and Nucleolus provide stable models for embedded cost allocation of power networks. Varying network usage necessitates the introduction of probabilistic approaches to cooperative games. This paper proposes a variety of probabilistic cooperative game approaches. These have variably been modeled based upon ...

  11. Implementing Loss Distribution Approach for Operational Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Pavel V.

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the operational risk capital charge under the current regulatory framework for banking supervision, referred to as Basel II, many banks adopt the Loss Distribution Approach. There are many modeling issues that should be resolved to use the approach in practice. In this paper we review the quantitative methods suggested in literature for implementation of the approach. In particular, the use of the Bayesian inference method that allows to take expert judgement and...

  12. Research Approaches in the Study of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.

  13. Information Security Awareness: An Innovation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Corona, Carlos Orozco

    2010-01-01

    Scholars and security practitioners seem to converge in the understanding that Information Security is in great part a problem about people; hence the need for a more holistic approach in order to understand human behaviour in the Information Security field which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Recent events such as the “Interdisciplinary Workshop on Security and Human Behaviour” hosted in Boston, Massachusetts in June 2008, are considering this approach and they have conveyed a multi...

  14. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  15. Overstress and flowstress approaches to dynamic viscoplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partom Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscoplasticity is mostly modelled by the flowstress approach, where the flowstress (Y is a function of pressure, temperature, plastic strain and strain rate Y(P,T, ?p, ??. For dynamic Viscoplasticity the flowstress approach is used in hydrocodes together with the radial return algorithm, to determine deviatoric stress components in each computational cell and for each time step. The flowstress approach assumes that during plastic loading, the flowstress in stress space follows the current stress point (current Y. Unloading of a computational cell is therefore always elastic. The overstress approach to dynamic viscoplasticity was used in various versions in the 1950s and early 1960s, before the advent of hydrocodes. By the overstress approach a state point may move out of the quasistatic flow surface upon loading, and hence the term overstress. When this happens, the state point tends to fall back (or relax onto the quasistatic flow surface through plastic flow, and the rate of this relaxation is an increasing function of the amount of overstress. In the paper we first outline in detail how these two approaches to dynamic viscoplasticity work, and then show an example for which the overstress approach has an advantage over the flowstress approach. The example has to do with elastic precursor decay in planar impact, and with the phenomenon of anomalous thermal strengthening, revealed recently in planar impact tests. The overstress approach has an advantage whenever plastic flow during unloading is of importance.

  16. Hopf bifurcation analysis a frequency domain approach

    CERN Document Server

    Moiola, Jorge L

    1996-01-01

    This book is devoted to the frequency domain approach, for both regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcation analyses. Besides showing that the time and frequency domain approaches are in fact equivalent, the fact that many significant results and computational formulas obtained in the studies of regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcations from the time domain approach can be translated and reformulated into the corresponding frequency domain setting, and be reconfirmed and rediscovered by using the frequency domain methods, is also explained. The description of how the frequency domain approach can b

  17. Overstress and flowstress approaches to dynamic viscoplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2015-09-01

    Viscoplasticity is mostly modelled by the flowstress approach, where the flowstress (Y) is a function of pressure, temperature, plastic strain and strain rate Y(P,T, ?p, ??). For dynamic Viscoplasticity the flowstress approach is used in hydrocodes together with the radial return algorithm, to determine deviatoric stress components in each computational cell and for each time step. The flowstress approach assumes that during plastic loading, the flowstress in stress space follows the current stress point (current Y). Unloading of a computational cell is therefore always elastic. The overstress approach to dynamic viscoplasticity was used in various versions in the 1950s and early 1960s, before the advent of hydrocodes. By the overstress approach a state point may move out of the quasistatic flow surface upon loading, and hence the term overstress. When this happens, the state point tends to fall back (or relax) onto the quasistatic flow surface through plastic flow, and the rate of this relaxation is an increasing function of the amount of overstress. In the paper we first outline in detail how these two approaches to dynamic viscoplasticity work, and then show an example for which the overstress approach has an advantage over the flowstress approach. The example has to do with elastic precursor decay in planar impact, and with the phenomenon of anomalous thermal strengthening, revealed recently in planar impact tests. The overstress approach has an advantage whenever plastic flow during unloading is of importance.

