WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Technicolor theories with negative values of the Peskin-Takeuchi electroweak parameter S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson contribution to the Peskin-Takeuchi electroweak parameter S can be negative in a class of technicolor theories. This negative contribution can be large enough to cancel the positive technihadron contribution, showing that electroweak precision tests alone cannot be used to rule out technicolor as the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking

1993-02-01

2

Análise da técnica de takeuchi usada para o tratamento da origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar / Analysis of the takeuchi procedure for the treatment of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Avaliação dos casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi, analisando o resultado cirúrgico imediato e tardio e a morbidade destes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Relato uma série de casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerd [...] a do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi. Métodos: Realizou-se a análise com coleta de dados dos prontuários de doze pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica no período de 1981 a 2003. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 5,9 ± 1,7 meses. A clínica preponderante foi insuficiência cardíaca, principalmente nos lactentes. O eletrocardiograma inicial em dez casos mostrou onda Q em DI e aVL e sinais de isquemia miocárdica. No ecocardiograma, observaram-se padrão de miocardiopatia dilatada em seis pacientes e insuficiência mitral. A idade média da correção cirúrgica foi de 31,8 ± 14,3 meses. A mortalidade cirúrgica imediata foi de 16% (dois pacientes) por disfunção cardíaca. No acompanhamento ambulatorial, houve a melhora da sintomatologia e das alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma, retorno da função cardíaca e melhora da insuficiência mitral. Durante o acompanhamento, três casos evoluíram com estenose supravalvar pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: A suspeita clínica dessa cardiopatia deve ser feita em todo lactente com insuficiência cardíaca. A correção cirúrgica com o emprego da técnica de Takeuchi se mostra eficaz, com baixo índice de mortalidade. Após a correção, há um retorno à normalidade da função cardíaca e a melhora da insuficiência mitral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure, analyzing their immediate and late surgical outcomes as well as the related morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of anomalous origin of th [...] e left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure. METHODS: The analysis was based on data collected from the medical records of 12 patients undergoing surgical correction between 1981 and 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 5.9 ± 1.7 months. The predominant manifestation was heart failure, especially in the infants. The baseline electrocardiogram showed a Q wave in DI and aVL and signs of myocardial ischemia in ten cases. Echocardiogram with a pattern of dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation was found in six patients. The mean age at surgical correction was 31.8 ± 14.3 months. The immediate surgical mortality was 16% (two patients), from cardiac dysfunction. In the outpatient follow-up we observed that the symptoms, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, cardiac function and mitral regurgitation improved. Three cases progressed with supravalvar pulmonary stenosis during follow-up. CONCLUSION: This heart disease should be suspected in every infant presenting with heart failure. Surgical correction with the Takeuchi procedure has proven efficient, with a low mortality rate. Cardiac function returns to normal and mitral regurgitation improves after surgical correction.

Lenzi, Andrea Weirich; Solarewicz, Leo; Ferreira, Wanderley Saviollo; Sallum, Fábio; Miyague, Nelson Itiro.

3

Análise da técnica de takeuchi usada para o tratamento da origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar Analysis of the takeuchi procedure for the treatment of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Avaliação dos casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi, analisando o resultado cirúrgico imediato e tardio e a morbidade destes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Relato uma série de casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi. Métodos: Realizou-se a análise com coleta de dados dos prontuários de doze pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica no período de 1981 a 2003. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 5,9 ± 1,7 meses. A clínica preponderante foi insuficiência cardíaca, principalmente nos lactentes. O eletrocardiograma inicial em dez casos mostrou onda Q em DI e aVL e sinais de isquemia miocárdica. No ecocardiograma, observaram-se padrão de miocardiopatia dilatada em seis pacientes e insuficiência mitral. A idade média da correção cirúrgica foi de 31,8 ± 14,3 meses. A mortalidade cirúrgica imediata foi de 16% (dois pacientes por disfunção cardíaca. No acompanhamento ambulatorial, houve a melhora da sintomatologia e das alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma, retorno da função cardíaca e melhora da insuficiência mitral. Durante o acompanhamento, três casos evoluíram com estenose supravalvar pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: A suspeita clínica dessa cardiopatia deve ser feita em todo lactente com insuficiência cardíaca. A correção cirúrgica com o emprego da técnica de Takeuchi se mostra eficaz, com baixo índice de mortalidade. Após a correção, há um retorno à normalidade da função cardíaca e a melhora da insuficiência mitral.BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure, analyzing their immediate and late surgical outcomes as well as the related morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure. METHODS: The analysis was based on data collected from the medical records of 12 patients undergoing surgical correction between 1981 and 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 5.9 ± 1.7 months. The predominant manifestation was heart failure, especially in the infants. The baseline electrocardiogram showed a Q wave in DI and aVL and signs of myocardial ischemia in ten cases. Echocardiogram with a pattern of dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation was found in six patients. The mean age at surgical correction was 31.8 ± 14.3 months. The immediate surgical mortality was 16% (two patients, from cardiac dysfunction. In the outpatient follow-up we observed that the symptoms, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, cardiac function and mitral regurgitation improved. Three cases progressed with supravalvar pulmonary stenosis during follow-up. CONCLUSION: This heart disease should be suspected in every infant presenting with heart failure. Surgical correction with the Takeuchi procedure has proven efficient, with a low mortality rate. Cardiac function returns to normal and mitral regurgitation improves after surgical correction.

Andrea Weirich Lenzi

2008-03-01

4

Charged Particle in a Time-dependent Electric Field: A White Noise Functional Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The propagator for a charged particle in a time-dependent electric field is calculated following Hida and Streit's framework where the propagator is the T-transform of Feynman functional. However, we have to regard the potential V = -qE(?)x??((m/(?/2?)))?x following C. C. Bernido and M. V. Carpio-Bernido's prescription of time-dependent potentials. The result agrees with the limiting form of Eqn. (16) of N. Morgenstern Horing, H. L. Cui, and G. Fiorenza, when the magnetic field is switched off, and Eqn. (17) of [3] when the electric field is constant in time

2008-06-18

5

A Language to Enable Distributed Simulation of Extended Queueing Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Distributed simulators are increasingly being used for their intrinsic advantages in terms of reusability, fault tolerance, performance, and geographic distribution. The development of a distributed simulator, however, requires significant investments in terms of effort if compared to the development of traditional local simulators. This paper introduces jEQN, a Java-based language that significantly reduces the extra effort needed to develop a distributed simulator of extended queueing networks (EQNs, by enabling simulator developers to build distributed simulators as they were to be locally executed. By use of jEQN, simulator developers are enabled to easily switch from a local to a distributed version of an EQN simulator by only modifying few statements of the given local simulator. Moreover, these statements can be easily inferred by a very intuitive graphical procedure. The paper illustrates both the jEQN architecture, based on a layered approach, and the implementation details that contribute to achieve the above mentioned advantages.

Andrea D’Ambrogio

2007-06-01

6

Ethozyquin Nitroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethoxyquin (EQ), a widely used antioxidant, is easily oxidized to a stable free radical, ethoxyquin nitroxide (EQN). This paper describes the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of EQN. When squalene containing EQ is oxidized in air, EQN is an iden...

J. S. Lin H. S. Olcott

1975-01-01

7

Referential approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following method for preparing a specific training program for a given trade can be applied to every level (technical, administrative, management, etc.) and at every organizational level. The process is based on a quality-oriented approach: strict application of a methodology, structured organization and involvement of all participants. The recommended methodology is based on three main phases: For each trade, define a ''trade referential'' based on task analysis; from this, deduce the training objectives, thus defining the ''training referential''; prepare the training plan, write the specifications for the different sessions and then prepare the teaching materials

1993-02-22

8

Nuclear knowledge preservation of Atucha type Reactor: Practical approaches and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The nuclear option is born in Argentina in 1950. Since then and after half century, the Argentine nuclear sector reaches a hierarchy and an important technological - scientific dimension in all the issues related to activities linked to the nuclear sector. The export of research reactors, the nuclear fuel production and the installation of nucleoelectrical power stations constitute one of the most outstanding achievements of this activity. The Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, of Siemens-KWU technology with 30 years of operation and Embalse (Candu type) with 20 years of operation, register an efficient and safe performance, within the worldwide standards. In addition, and with Siemens technology the Atucha II NPP is in construction with a 82% of work advance. At the moment Siemens, has transferred his place as designer of reactors LWR to the Framatom ANP Company and consequently Argentina will have to make all the efforts to assure the 'knowledge preservation' of the technology of this line of reactors, if it hopes that Atucha I extends its useful life and Atucha II is finalized. Likewise the aging of the personnel in the sector is worrisome being numerous the great number of people who are close to retire what it worsens if we think that there are a few young people able in this specialty by the lack of the entrance of candidates in compatible races This situation generated the necessity to implement a system of Knowledge Management to capture and to capitalize the tacit and explicit knowledge, to spread it and to share by using techniques and tools adapted through the organization. Practical Approaches and Lessons Learned: A - Analysis of the strategy: The strategy was based on recognizing the critical knowledge by means of the use of a methodology that incorporates the technique of the map of the critical knowledge. That is to say, to recognize the patrimony of the knowledge around the reactor. The layout of the knowledge map of reactor together with the systematic analysis of criticalities generated the architecture of the taxonomies of reactor Atucha type behavior as also it allowed to carried out its own actions of the knowledge management from the diagnosis of the it where proposals and actions arise destined to reduce the criticality and to put into operation the different processes system. (Cycle of Nonaka and Takeuchi) B. - Technical of development and its disadvantages: Factors of analysis How to restore a new methodology that requires of the application of techniques for personal and group interviews. It is essential to consider this time at the time of project planning. The project demands much interaction with experts of different profiles and availability of their time because it involves to all the nuclear sector and the complete service life of the Reactor (project, design, operation, decommissioning, dismantling). Effects of the operation state of plant in the accomplishment of different activities from the project The infrastructure of the ITC of different generations that coexist can force to generate migrations of information and to develop new additional tools. The limited HHRR, financial resources, the administrative circuits, the different corporative cultures that coexist and the critical knowledge that keeps in mind of people close to get their retirement, require of an exhaustive previous analysis to determine their influence in the criticality of the system. (author)

2004-09-07

9

Evaluating six soft approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a plannerâ??s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoffâ??s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

2006-01-01

10

Evaluating six soft approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

Lene Sørensen

2008-09-01

11

Evaluating Six Soft Approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

2008-01-01

12

Evaluating Six Soft Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development a...

Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, Rene? Victor

2008-01-01

13

Evaluating six soft approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development ...

Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene? Victor Valqui

2008-01-01

14

Life Span Developmental Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

Ali Eryilmaz

2011-03-01

15

Beyond compliance: Integration approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Initiatives have been taken toward a rational, holistic approach premised on regulatory efficiency (rather than regulatory complexity) as a effective means of protecting human health and the environment. Integrating compliance with various statutes to eliminate duplication and consolidate requirements is one approach to regulatory efficiency. Some initiatives are narrowly focused while others have taken a global approach as broad as suggesting that most federal environmental statutes be replaced with one integrated piece of legislation. This paper will begin with a brief review of the problems of environmental regulatory complexity and then describe and evaluate possible approaches to reducing complexity. Current initiatives that will be evaluated include federal and state interagency task force efforts to combine CERCLA and RCRA, EPA`s Xl and Common Sense initiatives, the Air Force pilot model integrating CERCLA and NEPA, and state regulatory integration efforts, such as those Massachusetts, New York, and New Jersey. From these initiatives, the elements of a recommended step approach are drawn, including suggestions about which kinds of regulations are most effectively implemented at which governmental levels. Ways to implement the approach are analyzed in the context of existing statutory and regulatory constraints. In conclusion, the paper will provide examples of how current activities fit in the step approach.

Wisniewski, R.; Chantry, W. [DynCorp Information and Engineering Technology, Alexandria, VA (United States). Consulting Services Div.

1996-12-31

16

Otoplasty: A graduated approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous otoplastic techniques have been described for the correction of protruding ears. Technique selection in otoplasty should be done only after careful analysis of the abnormal anatomy responsible for the protruding ear deformity. A graduated surgical approach is presented which is designed to address all contributing factors to the presenting auricular deformity. The approach starts with the more conservative cartilage-sparing suturing techniques, then proceeds to incorporate other more aggressive cartilage weakening maneuvers. Applying this approach resulted in better long-term results with less postoperative lateralization than that encountered on using the cartilage-sparing techniques alone. PMID:10629296

Foda, H M

1999-01-01

17

Introducing Systems Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

18

The case study approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used,...

2011-01-01

19

The case study approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports.

Huby Guro

2011-06-01

20

Behavioral based safety approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approach towards the establishment of positive safety culture at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin includes the adoption of several important methodologies focused on human behavior and culminates with achievement of Total Safety Culture where Quality and Productivity are integrated with Safety

2009-11-16

 
 
 
 
21

Approaching metric domains  

CERN Document Server

In analogy to the situation for continuous lattices which were introduced by Dana Scott as precisely the injective T$_0$ spaces via the (nowadays called) Scott topology, we study those metric spaces which correspond to injective T$_0$ approach spaces and characterise them as precisely the continuous lattices equipped with an unitary and associative $[0,\\infty]$-action. This result is achieved by a thorough analysis of the notion of cocompleteness for approach spaces.

Gutierres, Gonçalo

2011-01-01

22

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the...

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-01-01

23

Local approach to fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models allowing the prediction of the failure of structures by crack propagation were first introduced in the 50's using linear fracture mechanics whose principles were first proposed by Griffith (1920). This approach was extended to non linear cases (plasticity and visco-plasticity) in the 70's based on the work of Rice (J or C* integrals); it has been largely adopted by the industry. However this so called global approach cannot deal with all practical cases and cannot explain all experimental observations as, for instance, the warm pre-stress effect (WPS). The local approach to fracture, which relies on a fine analysis of strains, stresses and damage of highly solicited regions (cracks, notches...) of structures is an alternative which allows to solve problems encountered while applying the global approach. It has been developed since the 80's in particular in France. Important research efforts are currently undertaken in this field in Europe (France, Germany), United States and Japan. This book presents several aspects of the local approach to fracture: damage mechanisms, experimental techniques, damage evolution law and failure criteria, modelling of damage, numerical simulation. This work is the result of a collective work carried out by the best french specialists (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ecole Centrale Paris, ENS Cachan, Universite de Louvain, INSA Lyon, ONERA, EDF). (authors)

Besson, J.; Bugat, St.; Berdin, C.; Desmorat, R.; Feyel, F.; Forest, S.; Lorentz, E.; Maire, E.; Pardoen, Th.; Pineau, A.; Tanguy, B

2004-07-01

24

Multiple Approaches to Islam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publication of the following articles by Al-Jami‘ah shows how  rich the subjects of Islamic studies are. From contemporary to classical themes there are gaps still left. This further proves that Islam, like any other religion, as a system of belief and cultural production which  serves as a context wherein textual works and norms are produced, can be approached from many dimensions. The texts, including books and other form of records, are always open to all readers, who can offer various approaches. Both classical and contemporary studies of Islam  are faced with various challenges which beg more perspectives. Although classical texts seem muted, new understanding is often born, when new approaches with different perspectives are employed. Likewise,  contemporary issues are of course dynamics. Studies of the current issues should flow dynamically in the way in which Muslim society progresses with an unpredicted pattern. Studies with new perspectives are always welcome.  

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2010-02-01

25

Technical approach document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

1989-01-01

26

Structural margins assessment approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A general approach to the structural design and verification used to determine the structural margins of the space vehicle elements under Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) management is described. The Space Shuttle results and organization will be used as illustrations for techniques discussed. Given also are: (1) the system analyses performed or to be performed by, and (2) element analyses performed by MSFC and its contractors. Analysis approaches and their verification will be addressed. The Shuttle procedures are general in nature and apply to other than Shuttle space vehicles.

Ryan, Robert S.

1988-01-01

27

The Challenges of Becoming Agile : Implementing and Conducting Scrum in Integrated Product Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“In today's fast-paced, fiercely competitive world of commercial new product development, speed and flexibility are essential. Companies are increasingly realizing that the old, sequential approach to developing new products simply won't get the job done.” (Takeuchi & Nonaka, 1986) Now twenty-five years old, the statement from the 1986-edition of Harvard Business Review seems more true than ever before. Commercial markets are moving faster and faster, and time as a strategic source of com...

Ovesen, Nis

2012-01-01

28

Holography a practical approach  

CERN Multimedia

From fundamentals to advanced experiments and applications, this book explains how holography works. It guides students from simple optics to advanced topics in holography, following a practical approach using real-world materials. This proven university textbook contains exercises plus solutions as well as instructions for more than 20 experiments.

Ackermann, Gerhard K

2008-01-01

29

Comparing Information Access Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

Chalmers, Matthew

1999-01-01

30

Approaches to acceptable risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

1997-04-30

31

NEW APPROACHES: Toppling trains  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explains a novel way of approaching centripetal force: theory is used to predict an orbital period at which a toy train will topple from a circular track. The demonstration has proved useful in A-level, GNVQ and undergraduate Physics and Engineering schemes.

Parry, Malcolm

1998-03-01

32

Reading--Which Approach?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this book is to help teachers to select reading materials and equipment for classroom use. Part 1 explains the objectives and defines the terminology to be used. Part 2, Criteria for Assessing Reading Approaches, places before the reader many of the factors which influence children's reading progress. The factors include the reading…

Southgate, Vera; Roberts, Geoffrey R.

33

RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

Indraveer Singh

2010-05-01

34

Approaches to Disambiguating Toponyms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many approaches have been proposed in recent years in the context of Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR), mostly in order to deal with geographically constrained information in un-structured texts. This paper presents an overview of the existing methods, providing a state-of-the-art of toponym disambiguation.

Buscaldi, Davide

2011-01-01

35

Statistical approach of hysteresis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a statistical approach of hysteresis phenomenon is presented. Under the assumption that each magnetic domain can be represented by a random variable a very simple model of hysteresis can be built on. In spite of the simplicity of the model it possesses many important properties of hysteretic behaviour.

Sari, Z. [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, Department of Informatics, University of Pecs, Rokus 2. Pecs H7624 (Hungary)]. E-mail: ski@morpheus.pte.hu; Ivanyi, A. [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, Department of Informatics, University of Pecs, Rokus 2. Pecs H7624 (Hungary)

2006-02-01

36

Statistical approach of hysteresis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a statistical approach of hysteresis phenomenon is presented. Under the assumption that each magnetic domain can be represented by a random variable a very simple model of hysteresis can be built on. In spite of the simplicity of the model it possesses many important properties of hysteretic behaviour

2006-02-01

37

Extended transsphenoidal approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transsphenoidal surgery is well established as an effective primary treatment for tumors of the sellar region. The technique of transsphenoidal surgery has evolved over the years with many prominent surgeons contributing to its present state of refinement. The transsphenoidal approach can be modified in various ways to permit resection of parasellar tumors that otherwise would require a transcranial or transbasal operation. Our experience with these 'extended' techniques has primarily involved the transtuberculum sella approach in which bone is removed from the tuberculum sellae and the posterior portion of the planum sphenoidale. Experience with this technique continues to burgeon, and offers an excellent alternative to transcranial surgery in dealing with a difficult constellation of tumors. Meticulous attention to detail, particularly with respect to reconstruction and closure of the sellar floor, is necessary for its effective application. PMID:16474214

Dumont, Aaron S; Kanter, Adam S; Jane, John A; Laws, Edward R

2006-01-01

38

Fuzzy approaches in pediatrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a review of applications of fuzzy methods in children and adolescence health care. Based on the several examples, available from journal papers, conference proceedings and book chapters we have concentrate ourselves on problems in the pediatrics that have been or can be solved with the help of fuzzy methodology. The paper is organised as follows. In section I we consider the general considerations about fuzzy logic and medicine. Section II considers the basics of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, the main methodological approaches for medical practical applications. Section III describes problems and the way of their solving using fuzzy approaches in pediatrics. Conclusions summarise the review in Section IV. PMID:24940856

Kiseliova, T; Pagava, K

2014-05-01

39

[Hypophosphatasia: new therapeutic approaches].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by a deficiency of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone, liver and kidney) which leads to abnormal mineralization of skeletal and dental tissues. There are several forms of hypophosphatasia with wide variations in severity ranging from high-mortality neonatal presentation to mild forms in adults associated with fragility fractures and osteomalacia. The biochemical diagnosis is based on measurement of low levels of serum alkaline phophatase and increased serum or urine concentrations of phosphoethalnolamine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and inorganic pyrophosphate. To date, therapy has been quite heterogeneous with quite limited outcomes. The recent progress in research leads to new therapeutic approaches for this complex disease. The administration of parathyroid hormone in adult hypophosphatasia and enzyme replacement therapy using a novel soluble recombinant form of human alkaline phosphatase for severe forms of hypophosphatasia are currently the most promising approaches. PMID:19211064

Alonso, Guillermo; Varsavsky, Mariela; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

2009-01-31

40

Sociocultural approach to textbook  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

Peši? Jelena M.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Olfication - a clinical approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olfactory dysfunction usually occurs secondary to ENT causes, and most patients with olfactory problems prefer to consult an otolaryngologist. 1a some cases the ENT surgeon is required to inculcate a systematic approach while dealing with such patients in order to screen the possibility of other causes (apart from ENT). He may in turn either collaborate with another specialist (neurologist, ophthalmologist, neurosurgeon) for proper diagnostic work- up or otherwise counsel the patient in case ...

2002-01-01

42

Communicative Approach: Some Misapprehensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Though Communicative Language Teaching (CLT is acknowledged by the National Curriculum & Textbook Board (NCTB and many English teachers as one of the most effective approaches in English language teaching in Bangladesh, there are still a number of misapprehensions about it. By comparing Johnstone; Sato and Kleinsasser and Thompson as well as Spada, this article focuses on four of the main misapprehensions, which are usually held by the language teachers and researchers.

Mohammad Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

43

Case Base Maintenance Approach.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Case base Maintenance is an active Case Based Reasoning research area. The main stream focuses on the method for reducing the size of the case-base while maintaining case-base competence. This paper gives an overview of these works, and proposes a case deletion strategy based on competence criteria using a novel approach. The proposed method, even if inspired from existing literature, combines an algorithm with a Competence Metric (CM). A series of tests are conducted using two standards data...

Haouchine, Mohamed-karim; Chebel-morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

2007-01-01

44

Offshore integrated approach needed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Costs of offshore wind energy generation might be much lower in the future, but will remain above those achievable at good land based sites. One precondition for cost reduction and improved reliability for off-shore development is the need to switch to an integrated system approach. Acceptable operating economics, in the end, depend on high availability rates that in turn depend on the development of advanced all weather installations and maintenance strategies. (au)

1998-01-01

45

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directio...

2012-01-01

46

Nonlinear approach to electrodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nonlinear approach to electrodynamics is reviewed. On imposing a nonlinear constraint Asub(?)Asup(?) = - rho"2, together with the usual gauge-invariant electromagnetic field Lagrangian, it is found that the resulting equations of motion have, besides the photon, a static spherically symmetric extended solution which may be regarded as a charged particle. A magnetic dipole moment (spin) can also arise as a solution of the equations of motion if, as expected, it is treated as a first-order quantum effect. In the limit for ''small'' quantum fields and pointlike charged particles, the quantum mechanical equivalence of the approach with the usual Lagrangian formulation of the electromagnetic interaction of a charged scalar field is heuristically shown. Moreover the possibility of constructing charged fermion fields from the solution having both a charge and a magnetic moment is illustrated. In such an approach the photon is associated with the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry, and the emission of soft photons does not exhibit any infrared divergences. (author)

1982-01-01

47

[A dynamic neuropsychological approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are at least two approaches in evaluating neuropsychological patients. One is to analyze negative symptoms and find a correlation between a damaged brain lesion and a lost function. The other is to focus on the nature of positive symptoms and find a principle ruling a behavioral change caused by a lesion. Although both approaches are equally important, I focused on the latter approach in this symposium. Two syndromes, i.e. forced manipulation of tools and hyperlexia are interpreted in terms of the rivalry between the top-down process of inhibition and bottom-up process of stimulus processing, resulting in the predominance of the latter. Two other symptoms, i.e. misperception in a case of associative visual agnosia and habitual behavior in a frontal damaged-dementia are interpreted in the same terms, but resulting in the predominance of the top-down process. These syndromes clearly illustrate that the behavior is organized on the dynamic balance between the information generated internally and the one coming in from the environment. PMID:11464476

Yamadori, A

2000-12-01

48

Standardised approach to optimisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimisation of radiographic images is said to have been obtained if the patient has achieved an acceptable level of dose and the image is of diagnostic value. In the near future, it will probably be recommended that radiographers measure patient doses and compare them to reference levels. The aim of this paper is to describe a standardised approach to optimisation of radiographic examinations in a diagnostic imaging department. A three-step approach is outlined with specific examples for some common examinations (chest, abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine series). Step One: Patient doses are calculated. Step Two: Doses are compared to existing reference levels and the technique used compared to image quality criteria. Step Three: Appropriate action is taken if doses are above the reference level. Results: Average entrance surface doses for two rooms were as follows AP Abdomen (6.3mGy and 3.4mGy); AP Lumbar Spine (6.4mGy and 4.1mGy) for AP Pelvis (4.8mGy and 2.6mGy) and PA chest (0.19mGy and 0.20mGy). Comparison with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) recommended techniques identified large differences in the applied potential. The kVp values in this study were significantly lower (by up to lOkVp) than the CEC recommendations. The results of this study have indicated that there is a need to monitor radiation doses received by patients undergoing diagnostic radiography examinations. Not only has the assessment allowed valuable comparison with International Diagnostic Reference Levels and Radiography Good Practice but has demonstrated large variations in mean doses being delivered from different rooms of the same radiology department. Following the simple 3-step approach advocated in this paper should either provide evidence that department are practising the ALARA principle or assist in making suitable changes to current practice. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

2004-12-01

49

Approaches to Quantum Gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and answers; Index.

Oriti, Daniele

2009-03-01

50

The collaboratory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A open-quotes collaboratoryclose quotes has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students

1997-08-14

51

Approaches to Numerical Relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23. Self-gravitating thin disks around rotating black holes A. Lanza; 24. An ADI and causal reconnection Gabrielle D. Allen and Bernard F. Schutz; 25. Time-symmetric ADI and causal reconnection Miguel Alcubierre and Bernard F. Schutz; 26. The numerical study of topological defects E. P. S. Shellard; 27. Computations of bubble growth during the cosmological quark-hadron transition J. C. Miller and O. Pantano; 28. Initial data of axisymmetric gravitational waves with a cosmological constant Ken-Ichi Nakao, Kei-Ichi Maeda, Takashi Nakamura and Ken-Ichi Oohara.

d'Inverno, Ray

2005-07-01

52

HEDR modeling approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report details the conceptual approaches to be used in calculating radiation doses to individuals throughout the various periods of operations at the Hanford Site. The report considers the major environmental transport pathways--atmospheric, surface water, and ground water--and projects and appropriate modeling technique for each. The modeling sequence chosen for each pathway depends on the available data on doses, the degree of confidence justified by such existing data, and the level of sophistication deemed appropriate for the particular pathway and time period being considered

1992-01-01

53

Approaching Service Innovation Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard service innovation as a standout type of innovation.

Andrea NAGY

2013-06-01

54

Ecosystem Approach Sourcebook  

...Announcements Statements Notifications News Headlines on Biodiversity Press Releases RSS Feeds Twitter Facebook Discussion Forums National Information Country Profiles List of Parties Lists of ...A Gateway to Biodiversity-Related Law Case Studies Related Websites Partnership Agreements Thematic Databases Ecosystem Approach Sourcebook Database on Climate Change Adaptation Database on Incentive ...Measures Database of Scientific Assessments Database on Technology Transfer Case Studies on Impact Assessment Case Studies on Dry and Sub-Humid Land Biodiversity ABS Measures ...Search Page ABS Database on Capacity Building Projects ABS Roster of Experts Secretariat About the Secretariat Staff Museum of Nature and Culture Initiatives Secretariat ...

