WorldWideScience
1

Takeuchi. Nuevo híbrido de Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) para Cuba / Takeuchi. New cuban hybrid of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los Dendrobium forman parte de las orquídeas más cultivadas de todo el mundo; varios cultivares de este género son vendidos como flor de corte y se ubican en el cuarto lugar en ventas entre los productos de floricultura, después de las Palmáceas, Dracaena y Anthurium de corte. En este trabajo se pre [...] sentan las principales características de un nuevo cultivar de orquídea epífita, perteneciente al género Dendrobium. Takeuchi, es el resultado de la polinización manual cruzada realizada en el mes de enero del 2007 entre Dendrobium x superbiens (progenitor madre) y Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (progenitor padre); la primera floración se obtuvo en el mes de enero del 2012. Se encuentra registrado en la base de datos de la Sociedad Hortícola Real de Inglaterra, autoridad internacional encargada del registro de cultivares híbridos de orquídeas. Este nuevo híbrido posee un alto potencial ornamental y estético. Abstract in english The Dendrobium are among the most cultivated orchids worldwide; they are sold as cut flowers and are ranked in the fourth place in sales among floricultural products, after Palms, Dracaena and Anthurium for cut. This paper presents the main characteristics of a new cultivar of epiphytic orchids, bel [...] onging to the genus Dendrobium. Takeuchi becomes from the cross pollination, in January 2007, between Dendrobium x superbiens (female parent) and Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (male parent). The first flowering occurred in January 2012. This hybrid is registered in the database of the Royal Horticultural Society of England, international cultivar registration authority for orchid hybrids. This new hybrid has a high ornamental and esthetic potential.

Lorenzo, Suárez Guerra; María M, Hernández Espinosa; Georvis, Téllez Beltrán.

2013-12-01

2

Chest pain on exertion after the takeuchi repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery: right ventricular ischemia due to severe pulmonary outflow tract obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Right ventricular (RV) outflow obstruction (in the form of valvar or supravalvular pulmonary stenosis) is a well-known complication of the Takeuchi procedure. We describe a 13-year-old male with exertional chest pain, pulmonary stenosis, RV hypertrophy, and consequent RV ischemia, which was confirmed using stress echocardiography and single-photon emission tomography. PMID:25548350

van der Bijl, Pieter; Doruyter, Alexander; Decker, Rik de; Lawrenson, John; Comitis, George; Hewitson, John

2015-01-01

3

Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President  

Science.gov (United States)

Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President

Morita, Utako

4

Possible Origins of Extra Threshold Voltage Variability in N-Type Field-Effect Transistors by Intentionally Changing Process Conditions and Using Takeuchi Plot  

Science.gov (United States)

The origins of the threshold voltage (VT) variability of n-type field-effect transistors (NFETs), which have larger VT variability than p-type field-effect transistors (PFETs), are investigated using the Takeuchi plot and by intentionally changing process conditions. The process conditions investigated in this study are the polarity of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) gate electrodes, fluctuations of gate oxide thickness and gate oxide/substrate interface, and channel stress. It is confirmed by experiments that these process conditions negligibly affect VT variability in NFETs. This result does not contradict our previous result that channel profile nonuniformity is the major origin of the larger VT variability in NFETs than that in PFETs.

Tsunomura, Takaaki; Yano, Fumiko; Nishida, Akio; Hiramoto, Toshiro

2010-07-01

5

Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.

Christian Reyes

2007-07-01

6

Narrative approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Narrative coaching is representative of the new wave – or third generation – of coaching practice . The theory and practice of narrative coaching takes into account the social and cultural conditions of late modern society, and must be seen as intertwined with them. Some initial conceptualizations of narrative coaching were developed by David Drake (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) in the USA and Australia, by Ho Law in the UK (Law, 2007a + b; Law & Stelter, 2009) and by Reinhard Stelter (2007, 2009, 2012, in preparation; Stelter & Law, 2010) in Denmark. In the following chapter the aim is to present coaching as a narrative-collaborative practice, an approach that is based on phenomenology, social constructionism and narrative theory. Seeing narrative coaching as a collaborative practice also leads to reflecting on the relationship between coach and coachee(s) in a new way, where both parts contribute to the dialogue equally and sometimes even symmetrically. The practice of narrative coaching will be examined in relation to the concrete experiences gained in a related field of practice, i.e. narrative therapy (White, 1997, 2007). Narrative coaching is to be understood as a reflective space, either of an individual or of a group or team, where the main focus is on values and on providing opportunities for meaning-making. Problematic experiences or events are reframed by the unfolding of alternative narratives; these are based on re-experiencing and re-collection, as well as on the process of co-creation between coach and coachee. The conceptual framework will be tested by presenting central results of a research project. The ideas discussed in this chapter expand upon earlier concepts of the narrative approach (mainly formulated by White in 2007) by integrating ideas from phenomenology and experiential approaches with collaborative and social constructionist thinking.

Stelter, Reinhard

2012-01-01

7

Educational approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three papers were presented in the session focusing on educational approaches: Anu Narusk reported on an Estonian study on the influence of the family on adolescents' substance use, Bernadette Roussille presented a French mass media campaign aimed at reducing heavy drinking by young people, and Sally Casswell analysed the public discourse on alcohol, which is an important part of the social and political context in which decisions are taken about public policies. Each of the papers highlighted in its own way the complex relationships between people's behaviour, its social and cultural context, and the wider economic and political environment. PMID:9167298

Montonen, M

1997-03-01

8

Curriculum: Which Approach?  

Science.gov (United States)

Curriculum has two major approaches, technical and scientific approach and the nontechnical-nonscientific approach. Both are different and distinct. Schools need to distinguish which approach is suited for their students.

Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

2010-01-01

9

Life Span Developmental Approach  

OpenAIRE

The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

Ali Eryilmaz3

2011-01-01

10

Evaluating Six Soft Approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

2008-01-01

11

Evaluating six soft approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

2008-01-01

12

Introducing systems approaches  

OpenAIRE

Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) d...

Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

2010-01-01

13

The case study approach  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources th...

Huby Guro; Robertson Ann; Cresswell Kathrin; Crowe Sarah; Avery Anthony; Sheikh Aziz

2011-01-01

14

Risk factors for suicidal behaviors among Filipino Americans: A data mining approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Filipino Americans have lower suicide rates than other Asian ethnic groups. The present study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempt among Filipino Americans with random forest. The data were from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study (Takeuchi, 2011). The results showed that the important predictors for suicide ideation were depressive disorder, substance use disorder, and years in the United States. The important predictors for suicide attempt were the number of family relatives and family conflict. Clinicians are advised to investigate familial and cultural factors among Filipino Americans. How family and cultural factors may affect suicidal behaviors were further discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25110976

Kuroki, Yusuke

2015-01-01

15

The TLC Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

Welker, William A.

2002-01-01

16

Modular Approach for Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

17

VMD approach to ?-?(?,?)?-?? decays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We give a description of ?-?(?,?)?-?? decays in the approach of the vector-meson dominance (VMD) model and compare our results with the conserved vector current (CVC) predictions and experimental data

18

ECOTOXICOLOGY: PROBLEMS AND APPROACHES  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's chemical-oriented society, any student of ecology must be cognizant of the potential for environmental toxicants to alter the balances and relationships among the plants, animals and biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem. Ecotoxicology: roblems and Approaches" provides...

19

File System Design Approaches  

OpenAIRE

In this article, the file system development design approaches are discussed. The selection of the file system design approach is done according to the needs of the developers what are the needed requirements and specifications for the new design. It allowed us to identify where our proposal fitted in with relation to current and past file system development. Our experience with file system development is limited so the research served to identify the different techniques th...

Brijender Kahanwal

2014-01-01

20

Stylistics: corpus approaches  

OpenAIRE

This paper is an introduction to current work in the use of language corpora in the study of literature, and an exploration of the potential for further work. Stylistics and corpus linguistics have much in common. Both are empirical approaches which study the real evidence of language usage. There are however there is a lack of good-quality electronic texts and software tools for their analysis. However, there is important work in this field. Two main approaches are described. The fir...

Wynne, Martin

2005-01-01

21

STUTTERING-PSYCHOLINGUISTIC APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the linguistic material. Thus, the conclusions of this research study offer the possibility of promoting cross-cultural and cross-linguistic researches, with the aim of obtaining data which can be generalized beyond national boundaries, in stuttering pathology.

Maria Anca

2012-04-01

22

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

OpenAIRE

Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the...

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-01-01

23

File System Design Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the file system development design approaches are discussed. The selection of the file system design approach is done according to the needs of the developers what are the needed requirements and specifications for the new design. It allowed us to identify where our proposal fitted in with relation to current and past file system development. Our experience with file system development is limited so the research served to identify the different techniques that can be used. The variety of file systems encountered show what an active area of research file system development is. The file systems may be from one of the two fundamental categories. In one category, the file system is developed in user space and runs as a user process. Another file system may be developed in the kernel space and runs as a privileged process. Another one is the mixed approach in which we can take the advantages of both aforesaid approaches. Each development option has its own pros and cons. In this article, these design approaches are discussed.

Brijender Kahanwal

2014-02-01

24

Local approach to fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Models allowing the prediction of the failure of structures by crack propagation were first introduced in the 50's using linear fracture mechanics whose principles were first proposed by Griffith (1920). This approach was extended to non linear cases (plasticity and visco-plasticity) in the 70's based on the work of Rice (J or C* integrals); it has been largely adopted by the industry. However this so called global approach cannot deal with all practical cases and cannot explain all experimental observations as, for instance, the warm pre-stress effect (WPS). The local approach to fracture, which relies on a fine analysis of strains, stresses and damage of highly solicited regions (cracks, notches...) of structures is an alternative which allows to solve problems encountered while applying the global approach. It has been developed since the 80's in particular in France. Important research efforts are currently undertaken in this field in Europe (France, Germany), United States and Japan. This book presents several aspects of the local approach to fracture: damage mechanisms, experimental techniques, damage evolution law and failure criteria, modelling of damage, numerical simulation. This work is the result of a collective work carried out by the best french specialists (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ecole Centrale Paris, ENS Cachan, Universite de Louvain, INSA Lyon, ONERA, EDF). (authors)

25

Fuel cycle safeguards approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the status of studies recently performed in the United States of America on alternative safeguards approaches for light water reactor fuel cycles under the safeguards system of the Non-Proliferation Treaty; and a new method is described for consistent allocation of limited inspection manpower resources. The studies concern the advantages and disadvantages of using safeguards approaches for groups of nuclear facilities that interact to form a nuclear fuel cycle, rather than an approach that is facility specific, treating each facility as an isolated entity. The allocation methodology makes use of inspection evaluation criteria used by the IAEA, as well as a procedure to provide consistency in allocation of limited resources to individual facilities of any fuel cycle while considering all other facilities in the fuel cycle. (author)

26

Textbooks -- a new approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new approach to medical textbooks has been applied by a team comprising a publisher, educationalist, and subject specialist. The binding of the book can be opened so that additional material can be added and the pages rearranged. Illustrations are printed on separate sheets so as to be available for study at any point in the text. An interdisciplinary approach has been adopted throughout and each section of the book examines the subject from a different viewpoint, for example, a disease, a clinical presentation, or an approach to therapy. An important feature is the separation of core material from additional material. Layout and design have been used to facilitate learning and to make possible the use of the book for reference and revision. PMID:1203208

Marcus, A; Hall, H; Harden, R M

1975-12-01

27

Technical approach document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

28

Technical approach document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

1989-12-01

29

Diagnostic approach to osteoporosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnostic approach to osteoporosis usually involves an ample risk assessment, a physical examination, a radiograph of the thoracic and lumbar spine, a bone densitometry using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and a basic blood test. The aim of this approach is to assign a person to one of the WHO-based diagnostic categories, and to estimate the ten-year fracture risk of this individual. In countries where available, the individual ten-year fracture risk can now easily be calculated for men and women of forty years of age and above, by using a computer-driven calculation tool, called FRAXTM which has been developed by WHO recently. (author)

30

Thematic curriculum approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teaching. However, it did not prove to be suitable for planning the majority of activities in thematic curriculum, for it follows with difficulty the process of exploring or storytelling i.e. it disrupts the subject matter coherence of thematic curriculum. Therefore, it is suggested that matrix should be used for disciplinary curriculum planning but for that of thematic curriculum only in exclusive cases. The matrix should be used primarily as a framework for evaluating the distribution of various types of abilities and problem situations in teaching. The logic of diverse approaches to teaching reflects itself in the manner of planning and organizing the teaching process. Conceptual, visual-graphic, structural and other aids employed during educational process planning should suit the nature of the approach chosen. On the basis of qualitative investigations of educational process, in the present paper considerations are given to various approaches to teaching development of various drafts for the planning of teaching, and recognition of the logic of storytelling and exploring in thematic curriculum.

Šefer Jasmina P.

2003-01-01

31

Approaches to acceptable risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

32

Islamic approach in counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah. PMID:23563898

Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

2014-02-01

33

Approaches to acceptable risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

Whipple, C.

1997-04-30

34

Overview of Curricular Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutions of higher education address the transition from after-college life in a variety of curricular approaches. Articulation agreements provide greater transferability of courses from one college to another, thereby easing the transition for students. Career courses, which are typically taught by career center staff, are a common offering…

Hartz, Cameo V.; Parker, Jill

2012-01-01

35

Statistical approach of hysteresis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a statistical approach of hysteresis phenomenon is presented. Under the assumption that each magnetic domain can be represented by a random variable a very simple model of hysteresis can be built on. In spite of the simplicity of the model it possesses many important properties of hysteretic behaviour

36

Salt repository design approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

37

Holography a practical approach  

CERN Document Server

From fundamentals to advanced experiments and applications, this book explains how holography works. It guides students from simple optics to advanced topics in holography, following a practical approach using real-world materials. This proven university textbook contains exercises plus solutions as well as instructions for more than 20 experiments.

Ackermann, Gerhard K

2008-01-01

38

New Approaches to Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the author, the chief duty of a teacher is "to do himself out of a job as quickly and efficiently as possible." If he were to take this aphorism seriously and consider instruction in terms of behavior changes in students, a teacher would be forced to re-examine his basic approaches to teaching. He might come to realize that his chief…

Garrison, Roger H.

39

Sociocultural approach to textbook  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

Peši? Jelena M.

2005-01-01

40

The EFR safety approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper outlines the approach being taken in the design of EFR in order to meet modern safety standards. Defence in depth and application of the ALARP principle are the main elements of the approach. Safety concerns in the design basis are distinguished from those in the beyond design basis. The paper goes on the explain how to introduction of a 'third shutdown level' and passive means for the rejection of decay heat enhances the safety case. A breakthrough in the safety of fast reactor with large oxide core is claimed for these developments and the paper outlines the impact of this for beyond design basis containment in accordance with the ALRP principle. European safety R and D programmes are itemized and their connection with the safety case is made. (author)

41

Microwave approaches in hydrology  

Science.gov (United States)

The microwave approaches for remote sensing of soil moisture centent, snowpack properties, surface water area, and the detection of precipitation over land are discussed. Both active (radar) and passive (radiometry) approaches are considered, and the advantages of microwave sensing are pointed out, including all-weather capability, especially at the longer wavelengths, and greater penetration depth with optical or infrared sensors. Results obtained from ground-based, aircraft, and spacecraft platforms show that microwave systems can monitor the moisture content in the surface soil layer (5 cm thick), and that passive microwave systems can discriminate between light and heavy snowcover, detect the presence of liquid water in the snow, and qualitatively estimate snow water equivalent.

Schmugge, T. J.

1980-01-01

42

Thermodynamics an engineering approach  

CERN Document Server

Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

Cengel, Yunus A

2014-01-01

43

Dimensional Approach in Psychiatry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In psychiatry there is a traditional categorical conception stating that several disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have distinct etiologies. On the other hand, dimensional approach claims that these entities are actually the same disorder reflecting different clinical aspects of same mental disorder in the course of time. ICD and DSM classifications are based on separate categories of different mental disorders. Howewer, it is quite difficult to consider a mental disorder as a discrete entity that has absolute boundaries from other disorders. There are patients manifesting symptoms of two or more categories but do not fulfill all diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder. Dimensional approach handles the psychopathology as a continuing process and establish the patients to the different ongoing points. According to this view, in fact, multiple diagnosis reflect dimensions of the same disease.

Osman Ozdemir

2012-09-01

44

Communicational Approach to Copyright  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It may be questioned whether traditional concepts of individualistic droit d' auteur copyright theory apply to digital communication networks such as Internet. Due to mass of information it may be especially questioned whether it is rational to apply the concept of reproduction in an environment where no-one, not to mention individual authors, may rigorously evaluate where and when a copy of a certain piece of content is being produced. Consequently this article suggests an alternative approach to evaluate economic rights of authors in digital network environments. In doing so it theoretically compares economic rights of authors to basic research results from the field of communication studies. This approach is chosen as copyright is often connected to communication. The article offers an alternative, which should not narrow rights of authors but would provide more meaningful way to perceive copyright in digital networks.

Olli Vilanka

2013-12-01

45

Radiolab - three different approaches  

OpenAIRE

The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know...

Ola Stockfelt; Ansa Lønstrup; Torben Sangild

2012-01-01

46

Approach to Dyspepsia  

OpenAIRE

Dyspepsia is a common presenting problem of patients in family medicine. Dyspepsia can be caused by a number of underlying conditions, from peptic ulcer disease to functional disorders. Primary-care physicians need to develop an approach to the investigation and treatment of dyspepsia which maximizes symptom relief while minimizing patient discomfort and health costs. This article assesses the current literature on dyspepsia and outlines the evidence for various management strategies.

Koppert, Theresa; Elmslie, Thomas J.

1988-01-01

47

Thyroidectomy - A new approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new approach in thyroidectomy to treat the thyroid pathologies is reported here. By this new technique, a total of 20 cases were operated with good outcome. The postoperative complications were seen in 05 patients. One patient developed transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypertrophic scar in 4 cases. This technique can well be utilized for middle aged and elderly patients having unilateral benign goiter and for ablation of remnants of thyroid gland in malignant disorders. (author)

48

Symptoms: a new approach  

OpenAIRE

Symptoms are a major reason for patients to see doctors. Modern medicine and modern psychiatry both conceptualize symptoms in terms of pathology. For medicine it is organic bodily pathology and for psychiatry it is psychopathology. However, these simple pathology-based approaches to symptoms are increasingly found to be both scientifically and clinically inadequate. An alternative is to regard symptoms not simply as a manfestation of pathology but rather as the expression of a combination of ...

Sharpe, M.; Walker, J.

2009-01-01

49

Multiple Approaches to Islam  

OpenAIRE

The publication of the following articles by Al-Jami‘ah shows how  rich the subjects of Islamic studies are. From contemporary to classical themes there are gaps still left. This further proves that Islam, like any other religion, as a system of belief and cultural production which  serves as a context wherein textual works and norms are produced, can be approached from many dimensions. The texts, including books and other form of records, are always open to all readers, who c...

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2010-01-01

50

[Larynx preservation: nonsurgical approaches].  

Science.gov (United States)

The question of larynx preservation is central in the management of patients with a carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx, especially to preserve the main functions of the larynx. In early stages (T1-earlyT2) Larynx preservation can generally be obtained with partial surgery or radiotherapy. Some other approaches such as exclusive chemotherapy require further investigations. In locally advanced and infiltrating larynx/hypopharynx carcinomas, (advancedT2-T3), several ways have been used to preserve the larynx including exclusive radiotherapy which can be improved by modified fractionation and acceleration. The efficacy of radiotherapy can be also markedly increased by adding concomitant cisplatin based chemotherapy, as reported recently in a large randomized trial. An alternative approach consisted in using induction chemotherapy (cisplatin-5FU) and followed by a local treatment adapted to the response to chemotherapy. The combined analysis of 3 such randomized trials (GETTEC, Veteran et EORTC) showed that this approach has to be used with caution, and could be safer in good responders to induction chemotherapy. Finally, larynx preservation is generally not proposed in patients with deeply infiltrating tumors and or tumor invading the cartilage or soft tissue in the neck (T4). PMID:15679243

Bourhis, J; Lefebvre, J L; Temam, S; Lusinchi, A; Janot, F; Wibault, P; Pignon, J P

2004-11-01

51

Conceptual Approach To Architecture ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that architectural interpretation is experiencing from abuse use of architectural key terms. Notions like: criticism, history and theory; concepts like: beginning and approach; and labels like: style, school and movement were used indiscriminately in architectural interpretation.For instance, Banham (1966:10 indicated that he interpreted New Brutalism as a movement before the conditions of forming a movement were existed. Jencks writings are another example for the abuse use of the former notions, concepts and labels. In his two books: The Language Of Post-Modern Architecture and Late Modern Architecture, he described Post-Modern Architecture: first as a movement, second as a style, third as a school and fourth as an approach. Banham and Jencks were attempting to formulate verbal equivalent to the design of some architects before it was tested and proved to deserve a theoretical coverage, organized in an intellectual discipline as an approach, school or movement. This attempt perhaps, caused this abuse use of the former key terms in architectural interpretation. Commercial architectural press was another source for the abuse use of the previous architectural key terms. As a case in point, the magazine of Architectural Design (AD was a major source of the misinterpretation of those notions, concepts and labels, over the past four decades. It seems that no considerations were made to the specific definitions of those key terms, nor to the scope of their conceptual meaning, limits and context of their theme. Thus this paper endeavors to clear the abuse use of those notions, concepts and labels in architectural interpretation via defining them, refining their conceptual meanings. And exploring their themes, outlining their role, scope and place within architectural interpretation in order to employ them appropriately within architectural interpretation, as they constitute basic themes of the conceptual world of architecture. In so doing an attempt will be made to investigate the origin, structure, meaning and definitions of the said key terms as indicated in key literary, philosophical and architectural sources. Another attempt will be made to highlight the process and emphasize the conditions of forming and establishing architectural approaches, schools and movements via the concept beginning - as a moment in time and as a project underway - as interpreted in architectural sources. It is important to indicate that investigations in this paper are limited only to the notions: criticism, history and theory; concepts: beginning and approach; and labels: style, school and movement; though investigations will include concepts like precedence, generality and creativity, but within the previous architectural key terms.

Badi alAbed

2010-12-01

52

Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is becoming increasingly important for nuclear DNA-related disorders. Progress in each of these approaches provides some glimmer of hope for the future, although much work remains to be done. PMID:17486439

DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

2007-06-01

53

Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal peritonitis emergencies.

Agresta Ferdinando

2006-03-01

54

[Psychosomatic approach in dermatovenerology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychosomatic approach is a component of psychodermatology, which accentuates a holistic principle and psychosocial unity of man. Research data concerning the neurogenic modulation of skin inflammations, together with the prevalence of psychosocial influences in dermatological patients, motivate an increased interest of dermatovenereologists in psychodermatology and in the interdisciplinary cooperation with clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and other pertinent specialists. The Section of the Psychodermatology of the Czech Dermatovenereological Society was established in September 3rd 2004, in order to improve dermatovenereological care and the quality of life in dermatological patients. PMID:16521399

Pánková, R

2006-01-01

55

Multipole approach to metamaterials  

CERN Document Server

We report on the linear and nonlinear optical response of metamaterials evoked by first and second order multipoles. The analytical ground on which our approach bases permits for new insights into the functionality of metamaterials. For the sake of clarity we focus here on a key geometry, namely the split-ring resonator, although the introduced formalism can be applied to arbitrary structures. We derive the equations that describe linear and nonlinear light propagation where special emphasis is put on second harmonic generation. This contribution basically aims at stretching versatile and existing concepts to describe light propagation in nonlinear media towards the realm of metamaterials.

Petschulat, Joerg; Chipouline, Arkadi; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Tuennermann, Andreas; Lederer, Falk; Pertsch, Thomas

2009-01-01

56

Craniopharyngioma - Transnasal Endoscopic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumours arising from remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and occupy the sellar region. The patients may remain asymptomatic for long duration or present with headache or visual disturbances. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Traditionally these tumours have been removed by neurosurgeons through the cranial approach but the advent of nasal endoscopes has opened new avenues for ENT surgeons to treat such patients. We hereby present a case of craniopharyngioma who was successfully treated by Trans-nasal Hypophysectomy.

Sanjeev Bhagat,

2011-01-01

57

Diagnostic Approach to Myelopathies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Myelopathy is a broad term that refers to spinal cord involvement of multiple etiologies. Spinal cord diseases often have devastating consequences, ranging from quadriplegia and paraplegia to severe sensory deficits due to its confinement in a very small area. Many of these diseases are potentially reversible if they are recognized on time, hence the importance of recognizing the significance of magnetic resonance imaging when approaching a multifactorial disease considered as one of the most critical neurological emergencies, where prognosis depends on an early and accurate diagnosis.

58

The collaboratory approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

59

Combined approach brings success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen months ago, according to Trumpf Medical Systems, which managed the project, 'something out of the ordinary' happened at Leighton Hospital in Crewe. When making plans to upgrade ageing operating theatres and critical care units, the estates department took the decision to involve other disciplines from the very start of the process. Clinicians, nursing staff, architects, patient representatives, and suppliers, all played their part, with the estates team always at the hub. As Oliver Law, managing director of the UK medical technology specialist, explains, this multidisciplinary approach had a profound effect on the outcome. PMID:25004555

Law, Oliver

2014-06-01

60

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????: ??????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????-????????????????, ?????????????????. ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-07-01

61

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR- ... Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR ...

62

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good ... to watch Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a ...

63

Children and Complementary Health Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Children and Complementary Health Approaches On this page: Introduction ... on the Use of Complementary Health Approaches in Children According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, ...

64

Endoscopic approach to achalasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES. Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia.

Michaela Müller

2013-01-01

65

Fournier's gangrene current approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fournier's gangrene is a rare but highly mortal infectious disease characterised by fulminant necrotising fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. The objective of this study is to analyse the demographics, clinical feature and treatment approaches as well as outcomes of Fournier's gangrene. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and operative notes. Patient data were analysed by demographics, aetiological factors, clinical features, treatment approaches and outcomes. Twelve patients (five female and seven male) were enrolled in this study. The most common aetiology was perianal abscess (41·6%). Wound cultures showed a mixture of microorganisms in six (50%) patients. For faecal diversion, while colostomy was performed in six cases (50%), Flexi-Seal was used in two cases (16·6%). In four patients (33·4%), no faecal diversion was performed. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) system was effective in the last four patients (33·4%). The mean hospitalisation period in patients who used NPWT was 18?days, while it was 20?days in the others. NPWT in Fournier's gangrene is a safe dressing method. It promotes granulation formation. Flexi-Seal faecal management is an alternative method to colostomy and provides protection from its associated complications. The combination of two devices (Flexi-Seal and NPWT) is an effective and comfortable method in the management of Fournier's gangrene in appropriate patients. PMID:25145578

Ozkan, Omer F; Koksal, Neset; Altinli, Ediz; Celik, Atilla; Uzun, Mehmet A; C?kman, Oztekin; Akbas, Alpaslan; Ergun, Ersin; Kiraz, Hasan A; Karaayvaz, Muammer

2014-08-22

66

Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine-needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

Andreas Weber, Roland M Schmid, Christian Prinz

2008-07-01

67

[Fournier syndrome: multidisciplinary approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fournier's gangrene, a form of necrotizing fasciitis, is an uncommon, fulminant, rapidly progressing subcutaneous infection of the scrotum and genito-perineal region, and may occur in all age groups. Most cases involve a mixed synergistic infection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and occur as a result of one of this mechanisms: local trauma, extension from a perineal, periurethral or ischiorectal infection. It is associated with a high mortality rate. Predisposing factors included diabetes mellitus, steroids or chemotherapy, alcohol abuse, malignancy and radiation therapy. This disease requires prompt treatment: early diagnosis, antibiotic therapy, nutritional support, immediate extensive surgical debridement and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The use of etherologue serum is a valuable adjunct in the therapy of Fournier's gangrene. We report a case of Fournier's syndrome treated with etherologue serum immuno-therapy, together with the conventional multidisciplinary approach. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on day 50 post intervention in good general conditions. The 3 years follow-up showed no recurrence of the disease. In conclusion we remark that the survival can be improved in patients with Fournier's gangrene by multidisciplinary approach. PMID:11765356

Vescio, G; Battaglia, M; Sommella, L; Gallelli, G; Manzo, F; Cristiano, S F; Valente, A; Musella, S

2001-01-01

68

RAMI Approach for ITER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ITER is an experimental nuclear device with an ambitious scientific and technological programme. To be able to reach its objectives an assessment of the technical risks has to be performed. The RAMI approach is one of the main stages of the technical risk control and it focuses on the operational functions required by the operation of ITER rather than on physical components. The ITER RAMI Process presented in this document, along with elements of the analysis performed on the Tokamak Cooling Water System provided as examples, consists of four major steps: (1) performing functional analysis, (2) analyzing initial failure modes, effects and criticality, (3) initiating risk mitigation actions to ensure compatibility with RAMI objectives, (4) integrating as RAMI requirements.

69

Slurry pipeline design approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-12-19

70

Laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern laparoscopic surgery is widely used throughout the world as it offers greater advantages than open procedures. The laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy has evolved over the last 20 years. Hysterectomies are performed abdominally, vaginally, laparoscopically or, more recently, with robotic assistance. Indications for a total laparoscopic hysterectomy are similar to those for total abdominal hysterectomy, and most commonly include uterine leiomyomata, pelvic organ prolapse, and abnormal uterine bleeding. When hysterectomy is going to be performed, the surgeon should decide which method is safer and more cost-effective. This paper aims to make a review of the indications, techniques and advantages of laparoscopic hysterectomy as well as the criteria to be used for appropriate patient selection.

Hakan Nazik

2013-04-01

71

STS-49 Satellite Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. This onboard photo depicts Florida's Atlantic coast and the Cape Canaveral area as the backdrop for this scene of the INTELSAT VI's approach to the Shuttle Endeavour.

1992-01-01

72

Neuroblastoma: A neurochemical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neuroblastoma is among the most common malignancies of childhood. Despite greatly improved therapy for some pediatric tumors, the prognosis for children with metastatic neuroblastoma has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. With conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, children with metastatic neuroblastoma have a 20% long-term survival rate. The authors describe here approaches to neuroblastoma that target its neuronal characteristics. On the one hand, the neurotransmitter receptors on the surface of the neuroblastoma cells and, on the other hand, specific isozymes that distinguish neuroblastoma cells from their normal counterparts are the focus of these experimental therapies. In the former case, specificity for tumor cells is effected by (1) selective protection of normal neuronal elements from toxicity, or (2) selective potentiation of toxicity for neural tumor cells. It is hoped that these strategies will be generalizable to other neural crest-derived tumors. 32 references

73

Extended Variational Cluster Approach  

CERN Document Server

The variational cluster approach (VCA) proposed by M. Potthoff {\\it et al.} is extended to electron or spin systems with non-local interactions. By introducing more than one source fields in the action and employing the Legendre transformation, we derive a generalized self-energy functional with stationary properties. Applying this functional to a proper reference system, we construct the extended VCA (EVCA). In the limit of continuous degrees of freedom for the reference system, EVCA can recover the cluster extension of the extended dynamical mean field theory (EDMFT). For system wth correlated hopping, EVCA recovers the cluster extension of the dynamical mean field theory for correlated hopping (DMFTCH). Using a 3-site discrete reference system, we test the theory for the extended Hubbard model. Quantitatively good results as compared with EDMFT are obtained. We also propose VCA (EVCA) based on clusters with periodic boundary conditions. It has the (extended) dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) as the con...