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF AGILE APPROACH IN PRAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kniežová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, competitiveness in the market depends on having a good information system. The companies developing and supplying information systems are in competition too, and having an effective system of delivery is critical for obtaining lucrative offers. Therefore, the software development companies continuously try to improve their development process to supply the product in a short time and with high quality. The agile approach potentially shortens this time and is very often used. This approach has almost replaced the traditional process. More and more companies implement agile approach in these times to be competitive in the software development market and hasten product delivering.The traditional and agile approaches differ in certain perspectives. Hence, the question arises as to whether the agile approach is the best for the software development company in every case. This article contains a comparison of these two approaches, as well as a case study relating to the agile approach in a real software development company, which had previously used the traditional approach. The article also describes situation where replacing the traditional approach with agile would improve results.

  19. NRTMA: Common purpose; complementary approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Near Real Time Material Accountancy (NRTMA) is a leading edge technical solution to in- process verification in bulk handling facilities. It facilitates non-intrusive inspection and allows safeguards conclusions to be drawn without plant shut down. NRTMA is fully operational in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp), providing regular assurance of high quality material control. At its core are a number of statistical algorithms to process the data. This paper covers the techniques deployed by BNFL and Euratom for NRTMA in the Thorp facility located at Sellafield. As early as 1982, a number of important decisions were taken by BNFL in support of safeguards. In addition to the pursuit of high precision measurement of nuclear materials flow, BNFL set out a comprehensive suite of instrumentation to allow frequent nuclear materials inventory determination and materials balancing. These instruments provide Euratom with a comprehensive set of plant-specific data in computerised form. The operator and the safeguards regulator have complementary requirements from the working NRTMA System for nuclear material control. BNFL requires uninterrupted operation whilst demonstrating full compliance with all regulations. In practice, this means that plutonium plants can remain operational between annual Physical Inventory Takings, and a system of early warnings and diagnostic indicators are available continuously to the operator and the inspectors. The Safeguards Inspectorate, of course, wants to be assured that there has been no diversion of plutonium, in line with safeguards goals. During commissioning, BNFL's NRTMA System has focused on identifying any underlying uncertainties in the measurements systems. Error components have been identified and quantified by anomaly resolution tools and by process investigations. This has been invaluable in identifying specific effects and in providing a running overview of plant accountancy performance. The NRTMA process models and methods for in-process inventory determination were further refined in this period. BNFL is now extending the NRTMA System to farther integrate remaining estimates of systematic uncertainties. Euratom's safeguards inspection scheme has taken advantage of the BNFL NRTMA System. From a verification point of view, NRTMA supports fulfilment of the monthly timeliness component of the safeguards approach. The flow component of the system is covered by extensive verification activities on a continuous inspection basis using a wide range of safeguards techniques such as process monitoring, C/S and independent safeguards equipment. Euratom and BNFL have worked in a spirit of co-operation, co-ordinated within a Framework Working Group. Provision of interim-inventories and the use of NRTMA were part of the criteria for European Commission approval of the safeguards techniques in the chemical plant reprocessing areas. These criteria and general terms of reference regarding the use of NRTMA were agreed between ESO and BNFL and recorded in a formal NRTMA Framework Document. The Data Evaluation Sector of ESO is the principal point of contact with BNFL on NRTMA statistical aspects. In order to evaluate NRTMA balances, a simplified process model was created by ESO, together with a related statistical model for the measurement errors and their propagation. It included the definition of particular testing variables suitable for safeguards anomaly detection, and sensitivity studies based on Monte Carlo simulations. ESO's need in evaluating the statistical analysis was to integrate the alarm probability level required with the assurance gained from other safeguards verifications, and maximise efficiency and effective use of inspector resources. The NRTMA data collection system fully supports interim inventory declaration. ESO consider alarms as being when all error components have been exceeded. The Inspectorate is routinely provided with interim inventory declarations at vessel level, in electronic form, and uses this to complement the BNFL analysis by conducting further sta