55

The collaboratory approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

56

Therapeutic approaches to apraxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although identifying descriptions of apraxia are numerous in recent literature, few articles present guidelines for apraxia therapy. In this paper, several therapeutic techniques for apraxia are introduced and discussed. Sequencing of speech sounds is recognized as the apraxic patient's most characteristic problem. Rapid repetition of consonant plus /a/, build-up of speech sounds into syllables, and word attack by phone and syllable are all recommended for the purpose of improving sequencing. Facilitation techniques are discussed for the acquisition of articulatory postures. Case histories are presented to illustrate the therapy approach. PMID:1271787

Dabul, B; Bollier, B

1976-05-01

57

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????: ??????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????-????????????????, ?????????????????. ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-07-01

58

Mediastinal masses: diagnostic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In most clinical situations the modern radiological approach to a mediastinal mass consists of performing a CT scan following the chest radiograph. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated when CT findings are equivocal and as the first-line method in particular situations such as suspected involvement of the posterior mediastinum. In both techniques, tissular components of the mass assessed by density or signal intensity analysis, together with the precise location, are the leading edge of the radiological diagnosis. This review deals mainly with the differential diagnosis of primary neoplasms according to CT and MRI findings. (orig.) With 13 figs., 84 refs.

Laurent, F.; Latrabe, V.; Lecesne, R.; Zennaro, H.; Airaud, J.Y.; Rauturier, J.F.; Drouillard, J. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Radiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Pessac (France)

1998-09-01

59

Proteomics approaches to fibrotic disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review provides an introduction to mass spectrometry based proteomics and discusses several proteomics approaches that are relevant in understanding the pathophysiology of fibrotic disorders and the approaches that are frequently used in biomarker discovery.

Gucek, Marjan

2012-01-01

60

Proteomics approaches to fibrotic disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This review provides an introduction to mass spectrometry based proteomics and discusses several proteomics approaches that are relevant in understanding the pathophysiology of fibrotic disorders and the approaches that are frequently used in biomarker discovery.

Gucek Marjan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Proteomics - new analytical approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Recent developments in the sequencing of the human genome have indicated that the number of coding gene sequences may be as few as 30,000. It is clear, however, that the complexity of the human species is dependent on the much greater diversity of the corresponding protein complement. Estimates of the diversity (discrete protein species) of the human proteome range from 200,000 to 300,000 at the lower end to 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 at the high end. In addition, proteomics (the study of the protein complement to the genome) has been subdivided into two main approaches. Global proteomics refers to a high throughput examination of the full protein set present in a cell under a given environmental condition. Focused proteomics refers to a more detailed study of a restricted set of proteins that are related to a specified biochemical pathway or subcellular structure. While many of the advances in proteomics will be based on the sequencing of the human genome, de novo characterization of protein microheterogeneity (glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation as well as the incorporation of lipid components) will be required in disease studies. To characterize these modifications it is necessary to digest the protein mixture with an enzyme to produce the corresponding mixture of peptides. In a process analogous to sequencing of the genome, shot-gun sequencing of the proteome is based on the characterization of the key fragments produced by such a digest. Thus, a glycopeptide and hence a specific glycosylation motif will be identified by a unique mass and then a diagnostic MS/MS spectrum. Mass spectrometry will be the preferred detector in these applications because of the unparalleled information content provided by one or more dimensions of mass measurement. In addition, highly efficient separation processes are an absolute requirement for advanced proteomic studies. For example, a combination of the orthogonal approaches, HPLC and HPCE, can be very powerful for high resolution peptide mapping (hydrophobicity and ionic charge). This presentation will describe the development of new instrumentation based on the combination of capillary-based separation systems, including reversed phase and ion exchange HPLC integrated with on-line mass spectrometry. This approach can be used for stand-alone shot-gun sequencing or integrated with 2D-gel proteomic studies. Examples will include global studies such as the yeast proteome and focused studies on selected protein extracts such as secreted and nuclear proteins from mammalian cells

2001-10-01

62

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... stem that has a toothed broach, where in my hands same approach, same patient population, I have over a 15 ... lateral abductor splitting approach and this anterior supine approach. Let me get this head on. My experience, these patients have full leg control in ...

63

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Science.gov (United States)

... stem that has a toothed broach, where in my hands same approach, same patient population, I have over a 15 ... lateral abductor splitting approach and this anterior supine approach. Let me get this head on. My experience, these patients have full leg control in ...

64

New approach to thermodynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new approach to thermodynamics has been developed from the following new viewpoints: (1) To recognize that thermodynamics can be composed of three kinds; thermodynamics of substance, thermodynamics of process, and thermodynamics of system. (2) To introduce a heat source, a heat sink, a work source and a work sink, making the description of the first and second laws of thermodynamics quite clear and compact. (3) To propose a graphical method of using `thermodynamic compass`. This clearly indicates not only {Delta}H and {Delta}S (or {Delta}{epsilon}) but also its ratio (A={Delta}{epsilon}/{Delta}H) is quite important. (4) To introduce `water model`. It can give interpretation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, suggesting that the energy level A is an important concept. 1 ref, 12 figs

Ishida, Masaru [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. of Resources Utilization; Chuang Chiachin [National Taipei Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-11-01

65

Structured approach to inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes a structured approach to inspection, the purpose of inspection, and its specific objectives, with the aim of providing a basis for an inspector to structure his activities such that the inspection results may be expressed quantitatively. The various objectives of inspection are discussed as they relate to the origin of threat (adversary), the degree of assurance required, and the inspection body. The basic aim of inspection is discussed as it relates to the role of assessment. The degree of the safeguards assurance is described in increasing levels of inspecting activity. And the various roles (responsibilities) in the inspection process are discussed as they relate to the threat they are designed to counter

1976-01-01

66

[Calciphylaxis: a multidisciplinary approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare syndrome characterized by medial calcification of the small arteries and ischemia of the subcutaneous tissue that progresses to non-healing ulcers and gangrene. It is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), associated with high morbidity and mortality, and there is no standard treatment at the present time. We report a case of CUA developing in a 70-year-old woman on dialysis, with a normal plasma concentration of parathyroid hormone but a body mass index of 40 kg/m(2) and receiving oral anticoagulant therapy. She was successfully treated with a multidisciplinary approach focused on medical and surgical therapy. PMID:19644842

Piantanida, Mariassunta; Plastino, G; Valente, V; Tassinari, J; Fabrizi, T; Orlandino, G

2009-01-01

67

Local approach to cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A local approach to cosmology is developed in which it is attempted to understand, from strictly local considerations, the principal observable properties of homogeneous cosmological models. The local line element is obtained for some simple general-relativistic models. The optical appearance of distant objects, number counts, and the effects of local inhomogeneities on such observations are discussed in the isotropic case. The concept of the partitioned universe, in which physical conditions are mimicked by conditions inside a small, expanding cell with perfectly reflecting walls, is developed as a tool for simplifying the discussion of the background radiation, Olbers' paradox, the temperature and physical state of the cosmological fluid, entropy generation, and the effects of anisotropic expansion. This treatment reveals a possible error in Weinberg's (1971) discussion of bulk viscosity and entropy generation in the early universe

1975-01-01

68

An environmental approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

Geerling, C.

1996-11-01

69

Approaches to hazard identification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ambion Consultants were appointed by the HSE to carry out a pilot study to determine the range of hazard identification techniques actually applied in Offshore Safety Cases. From the discussions a ``snap-shot`` review of the current position with regard to Hazard Identification (HAZID) has been developed, highlighting: the techniques used (including combinations of techniques); typical depth and time of study, duration of study; the type of follow-up of HAZID into Quantitative Risk Analysis and risk management; typical team compositions, personnel make-up and competency; and difficulties experienced and ideas on how to improve technique. HAZID is seen as an important element of the Safety Case Regulations in the UKCS. The review shows that a relatively small number of HAZID techniques are actually in use in industry, the dominant methods being the generic hazard checklist approach and Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP). (author)

NONE

1998-01-01

70

Laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern laparoscopic surgery is widely used throughout the world as it offers greater advantages than open procedures. The laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy has evolved over the last 20 years. Hysterectomies are performed abdominally, vaginally, laparoscopically or, more recently, with robotic assistance. Indications for a total laparoscopic hysterectomy are similar to those for total abdominal hysterectomy, and most commonly include uterine leiomyomata, pelvic organ prolapse, and abnormal uterine bleeding. When hysterectomy is going to be performed, the surgeon should decide which method is safer and more cost-effective. This paper aims to make a review of the indications, techniques and advantages of laparoscopic hysterectomy as well as the criteria to be used for appropriate patient selection.

Hakan Nazik

2013-04-01

71

Endoscopic approach to achalasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to esophageal clearance post-PD. However PD has a significant risk for esophageal perforation, which occurs in about 2%-3% of cases. In randomized, controlled studies BT injection was inferior to PD and surgical cardiomyotomy, whereas the efficacy of PD, in patients > 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia.

Muller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Wehrmann, Till

2013-01-01

72

Surgical approach to the pterygopalatine fossa-comparison between anterior approach and lateral approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anterior and the lateral approach for resecting an invading tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa region were compared. An anterior approach was applied for resecting a malignancy that originated from the maxillary tuberosity, upper hard plate, and maxillary sinus, and a lateral approach was applied for resecting a malignancy that originated from the upper gingiva and buccal mucosa. The anterior approach was capable of exposing the whole maxilla, although it was difficult to achieve such exposure by the lateral approach. However, the submandibular incision technique used in the Dingman approach was useful for upper neck dissection as well as for exposure of the artery and vein to anastomose them for reconstruction. The anterior approach should be useful for resection of the pterygopalatine fossa concomitant with total maxillectomy. On the other hand, the lateral approach might have an advantage in terms of its cosmetic effects. PMID:23524736

Uehara, Masataka; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi

2013-03-01

73

Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

Monika Agarwal

2013-02-01

74

Approaching pre-diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes continues to rise, the time has come to revisit our approach to pre-diabetes. Recently, much ado has been made about screening, diagnosis, pathophysiology and clinical interventions in pre-diabetes, and all for good reason as the key to reversing the diabetes epidemic likely lies therein. The somewhat controversial term "pre-diabetes" represents collective dysglycemic states intermediate between normal glucose regulation (NGR) and diabetes. Not all people with pre-diabetes will develop diabetes, but the majority will. In fact, up to 70% of those with pre-diabetes may acquire the disease over their lifetime. Furthermore, even when overt diabetes is delayed or prevented, both micro- and macrovascular disease appears more prevalent in those with pre-diabetes compared to their normoglycemic peers. Hence, there is growing consensus that NGR should be the goal for people with pre-diabetes. Nevertheless, there is much to consider in that pursuit. Herein, we provide an update on the global burden of pre-diabetes, its underlying pathophysiology and discuss clinical considerations in these individuals at high risk of developing diabetes. PMID:24342268

Perreault, Leigh; Færch, Kristine

2014-01-01

75

COMPRENDO : Focus and approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the bodyâ??s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that â??the dose makes the poisonâ? may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical doseâ??response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disruptersâ??Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates).

Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Albanis, T.

2006-01-01

76

Voyager Approaches Final Frontier  

Science.gov (United States)

An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.

2003-01-01

77

Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of evidence from postmortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in humans and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction from oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology, and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-coactivator and sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Beal, M Flint

2008-12-01

78

Hysterectomy – Which Approach?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hysterectomy operation is frequently performed on women. In the era of minimal invasive surgery, the route of hysterectomy depends upon numerous clinical variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate & suggest the appropriate approach for hysterectomy. A total of 250 patients were included in the presents study; they were divided, into three categories: Category I included 50 patients of Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP for Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH, Category II included 40 patients who underwent Non Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy (NDVH, Category III included 160 patients who had Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH. Operative time, hemorrhage, wound infection, post- operative analgesia, febrile morbidity, hospital stay and recovery were recorded for each patient. Indications for hysterectomy were POP, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB and fibroid uterus. The study period showed a gradual increase in number of NDVH. Perioperative blood loss, post operative pain score, hospital stay; cost was less in patients with VH/NDVH. Uncomplicated, fast and cost effective technique for removal of uterus remains VH & NDVH. Non Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy is gaining increased acceptability among patients being minimally invasive with no visible scar.

V. Mahasani,

2014-01-01

79

Radiolab - three different approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lønstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists: Don Ihde, whose notion of ‘voice’ is understood in a more general sense as the voices of all things, and Lawrence Ferrara, who methodologically operates within tree levels of investigation: 1 the syntax, 2 the semantic and 3 the ontology level. Accordingly, this analysis is conducted, as if the sound object was performed by a vocal ensemble oscillating ‘between a musical and a speech act’. Torben Sangild’s paper focuses on the concrete function of the sound object as a radio signature. This prompts a generic analysis and a semantic model of radio signatures in general, eclectically employing formal, indexical, gestural, discursive and contextual levels of meaning. The analysis of the Radiolab signature focuses on the overall gesture of tension and release as well as the semantic elements in a constellation with the content and style of the radio programme. After the three individual contributions, a brief summary and conclusion will follow, answering any questions that may arise in the process.

Ola Stockfelt

2012-04-01

80

Morgagni hernia - laparoscopic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morgagni hernia is due to a diaphragmatic defect, retrosternal congenital hernia being a rare form of hernie. The diagnosis is usually in childhood but there are cases that are found in adult or as a intraoperative surprise. The condition is asymptomatic or has nonspecific clinical manifestations or clinical dressing of often occlusive complications. The diagnosis is established by Rx thoracic imaging, barium enema or computed tomography (CT eso-gastro-duodenal passage. Treatment consists of reducing the hernia with or without dissection and resection of the hernia sac and diaphragmatic defect closure by suture the fascia endotoracica retrosternal and retrocostala or rectus abdominis sheath or plastic bag. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 49 years old woman admitted in our department for an insidious onset, several months ago, with postprandial upper abdominal pain, flatulence and nausea. CT scan revealed a mass of 95 / 130 / 80 mm, narrowly defined with homogeneous structure and negative densities (fat in the lower and middle mediastinum, outlining opacity described in cardiofrenic sinus radiography. The aspect was characteristic for a Morgagni hiatus hernia. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed using a 30º laparoscope inserted through a 10 mm supraombilical trocar; it revealed the parietal defect (Morgagni hernia and the herniation of greater omentum. Two additional 5 mm trocars are then inserted; the escaped great omentum was reintegrated and the parietal defect was laparoscopically sutured. To note, the peritoneal hernia sac was abandoned. Postoperative course was uneventful. A review of the literature data was also performed. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive surgery is feasible, safe and tends to become “gold standard” therapeutic approach for the treatment of Morgagni hernia.

?t.O. Georgescu

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Exploring Innovation - A language approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

� Innovation Management is a complex task that requires improved methods to support the exploration of multiple innovation dimensions. We suggest firms to adopt a language inspired approach in order to improve existing methods. The language approach is supported by a graphical innovation profile that maps the innovation features and choices. The paper demonstrates the applications and perspectives of this approach with reference to a qualitative case study.�

Mabogunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

2014-01-01

82

Classical approach in quantum physics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the...

Solov Ev, Evgeni A.

2010-01-01

83

New approaches to knowledge acquisition  

CERN Multimedia

It is well recognized that knowledge acquisition is the critical bottleneck of knowledge engineering. This book presents three major approaches of current research in this field, namely the psychological approach, the artificial intelligence approach and the software engineering approach. Special attention is paid to the most recent advances in knowledge acquisition research, especially those made by Chinese computer scientists. A special chapter is devoted to its applications in other fields, e.g. language analysis, software engineering, computer-aided instruction, etc., which were done in Ch

Lu, R-Q

1994-01-01

84

Blackwell Approachability and Minimax Theory  

CERN Multimedia

This manuscript investigates the relationship between Blackwell Approachability, a stochastic vector-valued repeated game, and minimax theory, a single-play scalar-valued scenario. First, it is established in a general setting --- one not permitting invocation of minimax theory --- that Blackwell's Approachability Theorem and its generalization due to Hou are still valid. Second, minimax structure grants a result in the spirit of Blackwell's weak-approachability conjecture, later resolved by Vieille, that any set is either approachable by one player, or avoidable by the opponent. This analysis also reveals a strategy for the opponent.

Telgarsky, Matus

2011-01-01

85

Periareolar approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years advances in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have been aimed at reducing the number of video surgery ports, and especially major lung resections pose the greatest challenge. We describe a new minimally invasive as well as aesthetic approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy. The technique poses no difficulty for the surgeon and has certain advantages over other videothoracoscopic approaches. PMID:24694421

Cerezo Madueño, Francisco; Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Algar Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

2014-04-01

86

Workplace English: Approach and Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes two approaches to teaching vocational English as a second language: (1) describing work activities in terms of processes and procedures and (2) describing work activities in terms of specific human behaviors. Suggests a goal analysis as an initial step before deciding which approach to take in any training project. (SED)

Prince, David

1984-01-01

87

Adolescent Suicide: An Ecological Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposes an ecological approach to enhance our understanding of how personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors contribute to the increased risk for suicide among adolescents. The ecological approach allows exploration of how adolescent suicide is determined by multiple factors related to the adolescent's personal history or ontogenic…

Ayyash-Abdo, Huda

2002-01-01

88

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... got coming out in “JBJS,” the early six-week recovery is dramatically different between a direct lateral abductor splitting approach and this anterior supine approach. Let me get this head on. My experience, these patients have full leg control in about 24 hours. Yeah. They can get out of bed ...

89

Theoretical approaches for studying Astrochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most popular ab initio theoretical approaches that are used to study the gas phase astrochemical reactivity are presented. The methods that are needed for the electronic calculation and the statistical approaches that are used for determining the rate coefficients are detailed.

Talbi D.

2012-01-01

90

Theoretical approaches for studying Astrochemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The most popular ab initio theoretical approaches that are used to study the gas phase astrochemical reactivity are presented. The methods that are needed for the electronic calculation and the statistical approaches that are used for determining the rate coefficients are detailed.

Talbi D.

2012-01-01

91

Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

92

Approach to population control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the fact that India was the 1st nation to adopt population control as a state policy and that targets for various family planning methods are set by the Department of Family Planning, it is assumed that family planning is basically the concern of the Department of Family Planning. Consequently, family planning is viewed as a public sector activity that requires little participation on the part of the people. This presents a great danger to the success of the family planning program. Family planning needs to be the primary concern of the people and not the government. The new 20 point program emphasizes that family planning should be promoted on a voluntary basis as a people's movement. This has been interpreted by many to mean that increasingly more funds should be given to voluntary agencies working in the field of family planning. Yet, there is deep distrust on the part of the government departments regarding doling out funds to voluntary agencies. It is suggested that the government should adopt a new approach to the problem of population control through the promotion and mobilization of voluntary effort in rural areas. In view of the clear demonstration of the impact of female education on fertility levels, the Family Planning Department should announce a new scheme to help all voluntary agencies which focus attention on the education of girls in neglected rural areas and should launch a special schooling program for girls in the area of nutrition. In addition, the informal education of women through the mobilization of local talent and resources to generate social awareness should be undertaken. In India, Kerala has the distinction of having the highest literacy rate, the highest life expectancy, the lowest mortality and infant mortality rates, and the lowest birthrate. The birthrate in rural Kerala is 27/1000 in contrast to 40/1000 in rural Uttar Pradesh. A high average marriage age has contributed substantially to lowering the birthrate. The key variables in explaining the interstate fertility differentials in India are the level of education and the marriage age. At least in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan, the basic thrust of the family planning program for the next 5 years should be on raising the marriage age. In sum, decline in the rural birthrate can be accomplished if a 4-fold strategy is adopted: a special program for female education in neglected rural areas; an increase in the marriage age in rural areas to at least 18-20 years for girls and the strict enforcement of the Prevention of Child Marriage Act; massive support of the Health Guide Scheme in order to realize the goal of health for all by the year 2000; and innovative steps to generate and mobilize initiative in the field of health and education within local rural communities. PMID:12312004

Bose, A

1983-01-26

93

Structural approaches to HIV prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition that social, economic, political, and environmental factors directly affect HIV risk and vulnerability has stimulated interest in structural approaches to HIV prevention. Progress in the use of structural approaches has been limited for several reasons: absence of a clear definition; lack of operational guidance; and limited data on the effectiveness of structural approaches to the reduction of HIV incidence. In this paper we build on evidence and experience to address these gaps. We begin by defining structural factors and approaches. We describe the available evidence on their effectiveness and discuss methodological challenges to the assessment of these often complex efforts to reduce HIV risk and vulnerability. We identify core principles for implementing this kind of work. We also provide recommendations for ensuring the integration of structural approaches as part of combined prevention strategies. PMID:18687460

Gupta, Geeta Rao; Parkhurst, Justin O; Ogden, Jessica A; Aggleton, Peter; Mahal, Ajay

2008-08-30

94

MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of the managerial approach to public administration, starting from the distinction identified by some authors between management and administration. The paper has a twofold structure: in the first sections it provides a theoretical conceptual framework for approaching the issue of the managerial approach to public administration; in the following sections, the authors discuss the managerial approach with regard to the Romanian administrative sector. In the conclusion section, the paper tries to offer an answer to the question where do we stand as a country with regard to the implementation of the managerial approach in public administration. While some progress has been made, there are nonetheless steps that still need to be taken.

Cristina Maria MORA

2008-10-01

95

Lateral extracavitary approach to spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This paper describes the lateral extracavitary approach to the lumbar spine using the three­quarter prone position. Owing to unsatisfied results of the posterior approaches to spine in patients with the ventral compressive lesions, many ventral approaches as well as lateral extracavitary approach have been developed. Case Outline. A patient with tumor (chordoma of L3 vertebral body was operated on by means of ventral compression of cauda equina; the tumor had paraspinal propagation. Lateral extracavitary approach was used with a patient in three­quarter prone position, and corpectomy with the anterior stabilisation was performed followed by posterior transpedicular stabilisation through the same approach. Complete tumor removal and excellent neurological improvement were achieved. Conclusion. This approach provides safe ventral decompression of the spinal cord; it also enables the anterior and posterior instrumental stabilisation through the same incision and in the same position during the intervention. The three­quarter prone position allows excellent view of the dural sac.

Iveti? Dražen

2013-01-01

96

“Various Approaches of Requirement Engineering and Comparisons among These Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Requirements engineering is the foundation of software engineering, and quality of requirements engineering determines the quality ofprojects. In order to fulfill user's requirement, it is very important to manage user’s requirement effectively. There are many approaches to gather user’s requirement. In this paper we discuss about various approaches of requirement gathering in requirements engineering and comparison among them on the basis of various parameters like reusability, scaling, ...

2013-01-01

97

Fermions in the pseudoparticle approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pseudoparticle approach is a numerical technique to compute path integrals without discretizing spacetime. The basic idea is to integrate over those field configurations, which can be represented by a sum of a fixed number of localized building blocks (pseudoparticles). In a couple of previous papers we have successfully applied the pseudoparticle approach to pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. In this talk we discuss how to incorporate fermionic fields in the pseudoparticle approach. To give a simple example, we apply our method to determine the phase diagram of the Gross-Neveu model. (orig.)

Wagner, M. [Inst. for Theoretical Physics III, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany)

2007-07-01

98

Vanpooling: the three major approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

Sears, P.M.

1979-08-01

99

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... before the surgery, about this patient being an ideal candidate for this minimally invasive approach, given her ... but it’s more challenging. This would be an ideal first case. So Roger, I’m bringing in ...

100

Anterior approach for knee arthrography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2001-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... generation highly cross-linked, highly eradiated, and then vitamin E doped polyethylene, and, you know, the data ... this approach I would not. Yeah. Because the stability is so good. So good, yeah. Now if ...

102

Experimental approaches to spallation reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present paper, different experimental methods applied for studying spallation reactions are discussed. Special attention is given to an innovative experimental approach - the inverse-kinematics method - developed at GSI-Darmstadt. (author)

2006-09-27

103

Necrotizing fasciitis: an alternative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three cases of necrotizing fasciitis are presented. The initial management of necrotizing fasciitis remains undisputed. However, following a limited success with a conventional treatment policy, a more radical approach with immediate skin grafting following debridement is suggested.

1982-01-01

104

Constructive approach to critical phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part of my talk, I present miscellaneous results obtained the last few years on the constructive approach to critical phenomena. Then I focus on two more recent developments and finally conclude by some remarks. (orig./HSI)

1984-03-01

105

Inviscid Approach to Phase Transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This reprint discusses, an inviscid approach to phase transition problem. The entropy rate admissibility criterion is useful to study the stability of a stationary phase boundary in terms of Riemann problem. Specifically, in the isothermal case the statio...

H. Hattori

1989-01-01

106

New approach to mass formulas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Regge approach to mass formulas is grounded. The main types of interrelations between meson masses are picked out and analysed. The spectrum of vector mesons with the fifth flavour is also evaluated

1979-01-01

107

The Montessori Approach to Music.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the Montessori approach to music education and specific techniques for teaching piano to young children using key and note cards above the piano keys. These materials isolate the teaching purpose, show errors, and stimulate self-correction. (MDM)

Barnett, Elise Braun

1995-01-01

108

Classical approach in quantum physics  

CERN Document Server

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the help of Poincar$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$ section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treating as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semicla...

Solov'ev, Evgeni A

2010-01-01

109

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications  

CERN Document Server

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

Jazar, Reza

2012-01-01

110

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... This is a previously described surgical approach, which has not been commonly used in this country, but ... op restrictions in the typical case, and there has been high patient satisfaction in my experience. With ...

111

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Dr. Eric Dewitt, from Belgium, who helped me learn this surgical approach. This is a previously described ... capsule. Okay. What do you think on the learning curve? 4 No, I think that’s good. I ...

112

Simplified Approach to Inspection Planning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details is presented. The basic idea behind the approach is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their stress intensity factors and their design fatigue life to service life ratio, i.e. the fatigue design factor (FDF) and SN curve. When the reserve strength ratio (RSR) and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known it is possible to make a generic description of fatigue sensitive structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables which depend on relative cost of inspections, repairs and failures. Due to the simplicity of the format of the developed inspection plans the proposed approach has a high potential in code making for the design and maintenance of steel structures. The validity of the proposed approach is illustrated through a study regarding inspection planning of offshore structures.

Bloch, Allan; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

2000-01-01

113

Groundbreaking approach to disaster relief  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The humanitarian response to Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May, heralds a fundamentally new approach to relief coordination. As a result, a unique survey showed what really happened to the survivors. Sarah Cumberland reports.

2008-01-01

114

Paying for Complementary Health Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

... complementary approaches by allowing participants to purchase special “riders”—or supplements—to their standard health insurance plans. ... advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners. Toll-free in the U.S.: 1-888-644-6226 TTY ( ...

115

Posterior approach to the shoulder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe a modified posterior approach to the shoulder and to present their clinical application in 12 cadaver specimens and a prospective series of 11 patients with glenoid fractures from 1994 to 2003. In the proposed approach Deltoid is reflected superiorly without detachment, approaching the interval between Infraspinatus and Teres Minor muscles exposing the glenoid. Witch this technique the Axilar bundle was 26,5 mm to the posterior glenoid rim. The patients had low surgical times (54 min), low bleeding (77 cc), and no nerve complications. All had good and excellent results in the UCLA score in the first 30 postoperative days. We consider this approach safe, it allows an excellent exposure of the glenoid fractures, and facilitates the functional recovery to the patients

2005-06-01

116

Transmandibular approach to total maxillectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total Maxillectomy through transfacial approach has been practiced in the treatment of Cancer for more than a decade. Its role in T3 - T4 tumors extending posteriorly through gthe bony wall is questionable, since an oncological radical procedure is often not possible. Recurrences in the infratemporal fossa are common. Despite the addition of radiotherapy five year survivals have not significantly improved. Transmandibular approach to Total Maxillectomy overcomes this shortcoming by including ...