Tong, N H

2005-01-01

74

Bioengineering a conceptual approach  

CERN Document Server

This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

Pavlovic, Mirjana

2015-01-01

75

A different approach to logic  

OpenAIRE

The paper is about an approach to logic that differs from the standard first-order logic and other known approaches. It should be a new approach the author has created proposing to obtain a general and unifying approach to logic and a faithful model of human mathematical deductive process. We list the most relevant features of the system. In first-order logic there exist two different concepts of term and formula, in place of these two concepts in our approach we have just o...

Avon, Mauro

2011-01-01

76

Approach to team skills training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US commercial nuclear power industry has recognized the importance of team skills in control room operation. The desire to combine training of team interaction skills, like communications, with technical knowledge of reactor operations requires a unique approach to training. An NRC-sponsored study identified a five-phase approach to team skills training designed to be consistent with the systems approach to training currently endorsed by the NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. This paper describes an approach to team skills training with emphasis on the nuclear power plant control room crew. An approach to team skills training

77

Microscopic approach to polaritons  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction between excitons and light has been investigated in detail. The perturbational approach turns out to be invalid. However, an exact solution can be obtained directly from the Schrödinger equation for a fixed light field. This solution corresponds to a nonlinear optical response contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained. It is discussed whether the magnitude of the exciton-photon interaction energy has any influence on the exciton binding. The concept of polariton fields is introduced (i.e., the electric and polarization field per polariton), and it is seen that close to resonance the electric field per polariton is essentially zero while the polarization field per polariton is essentially the excitonic dipole moment per unit volume. From the wave function of the polariton it is seen that in a very broad spectral range around the resonance the polariton is essentially an exciton that travels through the crystal with the speed of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave function derived in the present work is then sufficient.

Skettrup, Torben

1981-01-01

78

Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

Monika Agarwal

2013-02-01

79

Hysterectomy – Which Approach?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hysterectomy operation is frequently performed on women. In the era of minimal invasive surgery, the route of hysterectomy depends upon numerous clinical variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate & suggest the appropriate approach for hysterectomy. A total of 250 patients were included in the presents study; they were divided, into three categories: Category I included 50 patients of Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP for Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH, Category II included 40 patients who underwent Non Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy (NDVH, Category III included 160 patients who had Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH. Operative time, hemorrhage, wound infection, post- operative analgesia, febrile morbidity, hospital stay and recovery were recorded for each patient. Indications for hysterectomy were POP, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB and fibroid uterus. The study period showed a gradual increase in number of NDVH. Perioperative blood loss, post operative pain score, hospital stay; cost was less in patients with VH/NDVH. Uncomplicated, fast and cost effective technique for removal of uterus remains VH & NDVH. Non Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy is gaining increased acceptability among patients being minimally invasive with no visible scar.

V. Mahasani,

2014-01-01

80

New approaches to COPD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No currently available treatments reduce the progression or suppress the inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, with a better understanding of the inflammatory and destructive process, several targets have been identified, and new treatments are now in clinical development. Several specific therapies are directed against the influx of inflammatory cells into the airways and lung parenchyma that occurs in COPD, including adhesion molecule and chemokine-directed therapy, as well as therapies to inhibit tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Broad spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs are also in development, and include inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-gamma. More specific approaches include antioxidants, inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and leukotriene B4 receptor antagonists. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calcium-activated chloride channel inhibitors have the potential to inhibit mucus hypersecretion. Other therapies are targeted at the structural changes of COPD. Therapy to inhibit fibrosis is being developed against transforming growth factor-beta1 and protease activated receptor-2. There is also a search for serine proteinase and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors to prevent lung destruction and the development of emphysema, as well as drugs such as retinoids that may even reverse this process. There is the need for validated biomarkers and monitoring techniques in early clinical studies with new therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

P. J. Barnes

2005-09-01

81

Makeri approach to thinning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A planted forest requires a different approach to treatment of the forest crop. Thinnings require small, compact machines with low ground pressure than can maneuver between rows and cause minimal damage. The Finnish built Makeri weighs about 8200 lbs, has a ground pressure of 4.9 psi, and can be equipped with either a harvester or feller-buncher head. The Makeri 33T is being tested on 16- and 27-year-old stands of red pine. The Makeri grips the tree by opposed articulated blades and knurled feed rolls, while shearing it close to ground level. The flexible arm of the harvester then swings the severed tree to any desired position (usually into a horizontal plane to the right of the machine's direction of travel). In the 16-year-old stand about 105 trees, or 2-3 cords, were cut per hour. However, in the 27-year-old stand where an earlier thinning allowed the machine to move more easily, the hourly production rose to about 3 1/2 cords. The Makeri delimbing action does not seem quite so effective on branchy Norway spruce, where it has a tendency to dig into the wood.

Morley, P.

1982-01-01

82

Modeling prosody: Different approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Prosody pervades all aspects of a speech signal, both in terms of raw acoustic outcomes and linguistically meaningful units, from the phoneme to the discourse unit. It is carried in the suprasegmental features of fundamental frequency, loudness, and duration. Several models have been developed to account for the way prosody organizes speech, and they vary widely in terms of their theoretical assumptions, organizational primitives, actual procedures of application to speech, and intended use (e.g., to generate speech from text vs. to model the prosodic phonology of a language). In many cases, these models overtly contradict one another with regard to their fundamental premises or their identification of the perceptible objects of linguistic prosody. These competing models are directly compared. Each model is applied to the same speech samples. This parallel analysis allows for a critical inspection of each model and its efficacy in assessing the suprasegmental behavior of the speech. The analyses illustrate how different approaches are better equipped to account for different aspects of prosody. Viewing the models and their successes from an objective perspective allows for creative possibilities in terms of combining strengths from models which might otherwise be considered fundamentally incompatible.

Carmichael, Lesley M.

2002-11-01

83

COMPRENDO : Focus and approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates).

Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Albanis, T.

2006-01-01

84

Diagnostic approach of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease that causes serious health problems, resulting in morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly, but even at younger age. It concerns all the developed countries including Greece and raises causes socio-economic consequences.The aim of present study was to review the existing literature regarding the contemporaneous methods in diagnosis of osteoporosis.The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relation between diagnosis and osteoporosis.Results: The majority of research studies showed that the most important risk factor for osteoporosis is the increased loss of bone mass, as age is progressing, which in women, usually starts during menopause. This, fact in conjuction with the longer life expectancy of women, explains the growing prevalence of osteoporosis in women compared to men. Other relevant studies have shown that this metabolic disease is related to high risk for bone fractures. The prevention of osteoporosis requires optimization of leading bone density during childhood and adolescence, early detection of increased bone loss in postmenopausal critical period and education of patients being at high risk.Conclusions: The number of candidate osteoporotic patients is high, as well as the final number of individuals who will suffer from the consequences of the disease. The assessment and prevention of osteoporosis requires overall approach of the disease and highlights the need of training the population, factors that, significantly contribute to the control of the disease.

Evangelos Giavasopoulos

2010-04-01

85

The Challenges of Becoming Agile : Implementing and Conducting Scrum in Integrated Product Development  

OpenAIRE

“In today's fast-paced, fiercely competitive world of commercial new product development, speed and flexibility are essential. Companies are increasingly realizing that the old, sequential approach to developing new products simply won't get the job done.” (Takeuchi & Nonaka, 1986) Now twenty-five years old, the statement from the 1986-edition of Harvard Business Review seems more true than ever before. Commercial markets are moving faster and faster, and time as a strategic source of com...

Ovesen, Nis

2012-01-01

86

Classical approach in quantum physics  

OpenAIRE

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the...

Solov Ev, Evgeni A.

2010-01-01

87

New Approaches to Final Cooling  

CERN Document Server

A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

Neuffer, David

2015-01-01

88

Managerial Approach to Public Administration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of themanagerial approach to public administration,starting from the distinction identified by someauthors between management and administration.The paper has a twofold structure: in the firstsections it provides a theoretical conceptualframework for approaching the issue of themanagerial approach to public administration;in the following sections, the authors discuss themanagerial approach with regard to the Romanianadministrative sector. In the conclusion section,the paper tries to offer an answer to the questionwhere do we stand as a country with regard tothe implementation of the managerial approachin public administration. While some progress hasbeen made, there are nonetheless steps that stillneed to be taken..

Cristina Maria MORA

2008-10-01

89

New approaches to knowledge acquisition  

CERN Document Server

It is well recognized that knowledge acquisition is the critical bottleneck of knowledge engineering. This book presents three major approaches of current research in this field, namely the psychological approach, the artificial intelligence approach and the software engineering approach. Special attention is paid to the most recent advances in knowledge acquisition research, especially those made by Chinese computer scientists. A special chapter is devoted to its applications in other fields, e.g. language analysis, software engineering, computer-aided instruction, etc., which were done in Ch

Lu, R-Q

1994-01-01

90

Radiolab - three different approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lønstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists: Don Ihde, whose notion of ‘voice’ is understood in a more general sense as the voices of all things, and Lawrence Ferrara, who methodologically operates within tree levels of investigation: 1 the syntax, 2 the semantic and 3 the ontology level. Accordingly, this analysis is conducted, as if the sound object was performed by a vocal ensemble oscillating ‘between a musical and a speech act’. Torben Sangild’s paper focuses on the concrete function of the sound object as a radio signature. This prompts a generic analysis and a semantic model of radio signatures in general, eclectically employing formal, indexical, gestural, discursive and contextual levels of meaning. The analysis of the Radiolab signature focuses on the overall gesture of tension and release as well as the semantic elements in a constellation with the content and style of the radio programme. After the three individual contributions, a brief summary and conclusion will follow, answering any questions that may arise in the process.

Ola Stockfelt

2012-04-01

91

Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1? axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an importan

Valero, Teresa

2014-01-01

92

Approaches to database development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It could be very helpful to use the data previously accumulated by other NPPs in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) modernization. This data can be helpful in doing a more realistic assessment of the task, in understanding the advantages and disadvantages from the planned modernization. Possible difficulties arising from the modernization can be detected and timely eliminated by undertaking the necessary precautions (early elaboration of the needed preventive measures). The database (DB) of modernization projects could be also helpful for finding similar tasks that were implemented with the best benefits for the utility, to decide on the modernization approach and to select well experienced suppliers. That is why a regular collection and international exchange of such data would be beneficial for many utilities. Significance of such DB usage for the managers could be very high, provided the content of the DB is adequate and sufficiently comprehensive. It is expected that it would be difficult to get data for this database with appropriate quality and the level of details. The IAEA responsible officer will have to determine if the potential users want to develop and populate such a database. There are many published documents, reports and papers describing good practices and lessons learned from NPP I and C modernization activities that could provide information for the DB. The database is suggested as a supporting tool for the modernization project teaing tool for the modernization project teams and the utilities. The DB structure has to support the users and be oriented on data processing optimization (including the data input and presentation). It should be as simple and transparent for the users as possible within the frame of the task to be solved

93

Morgagni hernia - laparoscopic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morgagni hernia is due to a diaphragmatic defect, retrosternal congenital hernia being a rare form of hernie. The diagnosis is usually in childhood but there are cases that are found in adult or as a intraoperative surprise. The condition is asymptomatic or has nonspecific clinical manifestations or clinical dressing of often occlusive complications. The diagnosis is established by Rx thoracic imaging, barium enema or computed tomography (CT eso-gastro-duodenal passage. Treatment consists of reducing the hernia with or without dissection and resection of the hernia sac and diaphragmatic defect closure by suture the fascia endotoracica retrosternal and retrocostala or rectus abdominis sheath or plastic bag. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 49 years old woman admitted in our department for an insidious onset, several months ago, with postprandial upper abdominal pain, flatulence and nausea. CT scan revealed a mass of 95 / 130 / 80 mm, narrowly defined with homogeneous structure and negative densities (fat in the lower and middle mediastinum, outlining opacity described in cardiofrenic sinus radiography. The aspect was characteristic for a Morgagni hiatus hernia. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed using a 30º laparoscope inserted through a 10 mm supraombilical trocar; it revealed the parietal defect (Morgagni hernia and the herniation of greater omentum. Two additional 5 mm trocars are then inserted; the escaped great omentum was reintegrated and the parietal defect was laparoscopically sutured. To note, the peritoneal hernia sac was abandoned. Postoperative course was uneventful. A review of the literature data was also performed. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive surgery is feasible, safe and tends to become “gold standard” therapeutic approach for the treatment of Morgagni hernia.

?t.O. Georgescu

2013-09-01

94

Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden  

Science.gov (United States)

Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin

2013-01-01

95

Theoretical approaches for studying Astrochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most popular ab initio theoretical approaches that are used to study the gas phase astrochemical reactivity are presented. The methods that are needed for the electronic calculation and the statistical approaches that are used for determining the rate coefficients are detailed.

Talbi D.

2012-01-01

96

Artificial intelligence approaches in statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of pattern recognition and knowledge representation methods from Artificial Intelligence within statistics is considered. Two areas of potential use are identified and one, data exploration, is used to illustrate the possibilities. A method is presented to identify and separate overlapping groups within cluster analysis, using an AI approach. The potential of such ''intelligent'' approaches is stressed

97

Approaches for learning Prolog programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding Prolog programming is a challenge for many beginners, and many instructors and researchers have proposed and adopted varied teaching approaches to help learners to understand Prolog easily. However, it is not known whether any of the teaching approaches currently in use is appropriate from a learner's perspective. This paper reports the results of an investigation into which approaches are suitable for Prolog novices and why they are appropriate.We first categorise the teaching approaches which are currently in use in mainstream Prolog introductory textbooks, and highlight how they have been used over the past 25 years. We then discuss the appropriateness of each approach, by addressing their advantages and disadvantages based on interviews with learners. Using this information, a larger picture of the suitability of these teaching approaches is drawn, and finally we suggest what factors may influence it and discuss possible improvements. The findings of this study suggest that an approach based on emphasising the declarative features of the language is the most appropriate, as a component of a blended learning strategy.

Shanshan Yang

2007-10-01

98

Lateral extracavitary approach to spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This paper describes the lateral extracavitary approach to the lumbar spine using the three­quarter prone position. Owing to unsatisfied results of the posterior approaches to spine in patients with the ventral compressive lesions, many ventral approaches as well as lateral extracavitary approach have been developed. Case Outline. A patient with tumor (chordoma of L3 vertebral body was operated on by means of ventral compression of cauda equina; the tumor had paraspinal propagation. Lateral extracavitary approach was used with a patient in three­quarter prone position, and corpectomy with the anterior stabilisation was performed followed by posterior transpedicular stabilisation through the same approach. Complete tumor removal and excellent neurological improvement were achieved. Conclusion. This approach provides safe ventral decompression of the spinal cord; it also enables the anterior and posterior instrumental stabilisation through the same incision and in the same position during the intervention. The three­quarter prone position allows excellent view of the dural sac.

Iveti? Dražen

2013-01-01

99

Chain approach, innovation and leadership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is available in English and Dutch This contribution deals with a new paradigm of performance, how it promotes innovation and is consistent with the chain approach developed by Jan Grijpink and his research team. The new paradigm of performance will be explained and the parallels with the chain approach will be discussed. The background of both approaches is the frequent failure of the prevailing views, on the one hand, and the importance of innovative intervention in the difficult and often chaotic reality, on the other.

R.V. De Mulder

2011-02-01

100

Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse

101

Vanpooling: the three major approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

Sears, P.M.

1979-08-01

102

A Biosemiotic Approach to Health  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By replacing the traditional chemical approach to the understanding of body function by a sign-theoretic or semiotic approach, biosemiotics enters a no-man’s-land between biological and social domains of human life. The aim is not to subsume the social under the biological or vice versa; both approaches are invaluable. The aim is to find a common platform that serves in treating human persons as undivided wholes. Since semiosis (viz. the meaningful interpretation of cues, signals, events or states) is vital to communication at both levels, the resulting sign-process is a viable choice as the basis for an integrated theory of health.

Hoffmeyer, Jesper

2010-01-01

103

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... procedure. I have used this approach myself since 2005, and currently use it for most of my ... two reasons. One is make sure I’m low enough that it’s not going to be terribly ...

104

Two approaches to hyphenating Norwegian  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes some of the problems encountered when trying to hyphenate Norwegian automatically. Two particular approaches are described and compared: the TEX algorithm and the neural network program developed at Bergen College.

Kristensen, Terje; Langmyhr, Dag

1998-01-01

105

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Dr. Eric Dewitt, from Belgium, who helped me learn this surgical approach. This is a previously described ... capsule. Okay. What do you think on the learning curve? 4 No, I think that’s good. I ...

106

System approach to chemistry course  

OpenAIRE

The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

Kruglova, Lorina E.; Derendyaeva, Valentina G.

2010-01-01

107

Posterior approach to the shoulder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe a modified posterior approach to the shoulder and to present their clinical application in 12 cadaver specimens and a prospective series of 11 patients with glenoid fractures from 1994 to 2003. In the proposed approach Deltoid is reflected superiorly without detachment, approaching the interval between Infraspinatus and Teres Minor muscles exposing the glenoid. Witch this technique the Axilar bundle was 26,5 mm to the posterior glenoid rim. The patients had low surgical times (54 min), low bleeding (77 cc), and no nerve complications. All had good and excellent results in the UCLA score in the first 30 postoperative days. We consider this approach safe, it allows an excellent exposure of the glenoid fractures, and facilitates the functional recovery to the patients

108

Complex approach in arils study  

OpenAIRE

Arils are found in numerous Angiosperm taxa. The complex approach (morphologo-anatomical and biochemical researches) in studying of aril-having fruits is recommended. The arils origin hypothesis is offered. Some functions of arils are showed.

Trusov, Nikolay A.

2013-01-01

109

Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches  

CERN Document Server

Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

Melnikova, Irina V

2001-01-01

110

Paying for Complementary Health Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

... spent about two-thirds ($22.0 billion) on self-care costs (i.e., products, classes, and materials), ... health approaches. Contact information for state and local consumer agencies, including insurance regulators. Professional associations for complementary ...

111

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... tolerated. Spot that. Then there’s another question about equal leg lengths. If you’re going to do ... this approach I would not. Yeah. Because the stability is so good. So good, yeah. Now if ...

112

New approach to purifying silicon  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicon tetrafluoride gas removes metallurgical-grade impurities when passed over silicon in quartz tube. Technique allows inexpensive increase in throughout rate. Approach could improve silicon production for silicon solar cells.

Chaney, R. E.; Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S. W.

1980-01-01

113

Simplified Approach to Inspection Planning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details is presented. The basic idea behind the approach is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their stress intensity factors and their design fatigue life to service life ratio, i.e. the fatigue design factor (FDF) and SN curve. When the reserve strength ratio (RSR) and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known it is possible to make a generic description of fatigue sensitive structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables which depend on relative cost of inspections, repairs and failures. Due to the simplicity of the format of the developed inspection plans the proposed approach has a high potential in code making for the design and maintenance of steel structures. The validity of the proposed approach is illustrated through a study regarding inspection planning of offshore structures.

Bloch, Allan; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2000-01-01

114

A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

1975-01-01

115

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications  

CERN Document Server

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

Jazar, Reza

2012-01-01

116

Strategy making : the approach matters  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE – More than ever, businesses need to get their strategy right. Part of achieving this is the approach to strategy making that is chosen. The purpose of this paper is to describe how strategy making happens on the continuum of deliberate practice versus emerging strategy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – Through in-depth interviews with “strategy informants” (CEO’s) in businesses and questionnaires to respondents (managers) in the same organizations, statistical techniques ...

Pretorius, Marius; Maritz, Rachel

2011-01-01

117

An approach to chaotic synchronization  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the chaotic oscillator synchronization. A new approach to the synchronization of chaotic oscillators has been proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of different time scales in the time series generated by the coupled chaotic oscillators. It has been shown that complete synchronization, phase synchronization, lag synchronization and generalized synchronization are the particular cases of the synchronized behavior called as "time-scale synchron...

Hramov, Alexander E.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.

2005-01-01

118

New Geometrical Approach to Superstrings  

OpenAIRE

We present a new geometrical approach to superstrings based on the geometrical theory of integration on supermanifolds. This approach provides an effective way to calculate multi-loop superstring amplitudes for arbitrary backgrounds. It makes possible to calculate amplitudes for the physical states defined as BRST cohomology classes using arbitrary representatives. Since the new formalism does not rely on the presence of primary representatives for the physical states it is ...

Belopolsky, Alexander

1997-01-01

119

49 CFR 236.377 - Approach locking.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approach locking. 236.377 Section 236.377 Transportation...Interlocking Inspection and Tests § 236.377 Approach locking. Approach locking shall be tested when placed in...

2010-10-01

120

33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation...Atlantic East Coast § 167.202 In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach....

2010-07-01

121

Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

122

Approaches to Learning in Statistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, Australian higher education institutions have become a destination for many international students, mainly from South East Asia. If their educational culture is quite different to the Australian educational culture, then their approaches to learning might be different to that of local students. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the approaches to learning of students in statistics units and relate these to background variables such as country of origin, gender and work commitments. This study is significant because there are many international students at Macquarie University and no data of this type has been collected for our students in the past.Our analyses showed that there were no significant differences in the approaches to learning of local and international; and male and female students; however, we found a significant difference between undergraduate and postgraduate students, with postgraduates more likely to adopt deep strategies to learning.

Ayse Bilgin

2009-02-01

123

Systems Science Approach to Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

124

A Reverse Approach to Superconductivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the normal operator approach, our reverse approach starts from the state vector in the Hilbert space. In this work, we give a concise introduction to our recent work in this aspect. By postulating a superconducting state (SCS to be a generalized coherent state (GCS constructed by pure group theory, we show that some important properties such as the Cooper pairs of the SCS naturally appear in this new framework without resorting to the microscopic origin. This latter characteristic renders this theory a more universal feature in comparison with other theories developed by the operator approach. The studies on the residue of the pair-wise constraint due to the collapse of the GCS lead to a “flat/steep” band model for searching new superconductors.

Shuiquan Deng

2013-06-01

125

Efficient online signature authentication approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Signature authentication systems often have to focus their processing on acquired dynamic and/or static signatures descriptors to authenticate persons. This approach gives satisfactory results in ordinary cases but remains vulnerable against skilled forgeries. This is mainly because there is no relation between the signatory and his signature. We will show that the inclusion of the hand shape in the authentication process will considerably reduce the false acceptance rates of skilled forgeries and improve the authentication accuracy performances. A new online hand signature authentication approach based on both signature and hand shape descriptor is proposed. The signature acquisition is completely transparent, which allows a high level of security against fraudulent imitation attempts. Authentication performances are evaluated with extensive experiments. The obtained test results [equal error rate (EER)=2%, genuine acceptance rate (GAR)=96%]confirm the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Kaouther, Saidani; Messaoud, Mostefai; Abderraouf, Bouziane; Youssef, Chahir

2014-11-01

126

A practical approach to TQI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total quality improvement (TQI) is a refreshing new approach to leadership that can be applied to a dialysis setting. The team approach to prospective data analysis is used for problem solution and reevaluation. Adapting theory to daily practical application can be successfully done using time, energy, and full senior management commitment. Staff education and involvement are essential to successful program implementation. Evaluation tools are easily adapted to analyze common dialysis problems. The initial time invested in education and data collection can be great but results in a streamlined process. PMID:8080313

Perras, S T; Mattern, M

1994-04-01

127

Holistic approach to chronic constipation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By "holistic approach" (greek "olos" = "all" we mean a clinical approach which is not only confined to the diseased segment of the body, say the inert large bowel or the spastic pelvic floor in case of constipation, but takes under consideration the whole "mind and body complex", which is a unique indivisible entity. According to a prospective study carried out in our Unit and under press in Colorectal Disease, 66% of the patients with obstructed defecation suffer either from anxiety or depression, thus showing the major role played by an altered psyche in the etiology of their constipation.

Pescatori Mario

2006-01-01

128

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program

129

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

130

Elementary calculus an infinitesimal approach  

CERN Document Server

This first-year calculus book is centered around the use of infinitesimals, an approach largely neglected until recently for reasons of mathematical rigor. It exposes students to the intuition that originally led to the calculus, simplifying their grasp of the central concepts of derivatives and integrals. The author also teaches the traditional approach, giving students the benefits of both methods.Chapters 1 through 4 employ infinitesimals to quickly develop the basic concepts of derivatives, continuity, and integrals. Chapter 5 introduces the traditional limit concept, using approximation p

Keisler, H Jerome

2013-01-01

131

Real analysis a constructive approach  

CERN Document Server

A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

Bridger, Mark

2012-01-01

132

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program.

Bevensee, R.M.; Cabayan, H.S.; Deadrick, F.J.; Martin, L.C.; Mensing, R.W.

1980-09-01

133

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

134

Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

135

A Complexity Approach for Steganalysis  

CERN Document Server

In this proposal for the Journ\\`ees Codes et St\\'eganographie 2012, we define a new rigorous approach for steganalysis based on the complexity theory. It is similar to the definitions of security that can be found for hash functions, PRNG, and so on. We propose here a notion of \\emph{secure hiding} and we give a first secure hiding scheme.

Bahi, Jacques M; Heam, Pierre-Cyrille

2011-01-01

136

Dark Matter: A Multidisciplinary Approach  

OpenAIRE

We review the current status of accelerator, direct and indirect Dark Matter (DM) searches, focusing on the complementarity of different techniques and on the prospects for discovery. After taking a census of present and upcoming DM-related experiments, we review the motivations to go beyond an "accelerator-only" approach, and highlight the benefits of multidisciplinarity in the quest for DM.

Bertone, Gianfranco

2007-01-01

137

Petrov classification: An elementary approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reduce the length of the usual algebraic classification scheme of the Weyl tensor by avoiding the step centered around its reduction to canonical form. Instead the different algebraic types are established more economically via the elementary approach of constructing explicit examples

138

A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

Ramvi, Ellen

2012-01-01

139

Aluminum anodization process modeling approach  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose approach for modeling thin aluminum film anodization in three dimensions using variation of coupled lattice map on volumetric grid, which is capable of capturing porous and nonporous aluminum oxide growth and electrochemical polishing modes. Model derivation is based on Parkhutik and Shershulsky understandings. Numerical simulation results for various initial conditions are shown and compared to experimental data.

Belov, Alexey N.; Vorobiev, Maksim I.; Gavrilov, Sergey A.; Shevyakov, Vasiliy I.

2014-12-01

140

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to detach any muscles from bone. It’s less invasive without being small incision surgery. Obese patients can be easier due to less ... worry about. Roger and I talked, before the surgery, about this patient being ... this minimally invasive approach, given her valgus inclination to her hips ...

141

Coordinate Geometric Approach to Spherometer  

CERN Document Server

The spherometer used for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces is explicitly based on a geometric relation unique to circles and spheres. We present an alternate approach using coordinate geometry, which reproduces the well-known result for the spherometer and also leads to a scheme to study aspherical surfaces. We shall also briefly describe some of the modified spherometers.

Khan, Sameen Ahmed

2013-01-01

142

Covariant anomalies in cohomology approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study a new cohomology approach to the covariant anomalies. As a general solution of a covariant condition, we obtain a set of differential forms from which the covariant (current and commutator) anomalies are derived algebraically. We also derive a generalized Bardeen-Zumino relation between the covariant and consistent anomalies. (orig.)

143

Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation  

Science.gov (United States)

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

Ferrari, Loris

2011-01-01

144

Organizational Planning: A Systems Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book discusses the need for organizational planning in a rapidly changing society and examines how a systems approach to needs assessment can meet that need. In the foreword, futurologist Earl Joseph discusses the phenomenon of social change and need for systematic planning to anticipate and direct change. In chapter 1, the authors present an…

Speiker, Charles A.; Buhl, Anthony J.

145

Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

146

Linear models an integrated approach  

CERN Document Server

Linear Models: An Integrated Approach aims to provide a clearand deep understanding of the general linear model using simplestatistical ideas. Elegant geometric arguments are also invoked asneeded and a review of vector spaces and matrices is provided to makethe treatment self-contained.

Sengupta, Debasis

2003-01-01

147

Photochemical approaches to ordered polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

The photocyclization of o-benzyloxyphenyl ketone chromophores provides an efficient, high yield route to the synthesis of 2,3-diphenylbenzofurans. The synthesis and solution of photochemistry of a series of polymers containing this chromophore is described. The photocuring of these polymers is a potential new approach to the synthesis of highly conjugated polymers based upon a p-phenylene bisbenzofuran repeat unit.

Meador, Michael A.; Abdulaziz, Mahmoud; Meador, Mary Ann B.

1990-01-01

148

Superbrane actions and geometrical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review a generic structure of conventional (Nambu-Goto and Dirac-Born Infeld-like) worldvolume actions for the superbranes and show how it is connected through a generalized action construction with a double supersymmetric geometrical approach to the description of super-p-brane dynamics as embedding world supersurfaces into target superspaces. (author). 28 refs

149

Guitar Class: A Multifaceted Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests that the bias linking guitars to popular culture has needlessly limited approaches to teaching guitar. Examines how each of five current programs develops different music skills. Advocates a comprehensive, multifaceted program capable of emphasizing student skills in melody, harmony, perception, creativity, and performance over six years…

Bartel, Lee R.

1990-01-01

150

Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

2013-01-01

151

Towards a Taxonomy of Dynamic Reconfiguration Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic reconfiguration is essential part of software evolution. Several approaches to support dynamic reconfiguration have been proposed in the literature. These approaches are different in various criteria. The goal of this work is to make a comparative study between various dynamic reconfiguration approaches by exploring the features of these approaches and to classify them with respect to these features.

Mohammad Charaf Eddin

2013-09-01

152

New Approach for Image Fusion Based on Curvelet Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the image fusion work has been limited to monochrome images. Algorithms which utilize human colour perception are attracting the image fusion community with great interest. It is mainly due to the reason that the use of colour greatly expands the amount of information to be conveyed in an image. Since, the human visual system is very much sensitive to colours; research was undertaken in mapping three individual monochrome multispectral images to the respective channels of an RGB image to produce a false colour fused image. Producing a fused colour output image which maintains the original chromaticity of the input visual image is highly tricky. The focus of this paper is developing a new approach to fuse a color image (visual image and a corresponding grayscale one (Infrared image – IR using the curvelet approach using different fusion rules in new fields. The fused image obtained by the proposed approach maintain the high resolution of the colored image (visual image, incorporate any hidden object given by the IR sensor as an example, or complements the two input images and keep the natural color of the visual image.

Gehad Mohamed Taher

2014-08-01

153

Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

1992-01-01

154

Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.