  20. Probabilistic approach to earthquake prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Addezio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of any earthquake forecast hypothesis requires the application of rigorous statistical methods. It implies a univocal definition of the model characterising the concerned anomaly or precursor, so as it can be objectively recognised in any circumstance and by any observer.A valid forecast hypothesis is expected to maximise successes and minimise false alarms. The probability gain associated to a precursor is also a popular way to estimate the quality of the predictions based on such precursor. Some scientists make use of a statistical approach based on the computation of the likelihood of an observed realisation of seismic events, and on the comparison of the likelihood obtained under different hypotheses. This method can be extended to algorithms that allow the computation of the density distribution of the conditional probability of earthquake occurrence in space, time and magnitude. Whatever method is chosen for building up a new hypothesis, the final assessment of its validity should be carried out by a test on a new and independent set of observations. The implementation of this test could, however, be problematic for seismicity characterised by long-term recurrence intervals. Even using the historical record, that may span time windows extremely variable between a few centuries to a few millennia, we have a low probability to catch more than one or two events on the same fault. Extending the record of earthquakes of the past back in time up to several millennia, paleoseismology represents a great opportunity to study how earthquakes recur through time and thus provide innovative contributions to time-dependent seismic hazard assessment. Sets of paleoseimologically dated earthquakes have been established for some faults in the Mediterranean area: the Irpinia fault in Southern Italy, the Fucino fault in Central Italy, the El Asnam fault in Algeria and the Skinos fault in Central Greece. By using the age of the paleoearthquakes with their associated uncertainty we have computed, through a Montecarlo procedure, the probability that the observed inter-event times come from a uniform random distribution (null hypothesis. This probability is estimated approximately equal to 8.4% for the Irpinia fault, 0.5% for the Fucino fault, 49% for the El Asnam fault and 42% for the Skinos fault. So, the null Poisson hypothesis can be rejected with a confidence level of 99.5% for the Fucino fault, but it can be rejected only with a confidence level between 90% and 95% for the Irpinia fault, while it cannot be rejected for the other two cases. As discussed in the last section of this paper, whatever the scientific value of any prediction hypothesis, it should be considered effective only after evaluation of the balance between the costs and benefits introduced by its practical implementation.

  1. Some important points of the French safety approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional deterministic approach has been completed with the development of the French electronuclear program mainly in two directions: the probabilistic approach and the approach of severe accidents

  2. CLP Approaches to 2D Angle Placements

    CERN Document Server

    Szczygiel, T

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents two CLP approaches to 2D angle placements, implemented in CHIP v.5.3. The first is based on the classical (rectangular) cumulative global constraint, the second on the new trapezoidal cumulative global constraint. Both approaches are applied to a specific presented.

  3. Collapse of a Bose gas: Kinetic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyamal Biswas

    2012-08-01

    We have analytically explored the temperature dependence of critical number of particales for the collapse of a harmonically trapped attractively interacting Bose gas below the condensation point by introducing a kinetic approach within the Hartee-Fock approximation. The temperature dependence obtained by this easy approach is consistant with that obtained from the scaling theory.

  4. Optimization approach within an interventional radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an approach aimed at optimizing working conditions and radioprotection for the different actors in interventional radiology. This approach comprises a monitoring of personnel dosimetry, a workstation analysis with risk assessment, and the taking into account of patient dosimetry. For each of these aspects, the authors discuss procedures and available devices (dosemeters and other detection or dose measurement equipment)

  5. The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

  6. Dossier "Gender and rights-based approaches"

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Can rights-based approaches forward the development agenda of gender equality? This dossier aims to address this question focusing on the application of rights-based approaches, and in particular their use in programmes and interventions that work towards achieving gender equality.

  7. Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, tow...

  8. Conceptual approach to modeling karst development

    OpenAIRE

    Mihael Bren?i?

    1995-01-01

    Karst is probably one of the most complicated hydrogeological systems at all.Its structure is complex and it changes in time. In the article conceptual approaches are described which could help establishing numerical simulation models for karst development. These approaches repose on the systems theory and the concept of the pure karst.

  9. Conceptual approach to modeling karst development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Bren?i?

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst is probably one of the most complicated hydrogeological systems at all.Its structure is complex and it changes in time. In the article conceptual approaches are described which could help establishing numerical simulation models for karst development. These approaches repose on the systems theory and the concept of the pure karst.