2001-01-01

117

New Approaches to Classical Liberalism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on the following three novel and original philosophical approaches to classical liberalism: Den Uyl and Rasmussen's perfectionist argument from meta-norms, Gaus's justificatory model, and Kukathas's conscience-based theory of authority. None of these three approaches are utilitarian or consequentialist in character. Neither do they appeal to the notion of a rational bargain as it is typical within contractarianism. Furthermore, each of these theories rejects the idea that...

Nicolas Maloberti

2012-01-01

118

Holistic approach to chronic constipation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By "holistic approach" (greek "olos" = "all") we mean a clinical approach which is not only confined to the diseased segment of the body, say the inert large bowel or the spastic pelvic floor in case of constipation, but takes under consideration the whole "mind and body complex", which is a unique indivisible entity. According to a prospective study carried out in our Unit and under press in Colorectal Disease, 66% of the patients with obstructed defecation su...

Pescatori Mario

2006-01-01

119

Microscopic approach to nuclear anharmonicities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present status of microscopic study of nuclear anharmonicity phenomena is reviewed from the viewpoint of the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov approach. Both classical- and quantum-mechanical aspects of this approach are discussed. The Bohr-Mottelson-type collective Hamiltonian for anharmonic gamma vibrations is microscopically derived by means of the self-consistent-collective-coordinate method, and applied to the problem of two-phonon states of "1"6"8Er. (orig.)

1985-05-20

120

Information Extraction using Incremental Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is playing vital role in text extraction as now a day’s large amount of data available in scientific research, biomedical literature and web data. Data retrieval using existing approaches use sequential approach to process the data. It suitable for one time processing whereas using this approach performance will prunes. whenever the new data is added to the existing information we need to reprocess the entire data to perform extraction and it consumes large amount of time as same the initial time of processing .If at all there is any frequent modification in the existing data, it will require large amount of time to reprocess .This scenario will be repeats same even new extraction of goal is required for the same existing data. There is a high demand in the information extraction but available method such as UIMA and GATE performs IE by file based approach will not use any relational database in the extraction process. Key challenge of data extraction for incremental data, we need to identify which part of the data is getting affected by the change of any component or goal .To achieve this large corpus data will be stored using special type of data storage and optimized queries for data retrieval. It requires more storage compare to existing approach but now a days storage size not a key requirement. New approach also introduces automated query generation based on available input data for efficient performance. This method will reduce ninety percent of processing time whenever there is any modification of data comparatively to existing approach.

T.Ramesh Chary

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Mathematics Approaches in Compressed Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical approaches refer to make quantitative descriptions, deductions and calculations through the use of mathematics concepts, approaches and techniques, then draw some new conclusions and foresee by mathematical analysis and judgment. In recent years, Compressed Sensing theory (CS provides solutions in alleviating the huge amount of information demand in the pressure of signal sampling, transmission and storage pressure. It is a novel signal sampling theory under the condition that the signal is compressible or sparse.In this case, the signal can be reconstructed accurately from the small amount of signal values if the signal is sparse or compressible. This paper introduces the CS theory framework and key technical issues, and focus on the analysis of the application of mathematical approaches in three aspects of the signal sparse representation, signal sparse transformation and reconstruction.In the end, Some mathematics problems of compressed sensing to solve are given and further development is pointed out.  

Jianhua Zhou

2013-09-01

122

Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

2003-01-01

123

Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun

2010-01-01

124

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program

1979-08-09

125

Holistic approach to chronic constipation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By "holistic approach" (greek "olos" = "all" we mean a clinical approach which is not only confined to the diseased segment of the body, say the inert large bowel or the spastic pelvic floor in case of constipation, but takes under consideration the whole "mind and body complex", which is a unique indivisible entity. According to a prospective study carried out in our Unit and under press in Colorectal Disease, 66% of the patients with obstructed defecation suffer either from anxiety or depression, thus showing the major role played by an altered psyche in the etiology of their constipation.

Pescatori Mario

2006-01-01

126

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

127

International Approaches to Clinical Costing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business Schoolâ??s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data, and provide opportunities for all healthsystems to learn and potentially improve their own approaches. The HFMA hopes to build on this initial baselining exercise to understand more about how key issues are being tackled in some of the health systems that have made the most progress with costing.

Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja

2013-01-01

128

Progress on joint safety approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a common French-German safety approach for future pressurized water reactors (PWR) started in 1992, when the French utility EdF, a consortium of German utilities, and the vendor NPI, a joint venture of Siemens and Framatome, joined efforts in order to develop an advanced reactor concept, called 'European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR)'. Right from the beginning the French and German safety authorities accompanied the technological development of the EPR by working out a common safety approach for future pressurized water reactors. (orig./GL)

1997-10-01

129

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... so we’ll go ahead and open a liner. That’s good. I know it always comes up ... you and I have been doing all our liners changes through this approach. Exactly. That’s actually a ...

130

A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

Ramvi, Ellen

2012-01-01

131

Automatic Multi Document Summarization Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Text summarization can be of different nature ranging from indicative summary that identifies the topics of the document to informative summary which is meant to represent the concise description of the original document, providing an idea of what the whole content of document is all about. Approach: Single document summary seems to capture both the information well but it has not been the case for multi document summary where the overall comprehensive quality in presenting informative summary often lacks. It is found that most of the existing methods tend to focus on sentence scoring and less consideration is given to the contextual information content in multiple documents. Results: In this study, some survey on multi document summarization approaches has been presented. We will direct our focus notably on four well known approaches to multi document summarization namely the feature based method, cluster based method, graph based method and knowledge based method. The general ideas behind these methods have been described. Conclusion: Besides the general idea and concept, we discuss the benefits and limitations concerning these methods. With the aim of enhancing multi document summarization, specifically news documents, a novel type of approach is outlined to be developed in the future, taking into account the generic components of a news story in order to generate a better summary.

Yogan J. Kumar

2012-01-01

132

Innovative approach to staff management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reveals the essence of reproduction approach to the management staff that meets the requirements of an information type of production. A classification of the functions of personnel management, depending on the role of man in the workplace is given. Topical aspects of implementing the functions of personnel management in Russian enterprises are considered.

Rodionova Elena Viktorovna

2011-12-01

133

Superbrane actions and geometrical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review a generic structure of conventional (Nambu-Goto and Dirac-Born Infeld-like) worldvolume actions for the superbranes and show how it is connected through a generalized action construction with a double supersymmetric geometrical approach to the description of super-p-brane dynamics as embedding world supersurfaces into target superspaces. (author). 28 refs

1997-01-01

134

Organ donation: a communitarian approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, various suggestions have been made to respond to the increasingly great shortage of organs by paying for them. Because of the undesirable side effects of such approaches (commodification, injustice, and costs), a communitarian approach should be tried first. A communitarian approach to the problem of organ shortage entails changing the moral culture so that members of society will recognize that donating one's organs, once they are no longer of use to the donor, is the moral (right) thing to do. This approach requires much greater and deeper efforts than sharing information and making public service announcements. It entails a moral dialogue, in which the public is engaged, leading to a change in what people expect from one another. Among the devices that could help change the moral culture are a public statement, endorsed by community members and leaders, that expresses the community sense that donation "is what a good person does" and a community-specific web page that lists those who have made the commitment. A change in law so that a person's wishes in the matter are recognized as final and binding are also desired. This position paper deals only with cadaver organs and not living donors. PMID:12807104

Etzioni, Amitai

2003-03-01

135

Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

1981-01-01

136

A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

2014-04-29

137

Oncoplastic Approaches to Breast Conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic teams in determining which approach is most suitable for their patient's tumor size, tumor location, body habitus, and desired cosmetic outcome we present a review of several oncoplastic surgical approaches. For resections located anywhere in the breast, the radial ellipse segmentectomy incision and circumareolar approach for segmental resection are discussed. For resections in the upper or central breast, crescent mastopexy, the batwing incision, the hemi batwing incision, donut mastopexy, B-flap resection, and the central quadrantectomy are reviewed. For lesions of the lower breast, the triangle incision, infra mammary incision, and reduction mastopexy are discussed. Surgeons who are interested in adding oncoplastic breast conserving therapies to their skill sets are encouraged to implement these surgical techniques where applicable and to seek out breast fellowships or enhanced training when appropriate

2011-01-01

138

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... found with the microplasty if I template one size standard Taperloc, I almost get in a one size larger microplasty. Yeah. And this is a stem ... about this approach, Roger, is that the stem size and stem position is right on every time, ...

139

Eight Approaches to Language Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Important features of eight second language teaching methods--grammar-translation, direct, audiolingual, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, community language learning, Total Physical Response, and the communicative approach--are summarized . A chart outlines characteristics of these aspects of the methods: goals, teacher and student roles, the…

Doggett, Gina

140

New approaches for inflationary cosmology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extended' and hyperextended' inflationary models of the universe have been developed which avoid the extreme fine-tuning required by all previous approaches. The models also generate a new source of inhomogeneities that affect large-scale structure. The most surprising feature is the role that inflation can play in altering the nature of the gravitational force.

Accetta, F.S. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Steinhardt, P.J. (School of Natural Sciences, Princeton, NJ (United States) Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States))

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

New approaches for inflationary cosmology  

Science.gov (United States)

“Extended” and “hyperextended” inflationary models of the universe have been developed which avoid the extreme fine-tuning required by all previous approaches. The models also generate a new source of inhomogeneities that affect large-scale structure. The most surprising feature is the role that inflation can play in altering the nature of the gravitational force.

Accetta, Frank S.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

1991-01-01

142

Face recognition using eigenface approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, a face recognition system using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm was implemented. The algorithm is based on an eigenfaces approach which represents a PCA method in which a small set of significant features are used to describe the variation between face images. Experimental results for different numbers of eigenfaces are shown to verify the viability of the proposed method.

Slavkovi? Marijeta; Jevti? Dubravka

2012-01-01

143

Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

Stark, Richard B., Ed.

144

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to tonight’s webcast. We ...

145

Martingale approach to real options  

Science.gov (United States)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options. .

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail

2001-02-01

146

A Complexity Approach for Steganalysis  

CERN Multimedia

In this proposal for the Journ\\`ees Codes et St\\'eganographie 2012, we define a new rigorous approach for steganalysis based on the complexity theory. It is similar to the definitions of security that can be found for hash functions, PRNG, and so on. We propose here a notion of \\emph{secure hiding} and we give a first secure hiding scheme.

Bahi, Jacques M; Heam, Pierre-Cyrille

2011-01-01

147

Congestion Management Approach Using TCSC  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, deregulation of the electric industry in the world aims at creating competitive markets to trade electricity. For deregulated transmission networks, one of the major consequences of the nondiscriminatory open-access requirement is a substantial increase of power transfers. Congestion management of deregulated transmission networks is very important to accomplish always nondiscriminative network access. In this paper, the authors propose a congestion management approach by using Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) in order to maximize transmission margin and minimize transmission loss without changing contracted power under constraints such as thermal, voltage, and stability limits. In the proposed approach, power flow through transmission lines can be flexibly controlled without changing contracted power by determining firing angle of TCSC. In order to check the validity of the proposed congestion management approach, numerical results are shown for 6 bus system model. Simulation results show effectiveness of the proposed congestion management approach by using TCSC, when congestion occurs at a transmission line in the system model.

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Yonezawa, Hironori

148

Dark Matter: A Multidisciplinary Approach  

CERN Document Server

We review the current status of accelerator, direct and indirect Dark Matter (DM) searches, focusing on the complementarity of different techniques and on the prospects for discovery. After taking a census of present and upcoming DM-related experiments, we review the motivations to go beyond an "accelerator-only" approach, and highlight the benefits of multidisciplinarity in the quest for DM.

Bertone, Gianfranco

2007-01-01

149

Constructivist Approaches in Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The rationale for a constructivist approach to behavioral and social science research, and studies which have applied this methodology, are reviewed. The author suggests that ethnographic techniques of explaining behavior patterns may be as valuable as or more appropriate than traditional behavioral science methods. (GDC)

Magoon, A. Jon

1977-01-01

150

Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

2013-01-01

151

Classical approach in atomic physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

Solov' ev, E.A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

152

Classical approach in atomic physics  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.

Solov'ev, E. A.

2011-12-01

153

Classical approach in atomic physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

2011-12-01

154

Covariant anomalies in cohomology approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study a new cohomology approach to the covariant anomalies. As a general solution of a covariant condition, we obtain a set of differential forms from which the covariant (current and commutator) anomalies are derived algebraically. We also derive a generalized Bardeen-Zumino relation between the covariant and consistent anomalies. (orig.)

1989-10-05

155

Covariant anomalies in cohomology approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study a new cohomology approach to the covariant anomalies. As a general solution of a covariant condition, we obtain a set of differential forms from which the covariant (current and commutator) anomalies are derived algebraically. We also derive a generalized Bardeen-Zumino relation between the covariant and consistent anomalies. (orig.).

Tsutsui, Izumi (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

1989-10-05

156

Multivariate Approach to Seasonal Adjustment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper suggests a new semi-parametric multivariate approach to seasonal ad- justment. The primary innovation is to use a large dimensional factor model of cross section dependence to estimate the trend component in the seasonal decomposition of each t...

R. Greenaway-McGrevy

2013-01-01

157

Consortial Approaches to International Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the College Consortium for International Studies, a consortium offering overseas study opportunities for U.S. students in 18 foreign countries. Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the consortial approach; how consortial membership works; and overcoming prejudice, inertia, and other obstacles. (DMM)

McLean, John J.

1990-01-01

158

Overcoming Prejudices: An Invitational Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers an invitational model for overcoming prejudices. The model, based on the five-step approach of M. Haberman (1994) and the conflict management plan of W. W. Purkey (1992) proposes an effective and sensitive method for dealing with prejudice and discrimination in the schools. (SLD)

Reed, Charlotte

1996-01-01

159

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

160

Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Towards a Taxonomy of Dynamic Reconfiguration Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic reconfiguration is essential part of software evolution. Several approaches to support dynamic reconfiguration have been proposed in the literature. These approaches are different in various criteria. The goal of this work is to make a comparative study between various dynamic reconfiguration approaches by exploring the features of these approaches and to classify them with respect to these features.

Mohammad Charaf Eddin

2013-09-01

162

Supersymmetric approach to excited states.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present here a supersymmetric (SUSY) approach for determining excitation energies within the context of a quantum Monte Carlo scheme. By using the fact that SUSY quantum mechanics gives rises to a series of isospectral Hamiltonians, we show that Monte Carlo ground-state calculations in the SUSY partners can be used to reconstruct accurately both the spectrum and states of an arbitrary Schrodinger equation. Since the ground state of each partner potential is nodeless, we avoid any "node" problem typically associated with the Monte Carlo technique. Although we provide an example of using this approach to determine the tunneling states in a double-well potential, the method is applicable to any 1D potential problem. We conclude by discussing the extension to higher dimensions. PMID:19919079

Bittner, Eric R; Maddox, Jeremy B; Kouri, Donald J

2009-12-31

163

Snow metamorphism: a fractal approach  

CERN Document Server

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapour and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameter. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution o...

Carbone, Anna; Frigo, Barbara; Turk, Christian; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036103

2010-01-01

164

Temperature Dependent Nuclear Matter Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The nuclear matter approach provides an effective interaction in the presence of a sea of nucleons. Especially it accounts for the Pauli principle which forbids scattering processes into the occupied states of the nucleonic see. It is well suited to describe the bulk properties of nuclei as well as optical potentials beyond 40 MeV incident energy. Difficulties in the description of nucleon-nucleus reactions beyond 70 MeV may indicate the importance of excited doorway states for reaction processes and therefore the optical potentials. In this contribution we consider the g-matrix approach for excited nuclear matter. The g-matrix is evaluated via the Bethe-Goldstone equation with an exact Pauli operator accounting for excitations with arbitrary occupation distributions. The features of the g-matrix with regard to changes in excitation are discussed. (author)

2010-09-06

165

Virtualization Approaches in Cloud Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the growing age of cloud computing demands in almost all the sectors like TV channel to online shopping to educational institution etc., the cloud infrastructure cost goes very high. Therefore, the concept of virtualization needs to be understand and implement in the cloud computing syterms, which enables the user as well as the owners for the better and robust management and usage of the cloud. In this paper the virtualization approach in the cloud computing environment are well presented with the concept of the cloud service models. The virtualization process and implementation with their advantages are documented and the different types of virtualizations are presented with some survey on the Indian data centre and the virtualization architecture. This approach needs to be evaluated in different cloud platforms for finding the cost effectiveness in the cloud infrastructure development.

K C Gouda

2014-06-01

166

[BVD approach: vaccination and eradication].  

Science.gov (United States)

The vulnerability of cattle populations that do not have adequate levels of antibodies against the bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) virus was demonstrated in February 1999, when a contaminated vaccine against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) was accidentally used. Only cattle with antibodies against BVD survived this unintentional challenge. A BVD infection can be detected easily with currently available laboratory techniques, but the virus is less easy to eliminate. The risk of financial loss is small, and the costs are limited, if mainly seronegative cattle, selected on the basis of sampling, are given the live vaccine. Over the last 7 years this approach has been applied to about twenty dairy farms. This approach would be compatible with a BVD eradication programme. PMID:10775986

Verberne, L R

2000-04-01

167

Quantum mechanics a paradigms approach  

CERN Multimedia

This innovative new text presents quantum mechanics in a manner that directly reflects the methods used in modern physics research—making the material more approachable and preparing students more thoroughly for real research. Most texts in this area start with a bit of history and then move directly to wave-particle problems with accompanying heavy mathematical analysis; Quantum Mechanics provides a foundation in experimental phenomena and uses a more approachable, less intimidating, more powerful mathematical matrix model. Beginning with the Stern-Gerlach experiments and the discussion of spin measurements, and using bra-ket notation, the authors introduce an important notational system that is used throughout quantum mechanics. This non-traditional presentation is designed to enhance students’ understanding and strengthen their intuitive grasp of the subject.

McIntyre, David H

2012-01-01

168

The KWU PCI modelling approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since PCI fuel rod failures are generally attributed to stress corrosion cracking of the clad, mechanical as well as chemical aspects must be considered in PCI modelling. Transient fission gas release, amplified by a thermal feedback effect, is expected to be very important with regard to both aspects. In view of the limited possibilities to describe analytically the complex mechanisms contributing to PCI failures, KWU uses a semiempirical PCI approach to evalute the experimental results from ramp tests and power reactor experience and to develop preliminary PCI failure criteria. In parallel to the empirical approach, systematic PCI investigations are performed. To calculate stresses and strains during ramps, including fuel and clad plasticity and creep, the code SENATOR has been developed. The ANSYS code is used for the calculation of local stress and strain effects. (orig.)

1980-02-01

169

Advanced Vibrations A Modern Approach  

CERN Document Server

Advanced Vibrations: A Modern Approach is presented at a theoretical-practical level and explains mechanical vibrations concepts in detail, concentrating on their practical use. Related theorems and formal proofs are provided, as are real-life applications. Students, researchers and practicing engineers alike will appreciate the user-friendly presentation of a wealth of topics including but not limited to practical optimization for designing vibration isolators, and transient, harmonic and random excitations. This book also: Contains unique material based on statement-proof-examples Derives equations of motion using Newton-Euler and Lagrange methods Presents optimization of vibrating systems not normally covered in standard vibration books Advanced Vibrations: A Modern Approach is an ideal book for designers, practitioner engineers, and students of engineering.

Jazar, Reza N

2013-01-01

170

Proteomic approaches in circadian biology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillators that drive the rhythmic expression of a broad array of genes that orchestrate metabolism and physiology. Recent evidence indicates that posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms play essential roles in modulating circadian gene expression, particularly for the molecular mechanism of the clock. In contrast to genetic technologies that have long been used to study circadian biology, proteomic approaches have so far been limited and, if applied at all, have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Here, we review the proteomics approaches applied to date in the circadian field, and we also discuss the exciting potential of using cutting-edge proteomics technology in circadian biology. Large-scale, quantitative protein abundance measurements will help to understand to what extent the circadian clock drives system wide rhythms of protein abundance downstream of transcription regulation.

Robles, Maria S; Mann, Matthias

2013-01-01

171

Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

Ferreira, Antoine

2013-01-01

172

Integral Approach to Mental Suffering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article further develops one section by the same name in another article published in the International Journal of Transpersonal Studies entitled Integral Approach in Transpersonal Psychotherapy (Boggio Gilot, 2003 by proposing a model of mental suffering based on uniting scientific psychology with meditative wisdom (e.g., derived from Yoga Vedanta. The role of spiritual vision underlines a wider understanding of the origins of mental suffering, including damage from ontological unawareness and egoism, non-ethical factors usually ignored in psychology. These give rise to destructive poisons of the mind such as pride, greed, fear, resentment, envy, and intolerance, which characterize egoic narcissism. This comparative approach to psychology and meditative wisdom allows for an expansion of developmental and psychotherapeutic theories.

Laura Boggio Gilot

2008-01-01

173

"Probabilistic" approach to Richardson equations  

CERN Document Server

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of "energy" of interacting free charges on the plane. We suggest to consider "probabilities" of the system of charges to occupy certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of "probability" has similarities with the square of Laughlin wave function. Next, we introduce a "partition function", from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined within underextensive terms. As a first application of this approach, we consider a model with the constant density of states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval, where potential acts. In this case, the "partition function" is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, whi...

Pogosov, W V

2011-01-01

174

BRST Approach to Hamiltonian Systems  

CERN Document Server

BRST formulation of cohomological Hamiltonian mechanics is presented. In the path integral approach, we use the BRST gauge fixing procedure for the partition function with trivial underlying Lagrangian to fix symplectic diffeomorphism invariance. Resulting Lagrangian is BRST and anti-BRST exact and the Liouvillian of classical mechanics is reproduced in the ghost-free sector. The theory can be thought of as a topological phase of Hamiltonian mechanics and is considered as one-dimensional cohomological field theory with the target space a symplectic manifold. Twisted (anti-)BRST symmetry is related to global N=2 supersymmetry, which is identified with an exterior algebra. Landau-Ginzburg formulation of the associated $d=1$, N=2 model is presented and Slavnov identity is analyzed. We study deformations and perturbations of the theory. Physical states of the theory and correlation functions of the BRST invariant observables are studied. This approach provides a powerful tool to investigate the properties of Hami...

Aringazin, A K; Kudusov, A S

1998-01-01

175

Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineer...

Anda Zeidmane; Sarmite Cernajeva

2011-01-01

176

Thermodynamic approach to generalized continua  

Science.gov (United States)

Governing equations of dissipative generalized solid mechanics are derived by thermodynamic methods in the Piola-Kirchhoff framework using the Liu procedure. The isotropic small-strain case is investigated in more detail. The connection to the Ginzburg-Landau type evolution, dual internal variables, and a thermodynamic generalization of the standard linear solid model of rheology is demonstrated. Specific examples are chosen to emphasize experimental confirmations and predictions beyond less general approaches.

Ván, Peter; Berezovski, Arkadi; Papenfuss, Christina

2014-05-01

177

Corporate Governance: An Institutionalist Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Even though our understanding of corporate governance has evolved from a rigid model of “command and control” toward a more flexible model of incentive mechanisms, numerous and major shortcomings continue to plague efforts to resolve the conflicts of interest inherent in the managerial approach to corporate control. In this stimulating book the work of ten outstanding scholars in the field converges, along different avenues of research and analysis, toward a vital critique of two assumpti...

Cobbaut, Robert; Lenoble, Jacques

2003-01-01

178

Inspections - a cost effective approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a cost effective approach for inspections of Computerized Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Systems (CNMCAS). Highlighted is the capability to conduct an inspection program via portable telephone terminals from off-site locations. The program can be applied to various materials management functions including materials control, quality assurance, and materials accounting. The system is designed to facilitate inspections by both external and internal groups

1981-07-13

179

Money: A market microstructure approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current discussion about the future of the financial system draws heavily on a set of theories known as the 'New Monetary Economics'. The New Monetary Economics predicts that deregulation and financial innovation will lead to a moneyless world. This paper uses a market microstructure approach to show that a common medium of exchange that serves as unit of account will remain a necessary instrument to reduce transaction costs. This finding is supported by empirical evidence from foreign ex...

Krueger, Malte

2008-01-01

180

Conformal approach to cylindrical DLA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extend the conformal mapping approach elaborated for the radial Diffusion Limited Aggregation model (DLA) to the cylindrical geometry. We introduce in particular a complex function which allows to grow a cylindrical cluster using as intermediate step a radial aggregate. The grown aggregate exhibits the same self-affine features of the original cylindrical DLA. The specific choice of the transformation allows us to study the relationship between the radial and the cylindri...

Taloni, Alessandro; Caglioti, Emanuele; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Towards electron encapsulation. Polynitrile approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Is it possible to design a supramolecular cage that would "solvate" the excess electron in the same fashion in which several solvent molecules do that co-operatively in polar liquids? Two general strategies are outlined for "electron encapsulation," viz. electron localization using polar groups arranged on the (i) inside of the cage or (ii) outside of the cage. The second approach is limited to polynitriles. We demonstrate that the latter faces a formidable problem: the elec...

Shkrob, Ilya A.; Sauer, Jr

2005-01-01

182

Glioblastoma Multiforme: Novel Therapeutic Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme involves total surgical resection followed by combination of radiation therapy and temozolomide. Unfortunately, the efficacy for such current therapy is limited, and newer approaches are sorely needed to treat this deadly disease. We have recently described the isolation of bacterial proteins and peptides with anticancer activity. In phase I human clinical trials, one such peptide, p28, derived from a bacterial protein azurin, showed partial and...

Fialho, Arsenio M.; Prabhakar Salunkhe; Sunil Manna; Sidharth Mahali; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

2012-01-01

183

An approach to duodenal biopsies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided,...

Serra, S.; Jani, P. A.

2006-01-01

184

Evolutionary approaches to legal change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Institutions matter both for long-term economic evolution as well as for more short-termed economic performance. The law is particularly important in shaping the institutional framework for economic activities. This paper gives an overview of typical evolutionary explanations of legal change, i.e. the generation and dissemination of legal innovations over time. The main actors, the key determinants, and the central mechanisms are identified. In addition to approaches which deal primarily with...

Eckardt, Martina

2004-01-01

185

[Psychosomatic approach for chronic migraine].  

Science.gov (United States)

From psychosomatic view point, the psychological or social stresses and depressive or anxiety disorders are very important factors in the course and the maintenance for migraine patients. These factors are very complex, and often lead the migraine becoming chronic. In the psychosomatic approach, not only the physical assessment for chronic migraine but also the assessments for stress and mental states are done. As the psychosomatic therapies for chronic migraine, autogenic training, biofeedback therapy and cognitive therapy are effective. PMID:22277516

Hashizume, Masahiro

2011-11-01

186

Five Stage Approach to Licensing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article will set out a practical five stage approach to Open Source Software (OSS) legal issues for organizations that are working, or thinking of working, in this area. While OSS affords a plethora of legal challenges and ongoing developments that merit treatment, I will focus on a general framework for managing OSS legal issues. Since I will provide general legal information and not legal advice, I strongly encourage your organization to work with legal counsel with competency in the O...

Thomas Prowse

2007-01-01

187

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

CERN Multimedia

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

Opatrny, T

1999-01-01

188

Hemorrhagic shock: The “physiology approach”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A shift of approach from ‘clinics trying to fit physiology’ to the one of ‘physiology to clinics’, with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS® classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misle...

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

2012-01-01

189

Material Systems : a design approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behaviour. The project approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting.

Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk

2009-01-01

190

Nonlinear approach to ternary scission  

CERN Multimedia

Description of three-center configuration within mean-field approaches meets uncertainties to select a peculiar set of constraints. We suggest to use the inverse mean field method to solve single-particle Schroedinger equation, instead of constrained selfconsistent Hartree-Fock equations. It is shown, that it is possible to simulate one-dimensional three-center system in the approximation of reflectless single- particle potentials (authors)

Kartavenco, V G

2002-01-01

191

Humanoid Introspection: A Practical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe an approach to robot introspection based on self observation and communication. Self observation is what the robot should do in order to build, represent and understand its internal state. It is necessary to translate the state representation in order to build a suitable input to an ontology that supplies the meaning of the internal state. The ontology supports the linguistic level that is used to communicate information about the robot state to the human user.

Ignazio Infantino

2013-05-01

192

Computational approaches for studying proverbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Starting with the presupposition that a methodology and a system of classification are vital elements to the description of proverbs, this paper intends to provide a contribution to the study of proverbs. A computational approach based on tools as electronic lexical databases and ontology is presented. The aim of this paper is the semi automatic annotation of Italian and Spanish proverbs, using MultiWordNet resource, and the construction of a conceptual domain-specific model in order to extra...

Alonso Pe?rez-a?vila, Elena

2013-01-01

193

Bayesian Approaches to Copula Modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Copula models have become one of the most widely used tools in the applied modelling of multivariate data. Similarly, Bayesian methods are increasingly used to obtain efficient likelihood-based inference. However, to date, there has been only limited use of Bayesian approaches in the formulation and estimation of copula models. This article aims to address this shortcoming in two ways. First, to introduce copula models and aspects of copula theory that are especially relevan...

Smith, Michael Stanley

2011-01-01

194

Adaptability Approaches in Digital Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines some approaches for ndowing digital libraries with adaptability capabilities in order to scaffold and enhance end user experience. The paper provides a general overview of techniques and methods commonly adopted for achieving adaptability. It also discusses how these can be implemented, and to this end illusrtates specific examples and guidelines drawn fromthe practical experience that the authors are currently gaining in ther Share.TEC European project, a context in which...

Boytchev, Pavel; Grigorov, Alexander; Earp, Jeffrey; Stefanov, Krassen; Georgiev, Atanas

2010-01-01

195

Ionospheric instrumentation - A new approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A new design criterion is proposed for the realization of receivers suitable for ionospheric research. The goal of this criterion is to extend as much as possible the use of microprocessor-based systems to perform not only data handling and instrumentation control, but also to substitute classical radiotechnical circuitry, i.e., the software receiver approach. The motivations of such effort will be presented and discussed.

Ciraolo, L.; Spalla, P.

196

Industrial ecology: concepts and approaches.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industrial ecology is a new approach to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies. It is a concept in which an industrial system is viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems but in concert with them. Industrial ecology seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material to finished material, to component, to product, to waste product, and to ultimate disposal. To better characterize the topic, the Nat...

1992-01-01

197

The supervisory approach: a critique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rules suffer from two serious defects. The world is complex, and so the creation and application of rules is difficult; and it changes, so that rules become obsolete. In recent years, the conventional wisdom on financial regulation has shifted away from reliance on rules and back towards a ‘supervisory approach’, in which regulators rely more on banks’ own estimates of risk, and focus more on banks’ risk management systems and controls than on their compliance with crude rules. The Ba...

Ward, Jonathan

2002-01-01

198

An efficient iris segmentation approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.

2011-10-01

199

Computational approaches to energy materials  

CERN Multimedia

The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

2013-01-01

200

Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.

Schalk W. Vorster

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

A possibilistic approach to clustering  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuzzy clustering has been shown to be advantageous over crisp (or traditional) clustering methods in that total commitment of a vector to a given class is not required at each image pattern recognition iteration. Recently fuzzy clustering methods have shown spectacular ability to detect not only hypervolume clusters, but also clusters which are actually 'thin shells', i.e., curves and surfaces. Most analytic fuzzy clustering approaches are derived from the 'Fuzzy C-Means' (FCM) algorithm. The FCM uses the probabilistic constraint that the memberships of a data point across classes sum to one. This constraint was used to generate the membership update equations for an iterative algorithm. Recently, we cast the clustering problem into the framework of possibility theory using an approach in which the resulting partition of the data can be interpreted as a possibilistic partition, and the membership values may be interpreted as degrees of possibility of the points belonging to the classes. We show the ability of this approach to detect linear and quartic curves in the presence of considerable noise.

Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.

1993-01-01

202

Omic approaches in environmental issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomonitoring requires the application of batteries of different biomarkers, as environmental contaminants induce multiple responses in organisms that are not necessarily correlated. Omic technologies were proposed as an alternative to conventional biomarkers since these techniques quantitatively monitor many biological molecules in a high-throughput manner and thus provide a general appraisal of biological responses altered by exposure to contaminants. As the studies using omic technologies increase, it is becoming clear that any single omic approach may not be sufficient to characterize the complexity of ecosystems. This work aims to provide a preliminary working scheme for the use of combined transcriptomic and proteomic methodologies in environmental biomonitoring. There are difficulties in working with nonmodel organisms as bioindicators when combining several omic approaches. As a whole, our results with heterologous microarrays in M. spretus and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) in P. clarkii indicated that animals sustaining a heavy pollution burden exhibited an enhanced immune response and/or cell apoptosis. The proteomic studies, although preliminary, provide a holistic insight regarding the manner by which pollution shifts protein intensity in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), completing the transcriptomic approach. In our study, the sediment element concentration was in agreement with the intensity of protein expression changes in C. maenas crabs. In conclusion, omics are useful technologies in addressing environmental issues and the determination of contamination threats. PMID:21707425

Abril, Nieves; Ruiz-Laguna, Julia; Osuna-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Vioque-Fernández, Amalia; Fernández-Cisnal, Ricardo; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Alhama, José; López-Barea, Juan; Pueyo, Carmen

2011-01-01

203

Ecosystem approaches to human health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function.

Nielsen N. Ole

2001-01-01

204

Technical approach to groundwater restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

1993-01-01

205

Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

1992-01-01

206

Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.

1997-12-01

207

A standardised approach to optimisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimisation of radiographic images is said to have been obtained if the patient has achieved an acceptable level of dose and the image is of diagnostic value. In the near future, it will probably be recommended that radiographers measure patient doses and compare them to reference levels. The aim of this paper is to describe a standardised approach to optimisation of radiographic examinations in a diagnostic imaging department. A three-step approach is outlined with specific examples for some common examinations (chest, abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine series). Step One: Patient doses are calculated. Step Two: Doses are compared to existing reference levels and the technique used compared to image quality criteria. Step Three: Appropriate action is taken if doses are above the reference level. Average entrance surface doses for two rooms were as follows AP Abdomen (6.3mGy and 3.4mGy); AP Lumbar Spine (6.4mGy and 4.ImGy) for AP Pelvis (4.8mGy and 2.6mGy) and PA chest (0.19mGy and 0.20mGy). Comparison with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) recommended techniques identified large differences in the applied potential. The kVp values in this study were significantly lower (by up to 10kVp) than the CEC recommendations. The results of this study have indicated that there is a need to monitor radiation doses received by patients undergoing diagnostic radiography examinations. Not only has the assessment allowed valuable comparison with International Diagnostic Reference Levels and Radiography Good Practice but has demonstrated large variations in mean doses being delivered from different rooms of the same radiology department. Following the simple 3-step approach advocated in this paper should either provide evidence that department are practising the ALARA principle or assist in making suitable changes to current practice. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2004-12-01

208

An approach to space power  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.

1990-01-01

209

Software testing a craftsman's approach  

CERN Multimedia

The software development world has changed significantly in the past five years. Noteworthy among its many changes is the emergence of the ""Unified Modeling Language"" (UML) as an industry standard. While thousands of software computer professionals and students continue to rely upon the bestselling first edition of Software Testing, the time has come to bring it up to date.Thoroughly revised, the second edition of Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach reflects the recent growth and changes in software standards and development. Outdated material has been deleted and new topics, figures, c

Jorgensen, Paul C

2014-01-01

210

Worldline Approach to Chiral Fermions  

CERN Document Server

We propose to apply ``worldline numerics'' to a numerical calculation of quark determinants. The Gross-Neveu model with a U(1) chiral symmetry is considered as a first test. The worldline approach allows for an analytic renormalisation, and only finite parts of the determinant require a numerical calculation. It is shown that the discretisation of the worldlines, which is central to the numerical treatment, preserves chiral symmetry exactly. Numerical results for a kink configuration as a scalar background field are shown and compared with analytical results. The case of finite fermion chemical potential is also briefly discussed.

Langfeld, K; Gies, H; Klingmuller, K

2007-01-01

211

Protein Design: A Hierarchic Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The de novo design of peptides and proteins has recently emerged as an approach for investigating protein structure and function. Designed, helical peptides provide model systems for dissecting and quantifying the multiple interactions that stabilize secondary structure formation. De novo design is also useful for exploring the features that specify the stoichiometry and stability of ?-helical coiled coils and for defining the requirements for folding into structures that resemble native, functional proteins. The design process often occurs in a series of discrete steps. Such steps reflect the hierarchy of forces required for stabilizing tertiary structures, beginning with hydrophobic forces and adding more specific interactions as required to achieve a unique, functional protein.

Bryson, James W.; Betz, Stephen F.; Lu, Helen S.; Suich, Daniel J.; Zhou, Hongxing X.; O'Neil, Karyn T.; Degrado, William F.

1995-11-01

212

ESP enhancement: the proactive approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With emission control standards becoming more stringent, coal fired power plant operators must consider costly ESP upgrades. Advanced modelling techniques can help to evaluate upgrade scenarios, and are currently being applied to a number of plants in Russia, the Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The authors are pioneers of the application of precipitor modelling and have trained in groups of engineers in ESP modelling and its proactive application. The approach is centred on the readily available ESPVI 4.0 models which can be used in combination with requisite skills and knowledge to evaluate poorly performing precipitators. The procedure is explained. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Parker, K.; Plaks, N.

2004-09-01

213

BFKL approach and dipole picture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inter-relation of the BFKL approach and the colour dipole model is discussed. In the case of scattering of colourless objects the colour singlet BFKL kernel can be taken in the special representation called Moebius form. In the leading order (LO) it coincides with the kernel of the colour dipole model. In the next-to-leading order (NLO) the quark parts of the Moebius form and the colour dipole kernel are in accord with each other, but the gluon parts do not agree. Possible sources of this discrepancy are analyzed.

2009-03-23

214

Energy storage a new approach  

CERN Document Server

Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale.  This revolutionary book describes   technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years, but presents new material that could transform the energy industry.  Regardless where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources- energy storage is something that the industry MUST learn and practice.  With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in China

Zito, Ralph

2010-01-01

215

Smile detection : A simple Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions analysis is applicable in various vision systems, new interfaces for television and other entertainment systems, diagnosis and monitoring of deceases, speech processing, modern smart digital cameras and perceptual man-machine interfaces etc. Smile is human’s expression for happiness. Detection of smile by a machine is helpful to establish human machine interaction in many situations. Many researchers worked on facial expression recognition, but there is not much research about smile detection. In this paper we proposed a simple image-based approach to identify the smile.

Praveen N

2013-06-01

216

Fundamental approach to discrete mathematics  

CERN Multimedia

About the Book: The book `Fundamental Approach to Discrete Mathematics` is a required part of pursuing a computer science degree at most universities. It provides in-depth knowledge to the subject for beginners and stimulates further interest in the topic. The salient features of this book include: Strong coverage of key topics involving recurrence relation, combinatorics, Boolean algebra, graph theory and fuzzy set theory. Algorithms and examples integrated throughout the book to bring clarity to the fundamental concepts. Each concept and definition is followed by thoughtful examples.

Acharjya, DP

2009-01-01

217

Fidelity approach to Gaussian transitions  

CERN Multimedia

The fidelity approach to the Gaussian transitions in spin-one XXZ spin chains with three different values of Ising-like anisotropy lambda is analyzed by means of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique for systems of large sizes. We find that, despite the success in the cases of lambda=2.59 and 1, the fidelity susceptibility fails to detect the Gaussian transition for lambda=0.5. Thus our results demonstrate the limitation of the fidelity susceptibility in characterizing quantum phase transitions, which was proposed recently in general frameworks.

Tzeng, Yu-Chin; Chen, Yung-Chung; Yang, Min-Fong

2008-01-01

218

[Ergonomic approach to risk control].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the paper is to emphasise the role and the importance of the ergonomic approach to improve reduction and management of the risk related to repetitive strain injuries. The authors tried to select and to put in evidence the risk factors related to the investigated problem, proposing a critical analysis of them, and to detect some guide lines to design or correct workplaces and tasks. These guidelines are based on ergonomic principles and they aim at reducing the risk related to repetitive strain injuries. The proposed interventions are grouped by a risk-factor criterion. PMID:11505779

Alberti, M; Rossi, D

2001-01-01

219

Computer Networks A Systems Approach  

CERN Multimedia

This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

Peterson, Larry L

2011-01-01

220

OMBO: An opponent modeling approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In competitive domains, some knowledge about the opponent can give players a clear advantage. This idea led many people to propose approaches that automatically acquire models of opponents, based only on the observation of their input–output behavior. If opponent outputs could be accessed directly, a model can be constructed by feeding a machine learning method with traces of the behavior of the opponent. However, that is not the case in the RoboCup domain where an agent does not have direc...

Ledezma, Agapito; Aler, Ricardo; Sanchis, Araceli; Borrajo, Daniel

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Price strategies – a microeconomic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims at a microeconomic approach of the price strategies, pointing out the ratio between revenue – cost, or marginal revenue – marginal cost, in the case of different objectives proposed by the enterprise, objectives supported by certain levels of the price. The effects of implementing various price levels, with the contribution of the market through demand quantity, lead the firm to reach diverse goals: actual maximum profit; maximum turnover; an equilibrium state allowing the protection against possible competitors, but also trying to avoid loss risk; a rational resources use by the price fixed at the marginal cost level, or only the survival in difficult times.

Litr?, A. V.

2012-01-01

222

Novel Approaches for Glycodrug Discovery  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter will give you an overview of recent approaches for drug development, focusing on the function and roles of carbohydrates. Section 2 will outline the biochemical functions of polysaccharide (neutral polysaccharide, chitin and chitosan, glycosaminoglycan, and synthetic polysaccharides) and glycopolymers and the perspectives of their medicinal/medical use. Section 3 will outline recent biopharmaceutical research and development, utilizing the functions of carbohydrates. Section 4 will outline drug discovery and development of new medicines targeting carbohydrates. In addition, recent advances in carbohydrate synthesis technology, needed for development of new medicines, will also be described.

Kondo, Hirosato

223

Skull base approaches in neurosurgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the ...

Scholz, Martin; Parvin, Richard; Thissen, Jost; Lo?hnert, Catharina; Harders, Albrecht; Blaeser, Klaus

2010-01-01

224

Real Analysis A Historical Approach  

CERN Document Server

A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

Stahl, Saul

2011-01-01

225

Combined Approach for Image Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many image segmentation techniques have been developed over the past two decades for segmenting the images, which help for object recognition, occlusion boundary estimation within motion or stereo systems, image compression, image editing. In this, there is a combined approach for segmenting the image. By using histogram equalization to the input image, from which it gives contrast enhancement output image .After that by applying median filtering ,which will remove noise from contrast output image . At last I applied fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm to denoising output image, which give segmented output image. In this way it produce better segmented image with less computation time.

Shradha Dakhare

2014-05-01

226

'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere. PMID:24620487

Call, Roger

2014-02-01

227

Nonlinear evolution equations kinetic approach  

CERN Document Server

The book is devoted to the questions of the long-time behavior of solutions for evolution equations, connected with kinetic models in statistical physics. There is a wide variety of problems where such models are used to obtain reasonable physical as well as numerical results (Fluid Mechanics, Gas Dynamics, Plasma Physics, Nuclear Physics, Turbulence Theory etc.). The classical examples provide the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. Investigation of the long-time behavior of the solutions for the Boltzmann equation gives an approach to the nonlinear fluid dynamic equations. From the viewpoint of dy

Maslova, Nina

1993-01-01

228

Current approach techniques to fourth ventricle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To approach the pathologies of base of fourth ventricle, cerebellar peduncle and lateral recess, it is possible to use three different surgical approach techniques. These are transvermian approach to fourth ventricle via incision of inferior vermis, telovelar approach that reaches the base, lateral recess and foramina of Luschka via incising the roof of the fourth ventricle between the uvula and tonsil and supra tonsillar approach that reaches the inferior and partially the middle cerebellar peduncle by following the cerebellar tonsil peduncle. In this article, actual techniques for approaching to fourth ventricule was reviewed. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 335-338.

?lhan Y?lmaz

2011-09-01

229

Bioremediation: A systematic, tiered approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A potential bioremediation project must be approached with the knowledge that each site will exhibit different and unique characteristics and will require a specific bioremediation plan. Therefore, a tiered response is appropriate, starting with a screening level determination (Tier 1: feasibility of bioremediation and development of a rough estimate of remediation time and costs), continuing with pilot scale studies (Tier 2) and ending with a complete work plan, budget and project management plan for a full-scale bioremediation effort which is conducted in the field (Tier 3). Information gained from work performed in the lower tiers is utilized in higher tiers to determine the feasibility of bioremediation, method(s) of bioremediation selected, location of treatment (in place or in above ground treatment cells), to seek alternative remedial technologies or to develop more specific information before any decision can be made. By following a systematic and tiered approach, costly bioremediation project delays and failures can be averted. The potential effectiveness of bioremediation is affected by technical, economic and regulatory factors. As progress is made from one tier to the next, more information becomes available and, therefore, the bioremediation project becomes more well-defined. Generally, larger sums of money are committed as the project moves to higher tiers. However, there is an accompanying increase in the level of confidence that the remediation will be completed accurately and cost-effectively.

Forsyth, J.V. III; Wrubel, N. [Dames and Moore, Inc., Willow Grove, PA (United States); Bleam, R. [Bioscience, Inc., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

230

Proposed approach to uncertainty analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of methods are described that deal with the uncertainties inherent in the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Utilizing these methods, an approach to uncertainty analysis for the SCEPTER (Systematic Comprehensive Evaluation of Performance and Total Effectiveness of Repositories) Program is proposed. The approach recognizes two fundamental types of uncertainty: (1) uncertainty in the adequacy of performance assessment models; and (2) data uncertainties. The first type of uncertainty will be addressed through model verification and validation. The second type will be accounted for by using either a simulation sampling method, or first order-second moment stochastic methods. Among the former methods are Monte Carlo simulation, and Latin hypercube sampling. Among the latter methods are adjoint sensitivity and other first order numerical methods. The selection of an appropriate method depends on the data available and the application. A list of input and output variables, and a suggested level of sophistication for the uncertainty analysis, of each SCEPTER sub-system model is given. The relationship of performance assessment and uncertainty analysis between process, sub-system and system models is described

1983-01-01

231

Multitherapy approach to onychomycosis therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

New medications and new formulations have provided an increase in the cure rates for onychomycosis. Many cases of infection, however, are still not cured. It is not always obvious which factors are most relevant to reduction of cure, and factors may vary with each patient. For these reasons, a multitherapy approach to onychomycosis may be needed to individualize treatment to each patient's specific condition. Different presentations and severity levels of onychomycosis may respond differently to treatment modalities and require varying amounts of intervention. Nail débridement may be used to lessen the burden of infection in cases in which drug penetration may not occur adequately otherwise, such as dermatophytoma, onycholysis, or lateral infection. Ciclopirox nail lacquer has been approved for use in conjunction with regular débridement and represents the first approved multitherapy approach. Topical antifungals may be combined with oral antifungals to provide dual fronts of drug penetration. Similarly, two oral medications may be combined to provide a wider spectrum of antifungal activity and differential mode of action against the organisms, which may increase fungistatic or fungicidal action. There is a nonclinical component of therapy, represented by patient education on onychomycosis infection and treatment, which should be used to ensure that patient expectations are realistic and to encourage patient compliance with the chosen regimens. PMID:17204232

Claveau, Joël; Vender, Ronald B; Gupta, Aditya K

2006-12-01

232

A continuous measurement safeguards approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The material control and accountability measurement program at Los Alamos National Laboratory has remained essentially the same for multiple decades. Criteria for the acceptance of verification and confirmation measurement results, the exact timing of measurement performance, and the measurement techniques have slowly evolved, but the safeguards program continues to perform measurements at the time of regularly scheduled inventories and material movements. Little safeguards inventory credit is given to the multitude of nondestructive assay measurements made by operations personnel during the normal course of operations. By taking safeguards credit for these measurements and instituting a random sampling procedure for determining the timing of additional measurements, LANL can both enhance safeguards and reduce the impact of these activities on programmatic work. This more efficient approach will provide increased assurance of the inventory and contribute to increased detection and assessment when implemented as part of an integrated material control and detection and assessment program. The authors propose one option for this continuous measurement approach. Demonstration of successful implementation at one NNSA facility could then be used to asses the viability of implementation of similar programs throughout the NNSA complex.

Baker, M. C. (Michael C.); Murdock, C. (Cindy); Felsher, P. D. (Paul D.)

2004-01-01

233

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

2004-06-07

234

Transradial approach for coronary interventions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of coronary interventions performed through the radial artery. METHODS: We studied 103 patients with ages from 38 to 86 years (57±8.7), 90 (87%) males, and: radial pulse with a good amplitude, presence of ulnar pulse, a good collateral flow through the [...] palmar arch assessed with the Allen's test. RESULTS: The vascular approach was obtained in 97 (94%) patients, 88 (91%) treated electively and 9 (9%) during acute myocardial infarction, for primary angioplasty; 56 (64%) unstable angina; 22 (25%) stable angina; 10 (11%) were asymptomatic, 6 referred for recanalization of chronic occlusion and 4 silent ischemia in the first week after acute myocardial infarction. We approached 107 arteries: anterior descending artery, 49 (46%); right coronary artery, 27 (25%); circumflex artery, 25 (23%); diagonal artery, 6 (6%); and 2 saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 129 lesions: 80 (62%) B2 type; 23 (18%) B1 type; 17 (13%) C type; and 9 (7%). A type. There were 70 stents , and 59 balloon angioplasties performed. Thirty-two (33%) patients used GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The mean duration of the elective procedure was 42.3±12.8 min. Success, correct stent deployment and residual lesion

José Carlos, Brito; Antônio, Azevedo Júnior; Adriano, Oliveira; Roberto, Von Sohsten; Ademar, Santos Filho; Heitor, Carvalho.

235

Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level. PMID:21230135

Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

2010-09-01

236

Simplified approach to percutaneous endopyelotomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this report was to describe a safe, simple, and rapid approach to percutaneous antegrade endopyelotomy. In contrast to standard percutaneous endopyelotomy techniques, in this procedure, the endopyelotomy stent is placed at the outset. The endopyelotomy incision is then made with an acorn-tipped Bugbee electrode directly down onto the stent, in a manner analogous to a ureteral meatotomy in the bladder. The advantage of this approach is twofold. Primary placement of the stent helps to define the appropriate site and direction for the endopyelotomy incision, allowing marsupialization of the proximal ureter into the renal pelvis. Use of this technique also obviates the need to pass a large-caliber stent after the endopyelotomy incision has been made, thereby avoiding a potential risk of ureteropelvic junction disruption. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was available in 29 (76%) of 38 patients who underwent this procedure. Success, defined as a resolution of symptoms and decrease in calicectasis, was achieved in 24 (83%) of the 29 patients. We have found primary placement of an endopyelotomy stent and use of electrocautery as a cutting mode safely facilitates a precise endopyelotomy incision. PMID:11068315

Savage, S J; Streem, S B

2000-11-01

237

Phylogenetic approaches for studying diversification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating rates of speciation and extinction, and understanding how and why they vary over evolutionary time, geographical space and species groups, is a key to understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes generate biological diversity. Such inferences will increasingly benefit from phylogenetic approaches given the ever-accelerating rates of genetic sequencing. In the last few years, models designed to understand diversification from phylogenetic data have advanced significantly. Here, I review these approaches and what they have revealed about diversification in the natural world. I focus on key distinctions between different models, and I clarify the conclusions that can be drawn from each model. I identify promising areas for future research. A major challenge ahead is to develop models that more explicitly take into account ecology, in particular the interaction of species with each other and with their environment. This will not only improve our understanding of diversification; it will also present a new perspective to the use of phylogenies in community ecology, the science of interaction networks and conservation biology, and might shift the current focus in ecology on equilibrium biodiversity theories to non-equilibrium theories recognising the crucial role of history. PMID:24533923

Morlon, Hélène

2014-04-01

238

Network Approach and Stakeholder Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent economic crises show that enterprises cannot be managed focusing only on economic values instead managers should acknowledge their own enterprises' responsibilities toward the society as a whole. Stakeholder Management Theory can help managers accomplishing this very same daunting task. This theory demands managers to reckon the reciprocal influences linking other social actors to the enterprise activities and to understand the relative effects. While most of the works in this theory has been geared towards defining, identifying and managing each single dyadic relationship some other scholar have highlighted the need to focus on the stakeholder network to correctly assess each stakeholder's role and to fully grasp the long term effects enterprise's action will have. In this paper after a review of the main topics in stakeholder management theory, we classify the various approach to Stakeholder Management Theory to identify relevant theoretical contributions and to highlight how the theoretical gap can be crossed using the tools of Social Network Analysis and embracing the network approach to stakeholder management.

Mauro Sciarelli

2013-04-01

239

Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

Anda Zeidmane

2011-04-01

240

Common approach of risks analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although, following the resolutions of the High German Court, the protection level of the human beings is an objective which can change in time, it is obvious that it is an important point when there is a risk for the population. This is true more particularly for the industrial plants whose possible accidents could affect the population. The accidents risk analysis indicates that there is no conceptual difference between the risks of a nuclear power plant and those of the other industrial plants as chemical plants, the gas distribution system and the hydraulic dams. A legislation analysis induced by the Seveso Directive for the industrial risks give some important indications which should always be followed. This work analyses more particularly the legislative situation in different European countries and identifies some of the most important characteristics. Indeed, for most of the countries, the situation is different and it is a later difficulties source for nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen this reasoning, this paper presents some preliminary results of an analysis of a nuclear power plant following the approach of other industrial plants. In conclusion, it will be necessary to analyse again the risks assessment approach for nuclear power plants because the real protection level of human beings in a country is determined by the less regulated of the dangerous industrial plants existing at the surroundings. (O.M.)

1996-10-02

 
 
 
 
241

Neural Approaches to Machine Consciousness  

Science.gov (United States)

`Machine Consciousness', which some years ago might have been suppressed as an inappropriate pursuit, has come out of the closet and is now a legitimate area of research concern. This paper briefly surveys the last few years of worldwide research in this area which divides into rule-based and neural approaches and then reviews the work of the author's laboratory during the last ten years. The paper develops a fresh perspective on this work: it is argued that neural approaches, in this case, digital neural systems, can address phenomenological consciousness. Important clarifications of phenomenology and virtuality which enter this modelling are explained in the early parts of the paper. In neural models, phenomenology is a form of depictive inner representation that has five specific axiomatic features: a sense of self-presence in an external world; a sense of imagination of past experience and fiction; a sense of attention; a capacity for planning; a sense of emotion-based volition that influences planning. It is shown that these five features have separate but integrated support in dynamic neural systems.

Aleksander, Igor; Eng., F. R.

2008-10-01

242

Evaporator modeling - A hybrid approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to model two-phase flow evaporators. The main procedures for hybrid modeling includes: (1) Based on the energy and material balance, and thermodynamic principles to formulate the process fundamental governing equations; (2) Select input/output (I/O) variables responsible to the system performance which can be measured and controlled; (3) Represent those variables existing in the original equations but are not measurable as simple functions of selected I/Os or constants; (4) Obtaining a single equation which can correlate system inputs and outputs; and (5) Identify unknown parameters by linear or nonlinear least-squares methods. The method takes advantages of both physical and empirical modeling approaches and can accurately predict performance in wide operating range and in real-time, which can significantly reduce the computational burden and increase the prediction accuracy. The model is verified with the experimental data taken from a testing system. The testing results show that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating evaporator with the maximum error of {+-}8%. The developed models will have wide applications in operational optimization, performance assessment, fault detection and diagnosis.