1997-12-01

155

Three approaches to Morse-Bott homology  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we survey three approaches to computing the homology of a finite dimensional compact smooth closed manifold using a Morse-Bott function and discuss relationships among the three approaches. The first approach is to perturb the function to a Morse function, the second approach is to use moduli spaces of cascades, and the third approach is to use the Morse-Bott multicomplex. With respect to an explicit perturbation (which can be used to derived the Morse-Bot...

Hurtubise, David E.

2012-01-01

156

Bayesian approach to rough set  

CERN Document Server

This paper proposes an approach to training rough set models using Bayesian framework trained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The prior probabilities are constructed from the prior knowledge that good rough set models have fewer rules. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is conducted through sampling in the rough set granule space and Metropolis algorithm is used as an acceptance criteria. The proposed method is tested to estimate the risk of HIV given demographic data. The results obtained shows that the proposed approach is able to achieve an average accuracy of 58% with the accuracy varying up to 66%. In addition the Bayesian rough set give the probabilities of the estimated HIV status as well as the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

Marwala, Tshilidzi

2007-01-01

157

Technology approaches to currency security  

Science.gov (United States)

The continued development of reprographic technology and computer graphics (notably color laser copiers, scanners and color laser printers) has increased the tools available to both professional and casual counterfeiters. The result is an increase in the counterfeit risk to the U.S. dollar and other currencies. To counter these threats improved methods of currency authentication are needed both for use by the general public and by national currency authorities. The growing number of cash transfer machines has increased the importance of machine readable security features. This paper describes some technology based approaches to currency security based on special materials. It also proposes a metaphor for currency authentication which attempts to provide a framework for unifying approaches based on secure features and those based on codes.

Murphy, John C.; Dubbel, Daniel C.; Benson, Richard C.

1998-04-01

158

Connectionist approach to adaptive reasoning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper illustrates the neural net approach to constructing a fuzzy logic decision system. This technique employs an artificial neural network (ANN) to recognize the relationships that exist between the various inputs and outputs. An ANN is constructed based on the variable present in the application. The network is trained and tested. After successful testing, the ANN is exposed to new data and the results are grouped into fuzzy membership sets. This data grouping forms the basis of a new ANN. The network is now trained and tested with the fuzzy membership data. New data is presented to the trained network and the results from the fuzzy implications. This approach is used to compute skid resistance values from G-analyst accelerometer readings on open grid bridge decks.

Reddy, Mohan S.; Pandya, Abhijit S.; Reddy, D. V.

1995-06-01

159

Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

Ferreira, Antoine

2013-01-01

160

Control theory: A practical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stability and frequency response enhancements can be made to custom manufactured and off-the-shelf power supplies. Combined power converter and magnet loads that result in poor transient response and marginal loop stability due to inadequate phase margin can be corrected with a systematic approach utilizing lead compensation techniques. Using a Venable Systems 350 Frequency Response Analyzer two actual case studies are documented demonstrating a practical approach to stabilizing and enhancing a power supply's performance. A description of the system and conventions are followed by a description of two power supplies with specific deficiencies. The first case study involves a power supply without a dominant pole output capacitor. The next case study involves a power supply driving a highly damped resonant load. The paper is concluded by a discussion of measurements pitfalls

161

Snow metamorphism: a fractal approach  

CERN Document Server

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapour and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameter. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution o...

Carbone, Anna; Frigo, Barbara; Turk, Christian; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036103

2010-01-01

162

The thermodynamic approach to market  

OpenAIRE

The first (Russian) edition of the book was among the first monographs on econophysics. The book gives an explanation of several intriguing phenomena, providing new insights and answers to some deeply vexing questions. Why the economic "shock therapy" implemented in Eastern Europe was doomed to a failure whereas the approach adopted by China and Vietnam should inevitably lead to economic growth (damped, perhaps, by corruption and inconsistencies)? Why some restrictions i...

Sergeev, Victor

2008-01-01

163

New Approaches to Percutaneous Gastrostomy  

OpenAIRE

Novel approaches to percutaneous gastrostomy have evolved because of catheter clogging and displacement, which is commonly seen with currently available gastrostomy catheters. Low-profile button gastrostomy catheters, designed to be inserted into mature tracts, have recently been inserted into fresh gastrostomy tracts. Catheter clogging rarely occurs with these low-profile devices. Catheter displacement remains a problem but new buttons can be inserted at the patient's bedside without the nee...

O Dowd, Mariana; Given, M. Fredrick; Lee, Michael J.

2004-01-01

164

Glioblastoma Multiforme: Novel Therapeutic Approaches  

OpenAIRE

The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme involves total surgical resection followed by combination of radiation therapy and temozolomide. Unfortunately, the efficacy for such current therapy is limited, and newer approaches are sorely needed to treat this deadly disease. We have recently described the isolation of bacterial proteins and peptides with anticancer activity. In phase I human clinical trials, one such peptide, p28, derived from a bacterial protein azurin, showed partial and...

Fialho, Arsenio M.; Prabhakar Salunkhe; Sunil Manna; Sidharth Mahali; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

2012-01-01

165

Histories Approach to Quantum Mechanics  

OpenAIRE

These lecture notes cover the important developments in histories approach to quantum mechanics with overall content and emphasis somewhat different from other reviews and books on the subject.The idea of Houtappel, Van Dam and Wigner of employing objects based on primitive concepts of physical theories is discussed in some detail and the fact that histories are such objects is emphasized. Application of histories formalism to the problem of understanding the quasiclassical ...

Dass, Tulsi

2005-01-01

166

Ecosystem approaches to human health  

OpenAIRE

The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdi...

Ole, Nielsen N.

2001-01-01

167

How I approach trabeculectomy surgery  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to the most commonly performed surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma, trabeculectomy. It is important to recognise that the concept of trabeculectomy surgery can be difficult for patients to comprehend in the first place. Their disease is frequently ‘thrust upon them’ by doctors; in other words, they are frequently asymptomatic in the eye that the ophthalmologist is most concerned about. The therapy, at best, can only hope to mai...

Ian Murdoch

2006-01-01

168

Stock Mechanics: a classical approach  

OpenAIRE

New theoretical approaches about forecasting stock markets are proposed. A mathematization of the stock market in terms of arithmetical relations is given, where some simple (non-differential, non-fractal) expressions are also suggested as general stock price formuli in closed forms which are able to generate a variety of possible price movements in time. A kind of mechanics is submitted to cover the price movements in terms of classical concepts. Where utilizing stock mecha...

Tuncay, Caglar

2005-01-01

169

Multidisciplinary approaches in evolutionary linguistics  

OpenAIRE

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope of topics have been examined in one way or another, covering not only world languages, but also human behaviors, brains and cultural products, as wel...

Shuai, L.; Wu, Y.; Gong, T.

2013-01-01

170

Participatory approach in forest planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper stresses the importance of public participation in natural resources planning and management, with particular concern for forest planning. The function of participation is defined, main methods and tools are reviewed, pointing out, for each of them, the possibility of application in participatory forest planning. Finally opportunities and limits of the participatory approach are taken into consideration particularly concerning the Italian situation.

2006-01-01

171

Industrial ecology: concepts and approaches.  

OpenAIRE

Industrial ecology is a new approach to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies. It is a concept in which an industrial system is viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems but in concert with them. Industrial ecology seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material to finished material, to component, to product, to waste product, and to ultimate disposal. To better characterize the topic, the Nat...

Jelinski, L. W.; Graedel, T. E.; Laudise, R. A.; Mccall, D. W.; Patel, C. K.

1992-01-01

172

Combined Approach for Image Segmentation  

OpenAIRE

Many image segmentation techniques have been developed over the past two decades for segmenting the images, which help for object recognition, occlusion boundary estimation within motion or stereo systems, image compression, image editing. In this, there is a combined approach for segmenting the image. By using histogram equalization to the input image, from which it gives contrast enhancement output image .After that by applying median filtering ,which will remove noise from contrast o...

Shradha Dakhare; Harshal Chowhan; Chandak, Manoj B.

2014-01-01

173

Conceptual Approach to Forecasting Demand ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????  

OpenAIRE

The article considers a conceptual approach to forecasting demand on products of a production or trading company using economic and mathematical methods. It justifies importance of modelling and forecasting consumer demand on goods. It provides a classification of methods of forecasting demand in two dimensions: from subjective to objective ones and from na?ve to cause-effect ones. It systemises groups of factors that influence demand and analyses character of their influence. It develops a c...

Andreishina Nataliia B.

2013-01-01

174

Thermodynamic Approach to Generalized Continua  

CERN Document Server

Governing equations of dissipative generalized solid mechanics are derived by thermodynamic methods in the Piola-Kirchhoff framework using the Liu procedure. The isotropic small strain case is investigated in more detail. The connection to the Ginzburg-Landau type evolution, dual internal variables, and a thermodynamic generalization of the standard linear solid model of rheology is demonstrated. Specific examples are chosen to emphasize experimental confirmations and predictions beyond less general approaches.

Ván, P; Papenfuss, C

2013-01-01

175

Estonian Approaches to Culture Theory  

OpenAIRE

The fourth volume in the Approaches to Culture Theory series is a contemporary Estonian anthology in culture theory. Most of the authors are members of the research groups of the Centre of Excellence in Cultural Theory: archaeology, cultural communication studies, contemporary cultural studies, ethnology, folkloristics, religious studies, landscape studies, and semiotics. These scholars have revised their recent work to highlight current topics in culture theory in Estonia and use theoretical...

Lang, Valter; Kull, Kalevi

2014-01-01

176

Virtualization Approaches in Cloud Computing  

OpenAIRE

In the growing age of cloud computing demands in almost all the sectors like TV channel to online shopping to educational institution etc., the cloud infrastructure cost goes very high. Therefore, the concept of virtualization needs to be understand and implement in the cloud computing syterms, which enables the user as well as the owners for the better and robust management and usage of the cloud. In this paper the virtualization approach in the cloud computing environment are well presented...

Gouda, K. C.; Anurag Patro; Dines Dwivedi; Nagaraj Bhat

2014-01-01

177

APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE  

OpenAIRE

Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and int...

Petris?or, Ioan; Stra?in, Natalia Ana

2013-01-01

178

Computational approaches to energy materials  

CERN Document Server

The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

2013-01-01

179

Algorithmic approach to quantum physics  

OpenAIRE

Algorithmic approach is based on the assumption that any quantum evolution of many particle system can be simulated on a classical computer with the polynomial time and memory cost. Algorithms play the central role here but not the analysis, and a simulation gives a "film" which visualizes many particle quantum dynamics and is demonstrated to a user of the model. Restrictions following from the algorithm theory are considered on a level of fundamental physical laws. Born rul...

Ozhigov, Yuri

2004-01-01

180

Energetic approach for ductile tearing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a Ji tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter Gfr is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters Ji and Gfr, intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

181

ECG Signal Analysis: Different Approaches  

OpenAIRE

In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several challenges in solving biomedical problems and making Digital Signal Processing as an essential and effective pedagogical approach to solve a problem of detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. The detection of QRS complex has many clinical applications as it marks the beginning of the left ventricular contraction. A lot of possible heart malfunctions such as cardiac arrhythmias, tr...

Thulasi Prasad, S.; Varadarajan, S.

2014-01-01

182

Ecosystem approaches to human health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function.

Nielsen N. Ole

2001-01-01

183

An abstract approach to music.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-04-19

184

Technical approach to groundwater restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

185

A Flexible Table Parsing Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english Relational data is often encoded in tables. Tables are easy to read by humans, but difficult to interpret automatically. In cases where table layout cues are not obtainable (missing HTML tags) or where columns are distorted (by copying from a spreadsheet to text) previous table extraction approaches [...] run into problems. This paper introduces a novel table parsing approach. Our approach is based on a set of simple assumptions: (a) every table can be split up in data cells and headers, and (b) every table can be parsed beginning from a data cell utilizing the overall table structure. The table parsing is defined as "table flattening" in this paper. That is, the parsing starts with a data cell and pulls out all token (i.e., headers and sub-headers) associated with a respective data cell. We propose a parsing technique that uses two simple parsing heuristics: table headers are to the left of and above a data cell. We experimented with trader emails that contained instrument information with bid-ask prices as data cells. We developed a clustering and classifying method for finding prices reliably in the data set we used. This method is transferable to other data cell types and can be applied to other table content.

Frank, Schilder; Ravi, Kondadadi; Yana, Kadiyska.

2012-06-01

186

Computational approaches for drug discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellular proteins are the mediators of multiple organism functions being involved in physiological mechanisms and disease. By discovering lead compounds that affect the function of target proteins, the target diseases or physiological mechanisms can be modulated. Based on knowledge of the ligand-receptor interaction, the chemical structures of leads can be modified to improve efficacy, selectivity and reduce side effects. One rational drug design technology, which enables drug discovery based on knowledge of target structures, functional properties and mechanisms, is computer-aided drug design (CADD). The application of CADD can be cost-effective using experiments to compare predicted and actual drug activity, the results from which can used iteratively to improve compound properties. The two major CADD-based approaches are structure-based drug design, where protein structures are required, and ligand-based drug design, where ligand and ligand activities can be used to design compounds interacting with the protein structure. Approaches in structure-based drug design include docking, de novo design, fragment-based drug discovery and structure-based pharmacophore modeling. Approaches in ligand-based drug design include quantitative structure-affinity relationship and pharmacophore modeling based on ligand properties. Based on whether the structure of the receptor and its interaction with the ligand are known, different design strategies can be seed. After lead compounds are generated, the rule of five can be used to assess whether these have drug-like properties. Several quality validation methods, such as cost function analysis, Fisher's cross-validation analysis and goodness of hit test, can be used to estimate the metrics of different drug design strategies. To further improve CADD performance, multi-computers and graphics processing units may be applied to reduce costs. PMID:25195585

Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Chi-Chun

2014-09-01

187

Project Supervision – An Engineering Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For more than twenty years, a group based supervision strategy has been used when supervising engineering bachelor- and master thesis students at our research group. In recent years, we have formalised the approach and used our industry experience to create a very successful framework for project supervision. This paper is a best practice guide aiming at research groups that would like to try to implement our supervision approach or parts of it. The approach is based on the belief that engineering students should be prepared for their new role as development engineers or PhD students as part of their master thesis writing. The supervision principles are: Ownership: The student should feel that their project is their own. Ideally, they should formulate the project themselves. Write early: We strongly encourage the students to write and generate figures and images already from the first week of the project period. Management: The student is considered project manager of his own project. The supervisor is a guide or coach (or a project owner) Plans: The student is asked to write a project plan during the first week of the project together with a risk-analysis. Group Meetings: A group of students and supervisors meet every week on a fixed weekday. In our team, it is normal that one supervisor supervises three to five projects simultaneously. The core of the supervision is the weekly meetings where the students present what they have been doing and what they plan to do. By default, all students are present at all meetings. Weekly meetings are scheduled to be at a specific day at a specific place for the entire process.

Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

2011-01-01

188

Stochastic approach to quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A critical review of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, both in its early and later versions, shows that, as a model for the individual system, it suffers from severe conceptual difficulties, particularly with regard to the problem of measurement. Nor are the most common hidden variable interpretations free from complications in providing a physical explanation for the properties of the quantum system. A promising alternative interpretation is the stochastic approach, which presumes that every physical system is continually interacting with a hidden thermostat. This thermostat has a randomizing effect on the position variable and necessitates a probabilistic description of the path of the system. If the concepts of both backward and forward diffusion are utilized, it is possible to construct a straightforward stochastic rule for computing the mean value of any observable which has a classical operational definition. Estimates based upon this rule agree with standard quantum predictions up to second order in momentum but disagree in higher order terms. The rule also predicts the average measurement results for observables which cannot, in general, be estimated by the usual operator formalism. The Schroedinger equation is derivable by the stochastic approach if Newton's Second Law is assumed. Also, quantization of energy and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle are readily explained through the stochastic model, but spatial quantization is not predicted but spatial quantization is not predicted by this method. If the magnitude of the free velocity of the relativistic stochastic particle is assumed to be the speed of light, as in Dirac's relativistic theory of the electron, it is possible to provide a relativistic extension of the stochastic approach and to derive (from this extension) the Klein-Gordon equation

189

New approach to resonance crossing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-varying nonlinear oscillatory systems produce phenomena of resonance crossing and trapping of particles in resonance islands. Traditionally, such processes have been analyzed in terms of adiabatic conditions. Considering, as an example, a simplified one-dimensional model describing the "electron-cloud pinch" during a bunch passage in a particle accelerator, here we present an approach to resonance trapping which does not require any adiabatic condition. Instead we introduce the concept of the attraction point and investigate invariance and scaling properties of motion close to the attraction point, considering a single resonance crossing. PMID:23368210

Franchetti, G; Zimmermann, F

2012-12-01

190

Different Ways Students Approach Data  

OpenAIRE

The world around us is increasingly becoming immersed in data. As such, the need is there for students to learn to interpret data at earlier and earlier ages. However, helping students learn about data requires that we understand how they intuitively approach the work of interpreting data. As is the case with many subject areas, we expect that students have myriads of ways to make intuitive judgments about data when it is presented to them. My research team worked with a classroom of elementa...

Williamson, Kylie

2014-01-01

191

'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere. PMID:24620487

Call, Roger

2014-02-01

192

Optical Approach to Gravitational Redshift  

OpenAIRE

An optical approach begins by interpreting the gravitational redshift resulting to a change in the relative velocity of light due to the medium of propagation in the gravitational field. The discussion continues by pointing out an agreement in structure between the equation for rays in geometrical optics and the geodesic equation of general relativity. From their comparison we learn that the path of rays should be given by the relation $ds^2=n^2(r)dr^2+r^2d\\theta^2$, not by ...

Yi, Y. G.

2000-01-01

193

Systematic approach to machine lubrication  

OpenAIRE

The basics of machinery lubrication are presented in this diploma work. Company GKN Driveline Slovenia d.o.o. and its production programme, and the machinery used in the company are presented in the first part of the work. In the middle part of this paper, a systematic approach to machine maintenance at the company is presented with an emphasis on lubrication. The diploma work is based on internal documents of the maintenance service at the company. The work also includes a practical example ...

Pintar, Josip

2013-01-01

194

European Whiteness? : A Critical Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U.S. gender, race, and whiteness studies.

Blaagaard, Bolette

2008-01-01

195

Deficient Approaches to Human Neuroimaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions.

Johannes Stelzer

2014-07-01

196

Real Analysis A Historical Approach  

CERN Document Server

A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

Stahl, Saul

2011-01-01

197

Approach to Mars Field Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin

1998-01-01

198

Giant resonances: reaction theory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of giant resonances through the use of reaction theory approach is presented and discussed. Measurements of cross-sections to the many available decay channels following excitation of giant multipole resonances (GMR) led one to view these phenomena as complicated dynamical syndromes so that theoretical requirements for their study must be extended beyond the traditional bounds of nuclear structure models. The spectra of decay products following GMR excitation in heavy nuclei are well described by statistical model (Hauser-Feshback, HF) predictions indicated that spreading of the collective modes plays a major role in shaping exclusive cross-sections. (A.C.A.S.)

199

[Medical approach to "the Quixote"].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the madness that turned the gentleman Alonso Quijano into the knight don Quixote, gives us no acceptable explanation about the reason of that mental disorder; this madness has already had a array of medical approaches. In order to understand it, there exist two possible factors: the repression of a sexual necessity which his nature imposed on himself, and the behaviour he was obliged to have because of his condition of gentleman; this study will try to explain and value these factors, taking also into account the information provided by the novel. PMID:16173695

Sánchez Granjel, Luis

2005-01-01

200

Computer Networks A Systems Approach  

CERN Document Server

This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

Peterson, Larry L

2011-01-01

201

Adaptive Approach for Language Modification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective software evolution needs to be supported by appropriate execution environment. Program can be viewed as a sequence of statements that are aimed to produce some result. The execution isdone by a platform that interprets the program’s sequence of statements. The new result of a computation can be achieved by transformation of program, interpreter or both. Software evolution aslong-term process can be supported by adaptive language and by environment, which offers reflective possibilities. In this paper we present our adaptive approach for language modification, which isbased on the idea, that programming language is not an immutable artefact.

Michal Forgá?

2009-05-01

202

Fundamental approach to discrete mathematics  

CERN Document Server

About the Book: The book `Fundamental Approach to Discrete Mathematics` is a required part of pursuing a computer science degree at most universities. It provides in-depth knowledge to the subject for beginners and stimulates further interest in the topic. The salient features of this book include: Strong coverage of key topics involving recurrence relation, combinatorics, Boolean algebra, graph theory and fuzzy set theory. Algorithms and examples integrated throughout the book to bring clarity to the fundamental concepts. Each concept and definition is followed by thoughtful examples.

Acharjya, DP

2009-01-01

203

Signal processing a mathematical approach  

CERN Document Server

Signal Processing: A Mathematical Approach is designed to show how many of the mathematical tools the reader knows can be used to understand and employ signal processing techniques in an applied environment. Assuming an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level understanding of mathematics-including familiarity with Fourier series, matrices, probability, and statistics-this Second Edition: Contains new chapters on convolution and the vector DFT, plane-wave propagation, and the BLUE and Kalman filtersExpands the material on Fourier analysis to three new chapters to provide additional background

Byrne, Charles L

2014-01-01

204

Setup reduction approaches for machining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

Gillespie, L.K.

1997-04-01

205

Energy storage a new approach  

CERN Document Server

Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale.  This revolutionary book describes   technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years, but presents new material that could transform the energy industry.  Regardless where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources- energy storage is something that the industry MUST learn and practice.  With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in China

Zito, Ralph

2010-01-01

206

New approach needed to HVAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems currently used in nuclear power plants are a development of those used to provide comfort conditions in office blocks and similar buildings. A new approach is required to the design of HVAC systems, whose role in the safety regime of any nuclear power plant often appears to be under-estimated. Experience gained in the British offshore industry is discussed together with control systems, which in addition to controlling the heating/ventilating function, provide information at a central point with feedback to the plant concerned. Opportunities for refurbishment of existing nuclear power plants are described. (U.K.)

207

Smile detection : A simple Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions analysis is applicable in various vision systems, new interfaces for television and other entertainment systems, diagnosis and monitoring of deceases, speech processing, modern smart digital cameras and perceptual man-machine interfaces etc. Smile is human’s expression for happiness. Detection of smile by a machine is helpful to establish human machine interaction in many situations. Many researchers worked on facial expression recognition, but there is not much research about smile detection. In this paper we proposed a simple image-based approach to identify the smile.

Praveen N

2013-06-01

208

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies

209

Nonpharmacologic approach to sleep disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep disturbances are common in patients with cancer, occurring throughout the disease trajectory and sometimes well after treatment has concluded. Insomnia often does not occur in isolation; it may be associated with pain, fatigue, depression, and medication usage. Screening for sleep disturbances is an essential part of caring for oncologic patients. The criterion standard for nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia in these patients is cognitive-behavioral therapy, a multimodal approach using sleep hygiene and education, stimulus control, sleep restriction, and relaxation. Exercise and complementary and integrative medicine have been studied with varying results, and no firm recommendation can be made about their efficacy. PMID:25299144

Mansel, J Keith; Carey, Elise C

2014-01-01

210

Bayesian Approach to Foreground Removal  

CERN Document Server

Our ability to extract the maximal amount of information from future observations at gigahertz frequencies depends on our ability to separate the underlying cosmic microwave background (CMB) from galactic and extragalactic foregrounds. We review the separation problem and its formulation within Bayesian inference, give examples of specific solutions with particular choices of prior density, and finally comment on the generalization of Bayesian methods to a multi-resolution framework. We propose a strategy for the regularization of solutions allowing a spatially varying spectral index, and discuss possible computational approaches such as multi-scale stochastic relaxation.

Jewell, J; Levin, S

1999-01-01

211

Novel approaches to pulmonary fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating condition with a poor prognosis and few treatment options. However, recent research into this condition has led to considerable insights into the pathophysiology of the disease, resulting in the identification of potential biomarkers to aid diagnosis and stratification of patients and the development of novel therapies. In this review we will discuss the recent developments in this field and review how this knowledge has been translated into clinical trials and a paradigm shift in our approach to patients with IPF. PMID:25468919

Jenkins, Gisli; Goodwin, Amanda

2014-12-01

212

Operational gaming an international approach  

CERN Document Server

Operational Gaming: An International Approach focuses on various research on this method of systems analysis. The text points out the value of this method in decision making, planning, and in the implementation of policies. The book presents a survey that highlights the connection of experimental gaming, game theory, and operational gaming. The value of gaming as a balancing method in assessing multifaceted computer models, most notably about their assumptions on human behavior, is noted. The book also offers an overview of gaming in other countries, such as Bulgaria, Soviet Union, and Japan,

Ståhl, Ingolf

1983-01-01

213

Software testing a craftsman's approach  

CERN Document Server

The software development world has changed significantly in the past five years. Noteworthy among its many changes is the emergence of the ""Unified Modeling Language"" (UML) as an industry standard. While thousands of software computer professionals and students continue to rely upon the bestselling first edition of Software Testing, the time has come to bring it up to date.Thoroughly revised, the second edition of Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach reflects the recent growth and changes in software standards and development. Outdated material has been deleted and new topics, figures, c

Jorgensen, Paul C

2014-01-01

214

33 CFR 167.203 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern approach. 167.203 Section 167.203 Navigation...Atlantic East Coast § 167.203 In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern...

2010-07-01

215

approach to revoked directives freshwater fish  

SCPinfonet

River Basin Management Plans Water Framework Directive –An approach to the Revoked Freshwater Fish Directive December 2014 2 Water Framework Directive - An approach to the Revoked Freshwater Fish Directive Summary This ...

216

Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

Angus, Samuel F.

1989-01-01

217

An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

1990-01-01

218

49 CFR 236.760 - Locking, approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, approach. 236.760 Section 236.760 Transportation Other...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.760 Locking, approach. Electric locking effective while a train is...

2010-10-01

219

Geometrical approach to Hamiltonian fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differential geometry based on the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The advantage of geometrical methods is that they provide an universal approach to the problem of invariance in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics. The main feature of the approach is that the hydrodynamic quantities are considered as geometrical objects and that the notion of invariance is formulated in terms of Lie derivatives. The solutions of the equations for invariant fields can be written in terms of Lagrange variables. This gives a generalized Cauchy formulation. A procedure for the construction of invariant fields using operations of differential geometry is presented. The formalism for finite-dimensional, canonical systems is extended to the case of continuous media. Similar to finite-dimensional systems, Hamiltonian fluids axe defined as those that conserve some exact two-form. It is shown that the equations of motion of charged barotropic fluids and of ideal plasmas belong to this class of equations. New type of scalar invariants for Hamiltonian fluids are constructed. It is the opinion of the authors that the application of these methods will be very fruitfull for the future development of the theory of fluid and plasma dynamics

220

Bioinformatics : The machine learning approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An unprecedented wealth of data is being generated by genome-sequencing projects and other experimental efforts to determine the structure and function of biological molecules. The demands and opportunities for interpreting these data are expanding more than ever. Biotechnology, pharmacology, and medicine will be particularly affected by the new results and the increased understanding of life at the molecular level. Bioinformatics is the development and application of computer methods for analysis, interpretation, and prediction, as well as for the design of experiments. It has emerged as a strategic frontier between biology and computer science. Machine learning approaches (e.g. neural networks, hidden Markov models, and belief networsk) are ideally suited for areas in which there is a lot of data but little theory. The goal in machine learning is to extract useful information from a body of data by building good probabilistic models. The particular twist behind machine learning, however, is to automate the process as much as possible.In this book, the authors present the key machine learning approaches and apply them to the computational problems encountered in the analysis of biological data.

Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, SØren

1998-01-01

221

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

222

Transradial approach for coronary interventions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of coronary interventions performed through the radial artery. METHODS: We studied 103 patients with ages from 38 to 86 years (57±8.7), 90 (87%) males, and: radial pulse with a good amplitude, presence of ulnar pulse, a good collateral flow through the [...] palmar arch assessed with the Allen's test. RESULTS: The vascular approach was obtained in 97 (94%) patients, 88 (91%) treated electively and 9 (9%) during acute myocardial infarction, for primary angioplasty; 56 (64%) unstable angina; 22 (25%) stable angina; 10 (11%) were asymptomatic, 6 referred for recanalization of chronic occlusion and 4 silent ischemia in the first week after acute myocardial infarction. We approached 107 arteries: anterior descending artery, 49 (46%); right coronary artery, 27 (25%); circumflex artery, 25 (23%); diagonal artery, 6 (6%); and 2 saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 129 lesions: 80 (62%) B2 type; 23 (18%) B1 type; 17 (13%) C type; and 9 (7%). A type. There were 70 stents , and 59 balloon angioplasties performed. Thirty-two (33%) patients used GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The mean duration of the elective procedure was 42.3±12.8 min. Success, correct stent deployment and residual lesion

José Carlos, Brito; Antônio, Azevedo Júnior; Adriano, Oliveira; Roberto, Von Sohsten; Ademar, Santos Filho; Heitor, Carvalho.

2001-05-01

223

Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

2009-07-01

224

Evaporator modeling - A hybrid approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to model two-phase flow evaporators. The main procedures for hybrid modeling includes: (1) Based on the energy and material balance, and thermodynamic principles to formulate the process fundamental governing equations; (2) Select input/output (I/O) variables responsible to the system performance which can be measured and controlled; (3) Represent those variables existing in the original equations but are not measurable as simple functions of selected I/Os or constants; (4) Obtaining a single equation which can correlate system inputs and outputs; and (5) Identify unknown parameters by linear or nonlinear least-squares methods. The method takes advantages of both physical and empirical modeling approaches and can accurately predict performance in wide operating range and in real-time, which can significantly reduce the computational burden and increase the prediction accuracy. The model is verified with the experimental data taken from a testing system. The testing results show that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating evaporator with the maximum error of ±8%. The developed models will have wide applications in operational optimization, performance assessment, fault detection and diagnosis

225

Bionanoparticles, a green nanochemistry approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: In the past decade, considerable attention has been paid for the development of novel strategies for the synthesis of different kind of nano-objects. Most of the current strategies are usually working by the use physical or chemical principles to develop a myriad of nano-objects with mul [...] tiple applications. Main fields of nanotechnology applications range from catalysis, micro- and nano-electronics (semiconductors, single electrons transistors), non-linear optic devices, photo-electrochemistry to biomedicine, diagnostics, foods and environment, chemical analysis and others. Results: Two main avenues for nanoparticles synthesis: cell-free extract and cell cultivation have been reported. The state of art of both biotechnological approaches for different type nanoparticles are reviewed in this work. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a revolutionary field just at its onset, the trend in the next decades being its integration with the green chemistry approach. Several strategies involving exhaustive strain selection, cultivation modes, recombinant gene expression, metabolic engineering, protein re-design and re-engineering, and predictive modeling will allow to create nanobioreactors, a new nanobiotechnology arena with a high potential impact in many fields.

Ana, Cauerhff; Guillermo R, Castro.