  10. A simple approach to the nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an approach to the nuclear dynamics which enables us to understand the relations between the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method and the quantumstatistical approach to the heavy ion reactions. The same formalism allows us to generalize the Random phase approximation in order to include the spreading width of collective states. (orig.)

  11. Phenomenological approaches in psychology and health sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward...

  12. Exploring Innovation – A Language Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabogunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. KyvsgĂĄrd; Berg, Pekka

    ” Innovation Management is a complex task that requires improved methods to support the exploration of multiple innovation dimensions. We suggest firms to adopt a language inspired approach in order to improve existing methods. The language approach is supported by a graphical innovation profile ...

  13. Evaluation and Opportunities in Overtraining Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Jolanda; de Vries, Wouter R.; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Backx, Frank J. G.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Overtraining (OT) as a sports phenomenon can be caused by stressors on various levels (physical, emotional, psychological, and social) and evokes responses on these levels. This study evaluated research and new opportunities in the field of OT by introducing an integrated multidisciplinary approach, based on the single and multistressors approach.…

  14. Mutual information via thermodynamics: three different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different approaches for deriving mutual information via thermodynamics are presented. All approaches require the extension of the traditional physical framework and the modification of the second law of thermodynamics. A realization of a physical system with an effective temperature-dependent Hamiltonian is discussed and followed by a suggestion of a physical information–heat engine

  15. Book Review: Organizations: A Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. Ł14.99. ISBN 9781472413413.......Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. Ł14.99. ISBN 9781472413413....

  16. Effects of Teacher Training in Disciplinary Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    A total of four approaches to teacher preparation in classroom discipline, including Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training, Adlerian-based approaches, Glasser's Reality Therapy, and Canter's Assertive Discipline, are reviewed in this document. These systems have been widely used for inservice teacher education for a decade or more, and each has…

  17. Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Casandra E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a…

  18. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  19. Making Sense of Approaches to Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Matthew; Osguthorpe, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a metatheoretical analysis of "approaches" to moral education and how we make sense of them. Such approaches are commonly analyzed with simple, binary category schemes, for example, being categorized as either 'indirect' or 'direct' in nature. This kind of minimal framework clearly oversimplifies the complex nature of any…

  20. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  1. A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassa, Tamir

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach

  2. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  3. Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

  4. Dialogic approaches to the study of subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Book review: Sullivan, P. (2012). Qualitative Data Analysis: Using a dialogic approach. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84920-609-9......Book review: Sullivan, P. (2012). Qualitative Data Analysis: Using a dialogic approach. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84920-609-9...

  5. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  6. A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

  7. Index analysis approach theory at work

    CERN Document Server

    Lowen, R

    2015-01-01

    A featured review of the AMS describes the author’s earlier work in the field of approach spaces as, ‘A landmark in the history of general topology’. In this book, the author has expanded this study further and taken it in a new and exciting direction.   The number of conceptually and technically different systems which characterize approach spaces is increased and moreover their uniform counterpart, uniform gauge spaces, is put into the picture. An extensive study of completions, both for approach spaces and for uniform gauge spaces, as well as compactifications for approach spaces is performed. A paradigm shift is created by the new concept of index analysis.   Making use of the rich intrinsic quantitative information present in approach structures, a technique is developed whereby indices are defined that measure the extent to which properties hold, and theorems become inequalities involving indices; therefore vastly extending the realm of applicability of many classical results. The theory is the...

  8. A Potts Neuron Approach to Communication Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Häkkinen, J; Peterson, C; Söderberg, B

    1998-01-01

    A feedback neural network approach to communication routing problems is developed with emphasis on Multiple Shortest Path problems, with several requests for transmissions between distinct start- and endnodes. The basic ingredients are a set of Potts neurons for each request, with interactions designed to minimize path lengths and to prevent overloading of network arcs. The topological nature of the problem is conveniently handled using a propagator matrix approach. Although the constraints are global, the algorithmic steps are based entirely on local information, facilitating distributed implementations. In the polynomially solvable single-request case the approach reduces to a fuzzy version of the Bellman-Ford algorithm. The approach is evaluated for synthetic problems of varying sizes and load levels, by comparing with exact solutions from a branch-and-bound method. With very few exceptions, the Potts approach gives legal solutions of very high quality. The computational demand scales merely as the product...