Ding Xudong [School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Information and Electrical Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Cai Wenjian [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: ewjcai@ntu.edu.sg; Jia Lei [School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wen Changyun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2009-01-15

243

Evaporator modeling - A hybrid approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to model two-phase flow evaporators. The main procedures for hybrid modeling includes: (1) Based on the energy and material balance, and thermodynamic principles to formulate the process fundamental governing equations; (2) Select input/output (I/O) variables responsible to the system performance which can be measured and controlled; (3) Represent those variables existing in the original equations but are not measurable as simple functions of selected I/Os or constants; (4) Obtaining a single equation which can correlate system inputs and outputs; and (5) Identify unknown parameters by linear or nonlinear least-squares methods. The method takes advantages of both physical and empirical modeling approaches and can accurately predict performance in wide operating range and in real-time, which can significantly reduce the computational burden and increase the prediction accuracy. The model is verified with the experimental data taken from a testing system. The testing results show that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating evaporator with the maximum error of ±8%. The developed models will have wide applications in operational optimization, performance assessment, fault detection and diagnosis

2009-01-01

244

Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

245

Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

2009-07-01

246

Diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solitary thyroid nodules present as localized tumefactions of the thyroid gland readily detectable clinically. They are frequent (2-5% of the general population) and due to a variety of causes, each requiring a specific treatment; hence the need for a systematized diagnostic approach. On scintigraphic grounds, on can distinguish between ''warm'' or ''extinctive'' nodules (10% and 20% of the cases respectively), which are a priori benign, and ''cold'' nodules (70%), which in 1 out of 10 cases correspond to a differentiated epithelioma with excellent post-operative prognosis. Three methodological data call for comments: the images supplied by technetium may differ from those supplied by radioactive iodine, which remains the reference radioisotope; there is no clinical criterion of malignancy, but fluid-containing nodules are almost invariably benign; needle cytology is the best means of selecting nodules for surgery and histology which is the only reliable diagnostic examination. We therefore propose, albeit with due caution, a diagnostic approach based on the sequence scintigraphy-needle exploration and cytology and aimed at limiting surgery to purely therapeutic purposes

1985-12-07

247

DRID- A New Merging Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Merging of clusters is a deterministic approach which provides results in an efficient manner. It involves the data input values as per the suitability of the algorithm. There are various advantages for merging of clusters like to improve the quality of clusters, to reduce the noise level and to increase the performance of the algorithm. Merging of clusters is possible in any environment it totally depends on the availability of the type of dataset values. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for merging of cluster. This proposed algorithm merges the clusters which is placed near by to each other because of Cluster balancing is a key factor to achieve good performance. The performance of DRID heavily depends on the dataset availibity and type of environment used by the user. The crucial step in this algorithm is how to select the best and next cluster for merging and splitting.Experimental results and comparisons actually demonstrate that the proposed DRID is an effective approach which helps to reduce execution time and increase the overall performance of the algorithm

Rimmy Chuchra

2012-04-01

248

Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using non-equilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

Frossard, T.; Kartavtsev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Garny, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hohenegger, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, LPPC, BSP (Switzerland); Mitrouskas, D. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

2012-11-15

249

Evaluation of Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the evaluation of the Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) to determine whether the PAPI provides sufficient advantages over the current standard red/white Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) to warrant recommending it as the ...

B. Castle

1983-01-01

250

An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

1990-01-01

251

Another Approach to Generalizing the Mean  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a new approach to generalizing the definition of means. By this approach we easily obtain generalized means which are quite different from standard arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means.

Matejas, J.; Bahovec, V.

2008-01-01

252

Valuation: From The Discounted Cash Flows (DCF) Approach To The Real Options Approach (ROA) Valuation: From The Discounted Cash Flows (DCF) Approach To The Real Options Approach (ROA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There exists an abysm between market prices and traditional valuation approaches such as Discounted Cash Flows (DCF), a fact that neither academics nor practitioners could continue ignoring. Recently, a complementary approach has taken a foothold into the valuation world. Building on the DCF approach yet going further in the sense of incorporating flexibility in management investment decisions, and taking advantage of the advances in option pricing theory, the real options approach (ROA)...

2004-01-01

253

A comprehensive approach to nuclear arms control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold war nuclear arms control was characterized by American Soviet hostility and the limits of verification; the end of the cold war allowed for a more cooperative approach. From this new situation emerged the idea of a new agenda for arms control and of exploring a more comprehensive approach to nuclear arms control. The author posits eight elements for such a comprehensive approach. Though such an approach seems unrealistic today, recent history teaches us to look beyond today's constraints. (author)

2000-09-01

254

Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

Svabo, Connie

2009-01-01

255

Towards a corporate approach for energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corporate approach is a well-known an much discussed subject. At present the corporate approach is not a legal possibility in the Netherlands. A study has been carried out to investigate the consequences of a corporate approach on the energy efficiency in departments of Philips Nederland

2003-01-01

256

Pure extradural approach for skull base lesions.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lesions in the parasellar and paracavernous regions can be removed by various skull base approaches involving basal osteotomies. A major complication of intradural skull base approaches is CSF leak and associated meningitis. We have managed 5 patients with skull base lesions with a pure extradural approach using wide basal osteotomies. The operative techniques are described.

Gupta S

1999-10-01

257

Approach to complexity: numerical computations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of supercomputers and modern color-imaging techniques for numerical computation is beginning to fulfill von Neumann's vision that digital computers would become the most appropriate tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. An example of this approach, a model for the gas flow in the vicinity of a black hole, is described. From such calculations comes a realization that the multidimensional, dynamic solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations can exhibit complex behavior compared to what one normally encounters in analytic solutions. This complexity includes small-scale chaotic structure and large-scale persistently ordered structure. Computational methodology and the aesthetics that derive from it are discussed. 17 references, 3 figures

1985-04-26

258

Extending cosmology: the metric approach  

CERN Multimedia

Introducing a fundamental constant of nature with dimensions of acceleration into the theory of gravity makes it possible to extend gravity in a very consistent manner. In the non-relativistic regime a MOND-like theory with a modification in the force sector is obtained, which is the weak-field limit of a very general metric relativistic theory of gravity. Since the mass and length scales involved in the dynamics of the whole universe require small accelerations of the order of Milgrom's acceleration constant (\\mathsf{a}_0), it turns out that the relativistic theory of gravity can be used to explain the expansion of the universe. In this work it is explained how to built that relativistic theory of gravity in such a way that the overall large-scale dynamics of the universe can be treated in a pure metric approach without the need to introduce dark matter and/or dark energy components.

Mendoza, S

2012-01-01

259

Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

Fatemeh Rahiminejad

2010-07-01

260

Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches  

CERN Document Server

Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach  

CERN Multimedia

The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant "additivity" properties: (i) existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii) existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i) and (ii) are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the {\\em Markov order}). The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally "most random" distributions.

Gorban, A N; Judge, G

2010-01-01

262

New treatment approach for osteopenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 44 million persons in the United States have osteoporosis or osteopenia, most of whom are osteopenic. Because of sheer numbers, an increased number of fractures occur in the osteopenic group. Bone mineral density alone, based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan results, is not enough to identify persons at increased risk for fracture. The World Health Organization (WHO) Working Group On Osteoporosis has developed an online tool, known as FRAX, to calculate future hip fracture probability based on individual clinical risk factors. Determining the risk of hip fracture is critical because it is the most devastating osteoporosis complication. The FRAX model was developed from population-based cohort studies in Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. In 2008, the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) adopted the WHO approach in the treatment of osteopenia. This article presents a clinical scenario to demonstrate the application of the WHO FRAX tool and the new NOF guidelines. PMID:21323852

Tufts, Gillian

2011-01-01

263

Heuristic approach to train rescheduling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the defined network topology and the timetable assigned beforehand, the paper considers a train rescheduling in respond to disturbances that have occurred. Assuming that the train trips are jobs, which require the elements of infrastructure - resources, it was done by the mapping of the initial problem into a special case of job shop scheduling problem. In order to solve the given problem, a constraint programming approach has been used. A support to fast finding "enough good" schedules is offered by original separation, bound and search heuristic algorithms. In addition, to improve the time performance, instead of the actual objective function with a large domain, a surrogate objective function is used with a smaller domain, if there is such. .

Mladenovi? Snežana

2007-01-01

264

Crohn's disease: current imaging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This paper discusses the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: We present a concept, which emphasizes different diagnostic aspects with regard to primary diagnosis, follow-up and assessment of complications of CD. The most effective imaging approach to various diagnostic problems of CD is discussed in detail. Discussion: With regard to the primary diagnosis barium studies should contribute to differentiate between CD and ulcerative colitis. Beyond that, these studies should evaluate location and extent of disease. During the follow-up bowel sonography provides staging of disease and enables the detection of complications at an early stage. CT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of complications, such as fistuale and abscesses. (orig.)

1998-01-01

265

Statistical approach for supernova matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We formulate a statistical approach for description of nuclear composition and equation of state of stellar matter at subnuclear densities and temperature up to 20 MeV, which are expected during the collapse and explosion of massive stars. The model includes nuclear, electromagnetic and weak reactions between all constituents of matter, under condition of statistical equilibrium. We construct a realistic ensemble of nuclear species, and demonstrate the differences from the models employing a single-nucleus approximation for heavy nuclei. Thermodynamical characteristics, isentropic trajectories, EOS, and nuclear composition of supernova matter are calculated for different values of the lepton fraction. Special attention is paid to a possible in-medium reduction of the nuclear symmetry energy, as suggested by nuclear multifragmentation experiments. We demonstrate that this effect may lead to significant modifications of the nuclear composition and electron capture rates, which are important for stellar dynamics and nucleosynthesis.

2010-10-30

266

Hybrid Approach to Reinforcement Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a general framework in which an autonomous agent tries to learn an optimal policy of actions from direct interaction with the surrounding environment (RL). However, one difficulty for the application of RL control is its slow convergence, especially in environments with continuous state space. In this paper, a modified structure of RL is proposed to speed up reinforcement learning control. In this approach, supervision technique is combined with the standard Q-learning, a model-free algorithm of reinforcement learning. The a priori information is provided to the RL by an optimal LQ-controller, used to indicate preferred actions at intermittent times. It is shown that the convergence speed of the supervised RL agent is greatly improved compared to the conventional Q-Learning algorithm. Simulation work and results on the cart-pole balancing problem are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Boulebtateche, Brahim; Fezari, Mourad; Boughazi, Mohamed

2008-06-01

267

[Current approaches in neovascular glaucoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) has long been recognized as a very difficult case to manage for its very poor prognosis of visual function. NVG is also remarked as an 'end stage' of ocular diseases. Conventional treatments with extremely uncontrolled cases are retinal cryotherapy or enucleation. Currently, management of this medical condition is directed toward a new era with great advancement in diagnosis and treatment. Glaucoma drainage implant surgery brings a time window of normal range of intraocular pressure (IOP) for physicians to process underlying disease of NVG. Regression of iris neovascularization by employing panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) or intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibodies create a chance to undertaken antiglaucomatous surgery. Adjunctive anti-VEGF treatment promotes the surgical success rate for NVG. Current approaches in NVG are able to provide patients with an individualized management using a sound treatment strategy according to etiology, stage of disease, visual potential and other factors. PMID:22943801

Zhang, Xiu-lan

2012-06-01

268

An Experimental Approach to Starshades  

Science.gov (United States)

A starshade is an external occulter that flies tens of thousands of kilometers in front of a space telescope, along the line-of-sight to a star. A starshade blocks starlight before it enters the telescope, mitigating diffraction, and making Earth-like planets observable. The starshade testbed at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) is capable of testing the performance of sub-scale starshades in mission-similar configurations. Thus far at NGAS, starshades have suppressed a simulated star to the 10-7 contrast level or better across a broad white light bandpass. The goal of the testbed has been deep starlight suppression, but it is also important to understand starshade sensitivity to shape deformations. The purpose of this poster is to summarize our approach and initial results of assessing the impact of starshade shape flaws on performance using the testbed. We are working toward a convergence of experimental results and theoretical predictions.

Samuele, Rocco; Varshneya, R.; Glassman, T.; Johnson, A. M. F.; Shipley, A.

2010-01-01

269

RBE from a microdosimetric approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the current status of microdosimetry and knowledge regarding the response of biological systems to radiation fields of differing linear energy transfer (LET). The primary objective is to investigate the potential application to radon daughter lung dosimetry. The concept of track structure and its statistical behaviour is discussed and applied to estimate the yield of double strand breaks (DSBs). The general microdosimetric approach to modelling radiation response is presented in terms of the hit-size effectiveness function and the behaviour for specific proposed functions is examined. Radiobiological investigations of the DSB, chromosome aberration and oncogenic transformation end points are reviewed with emphasis on recent developments. A simplified model system is developed illustrating the potential for analysis of the risk from radon daughter inhalation and published research directed towards this goal is discussed. (author). 66 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

1995-01-01

270

Synthetic approaches to multifunctional indenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synthesis of multifunctional indenes with at least two different functional groups has not yet been extensively explored. Among the plausible synthetic routes to 3,5-disubstituted indenes bearing two different functional groups, such as the [3-(aminoethylinden-5-yl]amines, a reasonable pathway involves the (5-nitro-3-indenylacetamides as key intermediates. Although several multistep synthetic approaches can be applied to obtain these advanced intermediates, we describe herein their preparation by an aldol-type reaction between 5-nitroindan-1-ones and the lithium salt of N,N-disubstituted acetamides, followed immediately by dehydration with acid. This classical condensation process, which is neither simple nor trivial despite its apparent directness, permits an efficient entry to a variety of indene-based molecular modules, which could be adapted to a range of functionalized indanones.

Neus Mesquida

2011-12-01

271

Diagnostic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is deemed a local event, which may fail to evoke a detectable systemic immune response. A correct diagnosis of the disease is a necessary basis for estimating its clinical burden. This is not so difficult in a typical clinical picture. In atypical cases, further diagnostic efforts are to be installed. Although the aqueous humor may be analyzed for specific antibodies or the presence of parasitic DNA, the DNA burden therein is low, and in rare instances a confirmation would necessitate vitreous sampling. A laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is frustrated by individual differences in the time elapsing between clinical symptoms and activation of specific antibody production, which may result in false negatives. In congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, a delay in the onset of specific local antibody production could reflect immune tolerance. Herein, the authors attempt to provide a simple and practicable algorithm for a clinically tailored diagnostic approach in atypical instances. PMID:21770803

Garweg, Justus G; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F; Montoya, Jose G

2011-08-01

272

How I approach trabeculectomy surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to the most commonly performed surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma, trabeculectomy. It is important to recognise that the concept of trabeculectomy surgery can be difficult for patients to comprehend in the first place. Their disease is frequently ‘thrust upon them’ by doctors; in other words, they are frequently asymptomatic in the eye that the ophthalmologist is most concerned about. The therapy, at best, can only hope to maintain vision. Vision may well deteriorate as a result of the therapy. These concepts are vital in the consideration of any surgical intervention. Preventive therapy is always more difficult to introduce. This also means the surgeon is all the more challenged to produce the safest possible result. A well-rested surgeon and a calm surgical environment is the start, along with a confident surgical technique.

Ian Murdoch

2006-09-01

273

Random copolymer Gaussian variational approach  

CERN Document Server

We study the phase transitions of a random copolymer chain with quenched disorder. We apply a replica variational approach based on a Gaussian trial Hamiltonian in terms of the correlation functions of monomer Fourier coordinates. This allows us to study collapse, phase separation and freezing transitions within the same mean field theory. The effective free energy of the system is derived analytically and analysed numerically. Such quantities as the radius of gyration or the average value of the overlap between different replicas are treated as observables and evaluated by introducing appropriate external fields to the Hamiltonian. We obtain the phase diagram and show that this system exhibits a scale dependent freezing transition. The correlations between replicas appear at different length scales as the temperature decreases. This indicates the existence of the topological frustration.

Moskalenko, A V; Dawson, K A; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

1997-01-01

274

Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions.

Menon, Laila

2014-01-01

275

Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

Montira Leelakriangsak

2013-12-01

276

Clinical approach to young hypertension.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypertension affects approximately 30% of the population worldwide. It is a serious disease, expensive to treat, and can lead to long-term morbidity and mortality. Young hypertension, defined as hypertension occurring in patients aged 40 or younger, is now seen more frequently. A correct and holistic approach in the evaluation of patients with suspected young hypertension is essential, as the underlying cause is demonstrable in more than half of the cases. Among these causes include primary aldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, renal parenchymal disease and renal artery stenosis. The detection of these causes is important as it provides an opportunity to convert an incurable disease into a potentially curable disease, hence avoiding the long-term sequelae and complications of hypertension.

Norlela SUKOR

2013-04-01

277

Termination Analysis Approach and Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An active database system is a system which provides the same functionalities as a classic database system and is, equally, capable to react, automatically, to state changes by means of rules said active rules. The triggering of these rules can produce an infinite cycle and leads to the no termination problem. In this study, we propose a method of termination analysis of active rules based on Petri nets (PN and give an object oriented representation to implement it. This approach is better than the previous ones because it takes into a count composite events and the rule priority on the one hand and both rule representation and rule analysis are performed in the same PN on the other hand.

L. Baba-hamed

2006-01-01

278

Social competence: an evolutionary approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Social competence' refers to the ability of an individual to optimise its social behaviour depending on available social information. Although such ability will enhance social interactions and thus raise Darwinian fitness, its evolutionary and ecological significance has been largely ignored. Social competence is based on behavioural flexibility. We propose that the study of social competence requires an integrative approach that aims to understand how the brain translates social information into flexible behavioural responses, how flexibility might be constrained by the developmental history of an individual or by trade-offs with other (ecological) competences, and how social plasticity feeds back on fitness. Finally we propose a hypothesis of how social competence can become a driver of social evolution. PMID:23040461

Taborsky, Barbara; Oliveira, Rui F

2012-12-01

279

Canonical approach to quantum gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General relativity has the property that, under the natural projection mapping, the image of the constraint surface in the phase space is a proper subset of the configuration space. This feature is not shared by other field theories of direct physical interest such as the Yang-Mills theory, nor by constrained systems which have been modeled after general relativity and analyzed in detail. Therefore, to gain insight into this feature, a new example with a finite number of degrees of freedom is introduced and quantized. The analysis suggests that, in the canonical approach, the reduced phase-space method is likely to yield an incomplete description of quantum gravity. In particular, contrary to the indication provided by this method, quantum gravity may admit states with negative energies

1982-12-15

280

Histories Approach to Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Document Server

These lecture notes cover the important developments in histories approach to quantum mechanics with overall content and emphasis somewhat different from other reviews and books on the subject.The idea of Houtappel, Van Dam and Wigner of employing objects based on primitive concepts of physical theories is discussed in some detail and the fact that histories are such objects is emphasized. Application of histories formalism to the problem of understanding the quasiclassical domain is treated in some detail. Other topics discussed include generalized histories-based quantum mechanics and its application to the quantum mechanics of space-time,generalization of the notion of time sequences employing partial semigroups,quasitemporal structures, history projection operator (HPO) formalism, the algebraic scheme of Isham and Linden, an axiomatic scheme for quasitemporal histories-based theories and symmetries and conservation laws in histories-based theories.

Dass, T

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant “additivity” properties: (i existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i and (ii are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the Markov order. The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally “most random” distributions.

Alexander N. Gorban

2010-05-01

282

Computational approach to Riemann surfaces  

CERN Document Server

This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

Klein, Christian

2011-01-01

283

A stochastic approach to microphysics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presently widespread idea of ''vacuum population'', together with the quantum concept of vacuum fluctuations leads to assume a random level below that of matter. This stochastic approach starts by a reminder of the author's previous work, first on the relation of diffusion laws with the foundations of microphysics, and then on hadron spectrum. Following the latter, a random quark model is advanced; it gives to quark pairs properties similar to those of a harmonic oscillator or an elastic string, imagined as an explanation to their asymptotic freedom and their confinement. The stochastic study of such interactions as electron-nucleon, jets in e+e- collisions, or pp ? ?0 + X, gives form factors closely consistent with experiment. The conclusion is an epistemological comment (complementarity between stochastic and quantum domains, E.P.R. paradox, etc...)

1987-01-01

284

Alternative approaches to transmission investment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current regulatory framework at the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) was outlined with reference to the 10-year outlook of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO). Power transmitters currently respond to the IMO's outlook, while the OEB approves applications and cost recovery in rates. The Working Group on Congestion has recommended that the IMO produce a 10-year resource plan, that transmitters produce a 10-year expansion plan, and that the OEB develop a framework for project assessment and rate relief. The Task Force has concluded that merchant transmission is not proven, that transmission is an essential public infrastructure, and that regulatory responsibilities and approval processes should be clarified and streamlined. It was noted that the OEB's approach to regulation should be consistent, clear, predictable, fair, timely and in the public interest.

Vlahos, P. [Ontario Energy Board, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2004-07-01

285

A New Approach for FCSRs  

Science.gov (United States)

The Feedback with Carry Shift Registers (FCSRs) have been proposed as an alternative to Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) for the design of stream ciphers. FCSRs have good statistical properties and they provide a built-in non-linearity. However, two attacks have shown that the current representations of FCSRs can introduce weaknesses in the cipher. We propose a new “ring” representation of FCSRs based upon matrix definition which generalizes the Galois and Fibonacci representations. Our approach preserves the statistical properties and circumvents the weaknesses of the Fibonacci and Galois representations. Moreover, the ring representation leads to automata with a quicker diffusion characteristic and better implementation results. As an application, we describe a new version of F-FCSR stream ciphers.

Arnault, Francçois; Berger, Thierry; Lauradoux, Cédric; Minier, Marine; Pousse, Benjamin

286

Nuclear security standard: Argentina approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentina has a comprehensive regulatory system designed to assure the security and safety of radioactive sources, which has been in place for more than fifty years. In 1989 the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission created the 'Council of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations' (CAPFMIN). This Council published in 1992 a Physical Protection Standard based on a deep and careful analysis of INFCIRC 225/Rev.2 including topics like 'sabotage scenario'. Since then, the world's scenario has changed, and some concepts like 'design basis threat', 'detection, delay and response', 'performance approach and prescriptive approach', have been applied to the design of physical protection systems in facilities other than nuclear installations. In Argentina, radioactive sources are widely used in medical and industrial applications with more than 1,600 facilities controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in spanish ARN). During 2005, measures like 'access control', 'timely detection of intruder', 'background checks', and 'security plan', were required by ARN for implementation in facilities with radioactive sources. To 'close the cycle' the next step is to produce a regulatory standard based on the operational experience acquired during 2005. ARN has developed a set of criteria for including them in a new standard on security of radioactive materials. Besides, a specific Regulatory Guide is being prepared to help licensees of facilities in design a security system and to fulfill the 'Design of Security System Questionnaire'. The present paper describes the proposed Standard on Security of Radioactive Sources and the draft of the Nuclear Security Regulatory Guidance, based on our regulatory experience and the latest international recommendations. (author)

2006-07-16

287

Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia. PMID:24219006

Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

2014-05-01

288

Piping analysis: A flexibility approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear plant piping is supported laterally and vertically at relatively close intervals, resulting in a system of piping that is much more rigid than that in a typical fossil plant. This system results in congestion in the plant, in an undesirable sensitivity to temperature changes, and in excessive costs. Design for the vertical and horizontal accelerations associated with a seismic event coupled with low allowable loads on equipment are two primary contributors to the current situation. Much effort is currently being expended to address this problem, effort that includes the use of higher damping ratios, consideration of response spectra shifting, and consideration of seismic effects as secondary loading. All of these have the potential of reducing the number of pipe supports, but none of them, with the possible exception of a radically different consideration of damping, appear to offer an optimum solution to the problem of overly rigid piping systems. Regulatory constraints, coupled with a fundamental inability to model a piping system in a way that permits an accurate assessment of its true non-linear behavior, have created an impasse in attempts to develop a new, less restrictive approach to piping analysis. The writers conclude that a focused effort by the nuclear industry, including extensive dynamic testing of large scale piping systems, is called for to address the problem

1984-09-01

289

ECG Signal Analysis: Different Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several challenges in solving biomedical problems and making Digital Signal Processing as an essential and effective pedagogical approach to solve a problem of detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG signals. The detection of QRS complex has many clinical applications as it marks the beginning of the left ventricular contraction. A lot of possible heart malfunctions such as cardiac arrhythmias, transient ischemic episodes and silent myocardial ischemia or failures will be slow while monitoring of ECG signal in real-time during normal activity. Introducing an efficient method for arrhythmia detection can be very useful for better conceptual understanding of signal processing. In this paper, we discussed two methods to clean ECG signal corrupted by noise and to extract required parameters for detecting arrhythmia condition. One method is Hilbert Transform method and another method is Filter Bank method. These methods involve using filter techniques, algorithms of finding peaks & valleys, local maxima & minima etc, for determining R peaks, R-R intervals and QRS complexes.

S. Thulasi Prasad

2014-01-01

290

Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

Misra Usha

2008-01-01

291

Fundamental approach to dipmeter analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically, in dipmeter analysis, depositional patterns are delineated for environmental, structural, and stratigraphic interpretations. The proposed method is a fundamental approach using raw data measurements from the dipmeter sonde to help the geologist describe subsurface structures on a stratigraphic scale. Raw data are available at the well site, require no post-processing, are cost effective, easy to use, require only a basic understanding of sedimentary features and can be combined with computed results. A case study illustrates the reconstruction of sedimentary features from a raw data log recorded by a six-arm dipmeter. The dipmeter is a wireline tool with a series of evenly spaced, focused electrodes applied to the circumference of the borehole wall. The raw data are presented as curves representing the electrode response and tool orientation. In outcrop, the geologist usually can see an entire sedimentary feature in a large perspective, that is, with the surrounding landscape. Therefore, a large range of features can be resolved. However, in the borehole environment the perspective is reduced to the borehole diameter, thus reducing the range of recognizable features. In this study, a table was assembled that identifies the features distinguished by the proposed method as a function of borehole diameter.

Enderlin, M.B.; Hansen, D.K.T.

1988-01-01

292

Therapeutic approach to epileptic encephalopathies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) are electroclinical entities with a peculiar course of disease; seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform abnormalities, ictal and interictal, contribute to progressive disturbance of cerebral functions. Frequently EEs are drug resistant, and consequences may be catastrophic. The main goal of treatment is to stop the peculiar course of epilepsy, operating on three parameters: seizure control, reduction of EEG abnormalities, and developmental outcome. For a correct therapeutic approach it is mandatory to have an as accurate as possible syndromic and etiologic diagnosis. Given the poor efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the use of specific drugs for EEs, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids or stiripentol is suggested. In some cases the choice of treatment is strictly related to the etiology: vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis, ketogenic diet in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, and pyridoxine in pyridoxine deficiency. Some AEDs combinations, such as sodium valproate with lamotrigine, have also provided interesting results, for example, in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, although controlled studies are lacking. Finally, early surgery can be an option in children with focal structural abnormalities responsible for EEs preferably before irreversible damage on developmental outcome. Multispecialist support is recommended in EE. Management should be global from the onset, integrating not only seizure control but also all issues related to comorbidities, particularly neuropsychological and psychiatric. PMID:24571117

Vigevano, Federico; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Plouin, Perrine; Specchio, Nicola

2013-11-01

293

State of addiction: metapsychological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents scientific concept of addiction as a psychological state from a position metapsychological approach. Addiction understood as complex multi-level psychological phenomenon. This paper describes the model of addiction state as general-psychological phenomena, realized in system of relations of subject-object direction in phenomenological, functional-dynamic and determinational levels, taking into account its genesis, including appearing, immersion and transformation of state of addiction. The result of categorical construction of the meaning “state of addiction” being summarized. As an outcome of this result we constructed the “trust-addiction model. The logical meaning of “addiction” concept being shown. Categorical core of this concept is “attitude”. This concept describes specific nature of addiction state – its subject-object direction in the system of relations. This system is projected in metapsychological context of motivation, experience, action, subject and situation. This context by itself is revealed in features of addiction. This article reviews diagnostics and psychotherapeutic potential of author’s modification of association experiment in psychological support in the state of addiction.