2013-05-15

226

Diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solitary thyroid nodules present as localized tumefactions of the thyroid gland readily detectable clinically. They are frequent (2-5% of the general population) and due to a variety of causes, each requiring a specific treatment; hence the need for a systematized diagnostic approach. On scintigraphic grounds, on can distinguish between ''warm'' or ''extinctive'' nodules (10% and 20% of the cases respectively), which are a priori benign, and ''cold'' nodules (70%), which in 1 out of 10 cases correspond to a differentiated epithelioma with excellent post-operative prognosis. Three methodological data call for comments: the images supplied by technetium may differ from those supplied by radioactive iodine, which remains the reference radioisotope; there is no clinical criterion of malignancy, but fluid-containing nodules are almost invariably benign; needle cytology is the best means of selecting nodules for surgery and histology which is the only reliable diagnostic examination. We therefore propose, albeit with due caution, a diagnostic approach based on the sequence scintigraphy-needle exploration and cytology and aimed at limiting surgery to purely therapeutic purposes

227

Fighting food allergy: current approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic reaction to allergens present in food and is associated with symptoms ranging from gastrointestinal discomfort to anaphylactic shock and death. The increase in prevalence and potential fatality of disease has led to increased efforts to find effective therapies and prophylaxis. While specific immunotherapy (SIT) is effective in desensitization against inhalant allergens, it is unadvised against food allergy because of the high risk of adverse side effects. A review of the recent literature shows that various approaches have been taken to develop safer and more effective SIT regimens. Here we discuss the use of recombinant allergens, peptides, DNA vaccines, immunostimulatory DNA sequences, and other bacterial products in SIT. In addition, we review nonspecific therapies such as anti-IgE administration and cytokine therapy as well as natural therapies such as probiotics and Chinese herbal medications. In conclusion, anti-IgE treatment and SIT using hypoallergenic recombinant allergens in combination with Th1-inducing adjuvants appear the most promising approaches. New initiatives to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunologic mechanisms of food allergy along with the molecular characterization of food allergens should pave the way towards safer and more effective ways of combating this debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease. PMID:16387675

Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L

2005-11-01

228

Unconventional approaches to mortality estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most developing countries do not have complete registration of deaths on which to base mortality estimates. Four broad categories of unconventional methods have been developed to provide mortality estimates in such settings. The first consists of approaches for evaluation adjustment of incompletely recorded deaths by comparison with recorded age distributions. The second consists of alternative data collection methodologies collecting information about deaths by age. The third consists of approaches based on asking respondents about the survival or otherwise of close relatives. The fourth estimates mortality from changes in age distributions, interpreting cohort attrition as mortality. Methods in the first two categories offer the greatest potential for contributing information on developing country mortality to the Human Mortality Database. Methods in the first category are illustrated here by application to data from the Republic of Korea for the second half of the 20th century. In populations with good age reporting and little net migration, these methods work well and offer the opportunity to include developing country data in the HMD.

Yoonjoung Choi

2005-11-01

229

Modeling Approaches in Planetary Seismology  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon over 40 years ago revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure on and of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this chapter, we will review these approaches.

Weber, Renee; Knapmeyer, Martin; Panning, Mark; Schmerr, Nick

2014-01-01

230

Global function approach in structural analysis: Basic approach, numerical results  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural response to a given environment is described by the differential equations of motion of deformable bodies. Analytic solutions of such problems for a reasonably large class of structural configurations are not within the realm of the possible. Consequently, the mathematical problem is recast into a numerical problem for solution on the computer. New technology in the space and energy fields led to a growing demand for accurate analysis which at times cannot be met due to the limits set by available budgets for computer time. In response to this need for more efficient numerical analysis, the possibilities of reducing the number of freedoms in the system through a revival of the global function approach were explored.

Almroth, B. O.; Stehling, P.; Brogan, F. A.

1981-01-01

231

Valuing Public Goods: The Life Satisfaction Approach  

OpenAIRE

"This paper discusses a novel approach to elicit people?s preferences fornpublic goods, namely the life satisfaction approach. Reported subjective well-beingndata are used to directly evaluate utility consequences of public goods. The strengthsnof this approach are compared to traditional approaches and identification issues arenaddressed. Moreover, it is applied to estimate utility losses caused by terroristnactivities in France, the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Terrorism in these co...

Frey, Bruno S.; Luechinger, Simon; Stutzer, Alois

2004-01-01

232

Surgical Approaches to the Hypoglossal Canal  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To describe and illustrate three distinct surgical approaches that permit exposure and resection of extradural, intradural, and transdural lesions involving the hypoglossal canal. Study design: Case series. Setting: University medical center. Patients: Four patients with lesions of the hypoglossal canal were reviewed to illustrate our philosophy when selecting a surgical approach to the hypoglossal canal. Interventions: Three separate surgical approaches were used to approach lesio...

Calzada, Gabriel; Isaacson, Brandon; Yoshor, Daniel; Oghalai, John S.

2007-01-01

233

Twisted Homotopy: A Group Theoretic Approach  

OpenAIRE

After summarising the physical approach leading to twisted homotopy and after developing the cohomological approach further with respect to our previous work we propose a third alternative approach to twisted homotopy based on group theoretic considerations. In this approach the fundamental group $\\Pi (m) $ isomorphic to Z which describes homotopic loops on the punctured plane$ R^2/(0) $ is enhanced in a special way to the continuous SO(2) group . This is performed by lettin...

Mekhfi, M.

1996-01-01

234

The Transcranial Translabyrinthine Approach to Acoustic Neuromas  

OpenAIRE

We originally described the transcranial translabyrinthine approach (TCTL) to acoustic neuroma. The approach is a labyrinthine dissection that is performed via the suboccipital exposure. It allows a complete and direct visualization of the internal auditory canal and the identification of the facial nerve at “Bill's bar.” The TCTL enhances the suboccipital approach and adapts to its concepts of the classical transmastoid translabyrinthine approach. We hereby report our initial experience ...

Feghali, Joseph G.; Kantrowitz, Allen B.

1994-01-01

235

Biliary lithiasis approach in open laparoscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laparoscopic approach is currently the elective approach in the treatment of non complicated biliary lithiasis.There was a time when an umbilical herniation presented a series of problems at the time of deciding on the approach to be taken.The paper refers to 2 cases of laparoscopic approach in the treatment of symptomatised biliary lithiasis, with an open laparoscopy technique through umbilical hernia ton ring.The repair of herniation was performed in the same operative act with good immediate results

236

Towards a corporate approach for energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corporate approach is a well-known an much discussed subject. At present the corporate approach is not a legal possibility in the Netherlands. A study has been carried out to investigate the consequences of a corporate approach on the energy efficiency in departments of Philips Nederland

237

49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

2010-10-01

238

10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy...SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of...

2010-01-01

239

Marital Counseling: An Integrated Brief Therapy Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses advantages of, and potential pitfalls in, integrated approaches to marital counseling. Presents a sequential approach in which various approaches to marital counseling are integrated without jeopardizing internal consistency and uniformity in treatment. Offers precounseling considerations and procedures for a five-session series.…

Magnuson, Sandy; Norem, Ken

1998-01-01

240

Crohn's disease: current imaging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This paper discusses the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: We present a concept, which emphasizes different diagnostic aspects with regard to primary diagnosis, follow-up and assessment of complications of CD. The most effective imaging approach to various diagnostic problems of CD is discussed in detail. Discussion: With regard to the primary diagnosis barium studies should contribute to differentiate between CD and ulcerative colitis. Beyond that, these studies should evaluate location and extent of disease. During the follow-up bowel sonography provides staging of disease and enables the detection of complications at an early stage. CT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of complications, such as fistuale and abscesses. (orig.)

241

[Pathogenetic approaches to treating constipations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Constipation affects 15-25% of people. Its mechanisms are various. There are constipations due to intestinal dyskinesia (functional constipation, irritated bowel syndrome), slow transit (colonic inertia), and muscular apparatus discoordination ensuring defecation (dyssynergic defecation). The treatment of different types of constipation uses prokinetics (type 4 serotonin receptor agonists, chlorine channels activators and guanylate cyclase C channel activators) or spasmolytics, among which pinaverium bromide (dicetel) has demonstrated its high efficacy. Biofeedback therapy or surgical techniques may be used. There is a need to prescribe laxatives in any type of constipation. A pathogenetic approach to treating constipation is most efficient. The paper characterizes stimulant, osmotic, volume, and emollient laxatives and agents stimulating the urge to defecate. It also gives the data of meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of different drug groups. Particular emphasis is laid of the effect of lactulose and its first preparation--duphalac. PMID:25306754

Luzina, E V

2014-01-01

242

Computational approach to Riemann surfaces  

CERN Document Server

This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

Klein, Christian

2011-01-01

243

Histories Approach to Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Document Server

These lecture notes cover the important developments in histories approach to quantum mechanics with overall content and emphasis somewhat different from other reviews and books on the subject.The idea of Houtappel, Van Dam and Wigner of employing objects based on primitive concepts of physical theories is discussed in some detail and the fact that histories are such objects is emphasized. Application of histories formalism to the problem of understanding the quasiclassical domain is treated in some detail. Other topics discussed include generalized histories-based quantum mechanics and its application to the quantum mechanics of space-time,generalization of the notion of time sequences employing partial semigroups,quasitemporal structures, history projection operator (HPO) formalism, the algebraic scheme of Isham and Linden, an axiomatic scheme for quasitemporal histories-based theories and symmetries and conservation laws in histories-based theories.

Dass, T

2005-01-01

244

How to approach chronic anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present herein an approach to diagnosing the cause of chronic anemia based on a patient's history and complete blood cell count (CBC). Four patterns that are encountered frequently in CBCs associated with chronic anemias are considered: (1) anemia with abnormal platelet and/or leukocyte counts, (2) anemia with increased reticulocyte counts, (3) life-long history of chronic anemia, and (4) anemia with inappropriately low reticulocytes. The pathophysiologic bases for some chronic anemias with low reticulocyte production are reviewed in terms of the bone marrow (BM) events that reduce normal rates of erythropoiesis. These events include: apoptosis of erythroid progenitor and precursor cells by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, development of macrocytosis when erythroblast DNA replication is impaired, and development of microcytosis due to heme-regulated eIF2? kinase inhibition of protein synthesis in iron-deficient or thalassemic erythroblasts. PMID:23233579

Koury, Mark J; Rhodes, Melissa

2012-01-01

245

RBE from a microdosimetric approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the current status of microdosimetry and knowledge regarding the response of biological systems to radiation fields of differing linear energy transfer (LET). The primary objective is to investigate the potential application to radon daughter lung dosimetry. The concept of track structure and its statistical behaviour is discussed and applied to estimate the yield of double strand breaks (DSBs). The general microdosimetric approach to modelling radiation response is presented in terms of the hit-size effectiveness function and the behaviour for specific proposed functions is examined. Radiobiological investigations of the DSB, chromosome aberration and oncogenic transformation end points are reviewed with emphasis on recent developments. A simplified model system is developed illustrating the potential for analysis of the risk from radon daughter inhalation and published research directed towards this goal is discussed. (author). 66 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

246

Termination Analysis Approach and Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An active database system is a system which provides the same functionalities as a classic database system and is, equally, capable to react, automatically, to state changes by means of rules said active rules. The triggering of these rules can produce an infinite cycle and leads to the no termination problem. In this study, we propose a method of termination analysis of active rules based on Petri nets (PN and give an object oriented representation to implement it. This approach is better than the previous ones because it takes into a count composite events and the rule priority on the one hand and both rule representation and rule analysis are performed in the same PN on the other hand.

L. Baba-hamed

2006-01-01

247

Concurrent Engineering: A Partnership Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development of a new course in concurrent engineering. Teaching concepts in product development benefits greatly from a hands-on approach. The authors have attempted to establish this goal in three ways: by developing and using a number of laboratories and demonstrations, by inviting speakers from industry who can make classroom lessons concrete, and by using cases as the basis for class discussion. This paper includes a discussion of the curriculum, of existing teaching materials, and of specific methods and materials developed for the course. The course was developed jointly by faculty and research assistants at the University of Washington (UW), the University of Puerto Ricos Mayagez campus (UPRM), and at Penn State (PSU), as part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP), funded through the ARPA Technology Reinvestment Program.

Barton, Russell R.; Nowack, Craig A.; Smith, Robert P.; Zayas-Castro, Jose L.

2011-03-10

248

The thermodynamic approach to market  

CERN Document Server

The first (Russian) edition of the book was among the first monographs on econophysics. The book gives an explanation of several intriguing phenomena, providing new insights and answers to some deeply vexing questions. Why the economic "shock therapy" implemented in Eastern Europe was doomed to a failure whereas the approach adopted by China and Vietnam should inevitably lead to economic growth (damped, perhaps, by corruption and inconsistencies)? Why some restrictions imposed on markets are dangerous? Politicians (and laymen) usually believe that the more restrictions you impose on the society, the easier it is to govern. The reality seems to be more subtle. Some restrictions are necessary for the markets to function. However, restrictions on salary, for example, seem to always result in unemployment, as a simple "spin" model shows. Evidently, optimizing freedom is an equilibrium problem, and none of the extrema is devoid of danger. Why should crooked dealings be prevented? What is a reasonable rate of taxat...

Sergeev, Victor

2008-01-01

249

Heuristic approach to train rescheduling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the defined network topology and the timetable assigned beforehand, the paper considers a train rescheduling in respond to disturbances that have occurred. Assuming that the train trips are jobs, which require the elements of infrastructure - resources, it was done by the mapping of the initial problem into a special case of job shop scheduling problem. In order to solve the given problem, a constraint programming approach has been used. A support to fast finding "enough good" schedules is offered by original separation, bound and search heuristic algorithms. In addition, to improve the time performance, instead of the actual objective function with a large domain, a surrogate objective function is used with a smaller domain, if there is such. .

Mladenovi? Snežana

2007-01-01

250

How I approach trabeculectomy surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to the most commonly performed surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma, trabeculectomy. It is important to recognise that the concept of trabeculectomy surgery can be difficult for patients to comprehend in the first place. Their disease is frequently ‘thrust upon them’ by doctors; in other words, they are frequently asymptomatic in the eye that the ophthalmologist is most concerned about. The therapy, at best, can only hope to maintain vision. Vision may well deteriorate as a result of the therapy. These concepts are vital in the consideration of any surgical intervention. Preventive therapy is always more difficult to introduce. This also means the surgeon is all the more challenged to produce the safest possible result. A well-rested surgeon and a calm surgical environment is the start, along with a confident surgical technique.

Ian Murdoch

2006-09-01

251

Elliptic curves a computational approach  

CERN Document Server

The basics of the theory of elliptic curves should be known to everybody, be he (or she) a mathematician or a computer scientist. Especially everybody concerned with cryptography should know the elements of this theory. The purpose of the present textbook is to give an elementary introduction to elliptic curves. Since this branch of number theory is particularly accessible to computer-assisted calculations, the authors make use of it by approaching the theory under a computational point of view. Specifically, the computer-algebra package SIMATH can be applied on several occasions. However, the book can be read also by those not interested in any computations. Of course, the theory of elliptic curves is very comprehensive and becomes correspondingly sophisticated. That is why the authors made a choice of the topics treated. Topics covered include the determination of torsion groups, computations regarding the Mordell-Weil group, height calculations, S-integral points. The contents is kept as elementary as poss...

Schmitt, Susanne; Pethö, Attila

2003-01-01

252

Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches  

CERN Document Server

Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

2011-01-01

253

Approaches for Keyword Query Routing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing number of datasets published on the Web as linked data brings both opportunities for high data availability of data. As the data increases challenges for querying also increases. It is very difficult to search linked data using structured languages. Hence, we use Keyword Query searching for linked data. In this paper, we propose different approaches for keyword query routing through which the efficiency of keyword search can be improved greatly. By routing the keywords to the relevant data sources the processing cost of keyword search queries can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we contrast and compare four models – Keyword level, Element level, Set level and query expansion using semantic and linguistic analysis. These models are used for keyword query routing in keyword search.

Mrs. Suwarna Gothane

2014-10-01

254

Experimental design a chemometric approach  

CERN Document Server

Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'''' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry'' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the practicing analytical chemist.''''.The book first introduces the reader to the fundamentals of experimental design. Systems theory, response surface concepts, and basic statistics serve as a basis for the further development of matrix least squares and hypothesis testing. The effects of different experimental designs and different models on the variance-covariance matrix and on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are exte...

Deming, SN

1987-01-01

255

Managerial Leadership - A Theoretical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper endeavors to offer an overview of the major theories on leadership and the way in which it influences the management of contemporary organizations. Numerous scholars highlight that there are numerous overlaps between the concepts of management and leadership. This is the reason why the first section of the paper focuses on providing an extensive overview of the literature regarding the meaning of the two aforementioned concepts. The second section addresses more in depth the concept of leadership and managerial leadership and focuses on the ideal profile of the leader. The last section of the paper critically discusses various types of leadership and more specifically modern approaches to the concept and practices of leadership.

Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

2007-06-01

256

Extending cosmology: the metric approach  

CERN Document Server

Introducing a fundamental constant of nature with dimensions of acceleration into the theory of gravity makes it possible to extend gravity in a very consistent manner. In the non-relativistic regime a MOND-like theory with a modification in the force sector is obtained, which is the weak-field limit of a very general metric relativistic theory of gravity. Since the mass and length scales involved in the dynamics of the whole universe require small accelerations of the order of Milgrom's acceleration constant (\\mathsf{a}_0), it turns out that the relativistic theory of gravity can be used to explain the expansion of the universe. In this work it is explained how to built that relativistic theory of gravity in such a way that the overall large-scale dynamics of the universe can be treated in a pure metric approach without the need to introduce dark matter and/or dark energy components.

Mendoza, S

2012-01-01

257

Interim Approach to the MRS facility design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose is to present the proposed Interim Approach to the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility design development. This Interim Approach document fulfills the function allocated to the OCRWM-SEMP (DOE/RW-0051REVlP, March 1990, Section 5.2 Approach to the MRS Design) until the MRS section of the OCRWM-SEMP is approved. Until completion of the OCRWM-SEMP, this Interim Approach document will be approved and controlled according to the Program Change Control Procedure (DOE/RW-0223REV3P). This document discusses the general approach to Conceptual Design (CD), Title I Design, and Title II Design activities

258

Nuclear security standard: Argentina approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentina has a comprehensive regulatory system designed to assure the security and safety of radioactive sources, which has been in place for more than fifty years. In 1989 the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission created the 'Council of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations' (CAPFMIN). This Council published in 1992 a Physical Protection Standard based on a deep and careful analysis of INFCIRC 225/Rev.2 including topics like 'sabotage scenario'. Since then, the world's scenario has changed, and some concepts like 'design basis threat', 'detection, delay and response', 'performance approach and prescriptive approach', have been applied to the design of physical protection systems in facilities other than nuclear installations. In Argentina, radioactive sources are widely used in medical and industrial applications with more than 1,600 facilities controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in spanish ARN). During 2005, measures like 'access control', 'timely detection of intruder', 'background checks', and 'security plan', were required by ARN for implementation in facilities with radioactive sources. To 'close the cycle' the next step is to produce a regulatory standard based on the operational experience acquired during 2005. ARN has developed a set of criteria for including them in a new standard on security of radioactive materials. Besides, a specific Regulatory Guide is being prepared toific Regulatory Guide is being prepared to help licensees of facilities in design a security system and to fulfill the 'Design of Security System Questionnaire'. The present paper describes the proposed Standard on Security of Radioactive Sources and the draft of the Nuclear Security Regulatory Guidance, based on our regulatory experience and the latest international recommendations. (author)

259

Spinal trauma. An imaging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the auths, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

260

Two approaches to physics tutoring  

Science.gov (United States)

One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

Solomaniuck, Tania

261

An intelligent approach to nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnolo

Demming, Anna

2013-11-01

262

Reactor protection system, diverse approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Defence in depth design criteria, applied to nuclear instrumentation, in particular to reactor protection systems (RPS), includes redundancy, diversity and fail-safe behaviour. Typical two out of three, majority-voting systems meet redundancy criteria. A careful analysis of signal levels and polarity and the use of several techniques such as lives zeros, bias toward safe state, etc. guarantee same degree of fail-safe behaviour. Diversity criteria, in general, is met by the whole system using more than one method to protect the integrity of reactor (i.e. rod drop plus boron injection), but it is not met by a single instrumentation chain. Moreover, the increased information needs of supervision systems encourage the use of digital instrumentation in RPS; if the digital instrumentation has software based implementation, the diversity requirement could be mandatory for the instrumentation of each system. In this work three possible configuration of the First Reactor Protection System (rod drop) are analysed, the first is the traditional hardware approach, the second is a software based system, and the third is a proposed mix system. For all configurations, a redundant system two out of four (2004) is assumed. Availability and reliability points of view are taken into account. For the unreliability/unavailability analysis global values are assumed (order of magnitude). For hardware a value H lower than 10-3 is assumed and for software an S value is assumed. The first possiare an S value is assumed. The first possible configuration is a hardwired architecture. By means of unreliability tree and using the gates formulas the value for unreliability UR = H is calculated. In similar way is possible compute total unavailability UA = H. The use of non-redundant final actuation logic lead to this result. The second possible configuration is a software based architecture. In this case field bus and serial bus are used, the unreliability and the unavailability computed is UR = UA 5 S + H. Finally, the proposed configuration, a software based with programmable hardware backup architecture is analysed. In this case the unreliability computed is UR = 15 H2 and the unavailability is UA S + 6 H With this approach reliability lies on hardware and availability/functionality lies on software. In addition, the proposed architecture makes practical the use of redundant Rod Voting and Actuation Logic (one by rod) and pushes the reliability to H2. Implementing the hardware backup by programmable logic we gain in flexibility, in order to fit the system in different facilities. But a new question is arisen; is programmable logic real hardware? To address this matter, a CPLD based system was developed and now it is under test in the experimental reactor RA1

263

Hybrid biasing approaches for global variance reduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new variant of Monte Carlo-deterministic (DT) hybrid variance reduction approach based on Gaussian process theory is presented for accelerating convergence of Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS) approach implemented in the SCALE package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The new approach, denoted the Gaussian process approach, treats the responses of interest as normally distributed random processes. The Gaussian process approach improves the selection of the weight windows of simulated particles by identifying a subspace that captures the dominant sources of statistical response variations. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach utilizes particle importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive weight window biasing. In contrast to the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach identifies the response correlations (via a covariance matrix) and employs them to reduce the computational overhead required for global variance reduction (GVR) purpose. The effective rank of the covariance matrix identifies the minimum number of uncorrelated pseudo responses, which are employed to bias simulated particles. Numerical experiments, serving as a proof of principle, are presented to compare the Gaussian process and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation of the estimated responses. PMID:23208236

Wu, Zeyun; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S

2013-02-01

264

Australia: Approaching an energy crossroads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers energy policy in Australia in the context of its considerable energy resources, climate change and a recent change in government. It examines the possible paths that future energy use and policy in Australia could take, including published projections based largely on a 'business as usual' approach and projections based on a dramatic shift towards more efficient use of energy and renewable energy technologies. It also considers the various factors affecting future policy direction, including energy security, the advocacy in Australia for establishing nuclear electricity generation and other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle, responses to climate change, and carbon sequestration. It concludes that while the Australian Government is currently reluctant to move away from a dependence on coal, and unlikely to adopt nuclear energy generation, a low-emissions future without waiting for the deployment of carbon capture and storage and without resorting to nuclear power is within reach. However, in the face of strong pressure from interest groups associated with energy intensive industry, making the necessary innovations will require further growth of community concern about climate change, and the development of greater understanding of the feasibility of employing low carbon-emissions options.

265

Understanding Progress: A Heterodox Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of understanding and measuring well-being as a result of “progress” on the basis of today’s dominant epistemological framework. Market criteria distort social values by allowing purchasing power to define priorities, likening luxury goods to basic needs; in the process they reinforce patterns of discrimination against disadvantaged social groups and women, introducing fatal distortions into the analysis. Similarly, because there are no appropriate mechanisms to price natural resources adequately, the market overlooks the consequences of the abuse of natural resources, degrading the quality of life, individually and collectively, or—in the framework of Latin American indigenous groups—foreclosing the possibility of “living well”. We critique the common vision of the official development discourse that places its faith on technological innovations to resolve these problems. The analysis points to the need for new models of social and environmental governance to promote progress, approaches like those suggested in the paper that are inconsistent with public policies currently in place. At present, the social groups forging institutions to assure their own well-being and ecological balance are involved in local processes, often in opposition to the proposals of the political leaders in their countries.

Blanca Lemus

2013-01-01

266

Alternative surgical approaches in epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mainstay of epilepsy surgery is the resection of a presumed seizure focus or disruption of seizure propagation pathways. These approaches cannot be applied to all patients with medically refractory epilepsy (MRE). Since 1997, vagus nerve stimulation has been a palliative adjunct to the care of MRE patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in select locations has been reported to reduce seizure frequency in small studies over the past three decades. Recently published results from the SANTE (Stimulation of the Anterior Nuclei of Thalamus for Epilepsy) trial-the first large-scale, randomized, double-blind trial of bilateral anterior thalamus DBS for MRE-demonstrate a significant reduction in seizure frequency with programmed stimulation. Another surgical alternative is the RNS™ System (NeuroPace, Mountain View, CA), which uses a closed-loop system termed responsive neurostimulation to both detect apparent seizure onsets and deliver stimulation. Recently presented results from the RNS™ pivotal trial demonstrate a sustained reduction in seizure frequency with stimulation, although comprehensive trial results are pending. PMID:21584657

Gigante, Paul R; Goodman, Robert R

2011-08-01

267

Piping analysis: A flexibility approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear plant piping is supported laterally and vertically at relatively close intervals, resulting in a system of piping that is much more rigid than that in a typical fossil plant. This system results in congestion in the plant, in an undesirable sensitivity to temperature changes, and in excessive costs. Design for the vertical and horizontal accelerations associated with a seismic event coupled with low allowable loads on equipment are two primary contributors to the current situation. Much effort is currently being expended to address this problem, effort that includes the use of higher damping ratios, consideration of response spectra shifting, and consideration of seismic effects as secondary loading. All of these have the potential of reducing the number of pipe supports, but none of them, with the possible exception of a radically different consideration of damping, appear to offer an optimum solution to the problem of overly rigid piping systems. Regulatory constraints, coupled with a fundamental inability to model a piping system in a way that permits an accurate assessment of its true non-linear behavior, have created an impasse in attempts to develop a new, less restrictive approach to piping analysis. The writers conclude that a focused effort by the nuclear industry, including extensive dynamic testing of large scale piping systems, is called for to address the problem

268

An Eliminativist Approach to Vulnerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of vulnerability has been subject to numerous different interpretations but accounts are still beset with significant problems as to their adequacy, such as their contentious application or the lack of genuine explanatory role for the concept. The constant failure to provide a compelling conceptual analysis and satisfactory definition leaves the concept open to an eliminativist move whereby we can question whether we need the concept at all. I highlight problems with various kinds of approach and explain why a satisfactory account of vulnerability is unlikely ever to be offered if we wish the concept to play a genuinely explanatory role in bioethical contexts. I outline why an eliminativist position should be taken with regard to this concept in light of these concerns but mitigate some of the severity of this position by arguing that we can still make sense of retaining our widespread use of the term by viewing it as nothing more than a useful pragmatic linguistic device that acts as a marker to draw attention to certain kinds of issue. These issues will be entirely governed by other, better understood ethical concepts and theories. PMID:25425540

Wrigley, Anthony

2014-11-25

269

Direct approach to modeling epistasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome-wide association studies have recently been conducted in humans and domesticated animals and plants to locate and identify chromosomal regions or genes (quantitative trait loci or QTLs) to select individuals with superior performance and qualities. QTL or genetic effects, including epistatic effects, can be defined at the genotypic (functional) and gene (statistical) levels. In the past, the functional or statistical genetic effects have been defined indirectly, and genotypic values were expressed as linear functions of additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic effects. In this chapter, we propose to reverse the thinking and define genetic effects as linear functions of genotypic values. The direct definition of functional genetic effects is straightforward for well-known gene action models [e.g., unweighted (UW), F2, and F? models]. However, the direct definition of statistical genetic effects is based on Fisher's concept of average excess, which is closely related to the well-known concept of the average effect of a gene substitution. These definitions can be easily extended to cases of two or more loci as long as the loci are independent of each other. Two numerical examples are used to illustrate the properties of the direct approach. PMID:25403532

Yang, Rong-Cai

2015-01-01

270

Angioedema: Diagnosis and treatment approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angioedema (AE is defined as sudden, localized and transient swelling of the skin and/or mucous membranes. This swelling condition is a result of interstitial edema from vasoactive mediators increasing the permeability of postcapillary venules of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. When localized to the skin, it presents as asymmetric, nonpitting, nondependent, and occasionally painful edema. However, mucosal attacks, such as laryngeal edema and bowel involvement can produce severe discomfort and life-threatening symptoms. There are several forms including those involving dysfunction or depletion of the C1-inhibitor gene (classical hereditary AE types and acquired AE, allergic AE, drug-induced AE (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced AE, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced AE, idiopathic and a recently described form, HAE type 3. These various forms of AE have overlapping symptoms, but some unique clinical and historical features as well as presence of accompanying urticaria can aid in the differential diagnosis. The key to successful management is to rule out conditions that masquerade as AE, detection and avoidance of triggers, early recognition of attacks, and aggressive airway management when warranted. In this article, common and rare forms as well as clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment approaches for AE are reviewed.

Ali Tahsin Güne?