  9. Hybrid biasing approaches for global variance reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new variant of Monte Carlo—deterministic (DT) hybrid variance reduction approach based on Gaussian process theory is presented for accelerating convergence of Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS) approach implemented in the SCALE package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The new approach, denoted the Gaussian process approach, treats the responses of interest as normally distributed random processes. The Gaussian process approach improves the selection of the weight windows of simulated particles by identifying a subspace that captures the dominant sources of statistical response variations. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach utilizes particle importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive weight window biasing. In contrast to the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach identifies the response correlations (via a covariance matrix) and employs them to reduce the computational overhead required for global variance reduction (GVR) purpose. The effective rank of the covariance matrix identifies the minimum number of uncorrelated pseudo responses, which are employed to bias simulated particles. Numerical experiments, serving as a proof of principle, are presented to compare the Gaussian process and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation of the estimated responses. - Highlights: ► Hybrid Monte Carlo Deterministic Method based on Gaussian Process Model is introduced. ► Method employs deterministic model to calculate responses correlations. ► Method employs correlations to bias Monte Carlo transport. ► Method compared to FW-CADIS methodology in SCALE code. ► An order of magnitude speed up is achieved for a PWR core model.

  10. Valuation:from the discounted cash flows (DCF) approach to the real options approach (ROA)

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Ochoa, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    There exists an abysm between market prices and traditional valuation approaches such as Discounted Cash Flows (DCF), a fact that neither academics nor practitioners could continue ignoring. Recently, a complementary approach has taken a foothold into the valuation world. Building on the DCF approach yet going further in the sense of incorporating flexibility in management investment decisions, and taking advantage of the advances in option pricing theory, the real options approach (ROA) has ...

  11. Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    "Understanding the Montessori Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Montessori Approach and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early childhood and and its…

  12. Study strategies and approaches to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    In this study students’ study strategies have been compared to their approaches to learning. The time students spend on different study activities has been investigated at the Technical University of Denmark, and as a pilot project a few students also filled in a reduced version of Bigg's Study Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities. There was however a much stronger linear correlation (significant at the 0.01 level) between the deep-surface ratio and the totalstudy load. The same result was observed when measuring other students’ study strategy and learning approach for a single course. The empirical basis is still too limited to draw conclusive conclusions, but it raises some intriguing questions. Is time more important than the kind of learning activities for obtaining conceptual understanding – is all that matters from a teaching point of view to ensure that the students spend long hours studying?

  13. A new approach to turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perot, B.; Moin, P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to Reynolds averaged turbulence modeling is proposed which has a computational cost comparable to two equation models but a predictive capability approaching that of Reynolds stress transport models. This approach isolates the crucial information contained within the Reynolds stress tensor, and solves transport equations only for a set of 'reduced' variables. In this work, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data is used to analyze the nature of these newly proposed turbulence quantities and the source terms which appear in their respective transport equations. The physical relevance of these quantities is discussed and some initial modeling results for turbulent channel flow are presented.

  14. A minimalist approach to perceptual interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Lenay

    2012-05-01

    Starting from our earlier work on perceptual crossing we present a new experiment on the mechanisms of reciprocal recognition of the perceptual intentionality of the other subject: the emergent collective dynamics of the perceptual crossing can be appropriated by each subject. We then present an experimental study of opaque imitation (when the subjects cannot see what they themselves are doing. This study makes it possible to characterize what a properly interactionist approach to imitation might be. In conclusion, we draw on these results, to show how an interactionist approach can contribute to a fully social approach to social cognition.

  15. A Foundational Approach to Designing Geoscience Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, B.

    2009-05-01

    E-science systems are increasingly deploying ontologies to aid online geoscience research. Geoscience ontologies are typically constructed independently by isolated individuals or groups who tend to follow few design principles. This limits the usability of the ontologies due to conceptualizations that are vague, conflicting, or narrow. Advances in foundational ontologies and formal engineering approaches offer promising solutions, but these advanced techniques have had limited application in the geosciences. This paper develops a design approach for geoscience ontologies by extending aspects of the DOLCE foundational ontology and the OntoClean method. Geoscience examples will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  16. Approaches of Buried Object Detection Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashree R N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the different art of buried object detection technology and algorithms. This detection of buried object finds application in many areas, importantly in the Landmine detection which is of growing concern due to the danger of buried landmines to people’s lives, economic growth and development. This paper describes and analyzes different technology available. The approaches discussed are Electrical Impedance Tomography, X-ray backscatter, Infrared Systems, Acoustics/seismic systems; Neutron based Method and finally Ground-Penetrating Radar with two commonly available approaches: Least squares and SVD approach. Finally, the paper concludes highlighting the need to improve the way this information is processed and compared.

  17. Bringing University Pedagogical Approach into Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; S. Stachowicz, Marian

    This paper describes and discusses how the university pedagogical approach used in engineering education can be applied in a corporate setting. Problem Based and Project Organised Learning (PBL) pedagogical approach has been used in engineering education at Aalborg University for 30 years and this...... PBL structure was implemented in a Danish company which wanted to establish a learning environment, so that their employees would share their knowledge and understanding of the work processes across different departments. The pedagogical approach is described and two workshops are used as examples of...

  18. Shell model in a first principles approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop and apply an ab-initio approach to nuclear structure. Starting with the NN interaction, that fits two-body scattering and bound state data, and adding a theoretical NNN potential, we evaluate nuclear properties in a no-core approach. For presently feasible no-core model spaces, we evaluate an effective Hamiltonian in a cluster approach which is guaranteed to provide exact answers for sufficiently large model spaces and/or sufficiently large clusters. A number of recent applications are surveyed including an initial application to exotic multiquark systems

  19. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR RURAL FEEDER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMANJEET KAUR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a population based approach for conductor size selection in rural radial distribution system is presented. The proposed hybrid approach implies a particle swarm optimization (PSO approach in combination with mutant property of differential evolution (DE for conductor size selection in radial distribution system. The conductor size for each feeder segment is selected such that the total cost of capital investment and capitalized cost of energy losses is minimized while constraints of voltage at each node and current carrying capacity of conductor is within the limits. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with the help of 32-node test system.

  20. Staff competence in dealing with traditional approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, M.

    2008-01-01

    bridge between the more traditional and the Western approaches to treatment. The delineations and various aspects of the concept cultural competence and its dimensions will be discussed from a clinical perspective. Comparative studies of the various Western and the traditional approaches respectively...... backgrounds of patients there is a need for mental health professionals to recognize the existence of traditional approaches and be aware of the parallel systems of care. Competent treatment of such patients requires that mental health professionals are aware of this and exhibit a willingness and ability to...

  1. Radiotherapy problem under fuzzy theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuzzy set theoretic approach is used for radiotherapy problem. The problem is faced with two goals: the first is to maximize the fraction of surviving normal cells and the second is to minimize the fraction of surviving tumor cells. The theory of fuzzy sets has been employed to formulate and solve the problem. A linguistic variable approach is used for treating the first goal. The solutions obtained by the modified approach are always efficient and best compromise. A sensitivity analysis of the solutions to the differential weights is given

  2. Non-Blocking Approach in Concurrency Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakshi Sangwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the research in database management system on conventional techniques requires additional efforts for deadlock detection and elimination. A deadlock occurs when a transaction waits for locks held by another transaction, which in turn, is waiting (directly or indirectly for locks held by the first transaction. In this paper we have proposed a method for non blocking approach in concurrency control. The proposed approach is a distributed approach for construction of data access graphs at data sites, within a distributed static locking environment.

  3. Evaluating Modelling Approaches for Medical Image Annotations

    CERN Document Server

    Opitz, Jasmin; Sattler, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Information system designers face many challenges w.r.t. selecting appropriate semantic technologies and deciding on a modelling approach for their system. However, there is no clear methodology yet to evaluate "semantically enriched" information systems. In this paper we present a case study on different modelling approaches for annotating medical images and introduce a conceptual framework that can be used to analyse the fitness of information systems and help designers to spot the strengths and weaknesses of various modelling approaches as well as managing trade-offs between modelling effort and their potential benefits.

  4. Orbital symmetry a problem-solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lehr, Roland E

    2013-01-01

    Orbital Symmetry: A Problem-Solving Approach was born of the necessity to present to students Woodward and Hoffmann's approach to pericyclic reactions. Hence the tone is introductory, and the book is addressed primarily to an audience of advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The text seeks to familiarize the readers with several of the more often encountered methods of analyzing pericyclic reactions, and these methods should enable the analysis of virtually all of them. Problem solving is the foundation of the approach. Both the introductory and theory sections include proble

  5. Statistical inference an integrated Bayesianlikelihood approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aitkin, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Filling a gap in current Bayesian theory, Statistical Inference: An Integrated Bayesian/Likelihood Approach presents a unified Bayesian treatment of parameter inference and model comparisons that can be used with simple diffuse prior specifications. This novel approach provides new solutions to difficult model comparison problems and offers direct Bayesian counterparts of frequentist t-tests and other standard statistical methods for hypothesis testing.After an overview of the competing theories of statistical inference, the book introduces the Bayes/likelihood approach used throughout. It pre

  6. A prediction approach to sampling design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li-Chun; Thomsen, Ib

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Standard approaches to sample surveys take as the point of departure the estimation of one or several population totals (or means), or a few predefined sub-totals (or sub-means). While the model-based prediction approach provides an attractive framework for estimation and inference, a model-based theory for the variety of randomization sampling designs has been lacking. In this paper we extend the model-based approach to the prediction of individuals in addition to totals and means....

  7. An integrative approach to apprehend desistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F-Dufour, Isabelle; Brassard, Renée; Martel, Joane

    2015-05-01

    The process underlying desistance is still a strong subject of debate. This article seeks to introduce several core concepts of Archer's morphogenic approach to study how people desist from crime. At first, it discusses the primary existing theories of desistance. Then, this article demonstrates the usefulness of this approach by presenting empirical evidence drawn from semistructured interviews collected with 29 men who desisted from crime in an eastern province of Canada. The study demonstrates how this alternative approach allows for the consolidation of existing knowledge on desistance. Then implication of these findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24231859

  8. The Planets Approach to Migration Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; van Wijk, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Planets approach to migration tool development. The approach consists of enhancing existing migration tools rather than developing tools from scratch. This pragmatic approach is based on the Planets view of the current situation for migration tools and two claims. The first...... claim is that the market will cover the required tools for commonly used formats. The second claim is that in the long term less tools will be required due to growing use of archiving standard formats. The Planets view on the current situation, the scope of tool development and the claims stated are...

  9. Introducing ANOVA and ANCOVA a GLM approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Traditional approaches to ANOVA and ANCOVA are now being replaced by a General Linear Modeling (GLM) approach. This book begins with a brief history of the separate development of ANOVA and regression analyses and demonstrates how both analysis forms are subsumed by the General Linear Model. A simple single independent factor ANOVA is analysed first in conventional terms and then again in GLM terms to illustrate the two approaches. The text then goes on to cover the main designs, both independent and related ANOVA and ANCOVA, single and multi-factor designs. The conventional statistical assumptions underlying ANOVA and ANCOVA are detailed and given expression in GLM terms. Alternatives to traditional ANCO

  10. Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach

    CERN Document Server

    Maloberti, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,

  11. Shell Model in a First Principles Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, P; Nogga, A; Lloyd, R; Vary, J P; Ormand, W E; Barrett, B R

    2004-01-08

    We develop and apply an ab-initio approach to nuclear structure. Starting with the NN interaction, that fits two-body scattering and bound state data, and adding a theoretical NNN potential, we evaluate nuclear properties in a no-core approach. For presently feasible no-core model spaces, we evaluate an effective Hamiltonian in a cluster approach which is guaranteed to provide exact answers for sufficiently large model spaces and/or sufficiently large clusters. A number of recent applications are surveyed including an initial application to exotic multiquark systems.

  12. Multiscale modeling in solid mechanics computational approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Galvanetto, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    This unique volume presents the state of the art in the field of multiscale modeling in solid mechanics, with particular emphasis on computational approaches. For the first time, contributions from both leading experts in the field and younger promising researchers are combined to give a comprehensive description of the recently proposed techniques and the engineering problems tackled using these techniques. The book begins with a detailed introduction to the theories on which different multiscale approaches are based, with regards to linear Homogenisation as well as various nonlinear approach

  13. When opportunity meets motivation: Neural engagement during social approach is linked to high approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sina; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-02-15

    Social rewards are processed by the same dopaminergic-mediated brain networks as non-social rewards, suggesting a common representation of subjective value. Individual differences in personality and motivation influence the reinforcing value of social incentives, but it remains open whether the pursuit of social incentives is analogously supported by the neural reward system when positive social stimuli are connected to approach behavior. To test for a modulation of neural activation by approach motivation, individuals with high and low approach motivation (BAS) completed implicit and explicit social approach-avoidance paradigms during fMRI. High approach motivation was associated with faster implicit approach reactions as well as a trend for higher approach ratings, indicating increased approach tendencies. Implicit and explicit positive social approach was accompanied by stronger recruitment of the nucleus accumbens, middle cingulate cortex, and (pre-)cuneus for individuals with high compared to low approach motivation. These results support and extend prior research on social reward processing, self-other distinctions and affective judgments by linking approach motivation to the engagement of reward-related circuits during motivational reactions to social incentives. This interplay between motivational preferences and motivational contexts might underlie the rewarding experience during social interactions. PMID:26690807

  14. An Ethnografic Approach to Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    European Music Therapy Congress, June 16-20, 2004 Jyväskylä, Finland. P. 1094-1110. eBook available at MusicTherapyToday.com Vol.6. Issue 4 (November 2005). Holck, U. (2007). An Ethnographic Descriptive Approach to Video Micro Analysis. In: T. Wosch & T. Wigram (Eds.) Microanalysis in music therapy......The overall purpose in the ethnographic approach to video analysis is to become aware of implicit knowledge in those being observed. That is, knowledge that cannot be acquired through interviews. In music therapy this approach can be used to analyse patterns of interaction between client and...... short introduction to the ethnographic approach, the workshop participants will have a chance to try out the method. First through a common exercise and then applied to video recordings of music therapy with children with severe communicative limitations. Focus will be on patterns of interaction...

  15. Distributed simulation a model driven engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Topçu, Okan; Oğuztüzün, Halit; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Backed by substantive case studies, the novel approach to software engineering for distributed simulation outlined in this text demonstrates the potent synergies between model-driven techniques, simulation, intelligent agents, and computer systems development.

  16. Quantum dynamical semigroups and approach to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a quantum dynamical semigroup possessing a faithful normal stationary state, some conditions are discussed, which ensure the uniqueness of the equilibrium state and/or the approach to equilibrium for arbitrary initial condition. (Auth.)

  17. Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Mann, Nikki; Phills, Curtis E

    2010-07-01

    In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects. In Study 4 the effect of a different relational anxious uncertainty threat on implicit approach motivation was heightened by manipulated salience of personal ideals. Results suggest a RAM account for idealistic and ideological reactions in the threat and defense literature. Speculative implications are suggested for understanding diverse social and clinical phenomena ranging from worldview defense, prejudice, and meaning making to narcissism, hypomania, and aggression. PMID:20565191

  18. An approach to optical structures control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwens, R. P.; Benhabib, R. J.; Major, C. S.

    1988-01-01

    The stabilization of a large, spaceborne Cassegrain telescope is examined. Modal gain factors and known characteristics of disturbances are used to determine which structural model affect line of sight (LOS) the most and are candidates for active control. THe approach is to: (1) actively control and maintain alignment of optical components; (2) place structural control actuators for optimum impact on the selected modes for active vibration control; and (3) feed back the best available estimate of LOS error for direct LOS control. Local analog loops are used for lower bandwidth control and multivariable digital control for lower bandwidth control. The control law is synthesized in the frequency domain using the characteristic gain approach. Robustness is measured by employing conicity, which is an outgrowth of the positivity approach to robust feedback system design. The feasibility of the design approach will be demonstrated by conducting a lab experiment on a structure similar to a scaled version of the telescope.

  19. A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    1988-01-01

    The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

  20. Nanotechnology based approaches in cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review. (review)