I. V. Zapesotskaya

2013-08-01

294

Development planning: A systematic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primary goal of an oil or gas field development is to maximize the present value of the investment. A systematically-prepared Plan of Development (POD) can assist operators in achieving the goal by ensuring that all factors are considered in evaluating, planning, and carrying out the field development. A POD should contain an evaluation of all major events that realistically may occur during the field development cycle. By considering these events in the planning stage their probability of occurrence, effect on operations, and risk-weighted financial impact can be analyzed before field development begins. Depending upon the financial impact of the event, the field development strategy can be planned to alter the probability of occurrence or to reduce the consequences of the event. The contents of a systematic plan of development are presented and discussed: design basis, exploitation, operations and maintenance, engineering, and economics. Two Southeast Asian Field examples are used to illustrate how field economics would have been enhanced had a development plan been prepared using a systematic approach

1994-11-07

295

Local approach to dilatation invariance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scale invariance is analyzed locally by coupling the energy-momentum tensor to a source which is the metric field of curved space-time. The resulting theory at the classical level has no mass parameters only if the general coordinate transformation group can be represented in Weyl's scheme. We further discuss the quantum extension of the theory; the Ward identities become anomalous under radiative corrections and the anomaly is shown to be connected with the instability of the classical metric field representation. The anomalies, recognized as the well-known trace anomalies for the energy-momentum tensor, are then reabsorbed by a perturbative alteration of the original metric field transformation law and we prove the modified Ward identities to be renormalizable in the flat limit. Finally we show that our approach is equivalent to the well-known parametric equations of the Callan-Symanzik type only if the dilatation invariance is not spontaneously broken. In the presence of spontaneous scale breaking we derive a functional equation which will be applied to cases of physical interest in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

1982-04-05

296

Spanish regulatory approach for biobanking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spanish regulatory framework for storage of samples for research responds to most issues raised by both researchers and society regarding biobanking. The Spanish regulation currently foresees three possible ways in which these samples are to be handled: (a) gathering for use in a specific project, (b) storage in a collection, and (c) storage in a Biobank. Samples incorporated into a 'collection' can only be used by the investigator who requested them and cannot be transferred to third parties or used in research projects outside the particular research line foreseen in the original consent. On the other hand, the legal entity 'Biobank' refers not only to a set of physical facilities but to the management of the samples stored under that label, and particularly to the requirements for their cession. An approach based on putting most of the regulatory weight on the biobank side has been chosen in order to guaranty the rights of the donors as well as to ease the task of the researchers. A Biobank requires both to be authorized and to be registered in a public Registry. The requirements are quite stringent, allowing for the consent to be given as 'broad' in scope without implying being 'blank.' In this regard, for Biobanks to justify the taking on of some of the donors' rights, a key requirement is to have an external ethics committee supervising the adequacy of samples cession and use, notwithstanding the need for a previous bioethical supervision of the target protocol. PMID:23188043

Arias-Diaz, Javier; Martín-Arribas, María C; García del Pozo, Javier; Alonso, Carlos

2013-07-01

297

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

Shruti Gupta

2013-06-01

298

Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

Graham, M. J.

2009-09-01

299

Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization is often narrowly defined to meet specific needs for information. This may however limit the general usefulness of the information gained, for example, if the specific purpose limited the characterization to a subset of variables. In general, data available in the solid waste area are limited and often with limited representation. This chapter describes common approaches and methods in waste characterization including common terms, sampling, characterization methods and data evaluation. The focus is on the characterization of waste as it is generated or collected, while specific issues on characterization related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2.5). If information about waste is required, it is always advisable to check the literature and the internet to see if relevant data is available already. However, in all cases the relevance of the data with respect to cultural, climatic and economical basis as well as the quality and age of the data available must be carefully assessed.

Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2011-01-01

300

Approaches for prevention of restenosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary artery disease is characterized by a narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries that supply blood to the tissue of the heart. Continued restriction of blood flow manifests itself as angina and ultimately myocardial infarction (heart attack) for the patient. Heart bypass was once the only treatment for this condition, but over the years percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become an increasingly attractive alternative to medical therapy and surgical revascularization for the treatment of coronary artery disease. A vascular stent is a medical device designed to serve as a temporary or permanent internal scaffold, to maintain or increase the lumen of a blood vessel. Metallic coronary stents were first introduced to prevent arterial dissections and to eliminate vessel recoil and intimal hyperplasia associated with PCI. Further advancement in the treatment of coronary artery disease is the development of drug-eluting stents that dramatically reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis to less than 5%. Local drug delivery offers the advantages of allowing a relatively high local concentration of drug at the treatment site while minimizing systemic toxic effect. This review describes approaches for prevention of restenosis. It focuses on drugs for prevention of restenosis, bare metal stents, and drug-eluting stents. It also describes recent advances in bioresorbable stents. One of the chapters is dedicated to our novel composite bioresorbable drug-eluting fibers, designed to be used as basic elements in drug-eluting stents. PMID:18098192

Kraitzer, Amir; Kloog, Yoel; Zilberman, Meital

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Thermodynamic approach of supercontinuum generation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is aimed at providing an overview on recent theoretical and experimental works in which a thermodynamic description of the incoherent regime of supercontinuum generation has been formulated. On the basis of the wave turbulence theory, we show that this highly nonlinear and quasi-continuous-wave regime of supercontinuum generation is characterized by two different phenomena. (i) A process of optical wave thermalization ruled by the four-wave mixing effects: The spectral broadening inherent to supercontinuum generation is shown to result from the natural tendency of the optical field to reach its thermodynamic equilibrium state, i.e., the state of maximum nonequilibrium entropy. This approach also reveals the existence of a thermodynamic phase-matching. (ii) The generation of spectral incoherent solitons induced by the Raman effect in the low frequency part of the supercontinuum spectrum. Contrary to conventional solitons, spectral incoherent solitons do not exhibit a confinement in the space-time domain, but solely in the frequency domain. They owe their existence to the causality property underlying the Raman response function. Both phenomena of optical wave thermalization and spectral incoherent solitons are described in detail by the wave turbulence theory. In this way, we provide a unified nonequilibrium thermodynamic description of the incoherent regime of supercontinuum generation.

Kibler, Bertrand; Barviau, Benoît; Michel, Claire; Millot, Guy; Picozzi, Antonio

2012-09-01

302

Repository Closure and Sealing Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

2000-01-01

303

Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive advantage and the factors impacting competitive advantage. The integrated model of competitive advantage is proposed in the paper.Article in LithuanianSpar?iai kintanti verslo aplinka ir rink? globalizacija lemia vis did?jan?i? konkurencij? beveik visuose verslo sektoriuose. Vykstantys evoliuciniai poky?iai skatina ?mones grei?iau mokytis, atitinkamai reaguoti ir aktyviai prisitaikyti prie aplinkos ir pa?ioms keistis. Išryšk?jus pramon?s ?moni? geb?jimo ?gyti konkurencin? pranašum? problemai, d?mesys j? lemian­tiems veiksniams laikytinas aktualiu. Straipsnio autor?s išsamiai analizuoja vyraujan?ius poži?rius ir konkurencin? pranašum? lemian?ius veiksnius bei si?lo integruot?j? konkurencinio pranašumo model?.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Renata Korsakien?

2011-07-01

304

Current chemotherapeutic approaches for hepatoblastoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has markedly improved the survival of patients with standard-risk hepatoblastoma (HB). However, treatment results for patients with metastatic disease remain unsatisfactory. As a result, the current therapeutic strategy for HB is to decrease dose intensity for standard-risk tumors in order to reduce chemotherapy-related toxicity and to intensify chemotherapy in combination with new drugs to develop new therapies and improve the outcome of patients with metastatic disease. Results from various trials of The North American Cooperative Study demonstrated that patients with localized disease achieved long-term survival following treatment with a combination of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine (C5V). In the ongoing Children's Oncology Group (COG) trial, AHEP0731, patients with stage I pure fetal histology are classified as very low risk and treated with resection only, and patients with any stage IV disease or any stage plus an alpha-fetoprotein level at diagnosis of <100 ng/ml are classified as high risk and receive up-front window therapy followed by C5V + doxorubicin in an attempt to discover novel efficacious agents. The early International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (SIOPEL) trial, SIOPEL-1, demonstrated that a combination of cisplatin + doxorubicin (PLADO) is effective. In the SIOPEL-3SR trial, cisplatin alone was proved to be non-inferior to PLADO for standard-risk HB. In the SIOPEL-4 trial, intensified preoperative cisplatin was administered on a weekly basis, and this approach achieved the highest survival rate ever reported for patients, even those with metastatic disease. SIOPEL, COG, and the Japanese Study Group for Pediatric Liver Tumor (JPLT) have established the Children's Hepatoma International Collaboration (CHIC) to create a common risk classification and initiate international clinical trials in order to further improve the outcome of children with HB. PMID:24052132

Watanabe, Kenichiro

2013-12-01

305

Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

Milton, Kim

2012-05-01

306

Quality Products - The CANDU Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prime focus of the CANDU concept (natural uranium fuelled-heavy water moderated reactor) from the beginning has economy, heavy water losses and radiation exposures also were strong incentives for ensuring good design and reliable equipment. It was necessary to depart from previously accepted commercial standards and to adopt those now accepted in industries providing quality products. Also, through feedback from operating experience and specific design and development programs to eliminate problems and improve performance, CANDU has evolved into today's successful product and one from which future products will readily evolve. Many lessons have been learned along the way. On the one hand, short cuts of failures to understand basic requirements have been costly. On the other hand, sound engineering and quality equipment have yielded impressive economic advantages through superior performance and the avoidance of failures and their consequential costs. The achievement of lifetime economical performance demands quality products, good operation and good maintenance. This paper describes some of the basic approaches leading to high CANDU station reliability and overall excellent performance, particularly where difficulties have had to be overcome. Specific improvements in CANDU design and in such CANDU equipment as heat transport pumps, steam generators, valves, the reactor, fuelling machines and station computers, are described. The need for close collaboration among designers, nuclear laboratories, constructors, operators and industry is discussed. This paper has reviewed some of the key components in the CANDU system as a means of indicating the overall effort that is required to provide good designs and highly reliable equipment. This has required a significant investment in people and funding which has handsomely paid off in the excellent performance of CANDU stations. The close collaboration between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian industry and the Canadian utilities has been the most important factor in this success

1989-04-01

307

Interdisciplinary approach to palatally impacted canine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. The article highlights the salient features and various surgical and orthodontic considerations to approach cases with impacted canines. It is exemplified with a case in which a palatally impacted canine and a highly placed canine in the buccal vestibule have been surgically intervened and orthodontica...

Goel, Ashish; Loomba, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Sharma, Naresh

2010-01-01

308

Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

Lambovska Maya

2011-09-01

309

A Stochastic Approach to Chemical Evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Observations of elemental abundances in the Galaxy have repeatedly shown an intrinsic scatter as a function of time and metallicity. The standard approach to chemical evolution does not attempt to address this scatter in abundances since only the mean evolution is followed. In this work the scatter is addressed via a stochastic approach to solving chemical evolution models. Three standard chemical evolution scenarios are studied using this stochastic approach; a closed box m...

Copi, Craig J.

1996-01-01

310

A new denoising approach based on EMD  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a new approach based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for explicitly denoising signals. The EMD decomposes a noisy signal into several intrinsic mode functions(IMFs), and the estimated signal is reconstructed by using the processed IMFs. In this paper, a piecewise EMD thresholding approach for denoising signal with strong noise is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has good performance, especially in the cases where the noise is very strong.

Wu, Wei; Peng, Hua

2014-04-01

311

Patient Privacy: A Consumer Protection Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the United States, a “Constitutional Analysis” of medical data privacy has been so far unsuccessful in obtaining significant protection. Statutory protection has evolved primarily to protect the citizen against the state, not to vindicate the privacy interest of the individual. A “Consumer Protection” approach rather than a right to privacy approach can be used to develop a coherent, practical approach to the needs of various parties in the health care system in the U.S.

Brannigan, Vincent M.

1983-01-01

312

Endoscopic Transnasal Approach to the Craniocervical Junction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anterior access to the craniocervical junction has traditionally been through a transoral approach. With the advent of newer techniques, recent literature suggests a possible role for a transnasal endoscopic approach to the craniocervical junction. A review of the literature primarily consists of case reports and three anatomic cadaveric studies demonstrating the feasibility of an endonasal approach. In this retrospective review, we report our experience with four patients who underwent an en...

2010-01-01

313

Automating the MENLOPS approach in Sherpa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MENLOPS approach combining the ME+PS approach, merging sequences of tree-level matrix elements into inclusive event samples, with the Powheg method, matching exact NLO matrix elements with parton showers, and its automated implementation in the Sherpa event generator are discussed. Further, the benefits of this approach in describing lepton and hadron collider data are exemplified and the theoretical accuracy of observables calculated using the resulting event samples is assessed.

2011-04-01

314

A structural approach for measuring fiscal disparities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiscal disparities arise from differences in costs and capacity to produce a standard package of public services. This paper proposes to use a structural modelling approach as basis for measuring fiscal disparities across municipalities. This approach differs from the widely used reduced-form approach, in the sense that identification of minimum required costs or expenditure need is made by reference to a structural model of the fiscal and spending behavior of local governments. The empirical...

Langørgen, Audun; Aaberge, Rolf

1999-01-01

315

An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for approximate Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes. A comparison with averages obtained by Monte-Carlo sampling shows that our method achieves good accuracy.

Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

2004-01-01

316

Methodological Approaches in Developmental Neuroimaging Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pediatric neuroimaging is increasingly providing insights into the neural basis of cognitive development. Indeed, we have now arrived at a stage where we can begin to identify optimal methodological and statistical approaches to the acquisition and analysis of developmental imaging data. In this article, we describe a number of these approaches and how their selection impacts the ability to examine and interpret developmental effects. We describe preferred approaches to task selection, defini...

Luna, Beatriz; Velanova, Katerina; Geier, Charles F.

2010-01-01

317

A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA

2009-01-01

318

Complementary integrative approach for treating pruritus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat pruritus for both patients and medical providers. CAM includes natural products, mind-body medicine, and manipulative and body-based practices. In this overview, we summarize current evidence, possible mechanisms and clinical approaches for treating pruritus with CAM techniques. We focus on pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis, herpes zoster, chronic urticaria, burns, and postoperative contexts where the evidence for CAM approaches is promising. PMID:23551371

Pfab, F; Schalock, P C; Napadow, V; Athanasiadis, G I; Yosipovitch, G; Ring, J

2013-01-01

319

Belene nuclear power plant contracting approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historically, three main types of project execution and contractual approaches have been applied to energy and industrial projects, including nuclear projects. These approaches are grouped into three broad categories: 1) Turnkey Approach; 2) Split Package (Island) Approach; and 3)Multiple Package Approach. Based on a preliminary screening done by an ongoing feasibility study work for NPP Belene (NEK contract to Parsons E and C), the recommended approach is going to follow that general trend i.e., with some variation between the Split Package and the Turnkey approach. Before deciding on an execution approach or at least before issuing bid specifications for the nuclear power plant, it is prudent, even for a country with existing nuclear power program (like Bulgaria), to re-check/verify capabilities of the interested bidders to handle contracts of this size and nature. During the last decades, nuclear energy went through a substantial restructuring and most of the capabilities (human and financial) that existed before are not any more available. This re-checking should mainly cover the experience of the bidders as regards the design, construction and operation of the stations where they were involved, but also include items such as local experience, capability to bring favorable financing, liability coverage, general background, potential and organizational structures. The advantages and disadvantages for the Owner of the three contracting approaches can be briefly summarized as follows: Turnkey Approach - main advantages: all responsibilities rest in a Contractor or Consortium. Main disadvantages - limited project control by Owner and restricted local participation. For Split Package Contract Approach main advantage are more favorable financing conditions and increased local participation. Main disadvantage is the increased interface problems. For Multiple package Contract Approach main advantages are the opportunity to tailor the plant and maximum increase of local participation. Main disadvantages are maximum responsibility to the Owner due to interfaces and compatibility of systems and technologies. (author)

2004-09-23

320

Information Security Awareness: An Innovation Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scholars and security practitioners seem to converge in the understanding that Information Security is in great part a problem about people; hence the need for a more holistic approach in order to understand human behaviour in the Information Security field which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Recent events such as the “Interdisciplinary Workshop on Security and Human Behaviour” hosted in Boston, Massachusetts in June 2008, are considering this approach and they have conveyed a m...

Corona, Carlos Orozco

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The thermodynamic approach to multifractal analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most results in multifractal analysis are obtained using either a thermodynamic approach based on existence and uniqueness of equilibrium states or a saturation approach based on some version of the specification property. A general framework incorporating the most important multifractal spectra was introduced by Barreira and Saussol, who used the thermodynamic approach to establish the multifractal formalism in the uniformly hyperbolic setting, unifying many existing result...

Climenhaga, Vaughn

2011-01-01

322

Exploring Innovation â?? A Language Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Innovation Management is a complex task that requires improved methods to support the exploration of multiple innovation dimensions. We suggest firms to adopt a language inspired approach in order to improve existing methods. The language approach is supported by a graphical innovation profile that maps the innovation features and choices. The paper demonstrates the applications and perspectives of this approach with reference to a qualitative case study.

Mabogunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

2013-01-01

323

Unified mechanical approach to piezoelectric bender modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anewanalytical modeling approach for piezoelectric bending elements is described. The approach is based on the beam theory under quasi-static equilibrium condition. It uses the theory of superposition of piezoelectric action in the bender and external moments and forces acting on the bender. Due to the differential approach, this model is applicable to any geometrical design for which the beam theory holds. The distinction between the piezoelectric action and the external loads makes the mode...

2006-01-01

324

Hopf bifurcation analysis a frequency domain approach  

CERN Document Server

This book is devoted to the frequency domain approach, for both regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcation analyses. Besides showing that the time and frequency domain approaches are in fact equivalent, the fact that many significant results and computational formulas obtained in the studies of regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcations from the time domain approach can be translated and reformulated into the corresponding frequency domain setting, and be reconfirmed and rediscovered by using the frequency domain methods, is also explained. The description of how the frequency domain approach can b

Moiola, Jorge L

1996-01-01

325

CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information and sales to lower income clients. PROFAMILIA CSM and community-based program sales are in a period of relative stagnation. Sales projections show only modest increases between 1981-85, despite the fact that a significant number of potential consumers remain unserved. Ultimately, PROFAMILIA may be faced with the need to reduce their number markedly as sales revenue is eroded by inflation while costs rise. A shift in duties back to motivation rather than distribution, combined with increased media promotion seems the clearest short-term response to the problem of unserved consumers. PMID:12264180

Samuel, S

1982-03-01

326

Broader approach to fusion energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the Japanese government signed an agreement for ''the Joint Implementation of the Broader Approach Activities in the Field of Fusion Energy Research'' on 5th February 2007. The Agreement is expected to enter into force before the end of this year. This co-operation aims at complementing the ITER project and at an early realization of fusion energy by carrying out R and D and developing some advanced technologies for the future demonstration power reactor (DEMO). Three research projects will be undertaken in Japan under the framework of this agreement; 1. Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF/EVEDA). IFMIF will allow testing and qualification of advanced materials in an environment similar to that of a future fusion power plant. The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities aim at producing a detailed, complete and fully integrated engineering design of IFMIF. 2. International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC). The missions of the IFERC include the co-ordination of DEMO Design and R and D activities, large scale simulation activities of fusion plasmas by super-computer and remote experimentation activities to facilitate a broad participation of scientists into ITER experiments. 3. Satellite Tokamak Programme The JT-60 tokamak will be upgraded to an advanced superconducting tokamak JT-60 SA, and be exploited as a ''satellite'' facility to ITER. The Satellite Tokamak Programme is expected to develop operating scenarios and address key physics issues for an efficient start up of ITER and in order to provide a continuous support to ITER experimentation and to advance research towards DEMO. While the Satellite Tokamak Programme will be conducted at the existing JT-60 tokamak site in Naka, the IFMIF-EVEDA and the IFERC projects will be carried out at Rokkasho, Aomori. A new research site is being prepared for these two projects at the same site proposed for ITER. The construction of the buildings is to be started during this year and completed within two years. Preparatory work has been started such as the joint planning on the IFERC and the IFMIF-EVEDA, and the technical review of the conceptual design of JT- 60SA. As soon as the Agreement will be in force, EURATOM and Japan will adopt the project plans for the three projects to be able to implement them without delay. (orig.)

2007-10-05

327

Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of biomarkers: those from extant life, such as DNA, those from extinct life such as hopanes, and those from organic compounds not necessarily associated with life such as PAHs, rocket exhaust contamination and other a/pre-biotic chemicals. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be used. Monoclonal antibodies react with a very specific compound, but polyclonal antibodies may react to any of a whole family of compounds. Furthermore the technique of phage display to raise antibodies against classically non-antigenic molecules is also being considered. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

2001-01-01

328

Miles-Ezzell's WACC Approach Yields Arbitrage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple counterexample shows the the widely used WACC approach to value leverage firms developed by Miles and Ezzell can create an arbitrage opportunity. The only consequence to be drawn is that their WACC approach cannot be applied under the circumstances assumed by Miles and Ezzell.

Lo?ffler, Andreas

2002-01-01

329

Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

Zou, You-Long; Hu, Fa-Long; Zhou, Can-Can; Li, Chao-Liu; Dunn, Keh-Jim

2013-12-01

330

Non deterministic approach of neutronic. Modelization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fundamental hypothesis on which lays neutronic codes is that the neutron number is sufficiently great for able representing by a density function. In this study we present an adjoint approach which permits the determination of the mean number of particles in function of initial or particular conditions. The non deterministic approach allows then to determine a statistic dispersion around this mean number

1993-01-01

331

A completely covariant approach to transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

2011-02-01

332

Three Approaches to Classical Thermal Field Theory  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the Closed-Time Path (CTP) formalism, the Thermofield Dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.

Gozzi, E

2010-01-01

333

A New Approach on Flight Training: ASIMIL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a new approach to deal with flight training. We will analyze the various methods used during the implementation of the software (Virtual reality and Case Based Reasoning). This approach introduces a client/server architecture that enables the user to have automated real-time assistance in addition to normal error detection.

Aka, Michel; Frasson, Claude

2002-01-01

334

A New Approach to Classical Statistical Mechanics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new approach to classical statistical mechanics is presented; this is based on a new method of specifying the possible “states” of the systems of a statistical assembly and on the relative frequency interpretation of probability. This approach is free from the concept of ensemble, the ergodic hypothesis, and the assumption of equal a priori probabilities.

2011-01-01

335

Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

2007-01-01

336

Factorization Approaches to B Meson Decays  

CERN Multimedia

We compare the theoretical frameworks and the phenomenological applications of the factorization approaches to exclusive $B$ meson decays, which include QCD-improved factorization, perturbative QCD, and soft-collinear effective theory. Recent progress on two-body nonleptonic $B$ meson decays made in these approaches are reviewed.

Li, Hsiang-nan

2007-01-01

337

A Heuristic Approach to Scheduling University Timetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Categories of facilities utilization and scheduling requirements to be considered when using a heuristic approach to timetabling are described together with a nine-step algorithm and the computerized timetabling system, Timetable Schedules System (TTS); TTS utilizes heuristic approach. An example demonstrating use of TTS and a program flowchart…

Loo, E. H.; And Others

1986-01-01

338

A Novel Approach to Teaching Teamwork  

Science.gov (United States)

Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are "practically" based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during the…

Drake, Robert; Goldsmith, Geraldine; Strachan, Rebecca

2006-01-01

339

Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, tow...

Davidsen, Annette Sofie

2013-01-01

340

Fictitious Cavity Approach to the Casimir Effect  

CERN Document Server

We obtain expressions for the Casimir energy and force following an approach which may be applied to cavities made up of arbitrary materials. In the case of planar cavities we obtain the well known Lifshitz formula. The approach is easily generalizable to other geometries.

Mochan, W Luis

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

An Agile Course-Delivery Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the world of software development, agile methodologies have gained popularity thanks to their lightweight methodologies and flexible approach. Many advocates believe that agile methodologies can provide significant benefits if applied in the educational environment as a teaching method. The need for an approach that engages and motivates…

Capellan, Mirkeya

2009-01-01

342

Near metrizability via a new approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article deals with near metrizability, initiated in an earlier paper, with a new orientation and approach. The notions of nearly regular and uniform pseudo-bases are introduced and analogues of some results concerning metrizability and paracompactness are obtained for near metrizability and near paracompactness respectively via the proposed approach, suitably formulated.

Dhananjoy Mandal

2014-04-01

343

Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a…

Harper, Casandra E.

2011-01-01

344

Mutual information via thermodynamics: three different approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three different approaches for deriving mutual information via thermodynamics are presented. All approaches require the extension of the traditional physical framework and the modification of the second law of thermodynamics. A realization of a physical system with an effective temperature-dependent Hamiltonian is discussed and followed by a suggestion of a physical information–heat engine

2010-01-01

345

Environment friendly thermal power dispatch: An approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes an approach for optimal emission power dispatch from thermal power plants with optimal operating cost. The proposed approach, called economic-emission dispatch, is based on a {lambda}-iteration technique including penalty on emissions. Sample case studies with a system of three generating units are discussed.

Sen, S. [Power Grid Corp. of India, Ltd., New Delhi (India). Engineering Div.; Kothari, D.P.; Talukder, F.A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

1997-05-01

346

Designing Interorganizational Logistic Networks: A Simulation Based Interdisciplinary Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Table of Contents: Interorganizational logistics; Interorganizational logistic networks in practice; A design approach for interorganizational logistic networks; The approach applied; Revision of the design approach; The revised approach applied; Epilogue...

M. Babeliowsky

1997-01-01

347

A Potts Neuron Approach to Communication Routing  

CERN Document Server

A feedback neural network approach to communication routing problems is developed with emphasis on Multiple Shortest Path problems, with several requests for transmissions between distinct start- and endnodes. The basic ingredients are a set of Potts neurons for each request, with interactions designed to minimize path lengths and to prevent overloading of network arcs. The topological nature of the problem is conveniently handled using a propagator matrix approach. Although the constraints are global, the algorithmic steps are based entirely on local information, facilitating distributed implementations. In the polynomially solvable single-request case the approach reduces to a fuzzy version of the Bellman-Ford algorithm. The approach is evaluated for synthetic problems of varying sizes and load levels, by comparing with exact solutions from a branch-and-bound method. With very few exceptions, the Potts approach gives legal solutions of very high quality. The computational demand scales merely as the product...

Häkkinen, J; Peterson, C; Söderberg, B

1998-01-01

348

Hybrid biasing approaches for global variance reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new variant of Monte Carlo—deterministic (DT) hybrid variance reduction approach based on Gaussian process theory is presented for accelerating convergence of Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS) approach implemented in the SCALE package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The new approach, denoted the Gaussian process approach, treats the responses of interest as normally distributed random processes. The Gaussian process approach improves the selection of the weight windows of simulated particles by identifying a subspace that captures the dominant sources of statistical response variations. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach utilizes particle importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive weight window biasing. In contrast to the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach identifies the response correlations (via a covariance matrix) and employs them to reduce the computational overhead required for global variance reduction (GVR) purpose. The effective rank of the covariance matrix identifies the minimum number of uncorrelated pseudo responses, which are employed to bias simulated particles. Numerical experiments, serving as a proof of principle, are presented to compare the Gaussian process and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation of the estimated responses. - Highlights: ? Hybrid Monte Carlo Deterministic Method based on Gaussian Process Model is introduced. ? Method employs deterministic model to calculate responses correlations. ? Method employs correlations to bias Monte Carlo transport. ? Method compared to FW-CADIS methodology in SCALE code. ? An order of magnitude speed up is achieved for a PWR core model.