2013-03-01

271

Protein solubilization: a novel approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formulation development presents significant challenges with respect to protein therapeutics. One component of these challenges is to attain high protein solubility (>50mg/ml for immunoglobulins) with minimal aggregation. Protein-protein interactions contribute to aggregation and the integral sum of these interactions can be quantified by a thermodynamic parameter known as the osmotic second virial coefficient (B-value). The method presented here utilizes high-throughput measurement of B-values to identify the influence of additives on protein-protein interactions. The experiment design uses three tiers of screens to arrive at final solution conditions that improve protein solubility. The first screen identifies individual additives that reduce protein interactions. A second set of B-values are then measured for different combinations of these additives via an incomplete factorial screen. Results from the incomplete factorial screen are used to train an artificial neural network (ANN). The "trained" ANN enables predictions of B-values for more than 4000 formulations that include additive combinations not previously experimentally measured. Validation steps are incorporated throughout the screening process to ensure that (1) the protein's thermal and aggregation stability characteristics are not reduced and (2) the artificial neural network predictive model is accurate. The ability of this approach to reduce aggregation and increase solubility is demonstrated using an IgG protein supplied by Minerva Biotechnologies, Inc. PMID:25270058

Johnson, David H; Wilson, W William; DeLucas, Lawrence J

2014-11-15

272

Newer approaches to malaria control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality. PMID:23508211

Damodaran, Se; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

2011-07-01

273

Nonperturbative approaches to quantum gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The perturbative nonrenormalizability of Einstein's theory of general relativity does not preclude its nonperturbative quantization. By recasting general relativity in terms of SU(2) spinors, Ashtekar has recently achieved much progress in the canonical quantization program. The author presents two complementary efforts to further this program. The first is a novel lattice regularization of Einstein's theory based on Ashtekar's spinorial approach and the Hamiltonian lattice gauge theory of Kogut and Susskind. He introduces a natural representation of quantum states of the gravitational field based on holomorphic functionals of SL(2,C) holonomy group elements. The constraints are transcribed to the lattice, and their action on the state space is briefly investigated. He constructs and employs a computer program to examine the regulated algebra of constraints in the limit that the lattice spacing goes to zero, and he found that it fails too close. The implications of this result are discussed. The second part of the thesis contains two investigations aimed at solving the constraints of general relativity for the two unconstrained degrees of freedom. The first of these describes a new constraint reduction procedure made possible by the simplification in the constraints in terms of the spinorial variables. He shows how the diffeomorphism constraint becomes much simpler, and he reduces the constraint set to one partial differential equation for a special choice of initial equation for a special choice of initial data. In the last chapter he finds the general solution to the constraint plus evolution equations of Einstein's theory in the strong coupling limit

274

Fulfillment Request Management (The approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the term FRM (Fulfillment Request Management. According to the FRM in a BSS / OSS environment we can use a unified approach to implement a SOA in order to integrate BSS with OSS and handle 1. Orders 2. Events 3. Processes. So in a way that systems like ESB, Order Management, and Business Process Management can be implemented under a unified architecture and a unified implementation. We assume that all the above mentioned are 'requests' and according to the system we want to implement, the request can be an event, an order, a process etc. So instead of having N systems we have 1 system that covers all the above (ESB, Order Management, BPM etc With the FRM we can have certain advantages such as: 1. adaptation 2. Interoperability. 3. Re-usability 4. Fast implementation 5. Easy reporting. In this paper we present a set of the main principles in order to build an FRM System.

Stylianos Gkoutzioupas

2014-02-01

275

ECG Signal Analysis: Different Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several challenges in solving biomedical problems and making Digital Signal Processing as an essential and effective pedagogical approach to solve a problem of detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG signals. The detection of QRS complex has many clinical applications as it marks the beginning of the left ventricular contraction. A lot of possible heart malfunctions such as cardiac arrhythmias, transient ischemic episodes and silent myocardial ischemia or failures will be slow while monitoring of ECG signal in real-time during normal activity. Introducing an efficient method for arrhythmia detection can be very useful for better conceptual understanding of signal processing. In this paper, we discussed two methods to clean ECG signal corrupted by noise and to extract required parameters for detecting arrhythmia condition. One method is Hilbert Transform method and another method is Filter Bank method. These methods involve using filter techniques, algorithms of finding peaks & valleys, local maxima & minima etc, for determining R peaks, R-R intervals and QRS complexes.

S. Thulasi Prasad

2014-01-01

276

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

Shruti Gupta

2013-06-01

277

Approaching ? without fine-tuning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the fine-tuning problem of dark energy cosmologies which arises when the dark energy density needs to initially lie in a narrow range in order for its present value to be consistent with observations. As recently noticed, this problem becomes particularly severe in canonical quintessence scenarios, when trying to reproduce the behavior of a cosmological constant, i.e., when the dark energy equation of state wQ approaches -1: these models may be reconciled with a large basin of attraction only by requiring a rapid evolution of wQ at low redshifts, which is in conflict with the most recent estimates from type Ia Supernovae discovered by Hubble space telescope. Next, we focus on scalar-tensor theories of gravity, discussing the implications of a coupling between the quintessence scalar field and the Ricci scalar ('extended quintessence'). We show that, even if the equation of state today is very close to -1, by virtue of the scalar-tensor coupling the quintessence trajectories still possess the attractive feature which allows to reach the present level of cosmic acceleration starting by a set of initial conditions which covers tens of orders of magnitude; this effect, entirely of gravitational origin, represents a new important consequence of the possible coupling between dark energy and gravity. We illustrate this effect in typical extended quintessence scenarios

278

The Structural Collapse Approach Reconsidered  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo argumentaré que la reformulación que Roy Cook (forthcoming) hace de la paradoja de yablo en el sistema infinitario D es una genuina paradoja no circular, pero por motivos distintos a los defendidos por ese autor. La primera parte del trabajo consiste en mostrar que la ausencia de pun [...] tos fijos en la construcción es insuficiente para demostrar su no circularidad, a lo sumo prueba su no autorreferencialidad. La segunda parte consiste en volver a considerar el enfoque del colapso estructural que Cook rechaza, y argumentar que una correcta comprensión del mismo revela que la paradoja es genuinamente no circular. Abstract in english I will argue that Roy Cook’s (forthcoming) reformulation of Yablo’s Paradox in the infinitary system D is a genuinely non-circular paradox, but for different reasons than the ones he sustained. In fact, the first part of the job will be to show that his argument regarding the absence of fixed points [...] in the construction is insufficient to prove the noncircularity of it; at much it proves its non-self referentiality. The second is to reconsider the structural collapse approach Cook rejects, and argue that a correct understanding of it leads us to the claim that the infinitary paradox is actually non-circular.

Ignacio, Ojea.

2012-05-01

279

Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma. PMID:23479385

Quigley, Elizabeth A; Halpern, Allan C

2013-04-01

280

Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

Misra Usha

2008-01-01

281

Dosimetric approaches: pregnancy and lactation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern to the evaluation of radiation dose since radiation protection point of view: a)- The females overall body size and organ sizes are generally smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics), the effective doses could be 25 per cent higher than a man; b)- Female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry; female gonads doses could be up to 10 or 30 higher than male gonads (usually 3 order); c)- Risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; d)- During the pregnancy due to placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation exposure from the urinary bladder the embryo/fetus could receive doses that must be avoid; e)- In the case of nursing infant is of special concern in such an analysis to determine the interruption period to avoid doses in the nursing infant. The dosimetric approaches to take account to assess internal doses in the pregnant woman and during the breast feeding are discussed. (author)

282

Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization is often narrowly defined to meet specific needs for information. This may however limit the general usefulness of the information gained, for example, if the specific purpose limited the characterization to a subset of variables. In general, data available in the solid waste area are limited and often with limited representation. This chapter describes common approaches and methods in waste characterization including common terms, sampling, characterization methods and data evaluation. The focus is on the characterization of waste as it is generated or collected, while specific issues on characterization related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2.5). If information about waste is required, it is always advisable to check the literature and the internet to see if relevant data is available already. However, in all cases the relevance of the data with respect to cultural, climatic and economical basis as well as the quality and age of the data available must be carefully assessed.

Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.

2011-01-01

283

Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

2014-05-01

284

Conceptual Approach to Forecasting Demand ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers a conceptual approach to forecasting demand on products of a production or trading company using economic and mathematical methods. It justifies importance of modelling and forecasting consumer demand on goods. It provides a classification of methods of forecasting demand in two dimensions: from subjective to objective ones and from na?ve to cause-effect ones. It systemises groups of factors that influence demand and analyses character of their influence. It develops a concept of forecasting demand on products of a company using economic and mathematical methods, which consists of four stages: identification of factors that influence demand, selection of mathematical dependence, check of adequacy and accuracy of the model and forecast of demand. It builds forecast demand models for a specific trading company: Brown’s adaptive polynomial model of the first order; and two-factor model, demand in which depends on the price of a good and its changes. It checks adequacy of each model and performs forecast of demand on products of a company.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ??????. ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????: ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? ? ????????-????????????. ????????????????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????. ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????: ??????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????: ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????; ????????????? ??????, ? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ?? ?????????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????.

Andreishina Nataliia B.

2013-06-01

285

English Reading Base on Social Constructivist Approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper explains the constructivist approach to reading teaching and shows how a dialogic approach to reading empowers readers to position themselves as participants in making meaning together with the text and its authors, rather than remaining as mute outsiders to the reading process. This shift in constructing reader -roles means that our students need to take a strategic approach to their reading, and will need careful scaffolding to help them develop effective, independent reading str...

Qian Huang

2009-01-01

286

Considerations on the stochastic approach in economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents several views on stochastic aspects in economic modeling. The authors analyzed the necessity of stochastic approach in economics, they described the specificity of stochastic models in this field and they presented the premises of this approach as well as the tools used. An analogy on stochastic events in economics and physics is also presented. Some views on the stochastic approach in production and energy consumption models are presented in the final part of the paper

Ion Smeureanu

2013-06-01

287

A new denoising approach based on EMD  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a new approach based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for explicitly denoising signals. The EMD decomposes a noisy signal into several intrinsic mode functions(IMFs), and the estimated signal is reconstructed by using the processed IMFs. In this paper, a piecewise EMD thresholding approach for denoising signal with strong noise is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has good performance, especially in the cases where the noise is very strong.

Wu, Wei; Peng, Hua

2014-04-01

288

Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

Lambovska Maya

2011-09-01

289

Preventing childhood sexual abuse: an ecological approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse is a significant public health problem that negatively affects victims, families, organizations, and society. This special issue presents innovative approaches designed to prevent the sexual exploitation of youth. Using both an ecological approach and the Spectrum of Prevention ( Parks, Davis & Cohen, 2010 ), the articles collected for this special issue highlight cutting-edge prevention approaches educating children, parents, professionals, organizations, and the general public. PMID:22809043

Kenny, Maureen C; Wurtele, Sandy K

2012-01-01

290

Posterior approach to ventrally located spinal meningiomas  

OpenAIRE

For the resection of anteriorly located meningiomas, various approaches have been used. Posterior approach is less invasive and demanding; however, it has been associated with increased risk of spinal cord injury. We evaluated ten consecutive patients that underwent surgery for spinal meningiomas. All patients were preoperative assessed by neurological examination, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All tumors were ventrally located and removed via a posterior approach. Trans...

Voulgaris, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A.; Mihos, Evaggelos; Karagiorgiadis, Dimitrios; Zigouris, Andreas; Fotakopoulos, George; Drosos, Dimitrios; Pahaturidis, Dimitrios

2010-01-01

291

A Likelihood Ratio Approach for Probabilistic Inequalities  

OpenAIRE

We propose a new approach for deriving probabilistic inequalities based on bounding likelihood ratios. We demonstrate that this approach is more general and powerful than the classical method frequently used for deriving concentration inequalities such as Chernoff bounds. We discover that the proposed approach is inherently related to statistical concepts such as monotone likelihood ratio, maximum likelihood, and the method of moments for parameter estimation. A connection b...

Chen, Xinjia

2013-01-01

292

Structure of hypernuclei in relativistic approaches  

OpenAIRE

We review the relativistic mean-field approach to various aspects of hypernuclei. It was Brockmann and Weise who first applied this approach to hypernuclei. At that time, it had been already observed experimentally that the spin-orbit splittings in hypernuclei are significantly smaller than that in ordinary nuclei. The relativistic approach was suitable for a discussion of spin-orbit splittings in hypernuclei, as the spin-orbit interaction is naturally emerged with the relat...

Hagino, K.; Yao, J. M.

2014-01-01

293

High abilities/giftedness: lifespan approach  

OpenAIRE

The article empirically substantiate the theme of the High Ability/Gifted, from studies and discussions and reflections that we do, to enable better understand their approach in terms of Childhood, Adolescent and Adulthood within the so-called lifelong approach (lifespan approach), taking into account outstanding authors in the field, in Education and Psychology, with links to the Neurosciences and studies on brain development (cognition, intelligence, learning) and the culture in which the s...

Juan José Mosquera; Claus Dieter Stobäus; Soraia Napoleão Freitas

2013-01-01

294

The High Scope Approach To Early Learning  

OpenAIRE

Learning Objectives: After studying this chapter the reader should be able to: • Describe the historical origins, the longitudinal research, and the theoretical underpinnings of the HighScope approach. • Identify the teaching strategies adopted by HighScope educators. • Appreciate the curriculum content. • Understand the HighScope approach to the assessment of children’s learning. • Consider some criticisms of the HighScope research and approach to early learni...

French, Geraldine

2012-01-01

295

Information Security Awareness: An Innovation Approach  

OpenAIRE

Scholars and security practitioners seem to converge in the understanding that Information Security is in great part a problem about people; hence the need for a more holistic approach in order to understand human behaviour in the Information Security field which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Recent events such as the “Interdisciplinary Workshop on Security and Human Behaviour” hosted in Boston, Massachusetts in June 2008, are considering this approach and they have conveyed a m...

Corona, Carlos Orozco

2010-01-01

296

Approach Merotopies and Associated Near Sets  

OpenAIRE

This article introduces associated near sets of a collection of sets. The proposed approach introduces a means of defining as well as describing an ?-approach merotopy in terms of the members of associated sets of collections that are sufficiently near. A characterization for continuous functions is established using associated near sets. This article also introduces p-containment considered in the context of near sets. An application of the proposed approach is given in terms of digital ima...

James Peters; Surabhi Tiwari; Rashmi Singh

2013-01-01

297

Approach Merotopies and Associated Near Sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces associated near sets of a collection of sets. The proposed approach introduces a means of defining as well as describing an ?-approach merotopy in terms of the members of associated sets of collections that are sufficiently near. A characterization for continuous functions is established using associated near sets. This article also introduces p-containment considered in the context of near sets. An application of the proposed approach is given in terms of digital image classification.

James Peters

2013-04-01

298

THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY  

OpenAIRE

The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the cri...

MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE; BOGDAN GEORGESCU

2012-01-01

299

Hopf bifurcation analysis a frequency domain approach  

CERN Document Server

This book is devoted to the frequency domain approach, for both regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcation analyses. Besides showing that the time and frequency domain approaches are in fact equivalent, the fact that many significant results and computational formulas obtained in the studies of regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcations from the time domain approach can be translated and reformulated into the corresponding frequency domain setting, and be reconfirmed and rediscovered by using the frequency domain methods, is also explained. The description of how the frequency domain approach can b

Moiola, Jorge L

1996-01-01

300

Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chrisochoides, N. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Kohl, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-07-17

301

A psychological approach to the study skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many researches about the formation of professional skills for pedagogical students during training process, and they have given certain results. These researches often approach this problem follow two ways.First, it is the way which approaches to technique aspects and manipulation of the action during the process of human activities. Second, it is the way which approaches to capacity of human actions. We would like to approach toward skills which are the ability to perform an action of human being.

Fang K. L.

2012-12-01

302

Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

Dale, Michael

2010-09-15

303

Pulmonary embolism: A diagnostic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the availability of many diagnostic modalities and the advent of new tests, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE remains a challenge. Clinical manifestations can be notoriously deceptive and there is not a single test, that can be relied on solely, to exclude PE. Although it has been regarded as the gold standard test, pulmonary angiography has not been tested against a reference standard and thromboembolic events have been reported after a normal study. Therefore the diagnosis of PE depends on judicious utilization of the available tests in the right clinical setting, as the accuracy of the results of the investigations, depends largely on the pretest clinical probability. Simple investigations such as chest radiograph, electrocardiogram and arterial blood gas, are used to enhance the clinical probabilities, rather than confirming or refuting the diagnosis of PE. On the other hand, Perfusion ventilation (VQ scan and computerized tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA, are the main screening tests used for patients with suspected PE. Recently CTPA has largely replaced VQ scan, in many centres. As both VQ scan and CTPA have their limitations, other diagnostic modalities, such as D-dimer and Compression ultrasound of the legs (CUS, are used as adjunctive diagnostic investigations. High probability and normal VQ scan, especially when combined with the concordant clinical probability, has a high positive and negative predicative value, respectively. On the other hand, CTPA is more sensitive and specific than VQ scan, though it has to be combined with CUS and clinical probability, to reduce the chance of missing PE. Although many diagnostic algorithms have been advocated, the discretion of the clinician and clinical experience, still has a major role to play in the diagnosis of PE. In this article, we try to come with a plausible approach to the diagnosis of PE, based on the current literature.

Abdelaziz Muntasir

2006-01-01

304

[Peripelvic tumors: approach and management].  

Science.gov (United States)

The peripelvic area consists of the bony pelvis, hip joints and adjacent mesenchymal soft tissues. Malignant lesions in this area present unique diagnostic and therapeutic problems, in particular when tumor removal is involved. Between 1986 and 1988 we treated 7 females and a male, aged 8-75 years, for malignant tumors of this area. Diagnoses (histologic) included 4 cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, a malignant schwannoma, a Ewing sarcoma, a chondrosarcoma, and an osteosarcoma. Operations included marginal resection (4 cases), radical resection and reconstruction (2), radical resection (1), and modified hemipelvectomy (2). Adjuvant therapy consisted of radiotherapy in 1 case, chemotherapy in 2, and a combination of both in another 2. A patient who underwent radical resection and reconstruction of his left hemipelvis and hip joint died of local infection that progressed to generalized sepsis 2 months after operation. 2 patients died of recurrent disease, 3 and 30 months, respectively, after primary therapy. 1 died of myocardial infarction 20 months after the first and 3 months after the last of a series of marginal resections. 3 patients are alive and well 3-24 months following their first operation, and the fourth is doing well 24 months following first operation and 23 months after resection of lung metastases. Soft tissue sarcomas and osteosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumors encountered in the pelvis and peripelvic areas. Their varying grades of malignancy and metastatic potential influence the approach on the one hand, while invalidity and compromised quality of life associated with tumor resection, influence it on the other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2167286

Said, M; Eldar, S; Nash, E; Mendes, D

1990-06-15

305

Saxagliptin: a novel antiparkinsonian approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of glucagon-like peptide-1 as a crucial contender in modifying neurodegenerative diseases in the preclinical studies has instigated interest in investigating the antiparkinsonian effect of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibition. Notably, saxagliptin (SAX), the DPP-4 inhibitor, recently showed efficacy in ameliorating streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease; however, its effect on Parkinson's disease (PD) has not yet been elucidated. In a rat rotenone (ROT) model, SAX prominently improved motor performance as well as muscle coordination and corrected akinesia. Moreover, SAX preserved substantia nigra pars compacta tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity while halting the reduction in the striatal TH, dopamine (DA) and complex I. Meanwhile, SAX prevented the ROT-induced increment of striatal DPP-4 and the decline in cAMP, ATP/ADP and brain-derived neurotropic factor levels. Improvement in striatal energy level was associated with partial hindrance of ROT-induced body weight reduction. In addition, through its anti-inflammatory potential, SAX decreased the ROT-induced nuclear factor-??, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-?, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and myeloperoxidase. The antiapoptotic marker B-cell lymphoma-2 was enhanced by SAX, versus reduction in caspase-3 and its intrinsic apoptotic activator cytochrome C. Furthermore, SAX amended alterations induced by ROT in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the transcriptional factor Nrf-2 level. In conclusion, SAX can be introduced as a novel approach for the management of PD based on the remarkable improvement in motor functions denoting antiparkinsonian efficacy via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms. These effects were linked to DPP-4 inhibition, reduced neurodegeneration and enhanced DA synthesis. PMID:25446674

Nassar, Noha N; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y; Arab, Hany H; Abdallah, Dalaal M

2015-02-01

306

Overview of Approach to 'Victoria'  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft shows an overview of 'Victoria Crater' and a portion of the area NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has covered to reach the enormous depression. Images such as this one from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor are helping scientists and engineers decide the best path for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it approaches 'Victoria Crater.' In figure 1, a blue dot indicates 'Cape Verde' and a red dot 'Cabo Frio.' These two points mark the extent of the crater visible from the rover's position on its 945th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 20, 2006), a location it had reached two sols earlier and from which much of this monster depression was still out of sight. The green annotations indicate 'Duck Bay,' a location expected to allow a view to the other side of the crater. A dune, or ripple, is to the left of the crater, right in front of the green dot location. This is where the team initially talked about sending Opportunity for the rover's first view down into the crater. After further consideration, the team opted for a drive to the right of that ripple (south of the green dot) near the rim. The yellow lines that surround and intersect Victoria Crater are used to measure the crater and the distance to the far 'bays.' North is up. Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

2006-01-01

307

Biotechnology approaches to rice improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern rice varieties developed at the International Rice Research Institute and by the National Rice Improvement Programs have had a dramatic impact on the increase in rice production. World rice production has doubled within a 25 year period, from 257 million tonnes in 1966 to 520 million tonnes in 1990, and most of the rice growing countries in Asia have attained self-sufficiency. However, the population of rice eaters continues to increase at an alarming rate and the demand for rice is likely to exceed production by the end of this century. To meet this demand in the next century, rice varieties are needed with a higher yield potential, multiple resistance to diseases and insects, and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Recent breakthroughs in cellular and molecular genetics have provided tools that can increase the efficiency of breeding methods and allow unconventional approaches to rice improvement. Application of these tools will permit us to develop improved rice varieties for meeting the challenges of increased rice production. Some of the exciting developments in rice biotechnology include: successful regeneration from protoplasts of japonica and indica rices; production of transgenic plants; development of a comprehensive molecular map consisting of more than 1500 DNA markers; tagging of genes of economic importance with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers; molecular characterization of pathogen populations based on restriction fragment patterns; a based on restriction fragment patterns; and transfer of genes from wild species across crossability barriers. Thus, anther culture, marker aided selection and molecular analysis of pathogen populations are being employed to improve the efficiency of conventional rice breeding. Wide hybridization, protoplast fusion and transformation permit us to introduce nove genes into rice. (author). 54 refs, 2 figs

308

Personalized medicine approaches in epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epilepsy affects 50 million persons worldwide, a third of whom continue to experience debilitating seizures despite optimum anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment. Twelve-month remission from seizures is less likely in female patients, individuals aged 11-36 years and those with neurological insults and shorter time between first seizure and starting treatment. It has been found that the presence of multiple seizures prior to diagnosis is a risk factor for pharmacoresistance and is correlated with epilepsy type as well as intrinsic severity. The key role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of resistant epilepsy is becoming clear. Our work in this area suggests that high-mobility group box 1 isoforms may be candidate biomarkers for treatment stratification and novel drug targets in epilepsy. Furthermore, transporter polymorphisms contributing to the intrinsic severity of epilepsy are providing robust neurobiological evidence on an emerging theory of drug resistance, which may also provide new insights into disease stratification. Some of the rare genetic epilepsies enable treatment stratification through testing for the causal mutation, for example SCN1A mutations in patients with Dravet's syndrome. Up to 50% of patients develop adverse reactions to AEDs which in turn affects tolerability and compliance. Immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to AED therapy, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, are the most serious adverse reactions and have been associated with polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Pharmacogenetic screening for HLA-B*15:02 in Asian populations can prevent carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome. We have identified HLA-A*31:01 as a potential risk marker for all phenotypes of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity with applicability in European and other populations. In this review we explore the currently available key stratification approaches to address the therapeutic challenges in epilepsy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25338670

Walker, L E; Mirza, N; Yip, V L M; Marson, A G; Pirmohamed, M

2014-10-23

309

Quality Products - The CANDU Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prime focus of the CANDU concept (natural uranium fuelled-heavy water moderated reactor) from the beginning has economy, heavy water losses and radiation exposures also were strong incentives for ensuring good design and reliable equipment. It was necessary to depart from previously accepted commercial standards and to adopt those now accepted in industries providing quality products. Also, through feedback from operating experience and specific design and development programs to eliminate problems and improve performance, CANDU has evolved into today's successful product and one from which future products will readily evolve. Many lessons have been learned along the way. On the one hand, short cuts of failures to understand basic requirements have been costly. On the other hand, sound engineering and quality equipment have yielded impressive economic advantages through superior performance and the avoidance of failures and their consequential costs. The achievement of lifetime economical performance demands quality products, good operation and good maintenance. This paper describes some of the basic approaches leading to high CANDU station reliability and overall excellent performance, particularly where difficulties have had to be overcome. Specific improvements in CANDU design and in such CANDU equipment as heat transport pumps, steam generators, valves, the reactor, fuelling machines and station computers, are described. The need for close collaboration among d. The need for close collaboration among designers, nuclear laboratories, constructors, operators and industry is discussed. This paper has reviewed some of the key components in the CANDU system as a means of indicating the overall effort that is required to provide good designs and highly reliable equipment. This has required a significant investment in people and funding which has handsomely paid off in the excellent performance of CANDU stations. The close collaboration between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian industry and the Canadian utilities has been the most important factor in this success

310

Approaches for improving cancer radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation and cancer are intricately related. Radiotherapy, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy, is used for treatment of 60% of cancers. It will continue to be the mainstay for multi-modality treatment protocols unit new molecular therapies can be developed and brought to the stage of clinical trials. It will continue to be relevant thereafter, to compare the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the novel drugs under development. And it could also be useful as an adjuvant therapy, to augment the effects of novel drugs, at optimum dose levels. However, radiation is a well documented carcinogenic agent. Several studies have shown a statistically significant, though small enhancement in the risk of second malignancies, particularly in long-term survivors. The above discussions suggest that it is imperative to carry out preclinical radiobiological research for increasing tumor cell damage, while reducing the effective radiation doses. Development of radiobiological research programs in our institutions of higher learning such as post graduate medical institutions, cancer centers and universities could lead to the generation of a wealth of radiobiological data with potential clinical applications. Radiobiologists could utilize the infra-structure such as expensive radiotherapy equipment as well as clinical materials. For example, tumour biopsies readily available in the medical and cancer centers. However, if these studies have clinically meaningful implications it will be important to facilitate very close interactions between the basic scientists and clinicians. Some of the approaches for improving radiotherapy of cancer will be very briefly reviewed. Our current work about the effects of radiation-drug and drug-drug interactions for increasing cellular damage and death in brain tumor cells will also be presented. (author)

311

Functional dyspepsia: a pragmatic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional dyspepsia includes one or more of four cardinal symptoms: postprandial fullness, early satiety, pain or burning in the epigastrum. According to the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia, these symptoms must be present for the last 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months prior to diagnosis. Functional dyspepsia is not the result of an underlying structural abnormality, but rather the consequence of multiple pathophysiological mechanisms such as abnormal gastric motility, gastric and duodenal hypersensitivity to acid, Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspeptic patients over 50 or those with alarm symptoms should be investigated to detect any structural abnormality such as cancer, peptic ulcer or esophagitis. After structural abnormalities and gastroesophageal reflux disease are excluded the management of functional dyspepsia consists of either a test and treat approach (non invasive detection of Helicobacter pylori infection followed by eradication therapy) or empirical therapy. Although endoscopy was traditionally reserved for those patients without symptom relief after 6-8 weeks of therapy, the significant percentage of patients with functional dyspepsia with symptom breakthrough or relapse after antisecretory or prokinetic therapy discontinuation makes an initial endoscopic study a logical choice. Therapy with proton pump inhibitors yields results especially in those patients with regurgitation and epigastric burning sensation, while prokinetic agents with no extrapyramidal side effects (such as Domperidone and Itopride) alleviate satiation, bloating and nausea by accelerating gastric emptying. Second-line drugs with encouraging results in clinical trials which can be used in functional dyspepsia are low-dose tricyclic antidepressants as well as selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors. PMID:21180236

Giurcan, Roxana; Voiosu, T A

2010-01-01

312

Diagnostic approach to cardiac amyloidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyloidosis is a relatively rare disease that may be underdiagnosed and could affect the entire human body. Many organs may be affected, which could increase the morbidity and mortality. Cardiac involvement is the leading cause of poor prognosis. Patients with cardiac amyloidosis are usually admitted with heart failure. The clinical presentation varies greatly, and using the correct approach is important in identifying cardiac amyloidosis. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic heart failure. He had increased brain natriuretic peptide levels, a low ejection fraction, and left and right ventricular hypertrophy with granular sparkling as seen by echocardiography. These findings led us to perform a cardiac biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Further investigation revealed that the patient had amyloid light-chain type amyloidosis due to multiple myeloma. He is now undergoing the 3rd phase of chemotherapy. Congo-red stain is usually used by physicians to histologically confirm amyloidosis, with which apple-green birefringence indicates amyloid deposits. Other stains such as direct fast scarlet (DFS) and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) can also confirm the presence of amyloid deposits. In the present case, DFS and HE were used, both of which suggested amyloid deposits surrounding myocardial cells. The use of a combination of stains can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of amyloidosis. However, the typical echocardiographic appearances would be enough to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis when it is impossible for the patient to undergo a cardiac biopsy, if an additional histological specimen from another tissue such as abdominal fat confirms amyloidosis. PMID:25011639

Amin, Hilman Zulkifli; Mori, Shumpei; Sasaki, Naoto; Hirata, Kenichi

2014-01-01

313

Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media. PMID:3602645

Haffner, D; Casey, S

1986-09-01

314

Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The research on sulfite pulping has been characterized by the attempts to explain its chemistry. The. different approach presented is incited by perceptions about the (still) unsolved problem of the ultrastructural features of lignin in wood. A simple kinetic model has been chosen to describe the reaction order of lignin as "concentration" (weight) in the dissolution kinetics, the cooking liquor being used in substantial excess. Three states of lignin were used: in wood as sawdust (W), in milled. wood (MW) and as milled wood lignin (MWL). Cooks were performed at pH 1.5, and 6. (measured at room temperature). The lignin was also modified chemically in two ways: alkaline borohydride reduction and diazomethane methylation. The reaction order (with the kinetics used) was found to be about 2/3, which is the value to be expected for particles of equal size reacting, at the particle surface. The cooks were carried onto completion, defined as the maximum amount of dissolved lignin. Depending on the state of lignin, apart dissolved more or less "immediately". The kinetic results are presented in dissolution/time and Arrhenius diagrams. Some experiments were made to ensure that counterfeit results were evaded. It was found that lignin is very reactive, that is why the sulfonation chemistry alone does not necessarily determine its dissolution rate. It became evident that the ultrastructure dispersion of lignin in wood is beneficial for its dissolution. For W, the rate was much higher at pH 1.5 than at 6. MW lignin and MWL dissolved (after extraction of the "immediate" lignin) at higher rates than W lignin. For MWL, the rate difference between pH 1.5 and 6 was moderate, compared to W lignin. Borohydride reduction did not affect the lignin dissolution from W, but gave a large decrease of sulfonation rate for MWL. Methylation had also a small rate effect for W, but again a large decrease for MWL.

BjØrkmann, Anders

2001-01-01

315

Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of biomarkers: those from extant life, such as DNA, those from extinct life such as hopanes, and those from organic compounds not necessarily associated with life such as PAHs, rocket exhaust contamination and other a/pre-biotic chemicals. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be used. Monoclonal antibodies react with a very specific compound, but polyclonal antibodies may react to any of a whole family of compounds. Furthermore the technique of phage display to raise antibodies against classically non-antigenic molecules is also being considered. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

2001-01-01

316

Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can be useful on all levels of the energy systems, ranging from the highest level, where the transmission system operator is concerned with minimizing system failures and is aided by wind power forecasts, to the end user of energy where power price forecasts are useful for users with flexible power demand. The main contributions of this thesis lie in the realm of using gray box models to produce forecasts for energysystems. Gray box models can be defined as a crossover between physical models (or white box models), that base their model on a physical understanding of the system at hand, and data driven models (or black box models) that focus on accurately describing the data without considering physical limitations of the system. Integrating these physical structures into a data driven approach allows for producing better forecasts with more accurate predictions. In this thesis we have developed and applied methodologies for gray box modeling to produce forecasts for vehicle driving patterns, solar irradiance, wind speeds, wind power, and solar power. The model for driving patterns has subsequently been used as input into an optimization algorithm for charging a single electric vehicle. In a subsequent study the behavior of a fleet of electric vehicles has been studied. In the thesis we go through various examples of forecasts products and their applications. We emphasize that forecasting can not stand alone and should be complimented by optimization and decision making tools for an efficient integration of renewable energy.Thus forecast products should be developed in unison with the decision making tool as they are two sides of the same overall challenge.

Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

2015-01-01

317

Similarity- based approach for outlier detection  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a new approach for detecting outliers by introducing the notion of object's proximity. The main idea is that normal point has similar characteristics with several neighbors. So the point in not an outlier if it has a high degree of proximity and its neighbors are several. The performance of this approach is illustrated through real datasets

Dik, Amina; Jebari, Khalid; Bouroumi, Abdelaziz; Ettouhami, Aziz

2014-01-01

318

AIBS Report Representing Biology: Two Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

One approach, the Special Science Programs Department, manages the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) advisory functions and conducts symposia, seminars and other meetings. The second, a full time Public Responsibilities Department, provides a continuous flow of research data and information into the public. Each approach is…

BioScience, 1975

1975-01-01

319

Conceptual approach to modeling karst development  

OpenAIRE

Karst is probably one of the most complicated hydrogeological systems at all.Its structure is complex and it changes in time. In the article conceptual approaches are described which could help establishing numerical simulation models for karst development. These approaches repose on the systems theory and the concept of the pure karst.

Mihael Bren?i?

1995-01-01

320

The "White Canvas" Approach to Beginning Conducting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the white canvas approach to beginning conducting, a basic mirror conducting of both hands generating the symmetrical takt, or beat, that represents the basic foundation of conducting. Focuses on such issues as conducting as communication, conducting at the tip of the baton, and extension beyond the white canvas approach. (CMK)

Mailman, Matthew

2000-01-01

321

The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

2004-01-01

322

A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

323

Approaches to knowledge-transfer systems  

OpenAIRE

The use of computer technology in instruction is based on known approaches to instruction, and also promotes new approaches. Contemporary problems in instruction tend to be determined by intensive information-flow and the short timescale of the relevance of information.

Pilipenko, Oleg P.; Helena Komissarova

1995-01-01

324

A completely covariant approach to transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

325

Parametrizing the mixing matrix : A unified approach  

OpenAIRE

A unified approach to parametrization of the mixing matrix for $N$ generations is developed. This approach not only has a clear geometrical underpinning but also has the advantage of being economical and recursive and leads in a natural way to the known phenomenologically useful parametrizations of the mixing matrix.

Chaturvedi, S.; Mukunda, N.

2000-01-01

326

Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust  

Science.gov (United States)

Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

Lindquist, David H.

2011-01-01

327

An analytical thermal fatigue crack growth approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents recent works on the thermal fatigue crack growth approach in structure integrity analysis proposed by nuclear standard codes such as A16 Appendix of RCC-MR. The proposed approach for crack growth is used to study the mechanisms leading to cracking of piping as a result of thermal loading in mixed flow zones

Gourdin, C.; Marie, S. (CEA, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, Laboratoire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Chapuliot, S. (AREVA NP (France))

2009-07-01

328

A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach

Tassa, Tamir

2007-01-01

329

Non deterministic approach of neutronic. Modelization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fundamental hypothesis on which lays neutronic codes is that the neutron number is sufficiently great for able representing by a density function. In this study we present an adjoint approach which permits the determination of the mean number of particles in function of initial or particular conditions. The non deterministic approach allows then to determine a statistic dispersion around this mean number

330

Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise

2009-01-01

331

Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

Zou, You-Long; Hu, Fa-Long; Zhou, Can-Can; Li, Chao-Liu; Dunn, Keh-Jim

2013-12-01

332

[Use of mixed approaches in nursing science].  

Science.gov (United States)

The epistemological diversity which characterises modern day nursing science offers researchers a wide range of methodologies enabling them to explore their research themes. Mixed approaches, which combine qualitative and quantitative approaches, seem to appeal to a growing number of researchers. PMID:24941539

Debout, Christophe

2014-05-01

333

Deuteron form factors in a phenomenological approach  

CERN Document Server

The electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron, particularly the quadrupole form factor, are studied with a help of a phenomenological Lagrangian approach where the vertex of the deuteron-proton-neutron with $D$-state contribution is explicitly taken into account. The result shows the importance of this contribution to the quadrupole form factor in the approach.

Liang, Cuiying

2015-01-01

334

Index analysis approach theory at work  

CERN Document Server

A featured review of the AMS describes the author’s earlier work in the field of approach spaces as, ‘A landmark in the history of general topology’. In this book, the author has expanded this study further and taken it in a new and exciting direction.   The number of conceptually and technically different systems which characterize approach spaces is increased and moreover their uniform counterpart, uniform gauge spaces, is put into the picture. An extensive study of completions, both for approach spaces and for uniform gauge spaces, as well as compactifications for approach spaces is performed. A paradigm shift is created by the new concept of index analysis.   Making use of the rich intrinsic quantitative information present in approach structures, a technique is developed whereby indices are defined that measure the extent to which properties hold, and theorems become inequalities involving indices; therefore vastly extending the realm of applicability of many classical results. The theory is the...

Lowen, R

2015-01-01

335

On Fliessbach's approaches to direct reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conventional models of direct cluster reactions treat the nuclear wave-function overlaps or reduced-width amplitudes as single-particle wave functions, which is contrary to the Pauli principle. The motivation of Fliessbach's two approaches reviewed in this paper is to improve on these models by a proper treatment of antisymmetrization. Fliessbach's approaches involve redefined reduced-width amplitudes, which can be regarded as single-particle wave functions. We show, however, that in the approach specialized to transfer reactions the antisymmetrization is in fact treated incorrectly, and the more general approach seems applicable only to processes that involve just two nuclear fragments, like ? decay or radiative capture. We outline how single-particle wave functions can be used correctly in approximating reduced-width amplitudes. We show that our approach helps to bring the phenomenological spectroscopic factors into agreement with the nuclear structure models. (orig.)

336

Comparison between Traditional Approach and Object-Oriented Approach in Software Engineering Development  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the comparison between Traditional approaches and Object-Oriented approach. Traditional approach has a lot of models that deal with different types of projects such as waterfall, spiral, iterative and v-shaped, but all of them and other lack flexibility to deal with other kinds of projects like Object-Oriented. Object-oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) is an object modeling language and methodology. The approach of using object - oriented techniques for designing a syst...

Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar; Govardhan, Dr A.

2011-01-01

337

Hybrid biasing approaches for global variance reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new variant of Monte Carlo—deterministic (DT) hybrid variance reduction approach based on Gaussian process theory is presented for accelerating convergence of Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS) approach implemented in the SCALE package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The new approach, denoted the Gaussian process approach, treats the responses of interest as normally distributed random processes. The Gaussian process approach improves the selection of the weight windows of simulated particles by identifying a subspace that captures the dominant sources of statistical response variations. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach utilizes particle importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive weight window biasing. In contrast to the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach identifies the response correlations (via a covariance matrix) and employs them to reduce the computational overhead required for global variance reduction (GVR) purpose. The effective rank of the covariance matrix identifies the minimum number of uncorrelated pseudo responses, which are employed to bias simulated particles. Numerical experiments, serving as a proof of principle, are presented to compare the Gaussian process and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation of the estimated responses. - Highlights: ? Hybrid Monte Carlo s. - Highlights: ? Hybrid Monte Carlo Deterministic Method based on Gaussian Process Model is introduced. ? Method employs deterministic model to calculate responses correlations. ? Method employs correlations to bias Monte Carlo transport. ? Method compared to FW-CADIS methodology in SCALE code. ? An order of magnitude speed up is achieved for a PWR core model.

338

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Pacific West Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western...

2010-07-01

339

Probabilistic approach to earthquake prediction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evaluation of any earthquake forecast hypothesis requires the application of rigorous statistical methods. It implies a univocal definition of the model characterising the concerned anomaly or precursor, so as it can be objectively recognised in any circumstance and by any observer.A valid forecast hypothesis is expected to maximise successes and minimise false alarms. The probability gain associated to a precursor is also a popular way to estimate the quality of the predictions based on such precursor. Some scientists make use of a statistical approach based on the computation of the likelihood of an observed realisation of seismic events, and on the comparison of the likelihood obtained under different hypotheses. This method can be extended to algorithms that allow the computation of the density distribution of the conditional probability of earthquake occurrence in space, time and magnitude. Whatever method is chosen for building up a new hypothesis, the final assessment of its validity should be carried out by a test on a new and independent set of observations. The implementation of this test could, however, be problematic for seismicity characterised by long-term recurrence intervals. Even using the historical record, that may span time windows extremely variable between a few centuries to a few millennia, we have a low probability to catch more than one or two events on the same fault. Extending the record of earthquakes of the past back in time up to several millennia, paleoseismology represents a great opportunity to study how earthquakes recur through time and thus provide innovative contributions to time-dependent seismic hazard assessment. Sets of paleoseimologically dated earthquakes have been established for some faults in the Mediterranean area: the Irpinia fault in Southern Italy, the Fucino fault in Central Italy, the El Asnam fault in Algeria and the Skinos fault in Central Greece. By using the age of the paleoearthquakes with their associated uncertainty we have computed, through a Montecarlo procedure, the probability that the observed inter-event times come from a uniform random distribution (null hypothesis. This probability is estimated approximately equal to 8.4% for the Irpinia fault, 0.5% for the Fucino fault, 49% for the El Asnam fault and 42% for the Skinos fault. So, the null Poisson hypothesis can be rejected with a confidence level of 99.5% for the Fucino fault, but it can be rejected only with a confidence level between 90% and 95% for the Irpinia fault, while it cannot be rejected for the other two cases. As discussed in the last section of this paper, whatever the scientific value of any prediction hypothesis, it should be considered effective only after evaluation of the balance between the costs and benefits introduced by its practical implementation.

G. D'Addezio

2002-06-01

340

Study strategies and approaches to learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study students’ study strategies have been compared to their approaches to learning. The time students spend on different study activities has been investigated at the Technical University of Denmark, and as a pilot project a few students also filled in a reduced version of Bigg's Study Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities. There was however a much stronger linear correlation (significant at the 0.01 level) between the deep-surface ratio and the totalstudy load. The same result was observed when measuring other students’ study strategy and learning approach for a single course. The empirical basis is still too limited to draw conclusive conclusions, but it raises some intriguing questions. Is time more important than the kind of learning activities for obtaining conceptual understanding – is all that matters from a teaching point of view to ensure that the students spend long hours studying?

Christensen, Hans Peter

341

A Critical Analysis of the Knowledge Creation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of knowledge creation (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 will be analysed from a philosophical perspective. To begin with, the key motivations behind the discourse of knowledge creation and management are briefly discussed. The contemporary distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge is then explored. Following this, the work of Lyotard on knowledge in a (postmodern economy will be summarised. The paper then explores how some of the work by Foucault and Adorno may provide a new direction for developing research approaches in this area.

Stephen Probert

2003-11-01

342

A statistical approach to plasma profile analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general statistical approach to the parameterisation and analysis of tokamak profiles is presented. The modelling of the profile dependence on both the radius and the plasma parameters is discussed, and pertinent, classical as well as robust, methods of estimation are reviewed. Special attention is given to statistical tests for discriminating between the various models, and to the construction of confidence intervals for the parameterised profiles and the associated global quantities. The statistical approach is shown to provide a rigorous approach to the empirical testing of plasma profile invariance. (orig.)

343

An Efficient Approach to Recognize Fingerprints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fingerprint analysis is typically based on the position and pattern of detected singular points in the fingerprint images. These singular points (cores and deltas represent the characteristics of local ridge patterns, determine the topological structure (i.e., fingerprint type and largely influence the orientation field. A core-delta relation is used as a global constraint for the final selection of singular points. This paper proposed an approach for singular points detection and then recognizes fingerprints based on singular points position and their relative distances. Experimental results show that the approach is efficient and robust, giving better results than existing dominant approaches.

Muhammad Sheikh Sadi

2012-10-01

344

Novel Approach to Indoor Propagation Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An indoor propagation prediction for personal communication systems isdemanded for modern wireless services. There are two main generalapproaches for indoor propagation modeling: empirical anddeterministic. Both of them have their advantages and disadvantages.Novel semi-deterministic approach to modeling of propagation ofelectromagnetic waves inside buildings, which combines bothdeterministic and empirical approaches is introduced. It is based onray-launching technique, Monte Carlo method and statistics. The modelis very fast and requires only easy to obtain inputs. The model iscapable of wide-band parameters prediction as well. A description ofthe new approach together with firs results of the model implementationand its evaluation by measurements are presented.

K. Novotny

2000-09-01

345

Posterior subscapular approach to the brachial plexus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The posterior subscapular approach to the brachial plexus is commonly indicated in patients with neural entrapment (neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, especially when associated with a large C7 transverse process or cervical rib) and paraspinal tumors or lacerating injuries involving the spinal nerves close to the spine. This approach is also preferred in patients with previous anterior neck operations and/or morbid obesity. We describe the anatomy and operative technique of this approach, which has been used by the senior author (DGK) for the past 25 years. PMID:16234689

Tender, Gabriel C; Kline, David G

2005-10-01

346

Approaches of Buried Object Detection Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the different art of buried object detection technology and algorithms. This detection of buried object finds application in many areas, importantly in the Landmine detection which is of growing concern due to the danger of buried landmines to people’s lives, economic growth and development. This paper describes and analyzes different technology available. The approaches discussed are Electrical Impedance Tomography, X-ray backscatter, Infrared Systems, Acoustics/seismic systems; Neutron based Method and finally Ground-Penetrating Radar with two commonly available approaches: Least squares and SVD approach. Finally, the paper concludes highlighting the need to improve the way this information is processed and compared.

Nagashree R N

2014-03-01

347

Radiotherapy problem under fuzzy theoretic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuzzy set theoretic approach is used for radiotherapy problem. The problem is faced with two goals: the first is to maximize the fraction of surviving normal cells and the second is to minimize the fraction of surviving tumor cells. The theory of fuzzy sets has been employed to formulate and solve the problem. A linguistic variable approach is used for treating the first goal. The solutions obtained by the modified approach are always efficient and best compromise. A sensitivity analysis of the solutions to the differential weights is given

348

[Approaching Physically Inactive -Elderly for Physical Activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participa-tion rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly. PMID:24756334

Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

2014-04-22

349

The Laplace-Jaynes approach to induction  

CERN Document Server

An approach to induction is presented, based on the idea of analysing the context of a given problem into `circumstances'. This approach, fully Bayesian in form and meaning, provides a complement or in some cases an alternative to that based on de Finetti's representation theorem and on the notion of infinite exchangeability. In particular, it gives an alternative interpretation of those formulae that apparently involve `unknown probabilities' or `propensities'. Various advantages and applications of the presented approach are discussed, especially in comparison to that based on exchangeability. Generalisations are also discussed.

Mana, P G L P; Maansson, A

2007-01-01

350

Shell Model in a First Principles Approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We develop and apply an ab-initio approach to nuclear structure. Starting with the NN interaction, that fits two-body scattering and bound state data, and adding a theoretical NNN potential, we evaluate nuclear properties in a no-core approach. For presently feasible no-core model spaces, we evaluate an effective Hamiltonian in a cluster approach which is guaranteed to provide exact answers for sufficiently large model spaces and/or sufficiently large clusters. A number of recent applications are surveyed including an initial application to exotic multiquark systems.

Navratil, P; Nogga, A; Lloyd, R; Vary, J P; Ormand, W E; Barrett, B R

2004-01-08

351

Limit Design Approach of the Reinforced Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since now the design of slope stability was calculated by means of safety ratio, but nowadays we are going to change this approach to limit states - according to Eurocode 7. For the limit states approach it is necessary to define design values not only of soil properties but also of reinforcing elements. The proposed calculation method of the slope stability using limit states approach was transferred into a computer program SVARG. By this program it is possible to calculate the internal and external stability of reinforced earth structure. The principles of the selected calculation method and examples of stability calculations are presented hereafter.

M. Vaní?ek

2000-01-01

352

Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

1991-09-12

353

Multiscale modeling in solid mechanics computational approaches  

CERN Document Server

This unique volume presents the state of the art in the field of multiscale modeling in solid mechanics, with particular emphasis on computational approaches. For the first time, contributions from both leading experts in the field and younger promising researchers are combined to give a comprehensive description of the recently proposed techniques and the engineering problems tackled using these techniques. The book begins with a detailed introduction to the theories on which different multiscale approaches are based, with regards to linear Homogenisation as well as various nonlinear approach

Galvanetto, Ugo

2009-01-01

354

Expected Utility Optimization - Calculus of Variations Approach  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, I'll derive the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation for Merton's problem in Utility Optimization Theory using a Calculus of Variations (CoV) Approach. For stochastic control problems, Dynamic Programming (DP) has been used as a standard method. To the best of my knowledge, no one has used CoV for this problem. In addition, while the DP approach cannot guarantee that the optimum satisfies the HJ equation, the CoV approach does. Be aware that this is the first draft...

Tran, Khoa

2007-01-01

355

Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach  

CERN Document Server

The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,

Maloberti, Franco

2011-01-01

356

Enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine.  

OpenAIRE

In this report a new enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine is presented. A 66-year-old female, having a large C3-C4-C5 chordoma, recurrent after surgery and following radiotherapy, underwent a surgical resection. The approach allows a wide retraction of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx from the midline, only sacrificing the superior laryngeal nerve on one side. Its continuity can be re-established later by adopting the stent in tube technique. The approach we used presents al...

Sartoris, Alberto; Crosetti, Erika; Succo, Giovanni

2001-01-01

357

A contingency table approach to nonparametric testing  

CERN Document Server

Most texts on nonparametric techniques concentrate on location and linear-linear (correlation) tests, with less emphasis on dispersion effects and linear-quadratic tests. Tests for higher moment effects are virtually ignored. Using a fresh approach, A Contingency Table Approach to Nonparametric Testing unifies and extends the popular, standard tests by linking them to tests based on models for data that can be presented in contingency tables.This approach unifies popular nonparametric statistical inference and makes the traditional, most commonly performed nonparametric analyses much more comp

Rayner, JCW

2000-01-01

358

Deferred correction approach on generic transport equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a two dimensional Steady Convection-Diffusion was solved, using Deferred correction approach, and results were compared with standard spatial discretization schemes. Numerical investigations were carried out based on the velocity and flow direction, for various diffusivity coefficients covering a range from diffusive to convective flows. The results show that the Deferred Ted Correction Approach gives more accurate and stable results in relation to UDS and CDs discretization of convective terms. Deferred Correction Approach caters for the wiggles for convective flows in case of central difference discretization of the equation and also caters for the dissipative error generated by the first order upwind discretization of convective fluxes. (author)

359

A reverse translational approach to quantify approach-avoidance conflict in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to characterize effects of anxiolytic agents and probe neural circuitry related to anxiety. However, there are few behavioral approaches to measure conflict in human populations, limiting the translation of findings from animal conflict tasks to human clinical research. We developed a novel approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm involving situations in which the same decision is associated with "reward" (points) and "punishment" (negative affective stimuli). The AAC task was completed by 95 young adults (56 female) with varying levels of self-reported trait anxiety. As expected, conflict-related approach behavior correlated with self-reported motivation to approach reward and avoid punishment and greater reward level increased approach behavior. Additionally, females exhibited less approach behavior than males. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (Physical subscale) scores related negatively to approach behavior for males, while Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS, Fun Seeking subscale) scores related positively to approach behavior for females. Results support the utility of the AAC task as a behavioral test that has strong reverse translational features. Findings indicate that approach drives and anxiety sensitivity may be important in determining conflict behavior for females and males respectively. The approach-avoidance conflict task offers a novel, translational measure to probe neural systems underlying conflict behavior, motivational processes, and anxiety disorders. PMID:21843556

Aupperle, Robin L; Sullivan, Sarah; Melrose, Andrew J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

2011-12-01

360

Successful document management : a structured approach.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document management involves organizing, accessing and controlling documents through business approaches and information technologies. The video is intended to give a document management project team the knowledge and skills required to implement successful document management solutions.

361

Optimal taxation policy maximum-entropy approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object of this paper is firstly to present entropic measure of income inequality and secondly to develop maximum entropy approaches for the optimal reduction of income inequality through taxation. .

Jana P.

2003-01-01

362

Structured synthesis of MEMS using evolutionary approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we discuss the hierarchy that is involved in a typical MEMS design and how evolutionary approaches can be used to automate the hierarchical synthesis process for MEMS. The paper first introduces the flow of a structured MEMS design process and emphasizes that system-level lumped-parameter model synthesis is the first step of the MEMS synthesis process. At the system level, an approach combining bond graphs and genetic programming can lead to satisfactory design candidates as system-level models that meet the predefined behavioral specifications for designers to trade off. Then at the physical layout synthesis level, the selection of geometric parameters for component devices and other design variables is formulated as a constrained optimization problem and addressed using a constrained genetic algorithm approach. A multiple-resonator microsystem design is used to illustrate the integrated design automation idea using these evolutionary approaches.

Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan

2008-01-01

363

[Ventral approach to the cervical spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since they were introduced in 1950, ventral approaches for surgical operations on the cervical spine have become widely used. The most frequently used is the anteromedian approach, passing along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and then between the upper gastrointestinal tract and the vascular bundle to give access to the spine. This approach allows access to practically every segment of the cervical spine. The significance of the transoral approach is stressed in the literature, and we ourselves are also convinced of its importance. In this paper, however, the combined anteroposterior procedures and the cervicothoracic methods used for the transitional zone are also described. Complications affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract, the vessels or the nerves are always possible, and to reduce their likelihood to a minimum it is essential to make a detailed study of the complicated anatomy of the neck region. PMID:3574942

Louis, R

1987-02-01

364

Iterative approach for scattering from singular potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An iterative approach is introduced to obtain the scattering length for singular potentials. In particular, an inverse fourth power and potentials having logarithmic singularities have been considered to illustrate the validity and accuracy of the method. (author)

365

Functional phosphoproteomic mass spectrometry-based approaches  

OpenAIRE

Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics tools are crucial for understanding the structure and dynamics of signaling networks. Approaches such as affinity purification followed by MS have also been used to elucidate relevant biological questions in health and disease.

Lo?pez, Elena; Wang, Xiangdong; Madero, Luis; Lo?pez-pascual, Juan; Latterich, Martin

2012-01-01

366

Phased approach to achieving PRA quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) risk informed approach to regulation uses insights from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), along with traditional deterministic requirements to help focus regulatory and licensee attention on safety significant issues. PRA quality is a key contributor to the success of this regulatory strategy. A phased approach to achievement of state of the art PRA quality is described, which the NRC believes will support the continued use of risk informed decision making while encouraging progress in improving the scope, level of detail and technical adequacy of PRA models. The phased approach also includes development of consensus standards and associated guidance to promote a common understanding, between the NRC and its licensees, of the definition of PRA quality, and to establish the NRC's expectations concerning licensee PRAs. Anticipated outcomes of the phased approach include consistent processes for PRA development, efficiency in regulatory decision making, and improved licensee and NRC understanding of the most important contributors to plant safety. (author)

367

Optimal taxation policy maximum-entropy approach  

OpenAIRE

The object of this paper is firstly to present entropic measure of income inequality and secondly to develop maximum entropy approaches for the optimal reduction of income inequality through taxation. .

Jana P.; Mazumder S.K.; Das N.C.

2003-01-01

368

Nanotechnology based approaches in cancer therapeutics  

Science.gov (United States)

The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review.

Kumer Biswas, Amit; Reazul Islam, Md; Sadek Choudhury, Zahid; Mostafa, Asif; Fahim Kadir, Mohammad

2014-12-01

369

Structure of hypernuclei in relativistic approaches  

CERN Document Server

We review the relativistic mean-field approach to various aspects of hypernuclei. It was Brockmann and Weise who first applied this approach to hypernuclei. At that time, it had been already observed experimentally that the spin-orbit splittings in hypernuclei are significantly smaller than that in ordinary nuclei. The relativistic approach was suitable for a discussion of spin-orbit splittings in hypernuclei, as the spin-orbit interaction is naturally emerged with the relativistic framework. Since this seminal work, many developments have been done and the relativistic approach has been applied both to the ground state and to excited states of hypernuclei. We summarize those developments in the Chapter. We shall concentrate on $\\Lambda$-hypernuclei and do not discuss $\\Sigma$ hypernuclei, since the theoretical treatment is rather similar to each other.

Hagino, K

2014-01-01

370

Downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Nighttime vehicle detection is an essential problem to be solved in the development of highway surveillance systems that provide information about the vehicle speed, traffic volume, and traffic jams, and so on. In this paper, a novel downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection is presented. In the proposed approach, a rough position of vehicle headlights is detected first. Then, a downhill simplex optimization approach is adopted to find the accurate location of vehicle headlights. For the optimization process, a novel cost function is designed and various headlights are evaluated for possible headlight positions on the detected vehicles, locating an optimal headlight position. Simulation results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed approach for headlights detection.

Kang, Ho-Joong; Kim, Ho-Kun; Oh, Il-Whan; Choi, Kyoung-Ho

2014-03-01

371

A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

Capron, Alexander Morgan

1988-01-01

372

Regulatory approach to NPP ageing in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this contribution summary information of Kozloduy NPP units is presented. The nuclear legislation, regulatory approach for managing safety aspects on NPP ageing, short term programme, complex programme PRG'97 ant other aspects of ageing management are discussed

373

A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Recent advances in developmental biology have yielded detailed models of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) involved in cell specification and other processes in embryonic differentiation. Such networks form the bedrock on which a systems biology approach to developme...

374

An Alternative Approach to Polynomial Mappings  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an alternative approach to simplify the proofs of some important results related to polynomial mappings in Computational Algebraic Geometry such as Polynomial Implicitization, Image Closure and some properties of the ideal relations of polynomial mappings.

Li, Yongbi

2011-01-01

375

Lesser curvature approach in laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) has entailed ventrally retracting the stomach to afford adequate visualization. The retracted stomach commonly droops over the pancreas and obstructs the surgical field, thus forcing the assistant surgeon to repeatedly lift the stomach out of the way ventrally and cranially. We herein reported LDP using the "lesser curvature approach" in which the pancreas was approached cephalad to the lesser curvature of the stomach in underweight patients with a coincidental low hanging stomach. An excellent view of both the distal pancreas and the spleen could be afforded, enabling complete mobilization of these organs from the retroperitoneum and easy ligation of the splenic vessels, without needing to retract the stomach ventrally and cranially. The lesser curvature approach in LDP could be performed safely and efficiently as an alternative to the conventional greater curvature approach in underweight patients with a low hanging stomach. PMID:23579530

Suzuki, On; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Ambo, Yoshiyasu; Nakamura, Toru; Kishida, Akihiro; Kashimura, Nobuichi

2013-04-01

376

Approaches to Classification of Institutional Investors ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????  

OpenAIRE

The article reviews the main approaches to the classification of institutional investors as financial market participants among domestic and foreign scholars. Based on the study identifies key features that can be the basis for enhanced classification of institutional investors.? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ...

Plastun Vyacheslav L.; Dombrovskiy Vladislav S.

2012-01-01

377

Various teaching approaches in nutrition education  

OpenAIRE

In the thesis, we present a pilot research to constructivist approach to teaching nutrition content. We have analyzed success of the pupils who participated in the group of constructivist approach in comparison to pupils who participated in a traditional class. We have chosen the teaching unit of planning meals using the food pyramid. Some research indicate that pupils do not understand and do not know how to use the food pyramid when planning their meal. In the study, which included pupils o...

Lah, Maja

2013-01-01

378

Field theory a path integral approach  

CERN Document Server

Traditionally, field theory is taught through canonical quantization with a heavy emphasis on high energy physics. However, the techniques of field theory are applicable as well and are extensively used in various other areas of physics such as condensed matter, nuclear physics and statistical mechanics. The path integral approach brings out this feature most clearly. In this book, the path integral approach is developed in detail completely within the context of quantum mechanics. Subsequently, it is applied to various areas of physics.

Das, Ashok

1993-01-01

379

Transformation optics: approaching broadband electromagnetic cloaking  

OpenAIRE

An approach to broadband cloaking of light waves is analysed for a simplified case of a scaling transformation for a general cylindrical coordinate system. The proposed approach requires metamaterials with specifically engineered dispersion. The restriction on the signs of gradients in the dispersion dependencies of the dielectric permittivity and the magnetic permeability for different operational wavelengths is revealed and is shown to cause difficulties unless additional gain-assisted comp...

Kildishev, Alexander V.; Cai, W.; Chettiar, U. K.; Shalaev, V. M.

2008-01-01

380

Viewpoints and goals: towards an integrated approach  

OpenAIRE

Requirements elicitation and analysis have been studied according to several approaches that differ mostly on their "orientation", in this case relying on goals or viewpoints. Goal-Oriented approaches such as KAOS rely on goals to direct their process of eliciting requirements: a goal is an objective the system under consideration should achieve and represents a system property that may reflect either a functional (e.g. a service provided by the system) or a non-functional (e.g. s...

Pimenta, Manuel Filipe

2009-01-01

381

Different approaches to the thermonuclear fusion problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some alternative approaches to the problem of a controlled fusion are given in brief. Advantages, shortcomings and problems are considered while developing the following approaches: a corrugated torus, an astron, toroidal Z-pinch, a stellarator, a torsatron, a tormak, a topolotron, a surmak, fusion in a target, irradiated by an electron beam, a dense plasma focus, a compressed linear and fusion in a laser heating solenoid

382

Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations  

OpenAIRE

Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discus...

Moji? Dušan

2002-01-01

383

Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discussed through an analysis of main standing points of theory about substitutes for leadership.

Moji? Dušan

2002-01-01

384

An Efficient Approach for Computing Silhouette Coefficients  

OpenAIRE

One popular approach for finding the best number of clusters (K) in a data set is through computing the silhouette coefficients. The silhouette coefficients for different values of K, are first found and then the maximum value of these coefficients is chosen. However, computing the silhouette coefficient for different Ks is a very time consuming process. This is due to the amount of CPU time spent on distance calculations. A proposed approach to compute the silhouette coefficient quickly had ...

Al- Zoubi, Moh D. B.; Mohammad al Rawi

2008-01-01

385

Simulating Fibre Suspensions: Lagrangian versus Statistical Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibre suspensions exhibit complex dynamical flow phenomena and are at the same time of immense practical importance, notably in the pulp and paper industries. NTNU and TU Delft have in a collaborative research project adopted two alternative strategies in the simulation of dilute fibre suspensions, namely a statistical approach [2] and a Lagrangian particle treatment [4]. The two approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we aim for the first time to compare the performance of the two.

Zhao, L. H.; Andersson, H. I.; Gillissen, J. J. J.; Boersma, B. J.

386

Obstetrical approach in breech presentation delivery  

OpenAIRE

Although it is accompanied by a higher number of intrapartal complications and a higher rate of prenatal mortality and morbidity the breech presentation is not considered to be an unfavourable presentation for delivery. However, delivery with the breech presentation requires a detailed and very careful approach in assessment of the way delivery is to be conducted and a serious approach of an obstetrician when making a final decision. This often results in a high rate of caesarean sections in ...

Grgic?, G.; Dž. Ljuca; Fatus?ic?, Z.; Hudic?, I.

2007-01-01

387

Business History : A Cultural and Narrative Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking a cultural and narrative approach may affect questions, sources, and methodologies, as well as the status of our results. Finally, a narrative approach may contribute to our historical understanding of entrepreneurship and globalization.

Hansen, Per H.

2012-01-01

388

The Social Shaping Approach to Technology Foresight  

OpenAIRE

The social shaping of technology (SST) approach has been developed as a response and extension to the ideas of techno-economic rationality and linear conceptions of technology development and its consequences. The SST approach seems especially promising in areas of technology where visions are manifold, societal interests conflicting, and applications and markets are non-existing or still under construction. The emerging high technology areas and several areas of more sustainable development ...

Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Clausen, Christian

2009-01-01

389

Axiomatic Approach in Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Wightman approach in noncommutative quantum field theory has been considered. One of the most important results of this approach - generalized Haag's theorem - is proven in S O(1,1) invariant quantum field theory. In commutative theory new consequences of generalized Haag's theorem are obtained: it has been proved that equality of four-point Wightman functions in two theories leads to the equality of elastic scattering amplitudes and total cross-sections in these theories.

Vernov, Yu. S.

2007-11-01

390

Ragnar Frisch's axiomatic approach to econometrics  

OpenAIRE

Ragnar Frisch's concept of econometrics was broader in scope than the more restricted connotation it has today as a sub-discipline of economics, it may be more properly rendered as a reconstruction of economics along principles inspired and drawn from natural sciences. In this reconstruction an axiomatic approach played a key role. The general aim of Frisch's axiomatic approach was to argue in favour of using axiomatics as a basis for theorizing in economics and the modelling of individual be...

Bjerkholt, Olav

2012-01-01

391

HOLISTIC APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA  

OpenAIRE

Asthma is an inflammatory disease which is prevalent throughout the world. Allopathic medicines are commonly used for its treatment. Although allopathic medicines provide immediate relief to most patients but low risk, non drug strategies would provide a valuable adjunct or alternative treatment in Asthma Management. A holistic approach helps the body to come into balance naturally and can be used as a long term therapy with minimal side effects. The holistic approach includes different syst...

Khatry Sadhna; Abbulu K2

2010-01-01

392

Analysis and Evaluation of Organizational Change Approaches  

OpenAIRE

Organizational change is the trend for the further development and which been explained is the enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Prescriptive approach and emergent approach are two main types of models for organizational change. The ‘Seven S Framework’ from Peters and his colleague to show the interrelationships between different aspects of corporate strategy. Mintzberg developed his rational concept of an organisation as composed of five segments and uses his model flexibly...

Yuan Liu

2009-01-01

393

Analysis and Evaluation of Organizational Change Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational change is the trend for the further development and which been explained is the enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Prescriptive approach and emergent approach are two main types of models for organizational change. The ‘Seven S Framework’ from Peters and his colleague to show the interrelationships between different aspects of corporate strategy. Mintzberg developed his rational concept of an organisation as composed of five segments and uses his model flexibly to develop five different configurations of structure

Yuan Liu

2009-11-01

394

A System Approach to Environmental Education  

OpenAIRE

A system approach to environmental education (EE) is developed. By making use of it the educators will be able to introduce successfully ecological principles and global environmental problems in the educational system for the development of environmental culture, consciousness and behavior. It embraces a long period of thinking, designing, experimenting and rethinking in the light of the new ideas, concerning humanity-nature relationships. The core of the system approach is represented by en...

Kostova, Z.

2007-01-01

395

Cloud computing methods and practical approaches  

CERN Document Server

This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

Mahmood, Zaigham

2013-01-01

396

An Approach to Persistent Scatterer Interferometry  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a new approach to Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data processing and analysis, which is implemented in the PSI chain of the Geomatics (PSIG) Division of CTTC. This approach includes three main processing blocks. In the first one, a set of correctly unwrapped and temporally ordered phases are derived, which are computed on Persistent Scatterers (PSs) that cover homogeneously the area of interest. The key element of this block is given by the so-called Cousin PS...

Núria Devanthéry; Michele Crosetto; Oriol Monserrat; María Cuevas-González; Bruno Crippa

2014-01-01

397

A general approach to securely querying XML  

OpenAIRE

XML access control requires the enforcement of highly expressive access control policies to support schema-, document and object-specific protection requirements. Access control models for XML data can be classified in two major categories: node filtering and query rewriting systems. The first category includes approaches that use access policies to compute secure user views on XML data sets. User queries are then evaluated on those views. In the second category of approaches, authorization r...

Marrara, Stefania; Damiani, Ernesto

2007-01-01

398

Adaptive Approach for Modelling Variability in Pharmacokinetics.  

OpenAIRE

We present an improved adaptive approach for studying systems of ODEs affected by parameter variability and state space uncertainty. Our approach is based on a reformulation of the ODE problem as a transport problem of a probability density describing the evolution of the ensemble of systems in time. The resulting multidimensional problem is solved by representing the probability density w.r.t. an adaptively chosen Galerkin ansatz space of Gaussian distributions. Due to our improvements in...

Weiße, Andrea Y.; Horenko, Illia; Huisinga, Wilhelm

2006-01-01

399

An Internet Approach for Engineering Student Exercises  

OpenAIRE

An approach for engineering student exercises using the Internet is described. In this approach, for a given exercise, each student receives the same problem, but with different data. The exercise content can be static or dynamic, and the dynamic form can be timeless or real-time. The implementation provides immediate feedback to the students, letting them know if their submitted answers are correct. Student results for each exercise are recorded in log files which are avail...

Perry, Richard

2012-01-01

400

Quantitative aspects of the dynamical impurity approach  

OpenAIRE

A calculation technique in the context of the self-energy functional approach (SFA) and its local form, the dynamical impurity approach (DIA), will be proposed. This technique allows for a precise calculation of the derivatives of the grand potential functional used in the search for a stationary point. To make a closer comparison of the DIA with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), and to demonstrate the proposed technique, we calculated paramagnetic U-T phase diagram ...

Pozgajcic, K.

2004-01-01

401

Self-gravitational system. New approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field theory approach to statistical description of the system of gravitational interacting particles is proposed in order to describe spatially inhomogeneous structures. A nonperturbutive calculation of the partition function is demonstrated for such a system. Spatially inhomogeneous system's state - cluster is considered. The spatial distribution function, cluster's size and the conditions of phase transition to the collapsed phase are determined exactly in this approach.

B.I.Lev

2006-01-01

402

Infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classically, infrarenal aortic exposure is achieved by xyphopubic or xypho-infraumbilical laparotomy, in transperitoneal approach, or through a left abdominal incision, in retroperitoneal approach. The transperitoneal approach is associated with longer intestinal activity resumption time and incisional hernias on long term, due to intestinal extracavitary mobilization and long incision. These disadvantages disappear in laparoscopic approach, but this method is extremely laborious, requires an extended period for dissection, and elicits increased difficulty in performing the anastomosis on the aorta. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy, a method that combines the excellent exposure of xypho-pubic incision with the low morbidity of laparoscopic approach. Between 07.01.2010 - 07.01.2011, we performed 37 revascularization surgeries in 36 patients with aorto-iliac occlusive disease (one patient required reintervention due to graft thrombosis), approaching the infrarenal aorta through median minilaparotomy. The sex distribution was 35 men and one woman. The average age was 61.1 years. There have been 25 aorto-bifemoral bypasses, 11 aorto-unifemoral bypasses, and one aorto-biiliac bypass. The mean aorta clamping time was 15 minutes. Average operating time was 150 minutes. We used 26 bifurcated Dacron prostheses and 11 linear ePTFEprostheses. The average intestinal activity resumption time was 32 hours. All patients included in the study were mobilized 24 hours after surgery. The average length of hospitalization was 7.7 days. 5 patients experienced complications during hospitalization and 3 patients suffered long term complications. Infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy is a viable alternative to conventional surgical techniques used in aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:23294956

P?tru?, G V; Jiga, L P; T?ranu, G P; Rata, A; Neamtu, C; Ionac, M

2012-01-01

403

Dynamic Threshold Optimization - A New Approach?  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic Threshold Optimization (DTO) adaptively "compresses" the decision space (DS) in a global search and optimization problem by bounding the objective function from below. This approach is different from "shrinking" DS by reducing bounds on the decision variables. DTO is applied to Schwefel's Problem 2.26 in 2 and 30 dimensions with good results. DTO is universally applicable, and the author believes it may be a novel approach to global search and optimization.

Formato, Richard A.

2012-01-01

404

Replica Approach in Random Matrix Theory  

CERN Document Server

This Chapter outlines the replica approach in Random Matrix Theory. Both fermionic and bosonic versions of the replica limit are introduced and its trickery is discussed. A brief overview of early heuristic treatments of zero-dimensional replica field theories is given to advocate an exact approach to replicas. The latter is presented in two elaborations: by viewing the $\\beta=2$ replica partition function as the Toda Lattice and by embedding the replica partition function into a more general theory of $\\tau$ functions.

Kanzieper, Eugene

2009-01-01

405

Stability of RNA Virus Attenuation Approaches  

OpenAIRE

The greatest risk from live-attenuated vaccines is reversion to virulence. Particular concerns arise for RNA viruses, which exhibit high mutation frequencies. We examined the stability of 3 attenuation strategies for the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): a traditional, point mutation-dependent attenuation approach exemplified by TC-83; a rationally designed, targeted-mutation approach represented by V3526; and a chimeric vaccine, SIN/TC/ZPC. Our findings suggest that th...

Kenney, Joan L.; Volk, Sara M.; Pandya, Jyotsna; Wang, Eryu; Liang, Xiaodong; Weaver, Scott C.

2011-01-01

406

The Soft Budget Constraint: An Institutionalist Approach  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we reconsider the concept of the BC in the light of an institutionalist approach. Kornai’s interpretation of the concept provides the basis of such an approach. He defines the BC as a conditional empirical fact regarding the specific behavioural regularity of agents that is determined by particular institutional setups. Different degrees of budget constraint (ranging from a SBC to a HBC) are thus considered as empirical facts exogenously given in different institutional conte...

Vahabi, Mehrdad

2002-01-01

407

Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)

408

Reference Point Approaches and Objective Ranking  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents a reflection on some of the basic assumptions and philosophy of reference point approaches, stressing their unique concentra-tion on the sovereignty of the subjective decision maker. As a new devel-opment in reference point approaches also the concept of objective ranking is stressed, defined as dependent only on a given set of data, relevant for the decision situation, and independent from any more detailed specifica-tion of personal preferences than that given by defining...

Wierzbicki, Andrzej P.

2007-01-01

409

A Unified Approach to Attractor Reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

In the analysis of complex, nonlinear time series, scientists in a variety of disciplines have relied on a time delayed embedding of their data, i.e. attractor reconstruction. The process has focused primarily on heuristic and empirical arguments for selection of the key embedding parameters, delay and embedding dimension. This approach has left several long-standing, but common problems unresolved in which the standard approaches produce inferior results or give no guidance...

Pecora, Louis M.; Moniz, Linda; Nichols, Jonathan; Carroll, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

410

Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed.

McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

1998-01-01

411

«FRIENDLY» COMPLAINING BEHAVIORS: TOWARD A RELATIONAL APPROACH  

OpenAIRE

The relational approach is often presented as a strategy to retain customers, but it may also be an appropriate approach to encourage customers to complain, as a review of literature shows. Using information contained in complaints and giving the right answers (distributive, procedural and interactional) to such complaints is essential. Relational marketing may also be used to induce customers (but not all of them) to complain about the attributes of certain products/services. This article fo...

Prim-allaz, Isabelle; Pras, Bernard

1999-01-01

412

Hydrostatic drive of the ferry approach bank  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The operating problems of the ferry approach ramp have been presented inthe paper. The incorrect idea of approach bank drive system and abnormal operator acting, have been both the reasons of break-down and damage of a ferry terminal. The evaluation of the run of events and finding the reasons of the failure, have been possible thanks to the analysis of drives and control systems.

Jerzy TOMCZYK

2007-01-01

413

Hydrostatic drive of the ferry approach bank  

OpenAIRE

The operating problems of the ferry approach ramp have been presented inthe paper. The incorrect idea of approach bank drive system and abnormal operator acting, have been both the reasons of break-down and damage of a ferry terminal. The evaluation of the run of events and finding the reasons of the failure, have been possible thanks to the analysis of drives and control systems.

Tomczyk, Jerzy; Kosucki, Andrzej

2007-01-01

414

A novel approach to handwritten character recognition  

OpenAIRE

A number of new techniques and approaches for off-line handwritten character recognition are presented which individually make significant advancements in the field. First. an outline-based vectorization algorithm is described which gives improved accuracy in producing vector representations of the pen strokes used to draw characters. Later. Vectorization and other types of preprocessing are criticized and an approach to recognition is suggested which avoids separate preprocessing stages b...

Clarke, Eddie

1995-01-01

415

APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE WITHIN MODERN COMPANIES  

OpenAIRE

Throughout the ideas comprised in this paper we have approached a trendy subject both for its popularity and imminent necessity. The paper sections refer to different aspects that have strong correlation with the main subject which is –organizational change. The first section debates the specifics and importance of organizational change within the present business context. Second section discusses managerial strategies to approach change in the organization environment. The next section of ...

Bejinaru, Ruxandra; Baesu, Camelia

2013-01-01

416

Category theory based approach for IMS modeling  

OpenAIRE

Main researches and developments in IMS, MAS (Multi-Agent System) and HMS (Holonic Manufacturing System) for manufacturing plant control and management as well as manufacturing enterprise networking are based on ICTs (Information & Communication Technologies) based approaches. Beyond these technology-driven approaches, the field of ‘Intelligence in Manufacturing' requires sound scientific foundations in order to meet systematisation in modelling as originally addressed by (Yoshikawa, 1995)....

Mayer, Fre?de?rique; Lavigne, Jean-pierre; Lhoste, Pascal

2003-01-01

417

A Semantic Approach for Document Clustering  

OpenAIRE

Conventional document mining systems mainly use the presence or absence of keywords to mine texts. However, simple word counting and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. In this paper, the application of a semantic understanding-based approach to mine documents is presented. The approach is based on semantic notions to represent text, and to measure similarity between text documents. T...

Khaled Shaban

2009-01-01

418

Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Approach to Petrous Apex Cholesteatoma  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this report is to present indications and risks of endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to treat petrous apex cholesteatoma. This is a retrospective analysis of two cases of petrous apex cholesteatoma presenting with double vision who underwent an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach at Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris, France. Control of the lesion was satisfactory in both cases. However, a minor pontic stroke resulted in transient hemiparesis in the case with dehiscent dura around ...

Aubry, Karine; Kania, Romain; Sauvaget, Elisabeth; Huy, Patrice Tran Ba; Herman, Philippe

2010-01-01

419

Automatic approach for generating ETL operators  

OpenAIRE

This article addresses the generation of the ETL operators(Extract-Transform-Load) for supplying a Data Warehouse from a relational data source. As a first step, we add new rules to those proposed by the authors of [1], these rules deal with the combination of ETL operators. In a second step, we propose an automatic approach based on model transformations to generate the ETL operations needed for loading a data warehouse. This approach offers the possibility to set some desi...

Bakari, Wided; Ali, Mouez; Ben-abdallah, Hanene

2012-01-01

420

Anterior approach to the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

An anterior approach affords the spine surgeon excellent visualization and access to the anterior thoracic spine, the vertebral bodies, intervertebral disks, spinal canal, and nerve roots. This approach is currently used in the surgical treatment of thoracic disk disease, vertebral osteomyelitis or discitis, fractures and tumors of the vertebral bodies, allowing for proper decompression of neural elements and spine stabilization. Over a 10-year period in a single institution, a total of 142 patients with a mean age of 49.6 years underwent anterior thoracic exposure of the spine. The indication for surgery was trauma fracture in 20 patients, malignancy in 35, degenerative disease in 29 and correction of scoliosis in 58. Surgical approaches were determined based on the location and length of spinal involvement, including cervico-thoracic approach (15) thoracotomic approach (85) video-assisted thoracoscopy (10) and thoracolumbar exposure (32). Mean operative time was 334 min (range from 256 to 410 min). There was no perioperative mortality. Thirty-one patients (21.8%) developed postoperative complications. The anterior approach to the thoracic spine is safe and effective and even the presence of complications can be appropriately managed. An adequate preoperative evaluation stratifying the risk and instituting measures to reduce it, accurate surgical planning and careful surgical technique are key to yielding a good outcome and to reduce the risk of complications. PMID:21303868

De Giacomo, Tiziano; Francioni, Federico; Diso, Daniele; Tarantino, Roberto; Anile, Marco; Venuta, Federico; Coloni, Giorgio Furio

2011-05-01

421

Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…

Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.

2008-01-01

422

A holistic approach to bit preservation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which is to keep bits intact and readable, is far more complex than first anticipated, even in this narrow definition. This paper takes a more holistic approach to bit preservation, and looks at how an optimal bit preservation strategy can be found, when requirements like confidentiality, availability and costs are taken into account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the various findings from previous research which have led to the holistic approach to bit preservation. This paper also includes an introduction to digital preservation with a focus on the role of bit preservation, which sets the scene for why bit preservation deserves attention in a holistic approach. Findings: The paper presents different means to find an optimal bit preservation strategy. This consists of a model to delimit bit preservation activities, and will briefly discuss how specific material can require different bit preservation strategies as well as pointing to how such strategies can be evaluated. Research limitations/implications The operational results described here are still missing work to be fully operational. However, the holistic approach is in itself an important result. Furthermore, in spite of the shortcomings, the results can assist in analysis and evaluation of bit preservation strategies. Originality/value This paper is an extract of the findings presented in the doctoral thesis “A holistic approach to bit preservation”. The findings are relevant for any organisation that is required to do bit preservation of its digital material.

Zierau, Eld

2012-01-01

423

Posterior approach white-line advancement ptosis repair: the evolving posterior approach to ptosis surgery.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction We describe a surgical technique for ptosis correction in moderate to good levator function involving advancement of the levator aponeurosis via a transconjunctival posterior approach without resection of Muller’s muscle. We present our experience of and the results from this method and review the evolution of posterior approach ptosis surgery. Purpose To assess the efficacy and predictability of posterior approach white line advancement ptosis r...

Patel, Vikesh; Salam, Aysha; Malhotra, Raman

2010-01-01

424

A reverse translational approach to quantify approach-avoidance conflict in humans  

OpenAIRE

Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to characterize effects of anxiolytic agents and probe neural circuitry related to anxiety. However, there are few behavioral approaches to measure conflict in human populations, limiting the translation of findings from animal conflict tasks to human clinical research. We developed a novel approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm involving situations in which the same decision is associated with “reward” (points) a...

Aupperle, Robin L.; Sullivan, Sarah; Melrose, Andrew J.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

2011-01-01

425

Entrainment and motor emulation approaches to joint action: Alternatives or complementary approaches?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joint actions, such as music and dance, rely crucially on the ability of two, or more, agents to align their actions with great temporal precision. Within the literature that seeks to explain how this action alignment is possible, two broad approaches have appeared. The first, what we term the entrainment approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of the behavioural dynamics of the system of two agents. The second, what we term the emulator approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of mechanisms, such as forward and inverse models, that are implemented in the brain. They have often been pitched as alternative explanations of the same phenomena; however, we argue that this view is mistaken, because, as we show, these two approaches are engaged in distinct, and not mutually exclusive, explanatory tasks. While the entrainment approach seeks to uncover the general laws that govern behaviour the emulator approach seeks to uncover mechanisms. We argue that is possible to do both and that the entrainment approach must pay greater attention to the mechanisms that support the behavioural dynamics of interest. In short, the entrainment approach must be transformed into a neuroentrainment approach by adopting a mechanistic view of explanation and by seeking mechanisms that are implemented in the brain.

Lincoln John Colling

2014-09-01

426

Articulating Design Approaches? : Position paper for the workshop "Approaches to Work Analysis for CSCW systems design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We are working on an approach for designing CSCW systems since we advocate the importance of generalizing from own work practice as designers and from studies of designers working under industrial conditions. We use the term approach as something in between commodified methods and isolated techniques supporting one or a few activities. Our background is computer science. In our design approach we use a combination of intervention and ethnographic techniques. The question for us is how to present our approach: what kind of guidelines and at what level of detail might designers from industry find useful. These are the question we would like to discuss at the workshop.

Kensing, Finn; BØdker, Keld

427

Sustainable Development: Does the Capability Approach have Anything to Offer? : Outlining a Legitimate Freedom Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although the sustainability of development is one of the most important problems facing the world, it has received little attention from the capability approach. This article asks whether the capability approach has anything to offer the debate that has continued for over a quarter of a century. Answering positively, the article outlines a legitimate freedom approach as a fruitful way forward. The approach draws on Thomas Scanlon's contractualist ethics, suggesting ways to understand the limits to freedoms, the non-identity problem and environmental ethics.

Crabtree, Andrew

2013-01-01

428

Systematic Approach for Decommissioning Planning and Estimating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear facility decommissioning, satisfactorily completed at the lowest cost, relies on a systematic approach to the planning, estimating, and documenting the work. High quality information is needed to properly perform the planning and estimating. A systematic approach to collecting and maintaining the needed information is recommended using a knowledgebase system for information management. A systematic approach is also recommended to develop the decommissioning plan, cost estimate and schedule. A probabilistic project cost and schedule risk analysis is included as part of the planning process. The entire effort is performed by a experienced team of decommissioning planners, cost estimators, schedulers, and facility knowledgeable owner representatives. The plant data, work plans, cost and schedule are entered into a knowledgebase. This systematic approach has been used successfully for decommissioning planning and cost estimating for a commercial nuclear power plant. Elements of this approach have been used for numerous cost estimates and estimate reviews. The plan and estimate in the knowledgebase should be a living document, updated periodically, to support decommissioning fund provisioning, with the plan ready for use when the need arises

429

Transradial approach to lower extremity interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ravikiran Korabathina1, Sidharth S Yadav1, John T Coppola2, Cezar S Staniloae21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincents Catholic Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Cardiac and Vascular Institute, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Percutaneous interventions of the coronary and peripheral vessels have historically been performed using a femoral artery approach. There has been increasing recognition of postprocedural bleeding complications and its impact on short- and long-term mortality. Because of its now recognized safety, the transradial approach has recently emerged as a preferred method compared to the transfemoral approach. The limitations associated with the distance from the puncture site to the lesion location are being addressed as new tools are developed for the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In this review, we discuss the many facets of the transradial approach to lower extremity endovascular interventions, highlighting its safety and efficacy. Approaches to special populations including individuals with prior surgical bypass, Leriche’s syndrome, and those committed to chronic anticoagulation are also reviewed.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, endovascular interventions, transradial interventions, aorto-iliac angioplasty

Ravikiran Korabathina

2010-07-01

430

Novel and Flexible Approach to Trust Negotiations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the progress of society today Current real applications require flexible approaches to trust negotiations, especially in light of the widespread use of mobile devices. Moreover the ubiquitous nature of online peer-to-peer systems, and the increasing number of moving objects involved in online transactions, negotiators must be allowed to switch roles to guarantee dependability, availability of resources and peers. Existing method mostly focused on the assurance of privacy and confidentiality with the goal of guaranteeing that no actual information about a negotiator’s properties is disclosed. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to trust negotiations that offers a general solution to those issues by developing major extensions to previous approaches by presenting a multi session dependable approach to trust negotiations. This proposed framework supports voluntary and unpredicted interruptions, enabling the negotiating parties to complete the negotiation despite temporary unavailability of resources. In our approach the protocols address issues related to validity, temporary loss of data, and extended unavailability negotiators. For increasing robustness and efficiency we showed how our negotiation protocol can withstand in most significant attacks.

G. Ramachandran

2013-10-01

431

Surgical approach to parapharyngeal space tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Parapharyngeal space tumors are very rare comprising 0,5% of head and neck tumors. Tumors of this region are significant diagnostic problem due to scanty symptomatology as well as considerable surgical issue owing to inaccessibility. Patients and Methods: Retrospective twenty-year study of patients with parapharyngeal space tumors included 69 patients. Data were obtained from medical records, and were pointed to diagnostic procedures, surgical approach and pathohistological findings. Symptoms and clinical signs were also investigated. Results: Preoperative diagnostics is very important for precise tumor localization and relation to adjacent structures. Computerized tomography was the most common method used, and recently, magnetic resonance imaging and indication-based contrast angiography have been applied. All of 69 patients with parapharyngeal space tumors were treated surgically. The most often approach to this tumor was transcervical (62%, then transoral approach and combination transcervical transoral approach. Pathohistological examination verified that most of the tumors were benign (75% and origin of these tumors was most frequently salivary (42%. Conclusion: For making a decision on surgical approach, diagnostic methods, other than thorough examination, such as computerized tomography(CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MR, are necessary to be applied.

Dimitrijevi? Milovan V.

2011-01-01

432

Approaches for Categorization of Reusable Software Components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reuse repositories manager manages the reusable software components in different categories and needs to find the category of reusable software components. In this paper, we have used different pure and hybrid approaches to find the domain relevancy of the component to a particular domain. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA approach, LSA, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD technique, LSA Semi-Discrete Matrix Decomposition (SDD technique and Naive Bayes Approach purely as well as hybrid, are evaluated to determine the Domain Relevancy of software components. It exploits the fact that Feature Vector codes can be seen as documents containing terms -the identifiers present in the components- and so text modeling methods that capture co-occurrence information in low-dimensional spaces can be used. The FV code representation of clusters or domains is used to find the domain-relevancy of the software components. PLSA has provided better results than LSA retrieval techniques in terms of Precision and Recall but its time complexity is too high. SVD Transformation with Naïve Bayes scheme has outperformed all other approaches and shows better results than the existing approach (LSA being used by some open source code repositories e.g. Sourceforge. The DR-value determined is close to the manual analysis, used to be performed by the programmers/repository managers. Hence, the tool can also be utilized for the automatic categorization of software components and this kind of automation may improve the productivity and quality of software development.

Parvinder S. Sandhu

2007-01-01

433

New Public Management Approach and Accountability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new paradigm for public management, called “New Public Management”, has emerged since 1980s that is formed to confront the present problems. This model is originated from the fusion of economic theories and private sector management techniques. The most important particulars of this model are decreasing government size, the decentralization of management authority, the emphasis on efficiency, effectiveness and economy. This paper examines how New Public Management (NPM impacts on fulfilling different aspects of accountability in the public sector. In the Traditional Approach of Accountability, politicians and civil servants are liable to elected authorities but in this approach, they should be liable to people. Therefore, in NPM there is a shift of accountability from the political to the managerial sphere and from input and processes to output and outcomes. The results show under this approach, operational and managerial accountability fulfill political and financial aspects of accountability.

Mahboubeh Fatemi

2012-12-01

434

Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

2013-01-01

435

DRUG VEHICLE BASED APPROACHES OF PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transdermal delivery of drugs through the skin to the systemic circulation provides a convenient route of administration for a variety of clinical indications. For transdermal delivery of drugs, stratum corneum is the main barrier layer for permeation of drug. So to circumvent the stratum corneum and to increase the flux through skin membrane, different approaches of penetration enhancement are used. Many reviews had described regarding the chemical penetration enhancement but vehicle based enhancement approach is not exploited for reviews. Drug-vehicle based enhancement methods such as drug selection, vesicles and particles, liposomes, prodrugs and ion-pairs, chemical potential of drug, eutectic systems, complexation are used in transdermal research as better alternative method to enhance permeation of drugs through skin. The review presents mainly the routes of penetration through skin and the approaches of drug-vehicle interaction based enhancement to optimise the transdermal delivery system.

SWAROOP R LAHOTI

2009-07-01

436

Field approach in the transformation optics concept  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An alternative, field-based formulation of transformation optics is proposed. Field transformations are expressed in the language of boundary conditions for the electromagnetic fields facilitated through the introduction of generalized potential functions. It is shown that the field-based approach is equivalent to the conventional coordinate-transformation approach but is preferable when looking for specific field distribution. A set of example devices such as invisibility cloaks, concentrators, rotators, and transformation optics lenses capable of creating light beams with predetermined field distribution (e.g., Gaussian and sinusoidal) is studied to validate the effectiveness of the field-based formulation. As for the boundary conditions for the cloaked region the absence of the normal component of the Poynting vector is justified. In the frames of the field-based approach the physical reasons behind infinite components (singularities) of the material parameters of transformation optics devices are straightforwardly revealed.

Novitsky, Andrey; Zhukovsky, Sergei

2012-01-01

437

Accident prevention in a contextual approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a focus on developing the insurance system to establish (economic) motivation. This paper suggests a more elaborated theoretical approach emphasising a differentiated understanding of the external and internal actors and how these relations form the actions of the actors. The theoretical components of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions and programs on accident prevention.

Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

2003-01-01

438

Arabic Words Stemming Approach Using Arabic Wordnet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The big growth of the Arabic internet content in the last years has raised up the need for an effective stemming techniques for Arabic language. Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, according to three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja; stem-based approach (ex. Larkey; and statistical approach (ex. N-Garm. However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have a low efficiency. In this paper, we introduce a new stemming technique for Arabic words that also solve the problem of the plural form of irregular nouns in Arabic language, which called broken plural. The proposed stem extractor provides very accurate results in comparisons with other algorithms. Consequently the search effectiveness improved.

Abdel Hamid Kreaa

2014-08-01

439

Safer childbirth: a rights-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set very high targets for women's reproductive health through reductions in maternal and infant mortality, among other things. Reductions in maternal mortality and morbidity can be achieved through various different approaches, such as the confidential review of maternal deaths, use of evidence-based treatments and interventions, using a health systems approach, use of information technology, global and regional partnerships, and making pregnancy safer through initiatives that increase the focus on human rights. A combination of these and other approaches can have a synergistic impact on reductions in maternal mortality. This paper highlights some of the current global efforts on safer pregnancy with a focus on reproductive rights. We encourage readers to do more in every corner of the world to advocate for women's reproductive rights and, in this way, we may achieve the MDGs by 2015. PMID:19535072

Boama, Vincent; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

2009-08-01

440

An Efficient Approach for Computing Silhouette Coefficients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One popular approach for finding the best number of clusters (K in a data set is through computing the silhouette coefficients. The silhouette coefficients for different values of K, are first found and then the maximum value of these coefficients is chosen. However, computing the silhouette coefficient for different Ks is a very time consuming process. This is due to the amount of CPU time spent on distance calculations. A proposed approach to compute the silhouette coefficient quickly had been presented. The approach was based on decreasing the number of addition operations when computing distances. The results were efficient and more than 50% of the CPU time was achieved when applied to different data sets.