2013-02-01

349

An integrated approach to customer value: A comprehensive-practical approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents a comprehensive and practical approach to studying value from the customer point of view i.e. customer value (CV). It builds on three approaches to CV: the benefit-sacrifice, the means-end and the experiential. The developed integrated approach presents a more complete view on CV and its components than current approaches, offering a more meaningful guidance for marketing management activities.

Klanac, Natas?a Golik

2013-01-01

350

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

351

Understanding the Reggio Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Second Edition. Understanding the... Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

"Understanding the Reggio Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Reggio Approach. Analysing the essential elements of the Reggio Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice, this new edition is fully updated with the latest…

Thornton, Linda; Brunton, Pat

2009-01-01

352

Analysis of accidents during instrument approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

General aviation and air taxi approach phase accidents, which occurred during VFR and IFR, respectively over the last 25 years, were analyzed. The data suggest that there is a 204 percent higher risk during the approach and landing phase of VFR flights, than during similar IFR operations (14.82 vs 7.27 accidents/100,000 approaches). Alarmingly, the night single pilot IFR (SPIFR) accident rate is almost 8 times the rate of day IFR, 35.43 vs 4.47 accidents/100,000 approaches, and two and a half times that of day VFR approaches, 35.43 vs 14.82 accidents/100,000 approaches. Surprisingly, the overall SPIFR accident rates are not much higher than dual-pilot IFR (DPIFR), 7.27 vs 6.48 accidents/100,000 approaches. The generally static ratio of the statistics for SPIFR/DPIFR accident rates may be accounted for by little or no change in general aviation cockpit technology during the last 25 years, and because IFR operational flight task management training has not kept pace.

Bennett, C. T.; Schwirzke, M.

1992-01-01

353

A Dialectical Approach to Positive Organizational Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last decade, an academic movement emerged towards the study of positive phenomena in management and organization studies. Since then, two different scientific research streams have emerged in line with this positive approach to management: 1 positive organizational scholarship (POS, which proposes a trait approach view of positive virtues and strengths and sees the environment as a moderator variable which facilitates or not the exhibition of corresponding positive behaviours; and positive organizational behaviour (POB, which defends a state-like perspective of positive characteristics, thus putting a strong emphasis on situational factors as determinants of positive behaviour, leaving a marginal role to positive psychological traits. As a critical comparison between these two different research streams is yet to be done, in this paper I propose a dialectical approach to study positivity in organizations and contrast these two different ontological approaches to positivity in organizations. I presented arguments to demonstrate that each of these approaches alone constitute quite a limited proposal in that each of them seems to misleadingly assume that: traits cannot be changed; they show incongruence between assumptions and purpose and; they constitute biased viewpoints. A dialectical approach makes possible to overcome these shortcomings by assuming both personality characteristics and environmental features relate each other in an intertwined complex way to produce positive behaviour in organizations. I finally present some practical implications that a dialectical approach would have to organizations and managers.

Miguel Pereira Lopes

2013-04-01

354

An Exotic Approach to Hadron Physics  

CERN Multimedia

An exotic approach to hadrons is discussed. It is based on the recently developed open-closed string duality explicitly conjectured as the AdS/CFT correspondence. Mesons as well as pentaquarks are studied in this approach. Spins are introduced as distribution functions over the string, and a second quantization method of string theory is examined and used to estimate the mass and decay width of various hadrons. This approach provides a way to understand the structure of flavor by a configuration of probe branes.

Bando, Masako; Shock, Jonathan; Sugamoto, Akio; Terunuma, Sachiko

2007-01-01

355

Multiscale modeling in solid mechanics computational approaches  

CERN Document Server

This unique volume presents the state of the art in the field of multiscale modeling in solid mechanics, with particular emphasis on computational approaches. For the first time, contributions from both leading experts in the field and younger promising researchers are combined to give a comprehensive description of the recently proposed techniques and the engineering problems tackled using these techniques. The book begins with a detailed introduction to the theories on which different multiscale approaches are based, with regards to linear Homogenisation as well as various nonlinear approach

Galvanetto, Ugo

2009-01-01

356

A Critical Approach for Building Teacher Knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper advocates a Popperian approach for empowering teachers to build knowledge when faced with uncertainty or obstacles.  It begins with a discussion of the need for schools to use a critical approach for knowledge development and sharing of knowledge.  Next, I discuss Popper’s three core concepts of critical rationalism to illustrate its relevance in teacher knowledge development, followed by a description of how journal keeping can be situated in Popper’s Three Worlds. The paper concludes with a discussion of how Popper’s approach can be effective in promoting and sustaining teacher knowledge growth.

Stephanie Chitpin

2010-04-01

357

A HYBRID APPROACH FOR RURAL FEEDER DESIGN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a population based approach for conductor size selection in rural radial distribution system is presented. The proposed hybrid approach implies a particle swarm optimization (PSO approach in combination with mutant property of differential evolution (DE for conductor size selection in radial distribution system. The conductor size for each feeder segment is selected such that the total cost of capital investment and capitalized cost of energy losses is minimized while constraints of voltage at each node and current carrying capacity of conductor is within the limits. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with the help of 32-node test system.

DAMANJEET KAUR

2012-08-01

358

Shell Model in a First Principles Approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We develop and apply an ab-initio approach to nuclear structure. Starting with the NN interaction, that fits two-body scattering and bound state data, and adding a theoretical NNN potential, we evaluate nuclear properties in a no-core approach. For presently feasible no-core model spaces, we evaluate an effective Hamiltonian in a cluster approach which is guaranteed to provide exact answers for sufficiently large model spaces and/or sufficiently large clusters. A number of recent applications are surveyed including an initial application to exotic multiquark systems.

Navratil, P; Nogga, A; Lloyd, R; Vary, J P; Ormand, W E; Barrett, B R

2004-01-08

359

Assessment approach for image mosaicing algorithms  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a novel quantitative assessment approach for image mosaicing algorithms is proposed by evaluating the quality of an output mosaic image and comparing with the input images. Five evaluation indices--entropy, clarity, registration error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and structural similarity--are calculated and combined with the analytic hierarchy process for comprehensive assessment. This approach can overcome the lack of panoramic image and is easy to implement. Experimental results show the objectivity and the validity of the proposed approach.

Zou, Li-Hui; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan

2011-11-01

360

Laparoscopic approach for rectosigmoidian resection in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abdominoperineal approach for rectosigmoidian resection,first imagined and performed in 1948 by Orwar Swenson,was the surgical technique that opened the pathway in the treatment of congenital megacolon (1). B. Duhamel (1956) and F. Soave (1964) intended to correct the postoperative complications appeared after the Duhamel technique and proposed surgical procedures that keep the aganglionic rectum in transit (2,3). In 1994 K. Bax reproduces the Duhamel procedure using laparoscopic approach (4). K.Georgeson, in 1995, reproduced the Swenson technique for rectosigmoidian resection using minimal invasive surgery (5).Today, this approach represents the most frequently used procedure for the radical treatment of congenital megacolon. PMID:24524481

Oancea, M; Vatra, L; Kadar, A; Cop?escu, C

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A statistical approach to plasma profile analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general statistical approach to the parameterisation and analysis of tokamak profiles is presented. The modelling of the profile dependence on both the radius and the plasma parameters is discussed, and pertinent, classical as well as robust, methods of estimation are reviewed. Special attention is given to statistical tests for discriminating between the various models, and to the construction of confidence intervals for the parameterised profiles and the associated global quantities. The statistical approach is shown to provide a rigorous approach to the empirical testing of plasma profile invariance. (orig.)

1990-01-01

362

Cavity Approach to the Random Solid State  

CERN Document Server

The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin.

Mao, X; Mézard, M; Weigt, M; Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M.; Mezard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

2005-01-01

363

Cavity approach to the random solid state.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin. PMID:16241698

Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M; Mézard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

2005-09-30

364

Resource Leveling Using Petrinet and Memetic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of scheduling activities dynamic for a project, within the available resources and adhering to precedence relationships is NP hard combinatorial. Traditional approaches and their extensions are limited in application for simultaneous scheduling of resources with leveling. Considering the need for improved modeling and scheduling techniques, this paper proposes the use of Petrinet based approach aided by memetic algorithm. Manufacturing projects involving either a single or multi resources can be optimally leveled and scheduled. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated with case studies.

K. Raja

2007-01-01

365

Evaluating Modelling Approaches for Medical Image Annotations  

CERN Multimedia

Information system designers face many challenges w.r.t. selecting appropriate semantic technologies and deciding on a modelling approach for their system. However, there is no clear methodology yet to evaluate "semantically enriched" information systems. In this paper we present a case study on different modelling approaches for annotating medical images and introduce a conceptual framework that can be used to analyse the fitness of information systems and help designers to spot the strengths and weaknesses of various modelling approaches as well as managing trade-offs between modelling effort and their potential benefits.

Opitz, Jasmin; Sattler, Ulrike

2010-01-01

366

Approaches to Learning and Teaching: Some Observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available College professors often say that their goal as teachers is to assist students to think for themselves. One way to do that is by taking note of the growing body of research into teaching and learning in higher education. After all, approaching teaching in a scholarly way, mindful of recent research, making decisions based on evidence, seeking feedback systematically, and the like, parallels the approach we take as researchers. Thanks to Ernest Boyer's Scholarship reconsidered: priorities of the professoriate (1990, this approach is widely known as the scholarship of teaching and learning.

Michael Jackson

2012-01-01

367

A combinatorial approach for structural materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-efficiency combinatorial approaches used for parallel synthesis and screening of large composition libraries of functional materials inspire the possibility of rapid screening of structural materials. Because bulk properties are required for structural materials, the existing approaches for solid-state functional materials are difficult to apply to structural materials screening. Here the author describes a different methodology - the ''diffusion multiple'' - that generates large, multicomponent composition variations (libraries) in bulk samples through thermal interdiffusion. The coupling of diffusion multiples with micro-scale composition-phase-property measurements constitutes a powerful combinatorial approach for structural materials research and development. (orig.)

Zhao, J.C. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

2001-03-01

368

Model approach to nuclear power plants construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities are discussed of the model approach and of modelling processes in the preparation and control of nuclear power plant construction. Model approaches require accurate formulation of the problem and the determination of initial structures and objectives. Some modelling methods are briefly discussed, namely the use of logic diagrams and the Work Breakdown Structure method (logical analysis and synthesis of activities). Experience gained in Czechoslovakia and abroad is used to emphasize the necessity of a wider introduction of modelling approaches to the construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. (B.S.)

1984-01-01

369

An intermittent approach for cancer chemoprevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer chemoprevention approaches generally use long-term, continuous treatment, which can produce major preventive effects but which can also have unexpected serious adverse events. This raises the question of whether intermittent dosing schedules might reduce toxicity while retaining benefit, a concept that we call short-term intermittent therapy to eliminate premalignancy (SITEP). Recent preclinical studies support a novel SITEP approach whereby short-term, intermittent therapy eliminates premalignant cells via apoptosis that is induced by synthetic lethal interactions. Synthetic lethality allows personalized, selective elimination of premalignant clones without harming normal cells. This Opinion article provides a detailed discussion of the principle, method and future development of the SITEP approach. PMID:22071977

Wu, Xiangwei; Lippman, Scott M

2011-12-01

370

Enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report a new enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine is presented. A 66-year-old female, having a large C3-C4-C5 chordoma, recurrent after surgery and following radiotherapy, underwent a surgical resection. The approach allows a wide retraction of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx from the midline, only sacrificing the superior laryngeal nerve on one side. Its continuity can be re-established later by adopting the stent in tube technique. The approach we used presents al...

Sartoris, Alberto; Crosetti, Erika; Succo, Giovanni

2001-01-01

371

Endoscopic approach to capsule endoscope retention.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, wireless capsule endoscopy has become increasingly indicated and utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel disorders. As such, its most common complication, capsule retention, has become a more frequently encountered clinical entity. Historically, when medical management of capsule retention has failed, patients have been sent directly to surgery. However, recent advances in small bowel enteroscopy have demonstrated a high success rate and safety profile in retrieving retained capsules. These approaches appear to be a viable alternative to surgery in many clinical scenarios. This article discusses both standard and advanced endoscopic approaches to capsule retention, and presents an algorithmic approach to their utilization. PMID:21108591

Roorda, Andrew K; Kupec, Justin T; Ostrinsky, Yevgeniy; Shamma'a, John M; Goebel, Stephan U; Sundaram, Uma

2010-12-01

372

Simplified Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI).  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this operational test and evaluation was to determine the value of a simplified visual approach slope indicator (VASI) system to the USAF Special Operations Force by accomplishing three test objectives: formulate and document construction c...

J. F. Yealy

1973-01-01

373

Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) Improvements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report outlines, briefly, the major work accomplished during recent years in a continuing effort to improve and update Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) equipment and systems being utilized at various category airports within the United States. R...

T. H. Paprocki

1973-01-01

374

Downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Nighttime vehicle detection is an essential problem to be solved in the development of highway surveillance systems that provide information about the vehicle speed, traffic volume, and traffic jams, and so on. In this paper, a novel downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection is presented. In the proposed approach, a rough position of vehicle headlights is detected first. Then, a downhill simplex optimization approach is adopted to find the accurate location of vehicle headlights. For the optimization process, a novel cost function is designed and various headlights are evaluated for possible headlight positions on the detected vehicles, locating an optimal headlight position. Simulation results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed approach for headlights detection.

Kang, Ho-Joong; Kim, Ho-Kun; Oh, Il-Whan; Choi, Kyoung-Ho

2014-03-01

375

Introductory Statistics: Questions, Content, and Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

An introductory statistics course is a common requirement for undergraduate economics, psychology, and sociology majors. An approach to statistics that involves the effort to encourage habits of systematic, critical quantitative thinking through focusing on descriptive statistics is discussed. (MLW)

Weaver, Frederick Stirton

1989-01-01

376

An approach for effective Dancoff factor calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An equivalence approach is proposed to improve resolved resonance calculation in the SCALE 4.3 modular code system, where the cross sections generated using multi region option of this code system, ignore the lattice geometry effects. This approach is applicable for any geometry for which a flux solution by collision probability method is possible. The VEGA2DAN code, based on this approach calculates the effective Dancoff factor by making the equivalence approximation. This approximation states that the self-shielded cross section for absorption in the resolved resonance energy range for each resonance region of a heterogeneous media is the same as in the considering single fuel lump, where the presence of other fuel regions is taken into account by applying the effective Dancoff factor. The proposed approach was benchmarked for a 5 x 5 irregular pressurized water reactor assembly (author)

2000-06-26

377

Multiple Approaches to Robust Speech Recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper compares several different approaches to robust speech recognition. We review CMU's ongoing research in the use of acoustical pre- processing to achieve robust speech recognition, and we present the results of the first evaluation of pre- proce...

A. Acero F. Liu R. M. Stern T. M. Sullivan Y. Ohshima

1992-01-01

378

Coup and Conscience: Approaching an American Threshold.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines conditions which are influencing the American military to approach a behavioral threshold in civil-military relations. This threshold is a point of departure from traditional subordinated behavior. At the threshold a divergence is fore...

T. M. Moscheau

1980-01-01

379

Optimal taxation policy maximum-entropy approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The object of this paper is firstly to present entropic measure of income inequality and secondly to develop maximum entropy approaches for the optimal reduction of income inequality through taxation. .

Jana P.; Mazumder S.K.; Das N.C.

2003-01-01

380

A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Recent advances in developmental biology have yielded detailed models of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) involved in cell specification and other processes in embryonic differentiation. Such networks form the bedrock on which a systems biology approach to developme...

 
 
 
 
381

Regulatory approach to NPP ageing in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this contribution summary information of Kozloduy NPP units is presented. The nuclear legislation, regulatory approach for managing safety aspects on NPP ageing, short term programme, complex programme PRG'97 ant other aspects of ageing management are discussed

2000-05-15

382

On a new approach to convolution constructions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we establish some new approach to constructing convolution for general Mellin type transforms. This method is based on the theory of double Hellin-Barnes integrals. Some properties of convolutions and several examples are given.

Yakubovich, S. B.; Kalla, Shyam L.

1993-01-01

383

Optimal taxation policy maximum-entropy approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object of this paper is firstly to present entropic measure of income inequality and secondly to develop maximum entropy approaches for the optimal reduction of income inequality through taxation. .

Jana P.

2003-01-01

384

The Team Approach to Pain Relief  

Science.gov (United States)

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

385

Amazing variational approach to chemical reactions  

CERN Multimedia

In this letter we analyse an amazing variational approach to chemical reactions. Our results clearly show that the variational expressions are unsuitable for the analysis of empirical data obtained from chemical reactions.

Fernández, Francisco M

2009-01-01

386

An Approach to the Patient With Fibromyalgia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibromyalgia (fibrositis) is one of the most common rheumatologic conditions. This paper reviews the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of the syndrome and presents a global approach to the management of the disease.

Carette, Simon

1987-01-01

387

A collaborative approach to video summarization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This poster describes an approach to video summarization based on the combination of several decision mechanisms provided by the partners of the KSpace European Network of Excellence. The system has been applied to the TRECVID 2008 BBC rushes summarization task.

2008-01-01

388

Comprehensive Approach to Planning and Scheduling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project explored a new paradigm for planning based on, among other things, a clean separation of action selection and action sequencing (roughly, planning and scheduling). This approach provided several benefits, including more intuitive, powerful, a...

D. W. Etherington M. L. Ginsberg

1999-01-01

389

Approaches for Enhancing Reliability of Software Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In modern world, we are highly dependent upon computer for most of our works. As we know, all computers are controlled by software. So, to operate a computer in a proper manner, software reliability is very necessary.Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment. The high complexity of software is the major contributing factor of Software reliability problems. Various approaches can be used to improve the reliability of software, however, it is hard to balance development time and budget with software reliability. For good reliability, two approaches have to be used, namely, reactive and proactive approach.This paper provides an overview of Software reliability, hardware reliability, reactive and proactive approaches.

Priyanka #1, Trilok Gabba

2013-07-01

390

Extended frontobasal approach to the skull base.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extended frontobasal approach provides an adequate midline exposure from the anterior cranial fossa to the sphenoclival region. Between November 1991 and August 1999, 13 patients with extensive anterior and anterolateral skull base tumours extending to supra and parasellar regions, cavernous sinus and sphenoclival regions were operated upon using this approach alone (7 patients or in combination with subtemporal -infratemporal (4 patients or transfacial (2 patients approaches. Gross total excision was performed in 8 patients while in 4 patients with malignant tumours and in a patient with extensive skull base fungal granuloma, only partial excision was possible. Basal repair was performed using pedicled pericranium, temporalis muscle or fascia lata. The complications included increase in the cranial nerve paresis, endophthalmitis, facial oedema, CSF leak, frontal haematoma and internal carotid artery injury. This study reviews the operative technique, the indications and the complications of extended frontobasal approach.

Banerji D

2001-07-01

391

Antifungal Sealing Rings - A New Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new approach has been used both in the laboratory and in field trials, to study the development and performance of special vulcanizates used in sealing applications. The use of conventional, monomeric fungicides has been replaced by polymeric organotin ...

P. Dunn D. Oldfield

1977-01-01

392

Empowering Elderly People: A Community Work Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Older people who suffer from a sense of powerlessness, helplessness, and low self-esteem are inadequately helped by existing services. A community work approach can help them become active and empowered individuals with stronger contacts with the community. (SK)

Kam, Ping-Kwong

1996-01-01

393

Personal approach to treatment of prominent ears.  

Science.gov (United States)

A description is presented of an anterior approach to the treatment of prominent ears with Kaye's method but with a few modifications to simplify it. Confirmation of the method's advantages is discussed. PMID:9030170

Tramier, H

1997-02-01

394

Magnetic Bearing Control Approach Using Flux Feedback.  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetic bearing control approach using flux feedback is described and test results for a laboratory model magnetic bearing actuator are presented. Test results were obtained using a magnetic bearing test fixture, which is also described. The magnetic b...

N. J. Groom

1989-01-01

395

Anterior Approach to Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Anterior Approach to Total Hip Replacement You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and ...

396

A Parallel Approach to Fractal Image Compression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with a parallel approach to coding and decoding algorithms in fractal image compressionand presents experimental results comparing sequential and parallel algorithms from the point of view of achieved bothcoding and decoding time and effectiveness of parallelization.

2004-01-01

397

A multiscale modeling approach to adhesive contact  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to model the adhesive contact across different length scales, a multiscale approach is developed and used to study the adhesive contact behaviors between a rigid cylinder and an elastic face-centered cubic (FCC) substrate. The approach combines an atomistic treatment of the interfacial region with an elastic mechanics method description of the continuum region. The two regions are connected by a coupling region where nodes of the continuum region are refined to atoms of the atomistic region. Moreover, the elastic constants of FCC crystals are obtained directly from the Lennard-Jones potential to describe the elastic response characteristics of the continuum region, which ensures the consistency of material proprieties between atomistic and continuum regions. The multiscale approach is examined by comparing it with the pure MD simulation, and the results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach agrees well with the MD method in studying the adhesive contact behaviors.

Fan, KangQi; Wang, WeiDong; Zhu, YingMin; Zhang, XiuYan

2011-09-01

398

Experimental evaluation for joint estimation approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) provides a potential to perform in vivo quantification of the radioactivity and dose distributions in the process of evaluating radiopharmaceuticals. The inherent modest resolution in SPECT impedes the potential of accurate quantification. Previously, we investigated a joint estimation approach for combining SPECT functional information with high resolution, structurally correlated MRI anatomical information to improve the accuracy of SPECT quantification, and the computer simulation results showed that this approach can exploit MRI region information that matches the SPECT functional information and to reduce artifacts caused by mismatched MRI anatomical information. In this paper, we further describe the experimental evaluation of the joint estimation approach using actual SPECT and MRI imaging with an animal-sized phantom. We will describe practical details in applying the joint estimation approach and present the experimental evaluation results of quantitative analysis.

Zhang, Y.; Fessler, J.A.; Rogers, W.L.; Clinthorne, N.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

399

Portfolio choice beyond the traditional approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper surveys asset allocation methods that extend the traditional approach. An important feature of the traditional approach is that measures the risk and return tradeoff in terms of mean and variance of final wealth. However, there are also other important features that are not always made explicit in terms of investor’s wealth, information, and horizon: The investor makes a single portfolio choice based only on the mean and variance of her final financial wealth and she knows the re...

Penaranda, Francisco

2007-01-01

400

A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a high throughput combinatorial approach to photonic metamaterial optimization. The new approach is based on parallel synthesis and subsequent optical characterization of large numbers of spatially addressable nanofabricated metamaterial samples (libraries) with quasi-continuous variation of design parameters under real manufacturing conditions. We illustrate this method for Fano-resonance plasmonic nanostructures, arriving at explicit recipes for high quality factors needed for switching and sensing applications

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

Classical print reflection models: a radiometric approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present contribution reviews the classical print prediction models of Williams and Clapper and of Clapper and Yule by pursuing a radiometric approach. The relationship between these models is established and the related respective contributions of Judd, Saunderson and Shore and Spoonhower are highlighted. Thanks to the radiometric approach, variants of the Williams and Clapper and Clapper and Yule models are derived in order to account for different measuring geometries (integrated sphere...

Hebert, M.; Hersch, R. D.

2004-01-01

402

Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Approach to Petrous Apex Cholesteatoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this report is to present indications and risks of endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to treat petrous apex cholesteatoma. This is a retrospective analysis of two cases of petrous apex cholesteatoma presenting with double vision who underwent an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach at Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris, France. Control of the lesion was satisfactory in both cases. However, a minor pontic stroke resulted in transient hemiparesis in the case with dehiscent dura around ...

Aubry, Karine; Kania, Romain; Sauvaget, Elisabeth; Huy, Patrice Tran Ba; Herman, Philippe

2010-01-01

403

Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

1984-06-01

404

Stability of RNA Virus Attenuation Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The greatest risk from live-attenuated vaccines is reversion to virulence. Particular concerns arise for RNA viruses, which exhibit high mutation frequencies. We examined the stability of 3 attenuation strategies for the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): a traditional, point mutation-dependent attenuation approach exemplified by TC-83; a rationally designed, targeted-mutation approach represented by V3526; and a chimeric vaccine, SIN/TC/ZPC. Our findings suggest that th...

Kenney, Joan L.; Volk, Sara M.; Pandya, Jyotsna; Wang, Eryu; Liang, Xiaodong; Weaver, Scott C.

2011-01-01

405

Transformation optics: approaching broadband electromagnetic cloaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An approach to broadband cloaking of light waves is analysed for a simplified case of a scaling transformation for a general cylindrical coordinate system. The proposed approach requires metamaterials with specifically engineered dispersion. The restriction on the signs of gradients in the dispersion dependencies of the dielectric permittivity and the magnetic permeability for different operational wavelengths is revealed and is shown to cause difficulties unless additional gain-assisted compensation for losses or electromagnetically induced transparency is introduced in the cloaking system.

Kildishev, A V; Cai, W; Chettiar, U K; Shalaev, V M [Birck Nanotechnology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: shalaev@purdue.edu

2008-11-15

406

Analysis and Evaluation of Organizational Change Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational change is the trend for the further development and which been explained is the enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Prescriptive approach and emergent approach are two main types of models for organizational change. The ‘Seven S Framework’ from Peters and his colleague to show the interrelationships between different aspects of corporate strategy. Mintzberg developed his rational concept of an organisation as composed of five segments and uses his model flexibly to develop five different configurations of structure

Yuan Liu

2009-11-01

407

Analysis and Evaluation of Organizational Change Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organizational change is the trend for the further development and which been explained is the enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Prescriptive approach and emergent approach are two main types of models for organizational change. The ‘Seven S Framework’ from Peters and his colleague to show the interrelationships between different aspects of corporate strategy. Mintzberg developed his rational concept of an organisation as composed of five segments and uses his model flexibly...

Yuan Liu

2009-01-01

408

Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discus...

Moji? Dušan

2002-01-01

409

Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discussed through an analysis of main standing points of theory about substitutes for leadership.

Moji? Dušan

2002-01-01

410

A new Arnoldi approach for polynomial eigenproblems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we introduce a new generalization of the method of Arnoldi for matrix polynomials. The new approach is compared with the approach of rewriting the polynomial problem into a linear eigenproblem and applying the standard method of Arnoldi to the linearised problem. The algorithm that can be applied directly to the polynomial eigenproblem turns out to be more efficient, both in storage and in computation.

Raeven, F.A.

1996-12-31

411

Cognitive approaches to L3 acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multilingualism has established itself as an area of systematic research in linguistic studies over the last two decades. The multilingual phenomenon can be approached from different perspectives: educational, formal linguistic, neurolinguistic, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic, among others. This article presents an overview of cognitive (psychological and formal linguistic) approaches to third language (L3) acquisition where the assumption is that language acquisition is a complex multi...

Maria del Pilar Garcia Mayo

2012-01-01

412

Ensemble Approaches to Facial Action Unit Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial action unit (au) classification is an approach to face expression recognition that decouples the recognition of expression from individual actions. In this paper, upper face aus are classified using an ensemble of MLP (Multi-layer perceptron) base classifiers with feature ranking based on PCA components. This approach is compared experimentally with other popular feature-ranking methods applied to Gabor features. Experimental results on Cohn-Kanade database demonstrate that the MLP ens...