Moh'd B. Al- Zoubi

2008-01-01

441

Functional Safety a total Quality Approach  

CERN Document Server

Many systems used by the CERN accelerators and the technical infrastructure have to respect stringent requirements in terms of reliability, safety, availability and maintainability either for operation, security, or legal aspects such as the one required by French Regulatory Authority: the INB (Installations Nucléaires de Base ). The functional safety approach provides a structured method for achieving these requirements. In particular, the new IEC 61508 standards give guidance for system design and an effective and safe system exploitation. When designing new systems, it also sets out a generic approach for all the safety lifecycle activities that are the base for a total quality approach: requirements, design, realization, installation, operation, maintenance and even the decommissioning. This paper gives the results of the first attempts made at the CERN Technical Service division (ST) to use these standards and gives some suggestions on how to improve functional safety in a particle accelerator environme...

Scibile, L; Grau, S

2001-01-01

442

AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT BY MINIMALLY INVASIVE APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Degenerative aortic stenosis is one of the most frequent valvular disease. About 25% from the people over 65 years old had aortic sclerosis and about 4% from the inhabitants older then 75 years old had aortic stenosis. Aortic valve replacement (AVR is the treatment of choice. The overall postoperative mortality of this operation is under 5% especially in large volume surgical centers. For the patients older then 80 years old and with severe comorbidities the postoperative mortality rate of AVR operation is over 15%. For this category of patients the best approach is AVR using a minimally invasive approach, especially the percutaneous approach. The paper describes the different tehniques and valvular prosthesis for minimally invasive AVR. The data from the literature - actual indications, valvular prosthetic types and results of different minimally invasive tehniques - are discussed.

C?t?lina Maria Moldovanu

2009-05-01

443

A neuroanatomical approach to exploring organizational performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insights gained from studying the human brain have begun to open up promising new areas of research in the behavioural and social sciences. Neuroscience-based principles have been incorporated into areas such as business management, economics and marketing, leading to the development of artificial neural networks, neuroeconomics, neuromarketing and, most recently, organizational cognitive neuroscience. Similarly, the brain has been used as a powerful metaphor for thinking about and analysing the nature of organizations. However, no existing approach to organizational analysis has taken advantage of contemporary neuroanatomical principles, thereby missing the opportunity to translate core neuroanatomical knowledge into other, non-related areas of research. In this essentially conceptual paper, we propose several ways in which neuroanatomical approaches could be used to enhance organizational theory, practice and research. We suggest that truly interdisciplinary and collaborative research between neuroanatomists and organizational analysts is likely to provide novel approaches to exploring and improving organizational performance.

Gillingwater, D.

2009-01-01

444

An objective approach to determining criteria weights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an objective approach to determining criteria weights that can be successfully used in multiple criteria models. The methods of entropy, CRITIC and FANMA are presented in this paper as well as a possible combination of the methods of objective and subjective approaches. Although based on different theoretical settings, and therefore with different algorithms of realization, all methods have a decision matrix as a starting point. An objective approach to determining the weight of criteria eliminates the negative impacts of a decision maker on criteria weights as well as on the final solution of multicriteria problems. The main aim of this paper is to systematize description procedures as a kind of help when encountering a problem of determining the criteria weights for solving multicriteria tasks. A possibility of the method application is shown in a numerical example.

Mili? R. Mili?evi?

2012-01-01

445

Cooperative learning as an approach to pedagogy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lecture-based pedagogical approaches cannot adequately prepare students in professional and technical occupational therapy programs. Faculty members in other disciplines are turning to a well-known and well-researched teaching approach called cooperative learning, which is more carefully structured and defined than most other forms of small group learning. Cooperative learning includes several key principles: positive interdependence, individual responsibility, appropriate grouping, group maintenance, cooperative skills, and promotive (interaction) time. This article provides ideas for managing the classroom with cooperative learning activities and describes eight of them: Three-Step Interview, Roundtable, Think-Pair-Share, Structured Problem Solving, Send/Pass-a-Problem, Generic Question Stems, Double Entry Journal, and Dyadic Essay Confrontation. Each activity is applied to content embedded in professional and technical occupational therapy curricula. A cooperative learning approach to evaluating learning is also presented. PMID:9926216

Nolinske, T; Millis, B

1999-01-01

446

Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

Alexander V. Fedorov

2012-09-01

447

A POGIL approach to teaching engineering hydrology  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a case study of the author's experience using Problem Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in an engineering hydrology course. This course is part of an interdisciplinary Water Management program at Bachelor level in the Netherlands. The aims of this approach were to promote constructivism of knowledge, activate critical thinking and reduce math anxiety. POGIL was developed for chemistry education in the United States. To the authors knowledge this is the first application of this approach in Europe. A first trial was done in 2010-2011 and a second trial in 2011-2012 and 55 students participated. The problems that motivated the novel approach, general information on POGIL, its implementation in the course are discussed and the results so far are evaluated.

Rutten, M.

2012-12-01

448

Physical approaches to DNA sequencing and detection  

CERN Document Server

With the continued improvement of sequencing technologies, the prospect of genome-based medicine is now at the forefront of scientific research. To realize this potential, however, we need a revolutionary sequencing method for the cost-effective and rapid interrogation of individual genomes. This capability is likely to be provided by a physical approach to probing DNA at the single nucleotide level. This is in sharp contrast to current techniques and instruments which probe, through chemical elongation, electrophoresis, and optical detection, length differences and terminating bases of strands of DNA. In this Colloquium we review several physical approaches to DNA detection that have the potential to deliver fast and low-cost sequencing. Center-fold to these approaches is the concept of nanochannels or nanopores which allow for the spatial confinement of DNA molecules. In addition to their possible impact in medicine and biology, the methods offer ideal test beds to study open scientific issues and challenge...

Zwolak, Michael

2007-01-01

449

Document Recommender Agent Based on Hybrid Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Internet continues to grow, user tends to rely heavily on search engines. However, these search engines tend to generate a huge number of search results and potentially making it difficult for users to find the most relevant sites. This has resulted in search engines losing their usefulness. These users might be academicians who are searching for relevant academic papers within their interests. The need for a system that can assist in choosing the most relevant papers among the long list of results presented by search engines becomes crucial. In this paper, we propose Document Recommender Agent, that can recommend the most relevant papers based on the academician’s interest. This recommender agent adopts a hybrid recommendation approach. In this paper we also show that recommendation based on the proposed hybrid approach is better that the content-based and the collaborative approaches.

Khalifa

2014-04-01

450

Mesoscopic approach to granular crystal dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a mesoscopic approach to granular crystal dynamics, which comprises a three-dimensional finite-element model and a one-dimensional regularized contact model. The approach investigates the role of vibrational-energy trapping effects in the dynamic behavior of one-dimensional chains of particles in contact (i.e., granular crystals), under small to moderate impact velocities. The only inputs of the models are the geometry and the elastic material properties of the individual particles that form the system. We present detailed verification results and validate the model comparing its predictions with experimental data. This approach provides a physically sound, first-principles description of dissipative losses in granular systems. PMID:22400692

Gonzalez, Marcial; Yang, Jinkyu; Daraio, Chiara; Ortiz, Michael

2012-01-01

451

Mesoscopic approach to granular crystal dynamics  

CERN Document Server

We present a mesoscopic approach to granular crystal dynamics, which comprises a three-dimensional finite-element model and a one-dimensional regularized contact model. The approach investigates the role of vibrational-energy trapping effects in the dynamic behavior of one-dimensional chains of particles in contact (i.e., granular crystals), under small to moderate impact velocities. The only inputs of the models are the geometry and the elastic material properties of the individual particles that form the system. We present detailed verification results and validate the model comparing its predictions with experimental data. This approach provides a physically sound, first-principle description of dissipative losses in granular systems.

Gonzalez, Marcial; Daraio, Chiara; Ortiz, Michael

2011-01-01

452

Neural Hypernetwork Approach for Pulmonary Embolism diagnosis  

CERN Document Server

This work introduces an integrative approach based on Q-analysis with machine learning. The new approach, called Neural Hypernetwork, has been applied to a case study of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. The objective of the application of neural hyper-network to pulmonary embolism (PE) is to improve diagnose for reducing the number of CT-angiography needed. Hypernetworks, based on topological simplicial complex, generalize the concept of two-relation to many-body relation. Furthermore, Hypernetworks provide a significant generalization of network theory, enabling the integration of relational structure, logic and analytic dynamics. Another important results is that Q-analysis stays close to the data, while other approaches manipulate data, projecting them into metric spaces or applying some filtering functions to highlight the intrinsic relations. A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches, frequently fatal. Our study uses data on 28 diagnostic features of 1,427...

Rucco, Matteo; Merelli, Emanuela; Johnson, Jeffrey H; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Nitti, Cinzia; Salvi, Aldo

2014-01-01

453

An Approach to Elastoplasticity at Large Deformations  

CERN Document Server

Finite plasticity theories are still a subject of controversy and lively discussions. Among the approaches to finite elastoplasticity two became especially popular. The first, implemented in the commercial finite element codes, is based on the introduction of a hypoelastic constitutive law and the additive elastic-plastic decomposition of the deformation rate tensor. Unfortunately, the use of hypoelasticity may lead to a nonphysical creation or dissipation of energy in a closed deformation cycle. In order to replace hypoelasticity with hyperelasticity the second popular approach based on the multiplicative elastic-plastic decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor was developed. Unluckily, the latter theory is not perfect as well because it introduces intermediate plastic configurations, which are geometrically incompatible, non-unique, and, consequently, fictitious physically. In the present work, an attempt is made to combine strengths of the described approaches avoiding their drawbacks. Particularly...

Volokh, Konstantin

2012-01-01

454

Study on the KALIMER safety approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes KALIMER`s safety approach, how to establish the safety criteria and temperature limit, how to define safety evaluation events, and some safety research and development needs items. It is recommended that the KALIMER`s approach to safety use seven levels of safety design and a defense-in-depth design approach with particular emphasis on inherent passive features. In order to establish as set DBEs for KALIMER safety evaluation, the procedure is explained how to define safety evaluation events. Final selection is to be determined later with the final establishment of design concepts. On the basis of preliminary studies and evaluation of the plant safety related areas, the KALIMER and PRISM have following three main difference that may require special research and development for KALIMER. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

Kim, Eui Kwang; Han, Do Hee; Kim, Young Cheol

1997-01-01

455

Application of various FLD modelling approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on a comparison between different modelling approaches to predict the forming limit diagram (FLD) for sheet metal forming under a linear strain path using the recently introduced orthotropic yield criterion BBC2003 (Banabic D et al 2005 Int. J. Plasticity 21 493-512). The FLD models considered here are a finite element based approach, the well known Marciniak-Kuczynski model, the modified maximum force criterion according to Hora et al (1996 Proc. Numisheet'96 Conf. (Dearborn/Michigan) pp 252-6), Swift's diffuse (Swift H W 1952 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1 1-18) and Hill's classical localized necking approach (Hill R 1952 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1 19-30). The FLD of an AA5182-O aluminium sheet alloy has been determined experimentally in order to quantify the predictive capabilities of the models mentioned above.

Banabic, D.; Aretz, H.; Paraianu, L.; Jurco, P.

2005-07-01

456

RST Approach for Efficient CARs Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In data mining, an association rule is a pattern that states the occurrence of two items (premises and consequences together with certain probability. A class association rule set (CARs is a subset of association rules with classes specified as their consequences. This paper focuses on class association rules mining based on the approach of Rough Set Theory (RST. In addition, this paper presents an algorithm for finest class rule set mining inspired from Apriori algorithm, where the support and confidence are computed based on the elementary set of lower approximation inspired from RST. The proposed approach has been shown very effective, where the rough set approach for class association discovery is much simpler than the classic association method

Thabet Slimani

2014-11-01

457

Approaches to Formal Verification of Security Protocols  

CERN Document Server

In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for various information and communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Application of formal methods for verification of security protocols would enhance their reliability thereby, increasing the usability of systems that employ them. Thus, formal verification of security protocols has become a key issue in computer and communications security. In this paper we present, analyze and compare some prevalent approaches towards verification of secure systems. We follow the notion of - same goal through different approaches - as we formally analyze the Needham Schroeder Public Key protocol for Lowe's attack using each of our presented approaches.

Lal, Suvansh; Chaplot, Vikrant

2011-01-01

458

Study on the KALIMER safety approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes KALIMER's safety approach, how to establish the safety criteria and temperature limit, how to define safety evaluation events, and some safety research and development needs items. It is recommended that the KALIMER's approach to safety use seven levels of safety design and a defense-in-depth design approach with particular emphasis on inherent passive features. In order to establish as set DBEs for KALIMER safety evaluation, the procedure is explained how to define safety evaluation events. Final selection is to be determined later with the final establishment of design concepts. On the basis of preliminary studies and evaluation of the plant safety related areas, the KALIMER and PRISM have following three main difference that may require special research and development for KALIMER. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

459

THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the crime, through the re-evaluation and reconsidering the factors with a crime risk and placing them in an equal position in the social environment. Another objective of this study is to emphasize the importance of the gender role concerning the expectations of the society from the feminine population’s side. The present study is focused on the contribution of placing the research of feminine crime research on a basis characterized by unprecedented generality, under total influencing conditions, with orientation towards gender problematic.

MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE

2012-05-01

460

A System Approach to Environmental Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A system approach to environmental education (EE is developed. By making use of it the educators will be able to introduce successfully ecological principles and global environmental problems in the educational system for the development of environmental culture, consciousness and behavior. It embraces a long period of thinking, designing, experimenting and rethinking in the light of the new ideas, concerning humanity-nature relationships. The core of the system approach is represented by environmental consciousness, which is the driving force of environmentally responsible behavior. The system approach is concerned with constructing an innovative model of EE, which consists of three elements: didactical, conceptual and technological and six integrating concepts, uniting the studies of the different school subjects under the global movement for sustainable development. EE is regarded to be an essential part of the education for sustainable development (ESD.

Z. Kostova

2007-09-01

461

Conceptualization Approach for Accessibility-Aware Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many people, the use of the technology offers opportunities to engage in activities that would otherwise be impossible. However, this potential can only be realised if the technology is designed so that it can support people in achieving their goals. Information access for people with special needs is creating numerous opportunities and challenges within the Information expressway community. A majority of web based information and services are inaccessible to people with certain disabilities, largely due to a lack of awareness of accessibility issues on the part of composers and developers in web engineering. There are many factors that contribute to achieving designs for accessibility, but one important issue is the availability of knowledge about how to design solutions that will take into account users and their diverse characteristics. This research discusses the need for a framework approach to determine the level of accessibility required by people with special needs to access web resources, the results of such an approach should be as meaningful as possible for web applications developers and composers. It is also argued that the current accessibility evaluation approaches are unsatisfactory in the scope and results presentation. This research will outline the groundwork for constructing accessibility aware framework approach where people with distinct needs can access all web applications based on their level of disability. The approach provides guidelines for web developers and composers in the development of accessible web solutions. Blindness and Deafness disability profiles are used as an example to demonstrate the execution of the framework approach and presented implementation architecture.

Saqib Ali

2013-06-01

462

Estimating Runoff Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the continuous decline in global runoff data availability over the past decades, alternative approaches for runoff determination are gaining importance. When aiming for global scale runoff at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from Gravity Recovery And Climate Explorer ( grace) results and water level measurements from satellite altimetry, and present a comprehensive assessment of five different approaches for river runoff estimation: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, satellite altimetry with quantile function-based stage-discharge relationships, a rudimentary instantaneous runoff-precipitation relationship, and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time lag into account. As a common property, these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make additional use of atmospheric reanalyses. Further, these methods, except runoff-precipitation ratio, use geodetic observables as one of their inputs and, therefore, they are termed hydro-geodetic approaches. The runoff prediction skill of these approaches is validated against in situ runoff and compared to hydrological model predictions. Our results show that catchment-specific methods (altimetry and runoff-storage relationship) clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches) in the six study regions we considered. The global methods have the potential to provide runoff over all landmasses, which implies gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

Sneeuw, Nico; Lorenz, Christof; Devaraju, Balaji; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Riegger, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald; Bárdossy, András

2014-11-01

463

RBMK-1500 accident analysis using BE approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of analysis of three cases, which cover worst postulated RBMK-1500 accidents and transients: maximum design basis accident at RBMK-1500- break of Main Circulation Pump (MCP) pressure header with failure to close check valve of one Group Distribution Header (GDH); analysis of the postulated blocking of coolant flow rate in GDH event; partial GDH break. The first case with its consequences cover all Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) type accidents, while the second deals with transients. The third case (partial GDH break) can lead to flow stagnation in the group of channels, and consequences of this event are similar as in GDH blocking case. For all cases two types of analysis were performed: 'best-estimate' and 'partially-conservative'. Comparison of two approaches enables to select the most suitable one, since each of them has positive and negative sides. Analysis of three cases was performed using 'best-estimate' and 'partially-conservative' calculations: maximum design basis accident at RBMK-1500, break of Main Circulation Pump (MCP) pressure header with failure to close check valve of one Group Distribution Header (GDH); analysis of the postulated blocking of coolant flow rate in GDH event; partial GDH break. The performed comparison between two approaches shows that in general 'partially-conservative' approach provides higher peak temperatures. This approach could be recommended for safety calculations if obtained results do not violaculations if obtained results do not violate safety criteria. Otherwise, 'best-estimate' approach would be appropriate. It is necessary to point that for the 'partially conservative' approach proper boundary and initial conditions should be selected. This selection requires experience from user, since for different phenomena, which are observed during the accidents, initial and boundary conditions can differ

464

Programmatic approaches to screening for active tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive case finding, the detection of tuberculosis (TB) cases among persons presenting to health facilities with symptoms suggestive of TB, has remained the principal public health approach for TB diagnosis. While this approach, in combination with improved treatment, has led to substantial global progress, the overall epidemiological impact has been inadequate. Stagnating case notifications and sluggish decline in incidence prompt the pursuit of a more active approach to TB case detection. Screening among contacts of TB patients and people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection, long recommended, needs scaling up. Screening in other risk groups may also be considered, depending on the epidemiological situation. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently produced recommendations on systematic screening for active TB, which set out principles and provide guidance on the prioritisation of risk groups for screening and choice of screening and diagnostic algorithms. With a view to help translate WHO recommendations into practice, this concluding article of the State of the Art series discusses programmatic approaches. Published literature is scanty. However, considerable field experience exists to draw important lessons. Cautioning against a hasty pursuit of active case finding, the article stresses that programmatic implementation of TB screening requires a systematic approach. Important considerations should include setting clear goals and objectives based on a thorough assessment of the situation; considering the place of TB screening in the overall approach to enhancing TB detection; identifying and prioritising risk groups; choosing appropriate screening and diagnostic algorithms; and pursuing setting-specific implementation strategies with engagement of relevant partners, due attention to ethical considerations and built-in monitoring and evaluation. PMID:24025375

Uplekar, M; Creswell, J; Ottmani, S-E; Weil, D; Sahu, S; Lönnroth, K

2013-10-01

465

An Intuitive Approach in Teaching Linear Programming in High School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses solving inequality problems involving linear programing. Describes the usual and alternative approaches. Presents an intuitive approach for finding a feasible solution by maximizing the objective function. (YP)

Ulep, Soledad A.

1990-01-01

466

New approaches to psychiatric diagnostic classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent findings in psychiatric genetics have crystallized concerns that diagnostic categories used in the clinic map poorly onto the underlying biology. If we are to harness developments in genetics and neuroscience to understand disease mechanisms and develop new treatments, we need new approaches to patient stratification that recognize the complexity and continuous nature of psychiatric traits and that are not constrained by current categorical approaches. Recognizing this, the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) has developed a novel framework to encourage more research of this kind. The implications of these recent findings and funding policy developments for neuroscience research are considerable. PMID:25442935

Owen, Michael J

2014-11-01

467

A new approach to PLC software design.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a model-based approach to PLC software development. The essence of this approach is the introduction of a new procedural modeling language called ProcGraph. In contrast to commonly used methods, ProcGraph deals with the procedural aspect of the control system and allows software specification at a higher level of abstraction. The modeling language has been supported with the development of a software tool which facilitates graphical model design and automatic code generation. The specification notation has been tested in the development of software for industrial applications. The supporting tool has been tested in a laboratory environment. PMID:12708546

Kandare, Gregor; Godena, Giovanni; Strmcnik, Stanko

2003-04-01

468

Text Classification: A Sequential Reading Approach  

CERN Document Server

We propose to model the text classification process as a sequential decision process. In this process, an agent learns to classify documents into topics while reading the document sentences sequentially and learns to stop as soon as enough information was read for deciding. The proposed algorithm is based on a modelisation of Text Classification as a Markov Decision Process and learns by using Reinforcement Learning. Experiments on four different classical mono-label corpora show that the proposed approach performs comparably to classical SVM approaches for large training sets, and better for small training sets. In addition, the model automatically adapts its reading process to the quantity of training information provided.

Dulac-Arnold, Gabriel; Gallinari, Patrick

2011-01-01

469

The multidisciplinary approach to mood disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article outlines the use of the multidisciplinary approach to mood disorders in the Short Stay Psychiatric Unit (SSPU) in Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta. An audit was carried out on all patients whose first admission to SSPU was in 2008 and who were diagnosed with having a mood disorder. The aim was to see whether the use of a multidisciplinary approach is in actual fact affecting patient outcome or not. The latter was measured by recording whether the patients needed any further admission and if this was the case, the length in days leading to their 2nd admission. PMID:25413544

Aquilina, Francesca Falzon; Agius, Mark; Sharma, Kriti; Grech, Anton

2014-11-01

470

Alternative approach to nuclear data representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, we examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self-contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation

471

Silverlight recipes a problem solution-approach  

CERN Document Server

Silverlight 3 Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach is your practical companion to developing rich, interactive web applications with Microsoft's latest technology. This book tackles common problems and scenarios that on-the-job developers face every day by revealing code and detailed solutions. You'll quickly be able to integrate real-world, functioning code into your applications--and save hours of coding time. The recipes included in Silverlight 3 Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach have been carefully selected and tested with the professional developer in mind. You'll find problems stated

Ghosh, J

2009-01-01

472

Reasoning about Action: An Argumentation - Theoretic Approach  

CERN Document Server

We present a uniform non-monotonic solution to the problems of reasoning about action on the basis of an argumentation-theoretic approach. Our theory is provably correct relative to a sensible minimisation policy introduced on top of a temporal propositional logic. Sophisticated problem domains can be formalised in our framework. As much attention of researchers in the field has been paid to the traditional and basic problems in reasoning about actions such as the frame, the qualification and the ramification problems, approaches to these problems within our formalisation lie at heart of the expositions presented in this paper.

Foo, N Y; 10.1613/jair.1602

2011-01-01

473

Path Integral Approach to Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Document Server

We consider Feynman's path integral approach to quantum mechanics with a noncommutativity in position and momentum sectors of the phase space. We show that a quantum-mechanical system with this kind of noncommutativity is equivalent to the another one with usual commutative coordinates and momenta. We found connection between quadratic classical Hamiltonians, as well as Lagrangians, in their commutative and noncommutative regimes. The general procedure to compute Feynman's path integral on this noncommutative phase space with quadratic Lagrangians (Hamiltonians) is presented. Using this approach, a particle in a constant field, ordinary and inverted harmonic oscillators are elaborated in detail.

Dragovich, B; Dragovich, Branko; Rakic, Zoran

2004-01-01

474

Preventing SQL Injection Attacks Using Combinatorial Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SQL injection is a hazard to web applications, whichgives attackers unrestricted access to the database. The attackerthereby can supply malicious or corrupted input thatcompromises an application. This leads to destruction of thesecurity and the privacy of the users. To avoid this scenario,combinatorial approach is used for protecting Web applicationagainst SQL injection. Novel methods of protecting the webapplications against the SQL injection are available such aspositive tainting, signature based etc. Here Web ApplicationSQL-injection Preventer (WASP tool is used to prevent the SQLinjection. Further the WASP tool is modified by implementingthe proposed approach which is an enhancement to this tool.

Dimple D. Raikar , Sharada Kulkarni ,Padma Dandannavar.

2012-10-01

475

THE LOVING SEPARATION: A PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we approach the decurrent suffering of the loving separation from the theoretical referencial of the Freud’s psychoanalysis. They had been argued, initially, the mechanisms that direct the individual in the choice of a loving object while I will choose narcísica, beyond presenting some considerações on the loving passion, emphasizing its desmedida character of. After that, we deal with the reaction human being front to the loss of a love object. Finally, we approach the attempts of the Ego to surpass the suffering unchained for the separation.

Elen de Paula Ferreira

2010-07-01

476

High Performance Network Security Using NIDS Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ever increasing demand of good quality communication relies heavily on Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS. Intrusion detection for network security demands high performance. This paper gives a description of the available approaches for a network intrusion detection system in both software and hardware implementation. This paper gives a description of the structure of Snort rule set which is a very popular software signature and anomaly based Intrusion Detection and prevention system. This paper also discusses the merit of FPGA devices to be used in network intrusion detection system implementation and the approaches used in hardware implementation of NIDS.

Sutapa Sarkar

2014-06-01

477

ANOVA and ANCOVA A GLM Approach  

CERN Document Server

Provides an in-depth treatment of ANOVA and ANCOVA techniques from a linear model perspective ANOVA and ANCOVA: A GLM Approach provides a contemporary look at the general linear model (GLM) approach to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of one- and two-factor psychological experiments. With its organized and comprehensive presentation, the book successfully guides readers through conventional statistical concepts and how to interpret them in GLM terms, treating the main single- and multi-factor designs as they relate to ANOVA and ANCOVA. The book begins with a brief history of the separate dev

Rutherford, Andrew

2012-01-01

478

Wine Tourism: A Serious Leisure Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today wine tourism is emerging as an important component of rural diversification in North Carolina. Using Stebbins’ (1992 model of serious leisure as a guideline, the purpose of this study is to explore how wine tourism may be viewed as a type of serious leisure and to suggest a conceptual approach to the study of wine consumers in order to develop effective wine marketing strategies for local wineries in North Carolina. In addition, this study suggests an approach that small North Carolina wineries might use to identify various types of winery visitors and better position their products.   

Carroll A. Brown

2011-01-01

479

Guessing Revisited: A Large Deviations Approach  

CERN Document Server

The problem of guessing a random string is revisited. A close relation between guessing and compression is first established. Then it is shown that if the sequence of distributions of the information spectrum satisfies the large deviation property with a certain rate function, then the limiting guessing exponent exists and is a scalar multiple of the Legendre-Fenchel dual of the rate function. Other sufficient conditions related to certain continuity properties of the information spectrum are briefly discussed. This approach highlights the importance of the information spectrum in determining the limiting guessing exponent. All known prior results are then re-derived as example applications of our unifying approach.

Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar

2010-01-01

480

Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance matrix dynamics. Our empirical results show that the new mixing approach provides superior forecasts compared to multivariate volatility specifications using single sources of information.

Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

2011-01-01

481

The Scattering Approach to the Casimir Force  

CERN Document Server

We present the scattering approach which is nowadays the best tool for describing the Casimir force in realistic experimental configurations. After reminders on the simple geometries of 1d space and specular scatterers in 3d space, we discuss the case of stationary arbitrarily shaped mirrors in electromagnetic vacuum. We then review specific calculations based on the scattering approach, dealing for example with the forces or torques between nanostructured surfaces and with the force between a plane and a sphere. In these various cases, we account for the material dependence of the forces, and show that the geometry dependence goes beyond the trivial {\\it Proximity Force Approximation} often used for discussing experiments.

Reynaud, S; Messina, R; Lambrecht, A; Neto, P A Maia

2010-01-01

482

A review of Spacelab mission management approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

Craft, H. G., Jr.

1979-01-01

483

Alternative Approach to Nuclear Data Representation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, they examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation.

Pruet, J; Brown, D; Beck, B; McNabb, D P

2005-07-27

484

Kinetics of Evaporation: Statistical Rate Theory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently there are three theoretical approaches to study evaporation: Continuum Mechanics, Classical Kinetic Theory, and recently Statistical Rate Theory (SRT. The assumptions being used and the predictions resulting from the first two methods have not been supported by experimental results which are in agreement with the SRT predictions. It seems that SRT can predict the conditions existing at the interface during evaporation better than other methods. This paper reviews some of the published evaporation studies, particularly evaporation rate, thermocapillary convection, and temperature discontinuity at the interface during evaporation and compares the results of different approaches.

Charles A. Ward

2005-03-01

485

System Identification A Frequency Domain Approach  

CERN Document Server

System identification is a general term used to describe mathematical tools and algorithms that build dynamical models from measured data. Used for prediction, control, physical interpretation, and the designing of any electrical systems, they are vital in the fields of electrical, mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering. Focusing mainly on frequency domain techniques, System Identification: A Frequency Domain Approach, Second Edition also studies in detail the similarities and differences with the classical time domain approach. It high??lights many of the important steps in the identi

Pintelon, Rik

2012-01-01

486

The Structural Approach and Default Risk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studied and developed credit risk models. Specifically, it focuses on the Merton model, its extensions model, and the way to survey new structural approach. Firstly, this paper has described the Merton model. And then, it has reviewed the first-passage model with more focus on default point. Finally, we considered the new structural approach which stressed that if the firm’s value passes the threshold level b, the firm’s value will continues unless the value process crosses and spends an exogenous quantity of time b ? below. We have used the Yildiray Yildirim model and ruin probability.

Arsalan Azamighaimasi

2012-12-01

487

New Approach of Preprocessing For Numeral Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper proposes a new approach of preprocessing for handwritten, printed and isolated numeral characters. The new approach reduces the size of the input image of each numeral by discarding the redundant information. This method reduces also the number of features of the attribute vector provided by the extraction features method. Numeral recognition is carried out in this work through k nearest neighbors and multilayer perceptron techniques. The simulations have obtained a good rate of recognition in fewer running time.

S. Benchaou

2014-07-01

488

A Combinatorial Enumeration Approach for Measuring Anonymity  

CERN Document Server

A recent paper of Edman et al. has taken a combinatorial approach to measuring the anonymity of a threshold mix anonymous communications system. Their paper looks at ways of matching individual messages sent to individual messages received, irrespective of user, and determines a measure of the anonymity provided by the system. Here we extend this approach to include in the calculation information about how many messages were sent or received by a user and we define a new metric that can be computed exactly and efficiently using classical and elegant techniques from combinatorial enumeration.

Grégoire, Jean-Charles

2009-01-01

489

Multimedia approach to education in photonics  

Science.gov (United States)

Photonics as other multidisciplinary fields needs a special educational approach. Our teaching innovation is based on the assumption that training the skill to solve problems in an independent way with the use of computer-assisted learning deepens the understanding of the subject. The advantages of such approach consist in the focus on significant aspects and the ability to rely on previously and newly acquired knowledge of different fields. In addition, students have the chance to practise technical presentation design with multimedia tools. Some examples of multimedia web techniques applications to the presentation of selected topics in Photonics education will be described.

Suchanska, Malgorzata; Belka, Radoslaw; Ciosmak, Jozef