2008-01-01

413

On the Replica Approach to Spin Glass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this talk I will review the approach to spin glasses based on the spontaneously broken replica symmetry. I will concentrate my attention mostly on more general ideas, skipping technical details and stressing the characteristic predictions of this approach. After the introduction of the replica method, the predicted structure of states is investigated in details, paying a particular attention to the local overlaps and to the structure of the clusters. I will finally study ...

Roma I, Giorgio Parisi Dipartimento Di Fisica

1994-01-01

414

From Lotka to the entropy generation approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The entropy approach to the evolution of open systems is analyzed, using Lotka’s principle as a starting point. A Lagrangian is sought after to develop an analytical method for the evaluation of the stationary states of open irreversible systems. The stationary conditions for open systems are first obtained on the basis of the entropy generation and its maximum principle, suggesting them as a link between the classical engineering thermodynamics approach and the more mathematical Lotka point of view.

Lucia, Umberto; Sciubba, Enrico

2013-09-01

415

Learning the deep approach: language teacher's voices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the Deep Approach and learning modules prepared for Turkish as a Foreign Language, this qualitative study analyzed the experiences of instructors working at five research universities in the United States and one university in Turkey. The focus was on understanding how the implementation of the new approach was negotiated by teachers as they reflected on pedagogies. As a result of the interpretive analysis, we identified three main themes. This article presents how teachers practices...

Karaman, Cendel; O?kten, Celile; Tochon, Franc?ois Victor

2012-01-01

416

Goodness-of-fit: an economic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Specific functional forms are often used in economic models of distributions; goodness-of-fit measures are used to assess whether a functional form is appropriate in the light of real-world data. Standard approaches use a distance criterion based on the EDF, an aggregation of differences in observed and theoretical cumulative frequencies. However, an economic approach to the problem should involve a measure of the information loss from using a badly-fitting model. This would involve an aggreg...

2009-01-01

417

A Dialectical Approach to Positive Organizational Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last decade, an academic movement emerged towards the study of positive phenomena in management and organization studies. Since then, two different scientific research streams have emerged in line with this positive approach to management: 1) positive organizational scholarship (POS), which proposes a trait approach view of positive virtues and strengths and sees the environment as a moderator variable which facilitates or not the exhibition o...

Miguel Pereira Lopes

2013-01-01

418

Measuring Dynamic Technical Change: a technometric Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The propose of this paper is to extend the microeconomic benchmarking approach known as 'technometrics'. We offer a novel approach to measuring technical change at the product level, based on intertemporal comparison of product characteristics, using objective performance measures. The goal of the study is to provide a straightforward tool for benchmarking technological sophistication that can be portrayed graphically and shows how technological capabilities have changed between two points in...

2000-01-01

419

A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to r...

Hopkins, Tom S.; Denis Bailly; Støttrup, Josianne G.

2011-01-01

420

A team building approach for competency development.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An approach for multidisciplinary team building is proposed through three steps. We suppose that tasks and team members are characterized by a set of attributes (technical competencies). First, the calculation of distance measure between task and team member (profile matching) are proposed. Second, an array-based clustering algorithm is used as an effective means for providing an alternative solution in task and team-member clustering. The proposed approach generates a systematic formation of...

Hlaoittinun, Onanong; Bonjour, Eric; Dulmet, Maryvonne

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

APPROACHES TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT AT EUROPEAN LEVEL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the current economic context, quality has become a source of competitive advantage and organizations must perceive quality as something natural and human in order to achieve excellence. The proper question for the context of the internationalisation of the economy is whether the culture of the regions, states or nations affects the development in the quality management field and the quality approach. The present study tries to give a theoretical approach of how culture influences the quali...

Salagean Horatiu Catalin; Ilies Radu; Gherman Mihai; Cioban Bogdan

2013-01-01

422

Recognition of voice commands using hybrid approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computerized systems with voice user interfaces could save time and ease the work of healthcare practitioners. To achieve this goal voice user interface should be reliable (to recognize the commands with high enough accuracy) and properly designed (to be convenient for the user). The paper deals with hybrid approach implementation issues for the voice commands recognition. By the hybrid approach we assume the combination of several different recognition methods to achieve higher recognition a...

Rudz?ionis, Vytautas; Ratkevic?ius, Kastytis; Rudz?ionis, Algimantas; Ras?kinis, Gailius; Maskeliu?nas, Rytis

2013-01-01

423

A variational approach for object contour tracking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we describe a new framework for the tracking of closed curves described through implicit surface modeling. The approach proposed here enables a continuous tracking along an image sequence of deformable object contours. Such an approach is formalized through the minimization of a global spatio-temporal continuous cost functional stemming from a Bayesian Maximum a posteriori estimation of a Gaussian probability distribution. The resulting minimization sequence consists in a forwar...

Papadakis, Nicolas; Me?min, Etienne; Cao, Frederic

2005-01-01

424

Different Approaches used in Software Product Families  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of software in consumer products is growing tremendously in current era. Further the complexity of software in products is growing, diversity increasing, and the lead time is decreasing. To meet all these challenges software reuse in consumer products is the solution. This evolves the concepts of software product family, product population, and product lines. Three different approaches are used to integrate all software within hardware. These three approaches are Integration-Oriented ...

Inam, Rafia

2010-01-01

425

A Fast Approach to Creative Telescoping  

CERN Document Server

In this note we reinvestigate the task of computing creative telescoping relations in differential-difference operator algebras. Our approach is based on an ansatz that explicitly includes the denominators of the delta parts. We contribute several ideas of how to make an implementation of this approach reasonably fast and provide such an implementation. A selection of examples shows that it can be superior to existing methods by a large factor.

Koutschan, Christoph

2010-01-01

426

Alternative approaches to the thyroid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in surgical technology and patient-driven demands have fueled exploration into methods to improve cosmetic outcomes in thyroid surgery. This exploration has produced 2 fundamentally different pathways for reducing the visible thyroidectomy scar. Minimally invasive anterior cervical approaches use small incisions hidden in natural skin creases and reduce the overall extent of dissection required to remove the thyroid. Remote access approaches remove the incision from the anterior neck completely but require more extensive dissection to access the thyroid compartment. PMID:24891172

Duke, William S; Terris, David J

2014-06-01

427

Whole Life Cycle Cost: a new approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The last few years have seen significant improvements in the concepts, methods and the general approaches to calculating costs. ABC, Target Costing, Strategic Cost Management, functional analysis and costing are mobilising attention. Regardless of which of these approaches we consider, it is always from the point of view of one player whose intention is to benefit from increased knowledge of costs in order to achieve an increased control over their value-chain and profit-margins. This self-ce...

Me?vellec, Pierre; Perry, Nicolas

2006-01-01

428

Various teaching approaches in nutrition education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the thesis, we present a pilot research to constructivist approach to teaching nutrition content. We have analyzed success of the pupils who participated in the group of constructivist approach in comparison to pupils who participated in a traditional class. We have chosen the teaching unit of planning meals using the food pyramid. Some research indicate that pupils do not understand and do not know how to use the food pyramid when planning their meal. In the study, which included pupils o...

Lah, Maja

2013-01-01

429

Production efficiency evaluation: analysis of approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most common approaches to the effectiveness evaluation of both the national and in foreign practice of management are researched. The widespread in domestic management practice system of generalized and partial efficiency evaluation indicators from a position of resource-cost approach is grounded. Due to market requirements, imposed on businesses to ensure competitiveness, it is necessary to take into account the requirements of all contractors that are displayed in financial indicators.

Yuliya Litkovets

2013-11-01

430

An approach for solubility enhancement: solid dispersion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solubility behavior of drug is one of most challenging aspect in formulation development. Thus a greater understanding of dissolution & absorption behavior of drug with low aqueous solubility is required to successfully formulate them into more soluble and hence bioavailable drug product. Therefore different approaches are being explored to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs, one of such approach is using solid dispersion by solvent evaporation method. In th...

Shinde, S. S.; Patil, S. S.; Mevekari, F. I.; Satpute, A. S.

2011-01-01

431

AYURVEDIC APPROACH TO TOTAL HEALTH CARE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The approach of Ayurveda to health care is through the relationship of man and his environment and the attainment of harmony between the internal and external environment. Restoration of the natural equilibrium through the right approach by an all round health practices as has been enumerated concisely in the Ayurvedic system and implemented in the social practice, is possibly the best means of achieving total health care

Venkatraghavan, S.

1982-01-01

432

Decision Making under Uncertainty: A Quasimetric Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a new approach for solving a class of discrete decision making problems under uncertainty with positive cost. This issue concerns multiple and diverse fields such as engineering, economics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and many others. Basically, an agent has to choose a single or series of actions from a set of options, without knowing for sure their consequences. Schematically, two main approaches have been followed: either the agent learns which option is the corre...

N Guyen, Steve; Moulin-frier, Cle?ment; Droulez, Jacques

2013-01-01

433

MCA: A multichannel approach to SAR autofocus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a new noniterative approach to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus, termed the multichannel autofocus (MCA) algorithm. The key in the approach is to exploit the multichannel redundancy of the defocusing operation to create a linear subspace, where the unknown perfectly focused image resides, expressed in terms of a known basis formed from the given defocused image. A unique solution for the perfectly focused image is then directly determined through a linear algebraic formulat...

Morrison, Robert L.; Do, Minh N.; Munson, David C.

2009-01-01

434

APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE WITHIN MODERN COMPANIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Throughout the ideas comprised in this paper we have approached a trendy subject both for its popularity and imminent necessity. The paper sections refer to different aspects that have strong correlation with the main subject which is –organizational change. The first section debates the specifics and importance of organizational change within the present business context. Second section discusses managerial strategies to approach change in the organization environment. The next section of ...

2013-01-01

435

Resource Leveling Using Petrinet and Memetic Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of scheduling activities dynamic for a project, within the available resources and adhering to precedence relationships is NP hard combinatorial. Traditional approaches and their extensions are limited in application for simultaneous scheduling of resources with leveling. Considering the need for improved modeling and scheduling techniques, this paper proposes the use of Petrinet based approach aided by memetic algorithm. Manufacturing projects involving either a single or multi r...

2007-01-01

436

An interdisciplinary approach to occupational respiratory disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide about 50 million new cases of occupational respiratory diseases emerge every year. Without preventative action, the burden of occupational diseases is expected to increase. In this thesis an alternative approach to deliver occupational health care is explored concerning work-related respiratory disorders in various worker populations. This approach is illustrated by a series of structured case studies. As a result of those studies it was ...

Rooy, G. B. G. J.

2010-01-01

437

A New Approach to Fuzzy Arithmetic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work shows an application of a generalized approach for constructing dilation-erosion adjunctions on fuzzy sets. More precisely, operations on fuzzy quantities and fuzzy numbers are considered. By the generalized approach an analogy with the well known interval computations could be drawn and thus we can define outer and inner operations on fuzzy objects. These operations are found to be useful in the control of bioprocesses, ecology and other domains where data uncerta...

Popov, Antony

2010-01-01

438

Modeling computer virus with the BSDE approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the connection between computer viruses spreading and epidemiological models. To this end, the block-structured state-dependent event (BSDE) approach is used to study the number of cases of infection in a computer network. The goal of the BSDE approach is the possibility of dealing with non-exponential models with correlated flows, but keeping tractable the dimensionality of the underlying Markov chain. The obtained results are illustrated by numerica...

Amador, J.; Artalejo, Jesu?s R.

2013-01-01

439

Neurobiological Correlates of Coping through Emotional Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation considered possible health-related neurobiological processes associated with “emotional approach coping” (EAC), or intentional efforts to identify, process, and express emotions surrounding stressors. It was hypothesized that higher dispositional use of EAC strategies would be related to neural activity indicative of greater trait approach motivational orientation and to lower proinflammatory cytokine and cortisol responses to stress. To assess these relationships, 46 h...

Master, Sarah L.; Amodio, David M.; Stanton, Annette L.; Yee, Cindy M.; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Taylor, Shelley E.

2009-01-01

440

Knowledge-lean approaches to metonymy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current approaches to metonymy recognition are mainly supervised, relying heavily on the manual annotation of training and test data. This forms a considerable hindrance to their application on a wider scale. This dissertation therefore aims to relieve the knowledge acquisition bottleneck with respect to metonymy recognition by examining knowledge-lean approaches that reduce this need for human effort. This investigation involves the study of three algorithms that constitute an...

Peirsman, Yves

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Property-driven software engineering approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a research roadmap that defines an enhanced model-driven software engineering approach focused on non-functional properties models. Currently, we have implemented two sub-processes of this roadmap: Property Modeling and Monitoring. We provide a property-driven approach to runtime monitoring based on a comprehensive Property Meta-Model (PMM) and on a generic configurable event-based monitoring infrastructure.

Di Marco, Antinisca; Lonetti, Francesca; Angelis, Guglielmo

2012-01-01

442

Regulatory approaches to reproductive genetic testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report analyses the ethical and legal aspects of reproductive genetic testing in 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, India, Israel, Japan, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK). The legal status of reproductive genetic testing in the countries under analysis is difficult to generalize due to the different regulatory systems adopted. These approaches are a reflection of the legal traditions and cultural and socio-religious beliefs which inform and shape public policy on assisted reproductive technologies and genetic testing. We divide approaches into two groups: public ordering (legislative, top-down approach) and private ordering (non-legislative, bottom-up approach). Even limiting our analysis to a number of countries that span the range from restrictive to pragmatic approaches, there is remarkable symmetry in both the (i) substantive requirements (i.e. gravity, health indications generally) and (ii) procedural safeguards (i.e. informed consent, counselling, confidentiality, civil status, oversight and accreditation) surrounding reproductive genetic testing. Indeed, irrespective of whether a country adopts a prohibitive or a permissive approach through legislation or self-regulation or a mix of both, the ultimate decision is--and should continue to be--a medical one. Nowhere is this more evident than in the substantive requirements. PMID:15388677

Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario M

2004-12-01

443

The Glissonian approach of the hilum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detailed knowledge of the segmental anatomy of the liver has led to a rapid evolution in resectional surgery based on the intrahepatic distribution of the portal trinity (the hepatic artery, hepatic duct and portal vein). The classical intrafascial or extrahepatic approach is to isolate the appropriate branch of the portal vein, hepatic artery and the hepatic duct, outside the liver substance. Another method, the extrafascial approach, is to dissect the whole sheath of the pedicle directly after division of a substantial amount of the hepatic tissue to reach the pedicle, which is surrounded by a sheath, derived from Glisson's capsule. This Glissonian sheath encloses the portal trinity. In the transfissural or intrahepatic approach, these sheaths can be approached either anteriorly (after division of the main, right or umbilical fissure) or posteriorly from behind the porta hepatis. We describe the technique for approaching the Glissonian sheath and hence the hepatic pedicle structures and their branches by the intrahepatic posterior approach that allows early delineation of the liver segment without the need for ancillary techniques. In addition, the indications for the use of this technique in the technical and oncologic settings are also discussed. PMID:10414187

Launois, B; Maddern, G; Tay, K H

1999-01-01

444

Organizational Assurance Approach as Management Expectation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational assurance strategy involves adding some new but unrelated products and services to their existing ones, and assurance approaching them to their current customers. This strategy is concerned when a organization tries to increase its control by acquiring organizations that supply it with input or organizations that are customers for its output. It aims at excelling in the competition by offering products with the lowest cost. Therefore, the organizational assurance is production in massive amount with low prices, which is labeled as economy of scale. This paper proposes a relation of organizational assurance approach by futurism management and reviews the organizational assurance planning and performance measurement literature to develop a conceptual model and research propositions. In fact, active organizations influence whether or not those organizations engage in organizational assurance planning. In this field, the focus is on the special characteristics of futurism management such as education type and level. Data are drawn from a survey of the active organizations in active organizations that around few samples of futurism management engage in organizational assurance approach. The futurism management characteristics showing a significant association with a commitment to organizational assurance approach and also organizational assurance approach showed a positive association with that futurism management with a growth orientation. It is concluded that futurism management characteristics can be important in explaining and compilation the organizational assurance approach within the active organizations for implementation of organizational assurance planning.

Dr. Nasser Fegh-hi Farahmand

2013-02-01

445

Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of "markets" that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

Burgkhardt Dennis

2008-01-01

446

Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of “markets” that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

Friedrich K. Jondral

2008-05-01

447

Posterior approach white-line advancement ptosis repair: the evolving posterior approach to ptosis surgery.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction We describe a surgical technique for ptosis correction in moderate to good levator function involving advancement of the levator aponeurosis via a transconjunctival posterior approach without resection of Muller’s muscle. We present our experience of and the results from this method and review the evolution of posterior approach ptosis surgery. Purpose To assess the efficacy and predictability of posterior approach white line advancement ptosis r...

2010-01-01

448

Systematic Approach for Decommissioning Planning and Estimating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear facility decommissioning, satisfactorily completed at the lowest cost, relies on a systematic approach to the planning, estimating, and documenting the work. High quality information is needed to properly perform the planning and estimating. A systematic approach to collecting and maintaining the needed information is recommended using a knowledgebase system for information management. A systematic approach is also recommended to develop the decommissioning plan, cost estimate and schedule. A probabilistic project cost and schedule risk analysis is included as part of the planning process. The entire effort is performed by a experienced team of decommissioning planners, cost estimators, schedulers, and facility knowledgeable owner representatives. The plant data, work plans, cost and schedule are entered into a knowledgebase. This systematic approach has been used successfully for decommissioning planning and cost estimating for a commercial nuclear power plant. Elements of this approach have been used for numerous cost estimates and estimate reviews. The plan and estimate in the knowledgebase should be a living document, updated periodically, to support decommissioning fund provisioning, with the plan ready for use when the need arises

2002-02-24

449

Candidate Gene Identification Approach: Progress and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although it has been widely applied in identification of genes responsible for biomedically, economically, or even evolutionarily important complex and quantitative traits, traditional candidate gene approach is largely limited by its reliance on the priori knowledge about the physiological, biochemical or functional aspects of possible candidates. Such limitation results in a fatal information bottleneck, which has apparently become an obstacle for further applications of traditional candidate gene approach on many occasions. While the identification of candidate genes involved in genetic traits of specific interest remains a challenge, significant progress in this subject has been achieved in the last few years. Several strategies have been developed, or being developed, to break the barrier of information bottleneck. Recently, being a new developing method of candidate gene approach, digital candidate gene approach (DigiCGA has emerged and been primarily applied to identify potential candidate genes in some studies. This review summarizes the progress, application software, online tools, and challenges related to this approach.

Mengjin Zhu, Shuhong Zhao

2007-01-01

450

Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented

1988-01-01

451

Novel and Flexible Approach to Trust Negotiations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the progress of society today Current real applications require flexible approaches to trust negotiations, especially in light of the widespread use of mobile devices. Moreover the ubiquitous nature of online peer-to-peer systems, and the increasing number of moving objects involved in online transactions, negotiators must be allowed to switch roles to guarantee dependability, availability of resources and peers. Existing method mostly focused on the assurance of privacy and confidentiality with the goal of guaranteeing that no actual information about a negotiator’s properties is disclosed. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to trust negotiations that offers a general solution to those issues by developing major extensions to previous approaches by presenting a multi session dependable approach to trust negotiations. This proposed framework supports voluntary and unpredicted interruptions, enabling the negotiating parties to complete the negotiation despite temporary unavailability of resources. In our approach the protocols address issues related to validity, temporary loss of data, and extended unavailability negotiators. For increasing robustness and efficiency we showed how our negotiation protocol can withstand in most significant attacks.

G. Ramachandran

2013-10-01

452

Streamflow disaggregation: a nonlinear deterministic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study introduces a nonlinear deterministic approach for streamflow disaggregation. According to this approach, the streamflow transformation process from one scale to another is treated as a nonlinear deterministic process, rather than a stochastic process as generally assumed. The approach follows two important steps: (1 reconstruction of the scalar (streamflow series in a multi-dimensional phase-space for representing the transformation dynamics; and (2 use of a local approximation (nearest neighbor method for disaggregation. The approach is employed for streamflow disaggregation in the Mississippi River basin, USA. Data of successively doubled resolutions between daily and 16 days (i.e. daily, 2-day, 4-day, 8-day, and 16-day are studied, and disaggregations are attempted only between successive resolutions (i.e. 2-day to daily, 4-day to 2-day, 8-day to 4-day, and 16-day to 8-day. Comparisons between the disaggregated values and the actual values reveal excellent agreements for all the cases studied, indicating the suitability of the approach for streamflow disaggregation. A further insight into the results reveals that the best results are, in general, achieved for low embedding dimensions (2 or 3 and small number of neighbors (less than 50, suggesting possible presence of nonlinear determinism in the underlying transformation process. A decrease in accuracy with increasing disaggregation scale is also observed, a possible implication of the existence of a scaling regime in streamflow.

B. Sivakumar

2004-01-01

453

Alternative approach to general coupled linear optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Twiss parameters provide a convenient description of beam optics in uncoupled linear beamlines. For coupled beamlines, a variety of approaches are possible for describing the linear optics; here, we propose an approach and notation that naturally generalizes the familiar Twiss parameters to the coupled case in three degrees of freedom. Our approach is based on an eigensystem analysis of the matrix of second-order beam moments, or alternatively (in the case of a storage ring) on an eigensystem analysis of the linear single-turn map. The lattice functions that emerge from this approach have an interpretation that is conceptually very simple: in particular, the lattice functions directly relate the beam distribution in phase space to the invariant emittances. To emphasize the physical significance of the coupled lattice functions, we develop the theory from first principles, using only the assumption of linear symplectic transport. We also give some examples of the application of this approach, demonstrating its advantages of conceptual and notational simplicity.

Wolski, Andrzej

2005-11-29

454

Bayesian approach and application to operation safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management of industrial risks requires the development of statistical and probabilistic analyses which use all the available convenient information in order to compensate the insufficient experience feedback in a domain where accidents and incidents remain too scarce to perform a classical statistical frequency analysis. The Bayesian decision approach is well adapted to this problem because it integrates both the expertise and the experience feedback. The domain of knowledge is widen, the forecasting study becomes possible and the decisions-remedial actions are strengthen thanks to risk-cost-benefit optimization analyzes. This book presents the bases of the Bayesian approach and its concrete applications in various industrial domains. After a mathematical presentation of the industrial operation safety concepts and of the Bayesian approach principles, this book treats of some of the problems that can be solved thanks to this approach: softwares reliability, controls linked with the equipments warranty, dynamical updating of databases, expertise modeling and weighting, Bayesian optimization in the domains of maintenance, quality control, tests and design of new equipments. A synthesis of the mathematical formulae used in this approach is given in conclusion. (J.S.)

2003-01-01

455

Surgical approach to parapharyngeal space tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Parapharyngeal space tumors are very rare comprising 0,5% of head and neck tumors. Tumors of this region are significant diagnostic problem due to scanty symptomatology as well as considerable surgical issue owing to inaccessibility. Patients and Methods: Retrospective twenty-year study of patients with parapharyngeal space tumors included 69 patients. Data were obtained from medical records, and were pointed to diagnostic procedures, surgical approach and pathohistological findings. Symptoms and clinical signs were also investigated. Results: Preoperative diagnostics is very important for precise tumor localization and relation to adjacent structures. Computerized tomography was the most common method used, and recently, magnetic resonance imaging and indication-based contrast angiography have been applied. All of 69 patients with parapharyngeal space tumors were treated surgically. The most often approach to this tumor was transcervical (62%, then transoral approach and combination transcervical transoral approach. Pathohistological examination verified that most of the tumors were benign (75% and origin of these tumors was most frequently salivary (42%. Conclusion: For making a decision on surgical approach, diagnostic methods, other than thorough examination, such as computerized tomography(CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MR, are necessary to be applied.

Dimitrijevi? Milovan V.

2011-01-01

456

Testing the TPF Interferometry Approach before Launch  

Science.gov (United States)

One way to directly detect nearby extra-solar planets is via their thermal infrared emission, and with this goal in mind, both NASA and ESA are investigating cryogenic infrared interferometers. Common to both agencies' approaches to faint off-axis source detection near bright stars is the use of a rotating nulling interferometer, such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder interferometer (TPF-I), or Darwin. In this approach, the central star is nulled, while the emission from off-axis sources is transmitted and modulated by the rotation of the off-axis fringes. Because of the high contrasts involved, and the novelty of the measurement technique, it is essential to gain experience with this technique before launch. Here we describe a simple ground-based experiment that can test the essential aspects of the TPF signal measurement and image reconstruction approaches by generating a rotating interferometric baseline within the pupil of a large singleaperture telescope. This approach can mimic potential space-based interferometric configurations, and allow the extraction of signals from off-axis sources using the same algorithms proposed for the space-based missions. This approach should thus allow for testing of the applicability of proposed signal extraction algorithms for the detection of single and multiple near-neighbor companions...

Serabyn, Eugene; Mennesson, Bertrand

2006-01-01

457

Ventilation and anesthetic approaches for rigid bronchoscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to growing interest in management of central airway obstruction, rigid bronchoscopy is undergoing a resurgence in popularity among pulmonologists. Performing rigid bronchoscopy requires use of deep sedation or general anesthesia to achieve adequate patient comfort, whereas maintaining oxygenation and ventilation via an uncuffed and often open rigid bronchoscope requires use of ventilation strategies that may be unfamiliar to most pulmonologists. Available approaches include apneic oxygenation, spontaneous assisted ventilation, controlled ventilation, manual jet, and high-frequency jet ventilation. Anesthetic technique is partially dictated by the selected ventilation strategy but most often relies on a total intravenous anesthetic approach using ultra-short-acting sedatives and hypnotics for a rapid offset of action in this patient population with underlying respiratory compromise. Gas anesthetic may be used with the rigid bronchoscope, minimizing leaks with fenestrated caps placed over the ports, although persistent circuit leaks can make this approach challenging. Jet ventilation, the most commonly used ventilatory approach, may be delivered manually using a Sanders valve or via an automated ventilator at supraphysiologic respiratory rates, allowing for an open rigid bronchoscope to facilitate ease of moving tools in and out of the airway. Despite a patient population that often suffers from significant respiratory compromise, major complications with rigid bronchoscopy are uncommon and are similar among modern ventilation approaches. Choice of ventilation technique should be determined by local expertise and equipment availability. Appropriate patient selection and recognition of limitations associated with a given ventilation strategy are critical to avoid procedural-related complications. PMID:24635585

Pathak, Vikas; Welsby, Ian; Mahmood, Kamran; Wahidi, Momen; MacIntyre, Neil; Shofer, Scott

2014-05-01

458

Subcranial Approach in Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

We report our experience with the subcranial approach, developed at the Plastic Surgery Unit of Hospital “Ricardo Gutiérrez,” for the treatment of injuries in the frontoethmoidal orbital region in pediatric patients. The subcranial approach was described by Raveh et al for the treatment of fractures in the frontoethmoidal area. The subcranial approach was used later for surgery of tumors and deformities of the frontoethmoidal region. We have used this approach in nine cases of nontraumatic injuries (one meningioma, one orbital bone fibrous dysplasia, one vascular malformation, five nasal dermoid cysts, and one fronto-orbital mucocele). One patient with vascular malformation died of a stroke 10 days after surgery. The patient with the meningioma had a recurrence. Another patient developed an infection that needed surgical resolution and hardware removal. A third patient suffered a mild infection that receded with medication. No other complications were registered. The surgical exposure obtained through this approach was always excellent and left no cosmetic defects. There was no evidence of facial growth disturbance in this group of patients, except in one patient who received radiotherapy after surgery. Operative time and hospitalization were lower in this group than in patients with conventional frontal craniotomy.

Ciechomski, Jorge; Aufgang, Ruben; Villanueva, Lucrecia; Demarchi, Victoria

2010-01-01

459

A hybrid approach to protect palmprint templates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach. PMID:24982977

Liu, Hailun; Sun, Dongmei; Xiong, Ke; Qiu, Zhengding

2014-01-01

460

A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates  

Science.gov (United States)

Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithm