WorldWideScience
 
 
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Takeuchi. Nuevo híbrido de Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) para Cuba / Takeuchi. New cuban hybrid of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los Dendrobium forman parte de las orquídeas más cultivadas de todo el mundo; varios cultivares de este género son vendidos como flor de corte y se ubican en el cuarto lugar en ventas entre los productos de floricultura, después de las Palmáceas, Dracaena y Anthurium de corte. En este trabajo se pre [...] sentan las principales características de un nuevo cultivar de orquídea epífita, perteneciente al género Dendrobium. Takeuchi, es el resultado de la polinización manual cruzada realizada en el mes de enero del 2007 entre Dendrobium x superbiens (progenitor madre) y Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (progenitor padre); la primera floración se obtuvo en el mes de enero del 2012. Se encuentra registrado en la base de datos de la Sociedad Hortícola Real de Inglaterra, autoridad internacional encargada del registro de cultivares híbridos de orquídeas. Este nuevo híbrido posee un alto potencial ornamental y estético. Abstract in english The Dendrobium are among the most cultivated orchids worldwide; they are sold as cut flowers and are ranked in the fourth place in sales among floricultural products, after Palms, Dracaena and Anthurium for cut. This paper presents the main characteristics of a new cultivar of epiphytic orchids, bel [...] onging to the genus Dendrobium. Takeuchi becomes from the cross pollination, in January 2007, between Dendrobium x superbiens (female parent) and Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (male parent). The first flowering occurred in January 2012. This hybrid is registered in the database of the Royal Horticultural Society of England, international cultivar registration authority for orchid hybrids. This new hybrid has a high ornamental and esthetic potential.

Lorenzo, Suárez Guerra; María M, Hernández Espinosa; Georvis, Téllez Beltrán.

2013-12-01

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Análise da técnica de takeuchi usada para o tratamento da origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar / Analysis of the takeuchi procedure for the treatment of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Avaliação dos casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi, analisando o resultado cirúrgico imediato e tardio e a morbidade destes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Relato uma série de casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerd [...] a do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi. Métodos: Realizou-se a análise com coleta de dados dos prontuários de doze pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica no período de 1981 a 2003. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 5,9 ± 1,7 meses. A clínica preponderante foi insuficiência cardíaca, principalmente nos lactentes. O eletrocardiograma inicial em dez casos mostrou onda Q em DI e aVL e sinais de isquemia miocárdica. No ecocardiograma, observaram-se padrão de miocardiopatia dilatada em seis pacientes e insuficiência mitral. A idade média da correção cirúrgica foi de 31,8 ± 14,3 meses. A mortalidade cirúrgica imediata foi de 16% (dois pacientes) por disfunção cardíaca. No acompanhamento ambulatorial, houve a melhora da sintomatologia e das alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma, retorno da função cardíaca e melhora da insuficiência mitral. Durante o acompanhamento, três casos evoluíram com estenose supravalvar pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: A suspeita clínica dessa cardiopatia deve ser feita em todo lactente com insuficiência cardíaca. A correção cirúrgica com o emprego da técnica de Takeuchi se mostra eficaz, com baixo índice de mortalidade. Após a correção, há um retorno à normalidade da função cardíaca e a melhora da insuficiência mitral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure, analyzing their immediate and late surgical outcomes as well as the related morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of anomalous origin of th [...] e left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure. METHODS: The analysis was based on data collected from the medical records of 12 patients undergoing surgical correction between 1981 and 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 5.9 ± 1.7 months. The predominant manifestation was heart failure, especially in the infants. The baseline electrocardiogram showed a Q wave in DI and aVL and signs of myocardial ischemia in ten cases. Echocardiogram with a pattern of dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation was found in six patients. The mean age at surgical correction was 31.8 ± 14.3 months. The immediate surgical mortality was 16% (two patients), from cardiac dysfunction. In the outpatient follow-up we observed that the symptoms, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, cardiac function and mitral regurgitation improved. Three cases progressed with supravalvar pulmonary stenosis during follow-up. CONCLUSION: This heart disease should be suspected in every infant presenting with heart failure. Surgical correction with the Takeuchi procedure has proven efficient, with a low mortality rate. Cardiac function returns to normal and mitral regurgitation improves after surgical correction.

Andrea Weirich, Lenzi; Leo, Solarewicz; Wanderley Saviollo, Ferreira; Fábio, Sallum; Nelson Itiro, Miyague.

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A Language to Enable Distributed Simulation of Extended Queueing Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distributed simulators are increasingly being used for their intrinsic advantages in terms of reusability, fault tolerance, performance, and geographic distribution. The development of a distributed simulator, however, requires significant investments in terms of effort if compared to the development of traditional local simulators. This paper introduces jEQN, a Java-based language that significantly reduces the extra effort needed to develop a distributed simulator of extended queueing networks (EQNs, by enabling simulator developers to build distributed simulators as they were to be locally executed. By use of jEQN, simulator developers are enabled to easily switch from a local to a distributed version of an EQN simulator by only modifying few statements of the given local simulator. Moreover, these statements can be easily inferred by a very intuitive graphical procedure. The paper illustrates both the jEQN architecture, based on a layered approach, and the implementation details that contribute to achieve the above mentioned advantages.

Daniele Gianni

2007-06-01

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Charged Particle in a Time-dependent Electric Field: A White Noise Functional Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The propagator for a charged particle in a time-dependent electric field is calculated following Hida and Streit's framework where the propagator is the T-transform of Feynman functional. However, we have to regard the potential V = -qE(?)x??((m/(?/2?)))?x following C. C. Bernido and M. V. Carpio-Bernido's prescription of time-dependent potentials. The result agrees with the limiting form of Eqn. (16) of N. Morgenstern Horing, H. L. Cui, and G. Fiorenza, when the magnetic field is switched off, and Eqn. (17) of [3] when the electric field is constant in time

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The S parameter for a Light Composite Higgs: a Dispersion Relation Approach  

CERN Document Server

We derive a dispersion relation for the S parameter in the SO(5)/SO(4) Minimal Composite Higgs model. This generalizes the Peskin-Takeuchi formula to the case when a light Higgs boson is present in the spectrum. Our result combines an IR effect due to the reduction in the Higgs boson couplings with a UV contribution from the strong sector. It also includes a finite matching term, achieving a very good relative accuracy O(m_h/m_\\rho). We apply our formula in several toy examples, modeling the UV spectral density via Vector Meson Dominance.

Orgogozo, Axel

2013-01-01

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Educational approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three papers were presented in the session focusing on educational approaches: Anu Narusk reported on an Estonian study on the influence of the family on adolescents' substance use, Bernadette Roussille presented a French mass media campaign aimed at reducing heavy drinking by young people, and Sally Casswell analysed the public discourse on alcohol, which is an important part of the social and political context in which decisions are taken about public policies. Each of the papers highlighted in its own way the complex relationships between people's behaviour, its social and cultural context, and the wider economic and political environment. PMID:9167298

Montonen, M

1997-03-01

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Nuclear knowledge preservation of Atucha type Reactor: Practical approaches and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The nuclear option is born in Argentina in 1950. Since then and after half century, the Argentine nuclear sector reaches a hierarchy and an important technological - scientific dimension in all the issues related to activities linked to the nuclear sector. The export of research reactors, the nuclear fuel production and the installation of nucleoelectrical power stations constitute one of the most outstanding achievements of this activity. The Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, of Siemens-KWU technology with 30 years of operation and Embalse (Candu type) with 20 years of operation, register an efficient and safe performance, within the worldwide standards. In addition, and with Siemens technology the Atucha II NPP is in construction with a 82% of work advance. At the moment Siemens, has transferred his place as designer of reactors LWR to the Framatom ANP Company and consequently Argentina will have to make all the efforts to assure the 'knowledge preservation' of the technology of this line of reactors, if it hopes that Atucha I extends its useful life and Atucha II is finalized. Likewise the aging of the personnel in the sector is worrisome being numerous the great number of people who are close to retire what it worsens if we think that there are a few young people able in this specialty by the lack of the entrance of candidates in compatible races This situation generated the necessity to implement a system of Knowledge Management to capture and to capitalizdge Management to capture and to capitalize the tacit and explicit knowledge, to spread it and to share by using techniques and tools adapted through the organization. Practical Approaches and Lessons Learned: A - Analysis of the strategy: The strategy was based on recognizing the critical knowledge by means of the use of a methodology that incorporates the technique of the map of the critical knowledge. That is to say, to recognize the patrimony of the knowledge around the reactor. The layout of the knowledge map of reactor together with the systematic analysis of criticalities generated the architecture of the taxonomies of reactor Atucha type behavior as also it allowed to carried out its own actions of the knowledge management from the diagnosis of the it where proposals and actions arise destined to reduce the criticality and to put into operation the different processes system. (Cycle of Nonaka and Takeuchi) B. - Technical of development and its disadvantages: Factors of analysis How to restore a new methodology that requires of the application of techniques for personal and group interviews. It is essential to consider this time at the time of project planning. The project demands much interaction with experts of different profiles and availability of their time because it involves to all the nuclear sector and the complete service life of the Reactor (project, design, operation, decommissioning, dismantling). Effects of the operation state of plant in the accomplishment of different activities from the project The infrastructure of the ITC of different generations that coexist can force to generate migrations of information and to develop new additional tools. The limited HHRR, financial resources, the administrative circuits, the different corporative cultures that coexist and the critical knowledge that keeps in mind of people close to get their retirement, require of an exhaustive previous analysis to determine their influence in the criticality of the system. (author)

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Usage of Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method in Medical Research: An Alternative to Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The present paper was to reduce biased estimation using new approach (Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method in Logistic Regression. It was assumed in the present paper that four various data sets on coronary heart disease (CHD and smoking (including separation case were obtained. Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods were applied and compared for separation case including biased estimation in Logistic Regression when one of the cells in 2 x 2 contingency tables becomes equal to zero (separation problem.The values of parameters and their standard error obtained by using Maximum Likelihood estimation for four data sets were found approximately: 12.56±257.8, 13.46±264.3, 13.42±210.3, and 13.41±180.4, respectively, meaning that Maximum likelihood Estimations are biased estimates. However, corresponding values for Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method were found 2.28 ± 1.81, 3.05 ± 1.59, 3.45± 1.53, and 3.45 ± 1.53, respectively, meaning that Penalized Maximum likelihood Estimations was unbiased estimates. For example, it is clear that standard error value for data set 1 reduced from 257.8 to 1.81 when using Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method for separation problem. According to the original approach, the odds of being coronary heart disease (CHD risk for smoking were increased 21.08 times than that for no smoking in data set 2, which is statistically significant at 1% level. The odds of being coronary heart disease (CHD risk for smoking were increased 31.63 times than that for no smoking in data set 3 (P < 0.001. The odds of being coronary heart disease (CHD risk for smoking were increased 41.93 times than that for no smoking in data set 4.

When one of the cells in 2 x 2 contingency tables becomes equal to zero (separation problem, Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method was more superior to Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method because Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method may be performed unbiased (reliable estimation.

Ecevit Eyduran

2008-12-01

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Evaluating six soft approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

2006-01-01

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Evaluating Six Soft Approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

2008-01-01

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Implementation of Communicative Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to measure teachers’ classroom behavior indicate that the implementation of communicative approach in the classroom is rare. Although teachers claim to be following a communicative approach, in practice they seem to be following traditional approaches. The proposed study was undertaken to assess the existing situation with regard to the use of communicative approach in the teaching of English language at the secondary level in different schools of Delhi following the curriculum of Central Board of School Examination (CBSE, New Delhi. A Likert-type attitude scale was developed to understand the teachers attitudes towards the communicative approach.

Shazi Shah Jabeen

2014-07-01

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Approaches to Truancy Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

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SOFT OR APPROACHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an inquiry into the nature and characteristics of the so-called softapproaches in Operational Research (OR. After a first outline of soft approaches, six wellknownand widely applied soft approaches are selected for further study andcharacterisation applying a multi-dimensional framework. In addition, some reflexionsabout the limitations of such a framework are discussed.

René Victor Valqui Vidal

2005-04-01

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Modular Approach for Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

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The TLC Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

Welker, William A.

2002-01-01

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Project planning approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project planning approach utilized by Rockwell Hanford Operations in outdoor cleanup activities is discussed. The discussion addresses the rationale and requirements, as well as a description of the planning documents. In addition, a recommended adaptation of this approach toN a large-scale environmental cleanup process is described

17

New Approaches: Old Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses positive and negative aspects of teaching language use--the Communicative Approach. While the Communicative Approach is learner-centered and develops the students' communicative competence, the design and current tactics of this methodology are criticized as being "decontextualized" and "abstracted." (SL)

Murray, Ian

1983-01-01

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Life Span Developmental Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

Ali Eryilmaz

2011-03-01

19

Behavioral based safety approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approach towards the establishment of positive safety culture at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin includes the adoption of several important methodologies focused on human behavior and culminates with achievement of Total Safety Culture where Quality and Productivity are integrated with Safety

20

STUTTERING-PSYCHOLINGUISTIC APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the linguistic material. Thus, the conclusions of this research study offer the possibility of promoting cross-cultural and cross-linguistic researches, with the aim of obtaining data which can be generalized beyond national boundaries, in stuttering pathology.

Maria Anca

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Approachability in Population Games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reframes approachability theory within the context of population games. Thus, whilst one player aims at driving her average payoff to a predefined set, her opponent is not malevolent but rather extracted randomly from a population of individuals with given distribution on actions. First, convergence conditions are revisited based on the common prior on the population distribution, and we define the notion of \\emph{1st-moment approachability}. Second, we develop a ...

Bauso, Dario; Norman, Thomas W. L.

2014-01-01

22

Theoretical Approaches to Coping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

Sofia Zyga

2013-01-01

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Technical approach document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

24

Direct approach to partial algebraization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an alternative approach to the method of partial algebraization. This approach does not make any use of Lie symmetries. All Quasi-Exactly-Solvable (QES) problems, can also be constructed in this approach

25

New approach to GUTs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We introduce a new string-inspired approach to the subject of grand unification which allows the GUT scale to be small, < or similar 200 TeV, so that it is within the reach of conceivable laboratory accelerated colliding beam devices. The key ingredient is a novel use of the heterotic string symmetry group physics ideas to render baryon number violating effects small enough to have escaped detection to date. This part of the approach involves new unknown parameters to be tested experimentally. A possible hint at the existence of these new parameters may already exist in the EW precision data comparisons with the SM expectations. (orig.)

26

Approaches to acceptable risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

Whipple, C.

1997-04-30

27

Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

2009-01-01

28

Approaches to acceptable risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

29

RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

Indraveer Singh

2010-05-01

30

Approaches to Individualized Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the focus now on career education as a catalyst for producing self-sufficient and personally self-fulfilled human beings, efforts are being made to develop teaching techniques which will produce effective learning in the great percentage of the student body enrolled. This document explores some of the more widely used approaches to…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

31

Leadership: The Indirect Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the essay is to examine the advantages, and results of the indirect approach in leadership. The evolution of this concept from earliest times is briefly traced. The changes with regard to the function of the leader, caused by the technologi...

R. F. Pfaff

1970-01-01

32

Thematic curriculum approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teaching. However, it did not prove to be suitable for planning the majority of activities in thematic curriculum, for it follows with difficulty the process of exploring or storytelling i.e. it disrupts the subject matter coherence of thematic curriculum. Therefore, it is suggested that matrix should be used for disciplinary curriculum planning but for that of thematic curriculum only in exclusive cases. The matrix should be used primarily as a framework for evaluating the distribution of various types of abilities and problem situations in teaching. The logic of diverse approaches to teaching reflects itself in the manner of planning and organizing the teaching process. Conceptual, visual-graphic, structural and other aids employed during educational process planning should suit the nature of the approach chosen. On the basis of qualitative investigations of educational process, in the present paper considerations are given to various approaches to teaching development of various drafts for the planning of teaching, and recognition of the logic of storytelling and exploring in thematic curriculum.

Šefer Jasmina P.

2003-01-01

33

The Knowledge Governance Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge represents various challenges to more `closed' social science disciplines, notably economics.

2005-01-01

34

Thermodynamics an engineering approach  

CERN Document Server

Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

Cengel, Yunus A

2014-01-01

35

Communicative Approach: Some Misapprehensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Though Communicative Language Teaching (CLT is acknowledged by the National Curriculum & Textbook Board (NCTB and many English teachers as one of the most effective approaches in English language teaching in Bangladesh, there are still a number of misapprehensions about it. By comparing Johnstone; Sato and Kleinsasser and Thompson as well as Spada, this article focuses on four of the main misapprehensions, which are usually held by the language teachers and researchers.

Mohammad Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

36

Approaches to Improving Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses a few issues related to teaching improvement that are commonly found in tertiary education, such as curriculum development, student engagement, and ethical considerations. Scholars research on resolving these issues are investigated. Corresponding approaches to improving teaching of a year one information technology unit are proposed and experience is shared. The importance of teaching scholarship is also emphasized at the end of this paper.

Shang Gao

2013-08-01

37

Hysterectomy – Which Approach?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hysterectomy operation is frequently performed on women. In the era of minimal invasive surgery, the route of hysterectomy depends upon numerous clinical variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate & suggest the appropriate approach for hysterectomy. A total of 250 patients were included in the presents study; they were divided, into three categories: Category I included 50 patients of Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) for Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH), Category II included 40 patient...

V. Mahasani,; R. Suchdeva,; Aggarwal, A.

2014-01-01

38

Thematic curriculum approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teac...

Šefer Jasmina P.

2003-01-01

39

[A dynamic neuropsychological approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are at least two approaches in evaluating neuropsychological patients. One is to analyze negative symptoms and find a correlation between a damaged brain lesion and a lost function. The other is to focus on the nature of positive symptoms and find a principle ruling a behavioral change caused by a lesion. Although both approaches are equally important, I focused on the latter approach in this symposium. Two syndromes, i.e. forced manipulation of tools and hyperlexia are interpreted in terms of the rivalry between the top-down process of inhibition and bottom-up process of stimulus processing, resulting in the predominance of the latter. Two other symptoms, i.e. misperception in a case of associative visual agnosia and habitual behavior in a frontal damaged-dementia are interpreted in the same terms, but resulting in the predominance of the top-down process. These syndromes clearly illustrate that the behavior is organized on the dynamic balance between the information generated internally and the one coming in from the environment. PMID:11464476

Yamadori, A

2000-12-01

40

Reclassification of Sphingobacterium antarcticum Shivaji et al. 1992 as Pedobacter antarcticus comb. nov. and Pedobacter piscium (Takeuchi and Yokota 1993) Steyn et al. 1998 as a later heterotypic synonym of Pedobacter antarcticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomic position of Sphingobacterium antarcticum has been revised by means of 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. All data previously reported, as well as the results of the present phylogenetic analysis, support that Sphingobacterium antarcticum is clearly a member of the genus Pedobacter, also affiliated with the family Sphingobacteriaceae. We propose that Sphingobacterium antarcticum (corrig. Shivaji et al. 1992) should be reclassified as Pedobacter antarcticus comb. nov. PMID:24425810

Farfán, Maribel; Montes, María Jesús; Marqués, Ana M

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal peritonitis emergencies.

Agresta Ferdinando

2006-03-01

42

HEDR modeling approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report details the conceptual approaches to be used in calculating radiation doses to individuals throughout the various periods of operations at the Hanford Site. The report considers the major environmental transport pathways--atmospheric, surface water, and ground water--and projects and appropriate modeling technique for each. The modeling sequence chosen for each pathway depends on the available data on doses, the degree of confidence justified by such existing data, and the level of sophistication deemed appropriate for the particular pathway and time period being considered

43

Approaches to Numerical Relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23. Self-gravitating thin disks around rotating black holes A. Lanza; 24. An ADI and causal reconnection Gabrielle D. Allen and Bernard F. Schutz; 25. Time-symmetric ADI and causal reconnection Miguel Alcubierre and Bernard F. Schutz; 26. The numerical study of topological defects E. P. S. Shellard; 27. Computations of bubble growth during the cosmological quark-hadron transition J. C. Miller and O. Pantano; 28. Initial data of axisymmetric gravitational waves with a cosmological constant Ken-Ichi Nakao, Kei-Ichi Maeda, Takashi Nakamura and Ken-Ichi Oohara.

d'Inverno, Ray

2005-07-01

44

The collaboratory approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

45

Craniopharyngioma - Transnasal Endoscopic Approach  

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Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumours arising from remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and occupy the sellar region. The patients may remain asymptomatic for long duration or present with headache or visual disturbances. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Traditionally these tumours have been removed by neurosurgeons through the cranial approach but the advent of nasal endoscopes has opened new avenues for ENT surgeons to treat such patients. We hereby present a case of craniopharyngioma who was successfully treated by Trans-nasal Hypophysectomy.

Sanjeev Bhagat,

2011-01-01

46

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????: ??????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????-????????????????, ?????????????????. ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-07-01

47

The collaboratory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A open-quotes collaboratoryclose quotes has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students

48

Combined approach brings success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen months ago, according to Trumpf Medical Systems, which managed the project, 'something out of the ordinary' happened at Leighton Hospital in Crewe. When making plans to upgrade ageing operating theatres and critical care units, the estates department took the decision to involve other disciplines from the very start of the process. Clinicians, nursing staff, architects, patient representatives, and suppliers, all played their part, with the estates team always at the hub. As Oliver Law, managing director of the UK medical technology specialist, explains, this multidisciplinary approach had a profound effect on the outcome. PMID:25004555

Law, Oliver

2014-06-01

49

Approaching Service Innovation Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard service innovation as a standout type of innovation.

Andrea NAGY

2013-06-01

50

Inventory Management : Forecast Based Approach vs. Standard Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we provide a literature review on inventory management policies. Two approaches are distinguished : the standard inventory management approach and the advance demand information based approach. We focus on the advance demand information based approach. In particular, we study a pure single-stage and single-item inventory system where demand is given in the form of forecasts. Two forecast based inventory management policies are proposed, namely : the (rk,Q) which is a dynamic re...

Dallery, Y.; Babai, Z.

2005-01-01

51

Endoscopic approach to achalasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES. Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia.

Michaela Müller

2013-01-01

52

Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine-needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

Andreas Weber, Roland M Schmid, Christian Prinz

2008-07-01

53

Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

2011-01-01

54

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Science.gov (United States)

... you were using metal/metal. What is your thinking there? I have been anxiously waiting for some ... anterior approach and going from, initially, the direct lateral approach -- it doesn’t want to sit down ...

55

Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme of missing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a word of cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover and stego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded character determines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach ...

Monika Agarwal

2013-01-01

56

Proteomics - new analytical approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Recent developments in the sequencing of the human genome have indicated that the number of coding gene sequences may be as few as 30,000. It is clear, however, that the complexity of the human species is dependent on the much greater diversity of the corresponding protein complement. Estimates of the diversity (discrete protein species) of the human proteome range from 200,000 to 300,000 at the lower end to 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 at the high end. In addition, proteomics (the study of the protein complement to the genome) has been subdivided into two main approaches. Global proteomics refers to a high throughput examination of the full protein set present in a cell under a given environmental condition. Focused proteomics refers to a more detailed study of a restricted set of proteins that are related to a specified biochemical pathway or subcellular structure. While many of the advances in proteomics will be based on the sequencing of the human genome, de novo characterization of protein microheterogeneity (glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation as well as the incorporation of lipid components) will be required in disease studies. To characterize these modifications it is necessary to digest the protein mixture with an enzyme to produce the corresponding mixture of peptides. In a process analogous to sequencing of the genome, shot-gun sequencing of the proteome is based on the characterization of the key fragments produced by such a digest. Thus, a glycopeptide and hence a specific glycosylation motif will be identified by a unique mass and then a diagnostic MS/MS spectrum. Mass spectrometry will be the preferred detector in these applications because of the unparalleled information content provided by one or more dimensions of mass measurement. In addition, highly efficient separation processes are an absolute requirement for advanced proteomic studies. For example, a combination of the orthogonal approaches, HPLC and HPCE, can be very powerful for high resolution peptide mapping (hydrophobicity and ionic charge). This presentation will describe the development of new instrumentation based on the combination of capillary-based separation systems, including reversed phase and ion exchange HPLC integrated with on-line mass spectrometry. This approach can be used for stand-alone shot-gun sequencing or integrated with 2D-gel proteomic studies. Examples will include global studies such as the yeast proteome and focused studies on selected protein extracts such as secreted and nuclear proteins from mammalian cells

57

Direct Approach to Partial Algebraization  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an alternative approach to the method of partial algebraization. This approach does not make any use of Lie symmetries. All Quasi-Exactly-Solvable (QES) problems, constructed by the method presented in Refs. 1-3, can also be constructed in this approach.

Paz, Uzi

58

Bioengineering a conceptual approach  

CERN Document Server

This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

Pavlovic, Mirjana

2015-01-01

59

Novel approaches on epigenetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epigenetic changes occurring during the development of organisms can be altered by the presence of synthetic substances in the environment, resulting in developmental reprogramming and disease. The occurrence of such changes supports the theory that diseases might be cured by altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, either directly by modifying the control of the misregulated genes that cause a disease, or indirectly by 'reprogramming' cells toward a 'normal' gene expression pattern. Launched drugs that inhibit DNA methyltransferases or histone deacetylases and lead to epigenetic changes are currently in use for the treatment of cancer. In addition, recent advancements in the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in tumor development and neurodisorders have enabled new approaches for the development of specific epigenetic therapies. PMID:19333872

Papait, Roberto; Monti, Elena; Bonapace, Ian M

2009-03-01

60

Extended Variational Cluster Approach  

CERN Document Server

The variational cluster approach (VCA) proposed by M. Potthoff {\\it et al.} is extended to electron or spin systems with non-local interactions. By introducing more than one source fields in the action and employing the Legendre transformation, we derive a generalized self-energy functional with stationary properties. Applying this functional to a proper reference system, we construct the extended VCA (EVCA). In the limit of continuous degrees of freedom for the reference system, EVCA can recover the cluster extension of the extended dynamical mean field theory (EDMFT). For system wth correlated hopping, EVCA recovers the cluster extension of the dynamical mean field theory for correlated hopping (DMFTCH). Using a 3-site discrete reference system, we test the theory for the extended Hubbard model. Quantitatively good results as compared with EDMFT are obtained. We also propose VCA (EVCA) based on clusters with periodic boundary conditions. It has the (extended) dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) as the con...

Tong, N H

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Local approach to cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A local approach to cosmology is developed in which it is attempted to understand, from strictly local considerations, the principal observable properties of homogeneous cosmological models. The local line element is obtained for some simple general-relativistic models. The optical appearance of distant objects, number counts, and the effects of local inhomogeneities on such observations are discussed in the isotropic case. The concept of the partitioned universe, in which physical conditions are mimicked by conditions inside a small, expanding cell with perfectly reflecting walls, is developed as a tool for simplifying the discussion of the background radiation, Olbers' paradox, the temperature and physical state of the cosmological fluid, entropy generation, and the effects of anisotropic expansion. This treatment reveals a possible error in Weinberg's (1971) discussion of bulk viscosity and entropy generation in the early universe

62

Neuroblastoma: A neurochemical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neuroblastoma is among the most common malignancies of childhood. Despite greatly improved therapy for some pediatric tumors, the prognosis for children with metastatic neuroblastoma has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. With conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, children with metastatic neuroblastoma have a 20% long-term survival rate. The authors describe here approaches to neuroblastoma that target its neuronal characteristics. On the one hand, the neurotransmitter receptors on the surface of the neuroblastoma cells and, on the other hand, specific isozymes that distinguish neuroblastoma cells from their normal counterparts are the focus of these experimental therapies. In the former case, specificity for tumor cells is effected by (1) selective protection of normal neuronal elements from toxicity, or (2) selective potentiation of toxicity for neural tumor cells. It is hoped that these strategies will be generalizable to other neural crest-derived tumors. 32 references

63

Approaching attometer laser vibrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz

2014-05-01

64

Approach to team skills training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US commercial nuclear power industry has recognized the importance of team skills in control room operation. The desire to combine training of team interaction skills, like communications, with technical knowledge of reactor operations requires a unique approach to training. An NRC-sponsored study identified a five-phase approach to team skills training designed to be consistent with the systems approach to training currently endorsed by the NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. This paper describes an approach to team skills training with emphasis on the nuclear power plant control room crew. An approach to team skills training

65

A different approach to logic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper is about an approach to logic that differs from the standard first-order logic and other known approaches. It should be a new approach the author has created proposing to obtain a general and unifying approach to logic and a faithful model of human mathematical deductive process. We list the most relevant features of the system. In first-order logic there exist two different concepts of term and formula, in place of these two concepts in our approach we have just o...

Avon, Mauro

2011-01-01

66

Diagnostic approach of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease that causes serious health problems, resulting in morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly, but even at younger age. It concerns all the developed countries including Greece and raises causes socio-economic consequences.The aim of present study was to review the existing literature regarding the contemporaneous methods in diagnosis of osteoporosis.The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relation between diagnosis and osteoporosis.Results: The majority of research studies showed that the most important risk factor for osteoporosis is the increased loss of bone mass, as age is progressing, which in women, usually starts during menopause. This, fact in conjuction with the longer life expectancy of women, explains the growing prevalence of osteoporosis in women compared to men. Other relevant studies have shown that this metabolic disease is related to high risk for bone fractures. The prevention of osteoporosis requires optimization of leading bone density during childhood and adolescence, early detection of increased bone loss in postmenopausal critical period and education of patients being at high risk.Conclusions: The number of candidate osteoporotic patients is high, as well as the final number of individuals who will suffer from the consequences of the disease. The assessment and prevention of osteoporosis requires overall approach of the disease and highlights the need of training the population, factors that, significantly contribute to the control of the disease.

Evangelos Giavasopoulos

2010-04-01

67

Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of evidence from postmortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in humans and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction from oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology, and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-coactivator and sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Beal, M Flint

2008-12-01

68

Radiolab - three different approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lønstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists: Don Ihde, whose notion of ‘voice’ is understood in a more general sense as the voices of all things, and Lawrence Ferrara, who methodologically operates within tree levels of investigation: 1 the syntax, 2 the semantic and 3 the ontology level. Accordingly, this analysis is conducted, as if the sound object was performed by a vocal ensemble oscillating ‘between a musical and a speech act’. Torben Sangild’s paper focuses on the concrete function of the sound object as a radio signature. This prompts a generic analysis and a semantic model of radio signatures in general, eclectically employing formal, indexical, gestural, discursive and contextual levels of meaning. The analysis of the Radiolab signature focuses on the overall gesture of tension and release as well as the semantic elements in a constellation with the content and style of the radio programme. After the three individual contributions, a brief summary and conclusion will follow, answering any questions that may arise in the process.

Ola Stockfelt

2012-04-01

69

Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1? axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an importan

Valero, Teresa

2014-01-01

70

Morgagni hernia - laparoscopic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morgagni hernia is due to a diaphragmatic defect, retrosternal congenital hernia being a rare form of hernie. The diagnosis is usually in childhood but there are cases that are found in adult or as a intraoperative surprise. The condition is asymptomatic or has nonspecific clinical manifestations or clinical dressing of often occlusive complications. The diagnosis is established by Rx thoracic imaging, barium enema or computed tomography (CT eso-gastro-duodenal passage. Treatment consists of reducing the hernia with or without dissection and resection of the hernia sac and diaphragmatic defect closure by suture the fascia endotoracica retrosternal and retrocostala or rectus abdominis sheath or plastic bag. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 49 years old woman admitted in our department for an insidious onset, several months ago, with postprandial upper abdominal pain, flatulence and nausea. CT scan revealed a mass of 95 / 130 / 80 mm, narrowly defined with homogeneous structure and negative densities (fat in the lower and middle mediastinum, outlining opacity described in cardiofrenic sinus radiography. The aspect was characteristic for a Morgagni hiatus hernia. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed using a 30º laparoscope inserted through a 10 mm supraombilical trocar; it revealed the parietal defect (Morgagni hernia and the herniation of greater omentum. Two additional 5 mm trocars are then inserted; the escaped great omentum was reintegrated and the parietal defect was laparoscopically sutured. To note, the peritoneal hernia sac was abandoned. Postoperative course was uneventful. A review of the literature data was also performed. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive surgery is feasible, safe and tends to become “gold standard” therapeutic approach for the treatment of Morgagni hernia.

?t.O. Georgescu

2013-09-01

71

Narrative Communication. A Peircean Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[Abstract] This paper examines how narrative can function as medium of communication. There are various approaches to the study of narrative. Recent approaches have become more concerned with cognition and context than with narrative structure itself. These approaches provide enquirers with a view of narrative as potential medium for communication between the storyteller and the addressee. Particularly insofar as the concept of communication involves context, as well as a shared situation and...

Lee, Yunhee

2012-01-01

72

Exploring Innovation - A language approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

” Innovation Management is a complex task that requires improved methods to support the exploration of multiple innovation dimensions. We suggest firms to adopt a language inspired approach in order to improve existing methods. The language approach is supported by a graphical innovation profile that maps the innovation features and choices. The paper demonstrates the applications and perspectives of this approach with reference to a qualitative case study.”

Mabogunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

2014-01-01

73

Common Approaches in Critical Care  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Clinical Critical Care Information for Patients | | More Common Approaches in Critical Care Information for Patients Introduction General Information Common Illnesses of Critically Ill Patients ICU Devices and ...

74

Yukawa's approach and Dirac's approach to relativistic quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that Dirac's ''Poisson bracket'' approach to relativistic quantum mechanics is equivalent to the wave function approach which was originally suggested by Yukawa. It is pointed out that this circumstance is very similar to the case of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in which Heisenberg's commutator formalism is equivalent to the algorithm based on the Schroedinger equation. (author)

75

Material Modelling - Composite Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is part of a research project on "Control of Early Age Cracking" - which, in turn, is part of the major research programme, "High Performance Concrete - The Contractor's Technology (HETEK)", coordinated by the Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1997.A composite-rheological model of concrete is presented by which consistent predictions of creep, relaxation, and internal stresses can be made from known concrete composition, age at loading, and climatic conditions. No other existing "creep prediction method" offers these possibilities in one approach.The model is successfully justified comparing predicted results with experimental data obtained in the HETEK-project on creep, relaxation, and shrinkage of very young concretes cured at a temperature of T = 20^o C and a relative humidity of RH = 100%. The model is also justified comparing predicted creep, shrinkage, and internal stresses caused by drying shrinkage with experimental results reported in the literature on the mechanical behavior of mature concretes. It is then concluded that the model presented applied in general with respect to age at loading.From a stress analysis point of view the most important finding in this report is that cement paste and concrete behave practically as linear-viscoelastic materials from an age of approximately 10 hours. This is a significant age extension relative to earlier studies in the literature where linear-viscoelastic behavior is only demonstrated from ages of a few days. Thus, linear-viscoelastic analysis methods are justified from the age of approximately 10 hours.The rheological properties of plain cement paste are determined. These properties are the principal material properties needed in any stress analysis of concrete. Shrinkage (autogeneous or drying) of mortar and concrete and associated internal stress states are examples of analysis made in this report. In this context is discussed that concrete strength is not an invariable material property. It is a property the potentials of which is highly and negatively influenced by any damage caused by stress concentrations such as introduced by eigenstrain/stress actions like shrinkage, temperature, and alkali-aggregate reactions.Based on the overall positive results reported it is suggested that creep functions needed in Finite Element Analysis (FEM-analysis) of structures can be established from computer-simulated experiments based on the model presented - calibrated by only a few real experiments.

Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

1997-01-01

76

Surgical approaches to the talus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical approaches to the talus should allow access for fracture fixation, resection of osteophytes, treatment of osteochondral lesions, removal of painful os trigonum, and resection of hindfoot coalitions. This article describes the specific approaches to these conditions as well the structures at risk during surgery. PMID:15498701

Weinfeld, Steven B

2004-12-01

77

Integrated approach for biofouling control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite extensive research efforts, past and present strategies to control biofouling problems in spiral-wound nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes have not been successful under all circumstances. Gaining insight in the biofouling process is a first necessity. Based on recent insights, an overview is given of 12 potential complementary approaches to solve biofouling. Combinations of approaches may be more efficient in biofouling control than a single approach. A single approach must be 100% effective, while in combination each individual approach can be partially effective while the combination is still efficient. An integrated Approach for Biofouling Control (ABC) is proposed, based on three corner stones: (i) equipment design and operation, (ii) biomass growth conditions, and (iii) cleaning agents as a framework to control biofouling. While past and present strategies addressed mainly membranes and microorganisms, i.e. removal or inactivation of biomass, this ABC-approach addresses the total membrane filtration system. It is anticipated that this integral approach will enable a more rational and effective control of biofouling. Although in this stage chemical cleaning and biofouling inhibitor dosage seem unavoidable to control biofouling, it is expected that in future--because of sustainability and costs reasons--membrane systems will be developed without or with minimal need for chemical cleaning and dosing. Three potential scenarios for biofouling control are proposed based on (i) biofouling tolerant spiral wound membrane systems, (ii) capillary membranes, and (iii) phosphate limitation. PMID:21099033

Vrouwenvelder, J S; Kruithof, J C; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

2010-01-01

78

Operations management approach to hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

An operations management systems approach can be a useful tool for coordinating and planning in a complex organization. The authors argue for adapting such an approach to health care from the manufacturing industries in order to facilitate strategy formulation, communication and implementation. PMID:10288543

Harvey, J; Duguay, C R

1988-06-01

79

Multicriteria approach for choice routes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are practical features of multi- criteria approach for solving the problem of optimal routing in a multiservice network in this article. For solve this problem in the theory of decision-making using the multi-criteria approach - a selection of some properties of objects (features), them evaluation and decision by results of the comparisons. Network model is chosen.

Bezruk, Valery; Varich, Vyacheslav

2012-01-01

80

Periareolar approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years advances in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have been aimed at reducing the number of video surgery ports, and especially major lung resections pose the greatest challenge. We describe a new minimally invasive as well as aesthetic approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy. The technique poses no difficulty for the surgeon and has certain advantages over other videothoracoscopic approaches. PMID:24694421

Cerezo Madueño, Francisco; Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Algar Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Trajectory and smooth attractors for Cahn–Hilliard equations with inertial term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is devoted to a modification of the classical Cahn–Hilliard equation proposed by some physicists. This modification is obtained by adding the second time derivative of the order parameter multiplied by an inertial coefficient ? > 0, which is usually small in comparison with the other physical constants. The main feature of this equation is the fact that even a globally bounded nonlinearity is 'supercritical' in the case of two and three space dimensions. Thus, the standard methods used for studying semilinear hyperbolic equations are not very effective in the present case. Nevertheless, we have recently proven the global existence and dissipativity of strong solutions in the 2D case (with a cubic controlled growth nonlinearity) and for the 3D case with small ? and arbitrary growth rate of the nonlinearity (see (Grasselli et al 2009 J. Evol. Eqns 9 371–404, Grasselli et al 2009 Commun. Partial Diff. Eqns 34 137–70)). The present contribution studies the long-time behaviour of rather weak (energy) solutions of that equation and it is a natural complement of the results of our previous papers (Grasselli et al 2009 J. Evol. Eqns 9 371–404, Grasselli et al 2009 Commun. Partial Diff. Eqns 34 137–70). In particular, we prove here that the attractors for energy and strong solutions coincide for both the cases mentioned above. Thus, the energy solutions are asymptotically smooth. In addition, we show that the non-smooth part of any energy solution decays exponentially in time and deduce that the (smooth) exponential attractor for the strong solutions constructed previously is simultaneously the exponential attractor for the energy solutions as well. It is worth noting that the uniqueness of energy solutions in the 3D case is not known yet, so we have to use the so-called trajectory approach which does not require uniqueness. Finally, we apply the obtained exponential regularization of the energy solutions for verifying the dissipativity of solutions of the 2D modified Cahn–Hilliard equation in the intermediate phase space of weak solutions (in between energy and strong solutions) without any restriction on ?

82

Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

83

MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of the managerial approach to public administration, starting from the distinction identified by some authors between management and administration. The paper has a twofold structure: in the first sections it provides a theoretical conceptual framework for approaching the issue of the managerial approach to public administration; in the following sections, the authors discuss the managerial approach with regard to the Romanian administrative sector. In the conclusion section, the paper tries to offer an answer to the question where do we stand as a country with regard to the implementation of the managerial approach in public administration. While some progress has been made, there are nonetheless steps that still need to be taken.

Cristina Maria MORA

2008-10-01

84

Lateral extracavitary approach to spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This paper describes the lateral extracavitary approach to the lumbar spine using the three­quarter prone position. Owing to unsatisfied results of the posterior approaches to spine in patients with the ventral compressive lesions, many ventral approaches as well as lateral extracavitary approach have been developed. Case Outline. A patient with tumor (chordoma of L3 vertebral body was operated on by means of ventral compression of cauda equina; the tumor had paraspinal propagation. Lateral extracavitary approach was used with a patient in three­quarter prone position, and corpectomy with the anterior stabilisation was performed followed by posterior transpedicular stabilisation through the same approach. Complete tumor removal and excellent neurological improvement were achieved. Conclusion. This approach provides safe ventral decompression of the spinal cord; it also enables the anterior and posterior instrumental stabilisation through the same incision and in the same position during the intervention. The three­quarter prone position allows excellent view of the dural sac.

Iveti? Dražen

2013-01-01

85

Vanpooling: the three major approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

Sears, P.M.

1979-08-01

86

Inelastic transport: a pseudoparticle approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss a pseudoparticle NEGF approach as a tool to describe transport in molecular junctions in the language of many-body states of the molecule. A method developed by Oh et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 205302] is applied to inelastic transport in the case of strong electron-vibron interaction. The approach can be seen as a generalization of the exact mapping developed by Bonca and Trugman [Phys. Rev. Lett., 1995, 75, 2566] which includes information on the Pauli exclusion principle and Fermi electron distribution in the leads. Within simple model calculations of inelastic transport in junctions, we compare the pseudoparticle approach to other approximate NEGF schemes. PMID:22797677

White, Alexander J; Galperin, Michael

2012-10-28

87

A Biosemiotic Approach to Health  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By replacing the traditional chemical approach to the understanding of body function by a sign-theoretic or semiotic approach, biosemiotics enters a no-man’s-land between biological and social domains of human life. The aim is not to subsume the social under the biological or vice versa; both approaches are invaluable. The aim is to find a common platform that serves in treating human persons as undivided wholes. Since semiosis (viz. the meaningful interpretation of cues, signals, events or states) is vital to communication at both levels, the resulting sign-process is a viable choice as the basis for an integrated theory of health.

Hoffmeyer, Jesper

2010-01-01

88

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications  

CERN Document Server

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

Jazar, Reza

2012-01-01

89

Posterior approach to the shoulder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe a modified posterior approach to the shoulder and to present their clinical application in 12 cadaver specimens and a prospective series of 11 patients with glenoid fractures from 1994 to 2003. In the proposed approach Deltoid is reflected superiorly without detachment, approaching the interval between Infraspinatus and Teres Minor muscles exposing the glenoid. Witch this technique the Axilar bundle was 26,5 mm to the posterior glenoid rim. The patients had low surgical times (54 min), low bleeding (77 cc), and no nerve complications. All had good and excellent results in the UCLA score in the first 30 postoperative days. We consider this approach safe, it allows an excellent exposure of the glenoid fractures, and facilitates the functional recovery to the patients

90

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that the advantage to the patient of that large head is really tremendous with that approach. Yeah. ... agree with you. Now I’m taking my number eight retractor, my number eight retractor will go ...

91

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... watch Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular ... assistant, Kurt, has the foot next to his knee and he’s figuring-fouring the leg, and this ...

92

Inductrack Approach to Magnetic Levitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concepts developed during research on passive magnetic bearing systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory gave rise to a new approach to magnetic levitation, the Inductrack. A passive induced-current system employing permanent magnets on the mo...

R. F. Post, D. D. Ryutov

2000-01-01

93

System approach to chemistry course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

Lorina E. Kruglova

2010-12-01

94

Diakoptical Approach in Telecommunication Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diakoptical approach to tensor methods of telecommunications networks engineering, including design, traffic control and maintenance of QoS, is offered. The using of it increases scalability of tensor methods.

Yevsyeyeva, Oksana

2010-01-01

95

New approach to mass formulas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Regge approach to mass formulas is grounded. The main types of interrelations between meson masses are picked out and analysed. The spectrum of vector mesons with the fifth flavour is also evaluated

96

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... This is a previously described surgical approach, which has not been commonly used in this country, but ... op restrictions in the typical case, and there has been high patient satisfaction in my experience. With ...

97

Complex approach in arils study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arils are found in numerous Angiosperm taxa. The complex approach (morphologo-anatomical and biochemical researches) in studying of aril-having fruits is recommended. The arils origin hypothesis is offered. Some functions of arils are showed.

Trusov, Nikolay A.

2013-01-01

98

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... there has been high patient satisfaction in my experience. With that said, I’m going to proceed. ... doesn’t have these vessels. And in our experience thus far with this approach, Roger, I would ...

99

Distributed Databases: The Adaptable Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed data bases in statewide and multi-institutional systems are discussed. It is suggested that traditional approaches to data processing and current data base software are inappropriate for a distributed data base system. (BH)

Braniff, Thomas A.

1978-01-01

100

Humane Education: A Curriculum Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a curriculum-based approach to humane education and addresses the role of humane education in the school curriculum as well as the relationship's of education to other facets of animal welfare work. (Author/DS)

Pearce, Robert W.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Groundbreaking approach to disaster relief  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The humanitarian response to Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May, heralds a fundamentally new approach to relief coordination. As a result, a unique survey showed what really happened to the survivors. Sarah Cumberland reports.

2008-01-01

102

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... where in my hands same approach, same patient population, I have over a 15 percent risk of ... on. My experience, these patients have full leg control in about 24 hours. Yeah. They can get ...

103

The rome approach to chirality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some general considerations on the problem of non perturbative definition of chiral gauge theories presented and exemplified within the particular proposal known as the rome approach. (Author). 25 refs

104

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that it brings. The approach that is performed now is commonly attributed to the Jeu de brothers, ... ll see that here hopefully in a second. Now are you looking for the interval? Are you ...

105

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of Dr. Eric Dewitt, from Belgium, who helped me learn this surgical approach. This is a previously ... confirm my incision placement. Go ahead and give me a spot. I think that’s a nice option, ...

106

Learning Approaches of University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study is to identify the learning approach (deep, surface, strategic)preferences of undergraduate students and to reveal the relationships between their preferencesand the variables of teaching-learning processes (teaching-learning environment perceptions ,university, subject fields, academic achievement, and their grades). The data of the study havebeen gathered through the administration of two inventories (Learning Approaches Inventoryand Teaching-Learning Environment Pe...

Eki?nci?, Necla

2010-01-01

107

Strategy making : the approach matters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE – More than ever, businesses need to get their strategy right. Part of achieving this is the approach to strategy making that is chosen. The purpose of this paper is to describe how strategy making happens on the continuum of deliberate practice versus emerging strategy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – Through in-depth interviews with “strategy informants” (CEO’s) in businesses and questionnaires to respondents (managers) in the same organizations, statistical techniques ...

Pretorius, Marius; Maritz, Rachel

2011-01-01

108

Microscopic approach to nuclear anharmonicities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present status of microscopic study of nuclear anharmonicity phenomena is reviewed from the viewpoint of the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov approach. Both classical- and quantum-mechanical aspects of this approach are discussed. The Bohr-Mottelson-type collective Hamiltonian for anharmonic gamma vibrations is microscopically derived by means of the self-consistent-collective-coordinate method, and applied to the problem of two-phonon states of 168Er. (orig.)

109

Approach aversion: negative hedonic reactions toward approaching stimuli.  

Science.gov (United States)

We live in a dynamic world, surrounded by moving stimuli-moving people, moving objects, and moving events. The current research proposes and finds an approach aversion effect-individuals feel less positively (or more negatively) about a stimulus if they perceive it to be approaching rather than receding or static. The effect appears general, occurring whether the stimulus is initially negative or nonnegative and whether it moves in space (toward or away from "here"), in time (toward or away from "now"), or in probability (toward or away from "sure"). This research complements extensive existing research on perceived static distance of stimuli (near vs. far) by exploring perceived dynamic movement of stimuli (approaching vs. receding), showing that the effect of movement is distinct from the effect of distance. PMID:24749819

Hsee, Christopher K; Tu, Yanping; Lu, Zoe Y; Ruan, Bowen

2014-05-01

110

Information Extraction using Incremental Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is playing vital role in text extraction as now a day’s large amount of data available in scientific research, biomedical literature and web data. Data retrieval using existing approaches use sequential approach to process the data. It suitable for one time processing whereas using this approach performance will prunes. whenever the new data is added to the existing information we need to reprocess the entire data to perform extraction and it consumes large amount of time as same the initial time of processing .If at all there is any frequent modification in the existing data, it will require large amount of time to reprocess .This scenario will be repeats same even new extraction of goal is required for the same existing data. There is a high demand in the information extraction but available method such as UIMA and GATE performs IE by file based approach will not use any relational database in the extraction process. Key challenge of data extraction for incremental data, we need to identify which part of the data is getting affected by the change of any component or goal .To achieve this large corpus data will be stored using special type of data storage and optimized queries for data retrieval. It requires more storage compare to existing approach but now a days storage size not a key requirement. New approach also introduces automated query generation based on available input data for efficient performance. This method will reduce ninety percent of processing time whenever there is any modification of data comparatively to existing approach.

T.Ramesh Chary

2014-04-01

111

A Reverse Approach to Superconductivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the normal operator approach, our reverse approach starts from the state vector in the Hilbert space. In this work, we give a concise introduction to our recent work in this aspect. By postulating a superconducting state (SCS to be a generalized coherent state (GCS constructed by pure group theory, we show that some important properties such as the Cooper pairs of the SCS naturally appear in this new framework without resorting to the microscopic origin. This latter characteristic renders this theory a more universal feature in comparison with other theories developed by the operator approach. The studies on the residue of the pair-wise constraint due to the collapse of the GCS lead to a “flat/steep” band model for searching new superconductors.

Shuiquan Deng

2013-06-01

112

City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach  

CERN Document Server

Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

2015-01-01

113

Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun

2010-01-01

114

Real analysis a constructive approach  

CERN Document Server

A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

Bridger, Mark

2012-01-01

115

Terra Harvest mission programming approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Terra Harvest is a DIA sponsored program that is developing a next generation architecture for Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) interoperability. One key element of this program is a mission programming methodology that allows standardization of the work flow required to program an UGS system. This technology is a key enabler needed to standardize the user experience. This paper describes the requirements for the Terra Harvest mission system and summarizes the different approaches that were considered for the mission system. This paper also describes the implementation of the JavaScript-based approach for mission programming that was selected for use in the Terra Harvest system.

Kovach, Jesse B.

2012-06-01

116

Intersectoral approaches to neglected diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neglected diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that affect principally the world's poorest people. They are linked to poverty, as both a cause and a consequence of same, and affect community security and family productivity. The neglected diseases cause acute and chronic illness, disability, and sometimes death, and they may carry stigma for those infected. Current interventions for neglected diseases emphasize the health sector, but to achieve sustainability and simultaneously combat poverty, an intersectoral approach to their prevention and control is needed. This chapter outlines some concepts for an intersectoral approach, including interventions from the nutrition and food security, education, and environmental sectors. PMID:18579876

Ault, Steven K

2008-01-01

117

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program

118

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

119

Fog and Stratus Forecast Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This module deals with identifying the characteristics of radiation versus advection fog events, determining which process is dominating, and applying that understanding when making ceiling and visibility forecasts. A forecast approach using a decision tree is also discussed. This decision tree outlines the basic steps involved in applying a thorough forecast approach to fog and stratus events. The module is based on live teletraining sessions offered in 2003 as part of the Distance Learning Aviation Course 1 (DLAC1) on Fog and Stratus Forecasting.

Comet

2004-07-15

120

International Approaches to Clinical Costing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business School’s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data, and provide opportunities for all healthsystems to learn and potentially improve their own approaches. The HFMA hopes to build on this initial baselining exercise to understand more about how key issues are being tackled in some of the health systems that have made the most progress with costing.

Chapman, Christopher

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Systems biology approach to bioremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a 'black box' in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the 'black box'. PMID:22342400

Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H; Hazen, Terry C

2012-06-01

122

Automatic Multi Document Summarization Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Text summarization can be of different nature ranging from indicative summary that identifies the topics of the document to informative summary which is meant to represent the concise description of the original document, providing an idea of what the whole content of document is all about. Approach: Single document summary seems to capture both the information well but it has not been the case for multi document summary where the overall comprehensive quality in presenting informative summary often lacks. It is found that most of the existing methods tend to focus on sentence scoring and less consideration is given to the contextual information content in multiple documents. Results: In this study, some survey on multi document summarization approaches has been presented. We will direct our focus notably on four well known approaches to multi document summarization namely the feature based method, cluster based method, graph based method and knowledge based method. The general ideas behind these methods have been described. Conclusion: Besides the general idea and concept, we discuss the benefits and limitations concerning these methods. With the aim of enhancing multi document summarization, specifically news documents, a novel type of approach is outlined to be developed in the future, taking into account the generic components of a news story in order to generate a better summary.

Yogan J. Kumar

2012-01-01

123

Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

124

Appreciating Music: An Active Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A particularly innovative use of laptops is to enhance the music appreciation experience. Group listening and discussion, in combination with a new Web-based application, lead to deeper understanding of classical music. ["Appreciating Music: An Active Approach" was written with Joshua Austin.

Levin, Andrew R.; Pargas, Roy P.

2005-01-01

125

Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation  

Science.gov (United States)

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

Ferrari, Loris

2011-01-01

126

Robotic approaches to the neck.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces and evaluates the feasibility of robot-assisted neck dissection as well as robot-assisted neck surgery via a modified facelift or retroauricular approach. Robot-assisted neck surgery is feasible compared with conventional techniques and shows a clear cosmetic benefit. PMID:24882801

Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

2014-06-01

127

Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

128

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Microplasty™ June 16, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, live from Mount Caramel New Albany Surgical Hospital in ... replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and ...

129

New endoscopic approaches in IBD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent advances in endoscopic imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic approach of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. New, emerging endoscopic imaging techniques visualized a plethora of new mucosal details even at the cellular and subcellular level. This review offers an overview about new endoscopic techniques, including chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, spectroscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy in the face of IBD.

Helmut Neumann, Markus F Neurath, Jonas Mudter

2011-01-01

130

Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

Armstrong, Harry

131

Coordinate Geometric Approach to Spherometer  

CERN Document Server

The spherometer used for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces is explicitly based on a geometric relation unique to circles and spheres. We present an alternate approach using coordinate geometry, which reproduces the well-known result for the spherometer and also leads to a scheme to study aspherical surfaces. We shall also briefly describe some of the modified spherometers.

Khan, Sameen Ahmed

2013-01-01

132

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... found with the microplasty if I template one size standard Taperloc, I almost get in a one size larger microplasty. Yeah. And this is a stem ... about this approach, Roger, is that the stem size and stem position is right on every time, ...

133

Approach to the bleeding newborn  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bleeding in the newborn can lead to serious cardiovascular and neurological effects. Routine administration of vitamin K has reduced the incidence of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, but abnormal bleeding can occur in babies from many causes. A practical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of bleeding in the newborn is described in this article.

Mcmillan, Dd; Wu, J.

1998-01-01

134

A Freudian Approach to Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

Gartner, Sandra L.

135

Hamiltonian approach to nonlinear oscillators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Hamiltonian approach to nonlinear oscillators is suggested. A conservative oscillator always admits a Hamiltonian invariant, H, which keeps unchanged during oscillation. This property is used to obtain approximate frequency-amplitude relationship of a nonlinear oscillator with acceptable accuracy. Two illustrating examples are given to elucidate the solution procedure.

136

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to tonight’s webcast. We are ... there? Can we see okay? It’s a very good view. So the next sort of pitfall that ...

137

Innovative approach to staff management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reveals the essence of reproduction approach to the management staff that meets the requirements of an information type of production. A classification of the functions of personnel management, depending on the role of man in the workplace is given. Topical aspects of implementing the functions of personnel management in Russian enterprises are considered.

Rodionova Elena Viktorovna

2011-01-01

138

Spinal trauma. An imaging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

s, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

139

Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

Chesebro, James W.

140

Special Operations Forces: Indirect Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Southeast Asia has emerged as an increasingly crucial front in the Long War. Given the suicide bombings in Bali, the presence of the terrorist groups, and increased anti-Americanism, the need for a continued and comprehensive approach to combating terror ...

D. P. Fridovich, F. T. Krawchuk

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

2014-05-01

142

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

143

The potential approach in practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential approach is a general and simple method for modelling interest rates, foreign exchange rates, and in principle other types of financial assets. This paper takes data on some liquid interest rate derivatives, and fits potential models using a small finite-state Markov chain as the base Markov process.

Kluge, Tino; Rogers, L. C. G.

2012-01-01

144

[Narrative Approach to Moral Development.] Commentary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elaborates on some issues in the debate between Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach and a narrative, relativistic, approach to studies of moral development. Reviews the concept of self in both approaches, ideas on the Cartesian rationality underlying Kohlberg's theories, and the reliance of the self on language in narrative approaches

Lapsley, Daniel K.

1996-01-01

145

Bayesian approach to rough set  

CERN Document Server

This paper proposes an approach to training rough set models using Bayesian framework trained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The prior probabilities are constructed from the prior knowledge that good rough set models have fewer rules. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is conducted through sampling in the rough set granule space and Metropolis algorithm is used as an acceptance criteria. The proposed method is tested to estimate the risk of HIV given demographic data. The results obtained shows that the proposed approach is able to achieve an average accuracy of 58% with the accuracy varying up to 66%. In addition the Bayesian rough set give the probabilities of the estimated HIV status as well as the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

Marwala, Tshilidzi

2007-01-01

146

Hydrodynamical approach to quantum physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made to bridge classical and quantum physics through a hydrodynamical approach. To begin with, Renninger's Gedanken experiment to prove the corpouscular and wave nature of photons simultaneously, is described. The theory is developed then on postulatory basis. The generalised equation is derived for the scalar field of a single particle and an expression is also derived for the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The phenomenon of diffraction is explained on the basis and extension of point mechanics. De Broglie relations, generalized analytical mechanics and classical wave phenomena, Heisenberg's uncertainly principle and the wave mechanical current density are explained. The equation of the vector field of a particle and the iterated Dirac equation are derived on the basis of new approach. Physical models are constructed for elementary particles to explain the properties of free quantum vortices. The discussion is extended to the interaction of nucleons. (A.K.)

147

Virtualization Approaches in Cloud Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the growing age of cloud computing demands in almost all the sectors like TV channel to online shopping to educational institution etc., the cloud infrastructure cost goes very high. Therefore, the concept of virtualization needs to be understand and implement in the cloud computing syterms, which enables the user as well as the owners for the better and robust management and usage of the cloud. In this paper the virtualization approach in the cloud computing environment are well presented with the concept of the cloud service models. The virtualization process and implementation with their advantages are documented and the different types of virtualizations are presented with some survey on the Indian data centre and the virtualization architecture. This approach needs to be evaluated in different cloud platforms for finding the cost effectiveness in the cloud infrastructure development.

K C Gouda

2014-06-01

148

Laparoscopic approach to retrorectal cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retrorectal cysts are rare benign lesions in the presacral space which are frequently diagnosed in middle-aged females. We report here our experience with two symptomatic female patients who were diagnosed as having a retrorectal cyst and managed using a laparoscopic approach. The two patients were misdiagnosed as having an ovarian cystic lesion after abdominal ultrasonography. Computer tomography (CT scan was mandatory to establish the diagnosis. The trocar port site was the same in both patients. An additional left oophorectomy was done for a coexisting ovarian cystic lesion in one patient in the same setting. There was no postoperative morbidity or mortality and the two patients were discharged on the 5th and 6th post operative days, respectively. Our cases show that laparoscopic management of retrorectal cysts is a safe approach. It reduces surgical trauma and offers an excellent tool for perfect visualization of the deep structures in the presacral space.

Petra Gunkova, Lubomir Martinek, Jan Dostalik, Igor Gunka, Petr Vavra , Miloslav Mazur

2008-11-01

149

Control theory: A practical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stability and frequency response enhancements can be made to custom manufactured and off-the-shelf power supplies. Combined power converter and magnet loads that result in poor transient response and marginal loop stability due to inadequate phase margin can be corrected with a systematic approach utilizing lead compensation techniques. Using a Venable Systems 350 Frequency Response Analyzer two actual case studies are documented demonstrating a practical approach to stabilizing and enhancing a power supply's performance. A description of the system and conventions are followed by a description of two power supplies with specific deficiencies. The first case study involves a power supply without a dominant pole output capacitor. The next case study involves a power supply driving a highly damped resonant load. The paper is concluded by a discussion of measurements pitfalls

150

Tecfidera(®): an approach for repurposing.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a case study of patent coverage for a repurposed drug, Biogen Idec's approach for Tecfidera(®), an oral formulation of dimethyl fumarate, was analyzed. While mixtures of fumarates have been used for over 50 years to treat psoriasis, Tecifidera is approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Biogen pursued claims to pharmaceutical formulations and useful doses for treating multiple sclerosis, an approach that is relevant to pharmaceutical lifecycle management in general. A survey of recent US, EP, and PCT patent applications indicate other companies are developing competing fumarate formulations. While it is possible to pursue secondary patents for compounds without composition of matter coverage, regulatory data exclusivity provides additional protection to delay competitors. PMID:24588595

Spencer, Roxanne P

2014-03-01

151

"Probabilistic" approach to Richardson equations  

CERN Document Server

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of "energy" of interacting free charges on the plane. We suggest to consider "probabilities" of the system of charges to occupy certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of "probability" has similarities with the square of Laughlin wave function. Next, we introduce a "partition function", from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined within underextensive terms. As a first application of this approach, we consider a model with the constant density of states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval, where potential acts. In this case, the "partition function" is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, whi...

Pogosov, W V

2011-01-01

152

Temperature Dependent Nuclear Matter Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The nuclear matter approach provides an effective interaction in the presence of a sea of nucleons. Especially it accounts for the Pauli principle which forbids scattering processes into the occupied states of the nucleonic see. It is well suited to describe the bulk properties of nuclei as well as optical potentials beyond 40 MeV incident energy. Difficulties in the description of nucleon-nucleus reactions beyond 70 MeV may indicate the importance of excited doorway states for reaction processes and therefore the optical potentials. In this contribution we consider the g-matrix approach for excited nuclear matter. The g-matrix is evaluated via the Bethe-Goldstone equation with an exact Pauli operator accounting for excitations with arbitrary occupation distributions. The features of the g-matrix with regard to changes in excitation are discussed. (author)

153

Fulfillment Request Management (The approach)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we introduce the term FRM (Fulfillment Request Management). According to the FRM in a BSS / OSS environment we can use a unified approach to implement a SOA in order to integrate BSS with OSS and handle 1. Orders 2. Events 3. Processes. So in a way that systems like ESB, Order Management, and Business Process Management can be implemented under a unified architecture and a unified implementation. We assume that all the above mentioned are 'requests' and accordi...

Gkoutzioupas, Stylianos

2014-01-01

154

Five Stage Approach to Licensing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article will set out a practical five stage approach to Open Source Software (OSS) legal issues for organizations that are working, or thinking of working, in this area. While OSS affords a plethora of legal challenges and ongoing developments that merit treatment, I will focus on a general framework for managing OSS legal issues. Since I will provide general legal information and not legal advice, I strongly encourage your organization to work with legal counsel with competency in the O...

Thomas Prowse

2007-01-01

155

Nonlinear approach to ternary scission  

CERN Document Server

Description of three-center configuration within mean-field approaches meets uncertainties to select a peculiar set of constraints. We suggest to use the inverse mean field method to solve single-particle Schroedinger equation, instead of constrained selfconsistent Hartree-Fock equations. It is shown, that it is possible to simulate one-dimensional three-center system in the approximation of reflectless single- particle potentials (authors)

Kartavenco, V G

2002-01-01

156

APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and int...

Petris?or, Ioan; Stra?in, Natalia Ana

2013-01-01

157

Ecosystem approaches to human health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdi...

Ole, Nielsen N.

2001-01-01

158

Flexibility evaluation: A toolbox approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Flexibility is an important aspect of modern manufacturing systems. Although a system’s capability to monitor, predict and improve flexibility has long been considered as a major competitive advantage, the development of methods and algorithms for the measurement of manufacturing flexibility remains an open issue both from an academic and an industrial point of view. The purpose of this work is to propose a holistic approach for short, mid and long-term flexibility per...

2009-01-01

159

Inspections - a cost effective approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a cost effective approach for inspections of Computerized Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Systems (CNMCAS). Highlighted is the capability to conduct an inspection program via portable telephone terminals from off-site locations. The program can be applied to various materials management functions including materials control, quality assurance, and materials accounting. The system is designed to facilitate inspections by both external and internal groups

160

An Approach for Groundwater Modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes a simplified model for transport analysis of radioactive solution by the groundwater flow. The fundamental concept upon which the model is based consists of introducing the so-called concentration reduction factor (CRFs) of radioactive solution in the groundwater. These factors should be understood as a dimensionless measure of isolation analyzed by the model. The first part of the paper contains a brief mathematical description, while the second part demonstrates applicability of the simplified approach. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Industrial Beamline Technologies And Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes industrial charged particle beamline technologies and design approaches. Beamlines accommodate myriad constraints in the radioisotope production, electron beam processing, and ion implantation market segments, and some very strange yet interesting solutions result. In this paper, a detailed look at a particular injection beamline solution gives some sense of the complexity of research and development required, and the sophistication of the beamline solutions that are utilized. A brief review of beamline applications in each industrial segment follows.

Dehnel, M. P.

2011-06-01

162

Conceptual Approach to Forecasting Demand ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers a conceptual approach to forecasting demand on products of a production or trading company using economic and mathematical methods. It justifies importance of modelling and forecasting consumer demand on goods. It provides a classification of methods of forecasting demand in two dimensions: from subjective to objective ones and from na?ve to cause-effect ones. It systemises groups of factors that influence demand and analyses character of their influence. It develops a c...

Andreishina Nataliia B.

2013-01-01

163

Accident management approach in Armenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

164

Ermakov approach for minisuperspace oscillators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The WDW equation of arbitrary Hartle-Hawking factor ordering for several minisuperspace universe models, such as the pure gravity FRW and Taub ones, is mapped onto the dynamics of corresponding classical oscillators. The latter ones are studied by the classical Ermakov invariant method, which is a natural aproach in this context. For the more realistic case of a minimally coupled massive scalar field, one can study, within the same type of approach, the corresponding squeezi...

Rosu, H. C.; Socorro, J.

1999-01-01

165

Standard approach to plant modifications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organizational and management approaches to the design, installation, and turnover of nuclear plant modifications have changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 yr. In response to these changes, organizational and individual responsibilities have been defined and management systems have been established at Rochester Gas and Electric (RG and E) Corporation to ensure that high-quality plant modifications are installed in a timely manner that satisfies user needs at minimal cost

166

Approaching work and learning indirectly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper approaches work and learning indirectly. It is part of a mixed method longitudinal study that looks at the articulation from Higher National (HN) to part time Higher Education (HE). Since 2003 the Open University in Scotland (OU) has been collecting quantitative and qualitative data on students who have HN qualifications. This paper looks at the experiences of those students and the central place of work in those journeys. The paper beings with a statistical overview. HN Stud...

Macintyre, Ronald; Thomson, Joan

2013-01-01

167

Today's approaches to prevent peritonitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peritonitis continues to be a significant problem in patients on peritoneal dialysis. There is a striking variability of peritonitis rates from one center to another. These results suggest that all centers can strive for the low levels of peritonitis that are seen at some centers of excellence (0.3 episodes per year at risk or lower). Routine monitoring of PD related infections as organism specific rates (rather than proportions) is critical to achieving lower rates. Training and retraining of PD patients may be key to lowering peritonitis rates, particularly from organisms that commonly come from contamination such as coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS). Rates of CNS peritonitis may be used as a hallmark of adequate patient training, with a goal of a CNS peritonitis rate of 0.03 episodes per year at risk or less. New technology in connectology would be helpful to lower peritonitis related to contamination. Protocols to prevent peritonitis related to exit site infection include exit site mupirocin or exit site gentamicin as part of routine care. A randomized control trial (RCT) comparing exit site medi-honey to intranasal mupirocin is nearing completion and may prove to be an attractive alternative. Enteric peritonitis may be due to a bowel source; there are limited data on approaches to prevention. Procedures such as colonoscopy are clearly a risk for peritonitis and prophylaxis is recommended. Bowel approaches such as the prescription of a probiotic should be tested in a multicenter RCT to see if such approaches may lower enteric peritonitis. Hypokalemia is a known risk factor for peritonitis from Enterobacteriacea and should be prevented/treated. More research is needed to test various approaches to reduce peritonitis. Until more RCTs have been done, best demonstrated practices (as outlined in the recent ISPD position paper) should be utilized to lower peritonitis rates. PMID:22652745

Piraino, Beth

2012-01-01

168

Energetic approach for ductile tearing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a Ji tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter Gfr is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters Ji and Gfr, intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

169

Thermodynamic approach to generalized continua  

Science.gov (United States)

Governing equations of dissipative generalized solid mechanics are derived by thermodynamic methods in the Piola-Kirchhoff framework using the Liu procedure. The isotropic small-strain case is investigated in more detail. The connection to the Ginzburg-Landau type evolution, dual internal variables, and a thermodynamic generalization of the standard linear solid model of rheology is demonstrated. Specific examples are chosen to emphasize experimental confirmations and predictions beyond less general approaches.

Ván, Peter; Berezovski, Arkadi; Papenfuss, Christina

2014-05-01

170

Humanoid Introspection: A Practical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe an approach to robot introspection based on self observation and communication. Self observation is what the robot should do in order to build, represent and understand its internal state. It is necessary to translate the state representation in order to build a suitable input to an ontology that supplies the meaning of the internal state. The ontology supports the linguistic level that is used to communicate information about the robot state to the human user.

Ignazio Infantino

2013-05-01

171

Dual approaches for defects condensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review two methods used to approach the condensation of defects phenomenon. Analyzing in details their structure, we show that in the limit where the defects proliferate until occupy the whole space these two methods are dual equivalent prescriptions to obtain an effective theory for the phase where the defects (like monopoles or vortices) are completely condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where the defects are diluted.

172

Computational approaches to energy materials  

CERN Document Server

The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

2013-01-01

173

New Approaches to Percutaneous Gastrostomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Novel approaches to percutaneous gastrostomy have evolved because of catheter clogging and displacement, which is commonly seen with currently available gastrostomy catheters. Low-profile button gastrostomy catheters, designed to be inserted into mature tracts, have recently been inserted into fresh gastrostomy tracts. Catheter clogging rarely occurs with these low-profile devices. Catheter displacement remains a problem but new buttons can be inserted at the patient's bedside without the nee...

O Dowd, Mariana; Given, M. Fredrick; Lee, Michael J.

2004-01-01

174

New approaches in GMO detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics, genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection of one target at a time, or on a limited multiplexing, allowing only a few targets to be analysed at once, no longer meet the testing requirements. Along with new analytical technologies, new approaches for the detection of GMOs authorized for commercial purposes in various countries have been developed that rely on (1) a smart and accurate strategy for target selection, (2) the use of high-throughput systems or platforms for the detection of multiple targets and (3) algorithms that allow the conversion of analytical results into an indication of the presence of individual GMOs potentially present in an unknown sample. This paper reviews the latest progress made in GMO analysis, taking examples from the most recently developed strategies and tools, and addresses some of the critical aspects related to these approaches. PMID:19876618

Querci, Maddalena; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Zel, Jana; Van den Eede, Guy; Broll, Hermann

2010-03-01

175

A Flexible Table Parsing Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english Relational data is often encoded in tables. Tables are easy to read by humans, but difficult to interpret automatically. In cases where table layout cues are not obtainable (missing HTML tags) or where columns are distorted (by copying from a spreadsheet to text) previous table extraction approaches [...] run into problems. This paper introduces a novel table parsing approach. Our approach is based on a set of simple assumptions: (a) every table can be split up in data cells and headers, and (b) every table can be parsed beginning from a data cell utilizing the overall table structure. The table parsing is defined as "table flattening" in this paper. That is, the parsing starts with a data cell and pulls out all token (i.e., headers and sub-headers) associated with a respective data cell. We propose a parsing technique that uses two simple parsing heuristics: table headers are to the left of and above a data cell. We experimented with trader emails that contained instrument information with bid-ask prices as data cells. We developed a clustering and classifying method for finding prices reliably in the data set we used. This method is transferable to other data cell types and can be applied to other table content.

Frank, Schilder; Ravi, Kondadadi; Yana, Kadiyska.

176

Technical approach to groundwater restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

177

Ecosystem approaches to human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function. PMID:11426267

Nielsen, N O

2001-01-01

178

Ecosystem approaches to human health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function.

Nielsen N. Ole

2001-01-01

179

Alternative systematic approaches to training  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

1995-01-01

180

An abstract approach to music.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-04-19

 
 
 
 
181

Minimally invasive medial hip approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N

2014-10-01

182

A Flexible Table Parsing Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english Relational data is often encoded in tables. Tables are easy to read by humans, but difficult to interpret automatically. In cases where table layout cues are not obtainable (missing HTML tags) or where columns are distorted (by copying from a spreadsheet to text) previous table extraction approaches [...] run into problems. This paper introduces a novel table parsing approach. Our approach is based on a set of simple assumptions: (a) every table can be split up in data cells and headers, and (b) every table can be parsed beginning from a data cell utilizing the overall table structure. The table parsing is defined as "table flattening" in this paper. That is, the parsing starts with a data cell and pulls out all token (i.e., headers and sub-headers) associated with a respective data cell. We propose a parsing technique that uses two simple parsing heuristics: table headers are to the left of and above a data cell. We experimented with trader emails that contained instrument information with bid-ask prices as data cells. We developed a clustering and classifying method for finding prices reliably in the data set we used. This method is transferable to other data cell types and can be applied to other table content.

Frank, Schilder; Ravi, Kondadadi; Yana, Kadiyska.

2012-06-01

183

Pilot Task Demand Load During RNAV Approaches:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question that started this research was: “Why is approach A more difficult to fly for a pilot than approach B?”. To find an answer to this question, pilots flew a large variety of Area Navigation (RNAV) approaches during several flight simulator and real flight experiments. The results of these experiments were analyzed and resulted in seven guidelines for the design of approaches. The guidelines all relate to the shape of the approach trajectory and the corresponding altitude and air...

Heiligers, M. M.

2011-01-01

184

Computational approaches for drug discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preclinical Research Cellular proteins are the mediators of multiple organism functions being involved in physiological mechanisms and disease. By discovering lead compounds that affect the function of target proteins, the target diseases or physiological mechanisms can be modulated. Based on knowledge of the ligand-receptor interaction, the chemical structures of leads can be modified to improve efficacy, selectivity and reduce side effects. One rational drug design technology, which enables drug discovery based on knowledge of target structures, functional properties and mechanisms, is computer-aided drug design (CADD). The application of CADD can be cost-effective using experiments to compare predicted and actual drug activity, the results from which can used iteratively to improve compound properties. The two major CADD-based approaches are structure-based drug design, where protein structures are required, and ligand-based drug design, where ligand and ligand activities can be used to design compounds interacting with the protein structure. Approaches in structure-based drug design include docking, de novo design, fragment-based drug discovery and structure-based pharmacophore modeling. Approaches in ligand-based drug design include quantitative structure-affinity relationship and pharmacophore modeling based on ligand properties. Based on whether the structure of the receptor and its interaction with the ligand are known, different design strategies can be seed. After lead compounds are generated, the rule of five can be used to assess whether these have drug-like properties. Several quality validation methods, such as cost function analysis, Fisher's cross-validation analysis and goodness of hit test, can be used to estimate the metrics of different drug design strategies. To further improve CADD performance, multi-computers and graphics processing units may be applied to reduce costs. PMID:25195585

Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Chi-Chun

2014-09-01

185

Project Supervision – An Engineering Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For more than twenty years, a group based supervision strategy has been used when supervising engineering bachelor- and master thesis students at our research group. In recent years, we have formalised the approach and used our industry experience to create a very successful framework for project supervision. This paper is a best practice guide aiming at research groups that would like to try to implement our supervision approach or parts of it. The approach is based on the belief that engineering students should be prepared for their new role as development engineers or PhD students as part of their master thesis writing. The supervision principles are: Ownership: The student should feel that their project is their own. Ideally, they should formulate the project themselves. Write early: We strongly encourage the students to write and generate figures and images already from the first week of the project period. Management: The student is considered project manager of his own project. The supervisor is a guide or coach (or a project owner) Plans: The student is asked to write a project plan during the first week of the project together with a risk-analysis. Group Meetings: A group of students and supervisors meet every week on a fixed weekday. In our team, it is normal that one supervisor supervises three to five projects simultaneously. The core of the supervision is the weekly meetings where the students present what they have been doing and what they plan to do. By default, all students are present at all meetings. Weekly meetings are scheduled to be at a specific day at a specific place for the entire process.

Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

2011-01-01

186

New approach to resonance crossing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-varying nonlinear oscillatory systems produce phenomena of resonance crossing and trapping of particles in resonance islands. Traditionally, such processes have been analyzed in terms of adiabatic conditions. Considering, as an example, a simplified one-dimensional model describing the "electron-cloud pinch" during a bunch passage in a particle accelerator, here we present an approach to resonance trapping which does not require any adiabatic condition. Instead we introduce the concept of the attraction point and investigate invariance and scaling properties of motion close to the attraction point, considering a single resonance crossing. PMID:23368210

Franchetti, G; Zimmermann, F

2012-12-01

187

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

1994-05-01

188

Wilson's approach to quantum systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the relevance that the Wilson Renormalization Group approach to Bose systems has for quantum systems for which a functional Bosonization exists. The role of Matsubara frequencies as concerning the phenomenon of dimensional crossover is pointed out. Furthermore we find that the unusual critical behaviour of Bose system at T=0 can be included to first order in epsilon = 2-d, in the Wilson universality class with n = -2, with n the number of order parameter components. Finally, some consierations about other quantum systems are made. (author)

189

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies

190

Cognitive reasoning a formal approach  

CERN Document Server

Dealing with uncertainty, moving from ignorance to knowledge, is the focus of cognitive processes. Understanding these processes and modelling, designing, and building artificial cognitive systems have long been challenging research problems. This book describes the theory and methodology of a new, scientifically well-founded general approach, and its realization in the form of intelligent systems applicable in disciplines ranging from social sciences, such as cognitive science and sociology, through natural sciences, such as life sciences and chemistry, to applied sciences, such as medicine,

Anshakov, Oleg M

2010-01-01

191

Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

R. Moussavi

2005-12-01

192

The calculus a genetic approach  

CERN Document Server

When first published posthumously in 1963, this book presented a radically different approach to the teaching of calculus.  In sharp contrast to the methods of his time, Otto Toeplitz did not teach calculus as a static system of techniques and facts to be memorized. Instead, he drew on his knowledge of the history of mathematics and presented calculus as an organic evolution of ideas beginning with the discoveries of Greek scholars, such as Archimedes, Pythagoras, and Euclid, and developing through the centuries in the work of Kepler, Galileo, Fermat, Newton, and Leibniz. Through this unique a

Toeplitz, Otto

2007-01-01

193

Nonpharmacologic approach to sleep disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep disturbances are common in patients with cancer, occurring throughout the disease trajectory and sometimes well after treatment has concluded. Insomnia often does not occur in isolation; it may be associated with pain, fatigue, depression, and medication usage. Screening for sleep disturbances is an essential part of caring for oncologic patients. The criterion standard for nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia in these patients is cognitive-behavioral therapy, a multimodal approach using sleep hygiene and education, stimulus control, sleep restriction, and relaxation. Exercise and complementary and integrative medicine have been studied with varying results, and no firm recommendation can be made about their efficacy. PMID:25299144

Mansel, J Keith; Carey, Elise C

2014-01-01

194

Nonlinear evolution equations kinetic approach  

CERN Document Server

The book is devoted to the questions of the long-time behavior of solutions for evolution equations, connected with kinetic models in statistical physics. There is a wide variety of problems where such models are used to obtain reasonable physical as well as numerical results (Fluid Mechanics, Gas Dynamics, Plasma Physics, Nuclear Physics, Turbulence Theory etc.). The classical examples provide the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. Investigation of the long-time behavior of the solutions for the Boltzmann equation gives an approach to the nonlinear fluid dynamic equations. From the viewpoint of dy

Maslova, Nina

1993-01-01

195

Energy storage a new approach  

CERN Document Server

Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale.  This revolutionary book describes   technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years, but presents new material that could transform the energy industry.  Regardless where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources- energy storage is something that the industry MUST learn and practice.  With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in China

Zito, Ralph

2010-01-01

196

Signal processing a mathematical approach  

CERN Document Server

Signal Processing: A Mathematical Approach is designed to show how many of the mathematical tools the reader knows can be used to understand and employ signal processing techniques in an applied environment. Assuming an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level understanding of mathematics-including familiarity with Fourier series, matrices, probability, and statistics-this Second Edition: Contains new chapters on convolution and the vector DFT, plane-wave propagation, and the BLUE and Kalman filtersExpands the material on Fourier analysis to three new chapters to provide additional background

Byrne, Charles L

2014-01-01

197

'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere. PMID:24620487

Call, Roger

2014-02-01

198

Ermakov approach for minisuperspace oscillators  

CERN Document Server

The WDW equation of arbitrary Hartle-Hawking factor ordering for several minisuperspace universe models, such as the pure gravity FRW and Taub ones, is mapped onto the dynamics of corresponding classical oscillators. The latter ones are studied by the classical Ermakov invariant method, which is a natural aproach in this context. For the more realistic case of a minimally coupled massive scalar field, one can study, within the same type of approach, the corresponding squeezing features as a possible means of describing cosmological evolution. Finally, we comment on the analogy with the accelerator physics

Rosu, H C

1999-01-01

199

Deficient Approaches to Human Neuroimaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions.

Johannes Stelzer

2014-07-01

200

Software testing a craftsman's approach  

CERN Document Server

The software development world has changed significantly in the past five years. Noteworthy among its many changes is the emergence of the ""Unified Modeling Language"" (UML) as an industry standard. While thousands of software computer professionals and students continue to rely upon the bestselling first edition of Software Testing, the time has come to bring it up to date.Thoroughly revised, the second edition of Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach reflects the recent growth and changes in software standards and development. Outdated material has been deleted and new topics, figures, c

Jorgensen, Paul C

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Computer Networks A Systems Approach  

CERN Document Server

This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

Peterson, Larry L

2011-01-01

202

MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP – A THEORETICAL APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper endeavors to offer an overviewof the major theories on leadership and theway in which it in?uences the managementof contemporary organizations. Numerousscholars highlight that there are numerousoverlaps between the concepts of managementand leadership. This is the reason why the ?rstsection of the paper focuses on providing anextensive overview of the literature regarding themeaning of the two aforementioned concepts.The second section addresses more in depth theconcept of leadership and managerial leadershipand focuses on the ideal pro?le of the leader.The last section of the paper critically discussesvarious types of leadership and more speci?callymodern approaches to the concept and practicesof leadership.

Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

2007-06-01

203

Density functional approach for metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charge densities of free atoms modify to a great extent when they form metallic systems. This modification is examined in the light of Loewdin's ?-expansion formalism as adopted by Matheiss in his muffin-tin potential calculation. Wigner-Seitz radius and cohesive energy of copper are calculated through the density functional approach by using this modified charge density. Charge densities at the cell boundaries of 3d transition metals are also calculated to test the applicability of the method to all metals. The results are quite encouraging, the simplicity of the method notwithstanding. (author)

204

Approaching Bose-Einstein condensation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial role of the bosonic ground level. If so, a correct treatment of the problem, including the ground level population N{sub 0} by construction, leads to BEC in a straightforward way. For a density of states of the form G({epsilon}){approx}{epsilon}{sup {gamma}}, the chemical potential {mu} is explicitly calculated as a function of the temperature T and of the number N of bosons, for various significant values of the positive exponent {gamma}. In the thermodynamic limit, in which the boson number N diverges and BEC is a sharp process, the chemical potential {mu} is a singular function of T at the critical temperature T{sub B}, determined by an appropriate critical exponent. The condensate population N{sub 0} is studied analytically and numerically as a function of the temperature, for various values of N and for different {gamma}. This provides an accurate description of the way BEC approaches the character of a sharp phase transition. Some aspects of the real experiments on BEC, involving a finite number of bosons, are also illustrated.

Ferrari, Loris, E-mail: loris.ferrari@unibo.it [Department of Physics of the University, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy)

2011-11-15

205

Bioinformatics : The machine learning approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An unprecedented wealth of data is being generated by genome-sequencing projects and other experimental efforts to determine the structure and function of biological molecules. The demands and opportunities for interpreting these data are expanding more than ever. Biotechnology, pharmacology, and medicine will be particularly affected by the new results and the increased understanding of life at the molecular level. Bioinformatics is the development and application of computer methods for analysis, interpretation, and prediction, as well as for the design of experiments. It has emerged as a strategic frontier between biology and computer science. Machine learning approaches (e.g. neural networks, hidden Markov models, and belief networsk) are ideally suited for areas in which there is a lot of data but little theory. The goal in machine learning is to extract useful information from a body of data by building good probabilistic models. The particular twist behind machine learning, however, is to automate the process as much as possible.In this book, the authors present the key machine learning approaches and apply them to the computational problems encountered in the analysis of biological data.

Brunak, SØren

1998-01-01

206

Nursing students' approaches to studying.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI), developed by Entwistle & Ramsden (1983), was administered to all nursing students at an Australian university (response rate = 67%). The purpose was to find out whether ASI constructs also apply to nursing students and to see whether nursing students change in their study approaches in the course of their nursing education. The ASI was construct validated through factor analysis. While it was possible to reconstruct a majority of the subscales based on individual items, only the meaning and reproducing study orientations were supported. These two orientations also demonstrated satisfactory levels of internal consistency for group comparisons. The authors conclude that the ASI is a useful and robust instrument for use in nursing education with respect to the two main study orientations. Ideally, nursing education should successively pave the way for an increase in meaning orientation scores (deep learning) and a reduction in reproducing orientation scores (surface learning). However, in this study there was no change in study orientations from first to third year. The association between meaning orientation scores and academic performance was weak. PMID:9165817

Stiernborg, M; Guy, J; Tinker, R

1997-04-01

207

Unconventional approaches to mortality estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most developing countries do not have complete registration of deaths on which to base mortality estimates. Four broad categories of unconventional methods have been developed to provide mortality estimates in such settings. The first consists of approaches for evaluation adjustment of incompletely recorded deaths by comparison with recorded age distributions. The second consists of alternative data collection methodologies collecting information about deaths by age. The third consists of approaches based on asking respondents about the survival or otherwise of close relatives. The fourth estimates mortality from changes in age distributions, interpreting cohort attrition as mortality. Methods in the first two categories offer the greatest potential for contributing information on developing country mortality to the Human Mortality Database. Methods in the first category are illustrated here by application to data from the Republic of Korea for the second half of the 20th century. In populations with good age reporting and little net migration, these methods work well and offer the opportunity to include developing country data in the HMD.

Yoonjoung Choi

2005-11-01

208

Information Hiding: A Generic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Privacy and security over communication channels are of primary concerns. Due to their complexity and diversity, there is a need for continuous improvements of the adopted solutions. In this study, we consider two of the adopted ones, namely, steganogrphy and cryptography and propose a new information hiding system. Approach: The proposed system was based on a generic approach that incorporates text-based steganography and cryptography methods in a way that permits their combined or stand alone adoption. Thus, achieving message encryption incorporated with its concealing inside another unsuspicious one. Furthermore, two steganography methods (the inter-word spaces method and syntactic methods had been combined with a hybrid text-encoding in a form of binary representation of terns rewriting systems. Results: An information hiding system had been implemented. The system offered encrypting and hiding dynamic and static text within a cover-text. The conducted experiments using static texts had shown a non-noticeable increase (0.02% in the size of their respective stego-texts. For the dynamic texts, cover- texts with a size proportional to the length of the secret messages were needed. Conclusion: A generic model for information hiding with a respective implementation framework had been used as an effective tool to develop a hybrid and scalable steganography system that combined good features from the existing ones.

Riad jabri

2009-01-01

209

Phylogenetic approaches for studying diversification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating rates of speciation and extinction, and understanding how and why they vary over evolutionary time, geographical space and species groups, is a key to understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes generate biological diversity. Such inferences will increasingly benefit from phylogenetic approaches given the ever-accelerating rates of genetic sequencing. In the last few years, models designed to understand diversification from phylogenetic data have advanced significantly. Here, I review these approaches and what they have revealed about diversification in the natural world. I focus on key distinctions between different models, and I clarify the conclusions that can be drawn from each model. I identify promising areas for future research. A major challenge ahead is to develop models that more explicitly take into account ecology, in particular the interaction of species with each other and with their environment. This will not only improve our understanding of diversification; it will also present a new perspective to the use of phylogenies in community ecology, the science of interaction networks and conservation biology, and might shift the current focus in ecology on equilibrium biodiversity theories to non-equilibrium theories recognising the crucial role of history. PMID:24533923

Morlon, Hélène

2014-04-01

210

Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

211

Bionanoparticles, a green nanochemistry approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: In the past decade, considerable attention has been paid for the development of novel strategies for the synthesis of different kind of nano-objects. Most of the current strategies are usually working by the use physical or chemical principles to develop a myriad of nano-objects with mul [...] tiple applications. Main fields of nanotechnology applications range from catalysis, micro- and nano-electronics (semiconductors, single electrons transistors), non-linear optic devices, photo-electrochemistry to biomedicine, diagnostics, foods and environment, chemical analysis and others. Results: Two main avenues for nanoparticles synthesis: cell-free extract and cell cultivation have been reported. The state of art of both biotechnological approaches for different type nanoparticles are reviewed in this work. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a revolutionary field just at its onset, the trend in the next decades being its integration with the green chemistry approach. Several strategies involving exhaustive strain selection, cultivation modes, recombinant gene expression, metabolic engineering, protein re-design and re-engineering, and predictive modeling will allow to create nanobioreactors, a new nanobiotechnology arena with a high potential impact in many fields.

Ana, Cauerhff; Guillermo R, Castro.

2013-05-15

212

Network Approach and Stakeholder Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent economic crises show that enterprises cannot be managed focusing only on economic values instead managers should acknowledge their own enterprises' responsibilities toward the society as a whole. Stakeholder Management Theory can help managers accomplishing this very same daunting task. This theory demands managers to reckon the reciprocal influences linking other social actors to the enterprise activities and to understand the relative effects. While most of the works in this theory has been geared towards defining, identifying and managing each single dyadic relationship some other scholar have highlighted the need to focus on the stakeholder network to correctly assess each stakeholder's role and to fully grasp the long term effects enterprise's action will have. In this paper after a review of the main topics in stakeholder management theory, we classify the various approach to Stakeholder Management Theory to identify relevant theoretical contributions and to highlight how the theoretical gap can be crossed using the tools of Social Network Analysis and embracing the network approach to stakeholder management.

Mauro Sciarelli

2013-04-01

213

Transradial approach for coronary interventions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of coronary interventions performed through the radial artery. METHODS: We studied 103 patients with ages from 38 to 86 years (57±8.7), 90 (87%) males, and: radial pulse with a good amplitude, presence of ulnar pulse, a good collateral flow through the [...] palmar arch assessed with the Allen's test. RESULTS: The vascular approach was obtained in 97 (94%) patients, 88 (91%) treated electively and 9 (9%) during acute myocardial infarction, for primary angioplasty; 56 (64%) unstable angina; 22 (25%) stable angina; 10 (11%) were asymptomatic, 6 referred for recanalization of chronic occlusion and 4 silent ischemia in the first week after acute myocardial infarction. We approached 107 arteries: anterior descending artery, 49 (46%); right coronary artery, 27 (25%); circumflex artery, 25 (23%); diagonal artery, 6 (6%); and 2 saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 129 lesions: 80 (62%) B2 type; 23 (18%) B1 type; 17 (13%) C type; and 9 (7%). A type. There were 70 stents , and 59 balloon angioplasties performed. Thirty-two (33%) patients used GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The mean duration of the elective procedure was 42.3±12.8 min. Success, correct stent deployment and residual lesion

José Carlos, Brito; Antônio, Azevedo Júnior; Adriano, Oliveira; Roberto, Von Sohsten; Ademar, Santos Filho; Heitor, Carvalho.

214

A different approach to logic  

CERN Document Server

This paper outlines an approach to mathematical logic which is different from the standard one. We list the most relevant features of the system. In first-order logic there exist two different concepts of term and formula, in place of these two concepts in our approach we have just one notion of expression. The set-builder notation is enclosed as an expression-building pattern. In our system we can easily express second-order and all-order conditions (the set to which a quantifier refers is explicitly written in the expression). The meaning of a sentence will depend solely on the meaning of the symbols it contains, it will not depend on external 'structures'. Our deductive system is based on a very simple definition of proof and provides a good model of human mathematical deductive process. The soundness and consistency of the system are proved, as well as the fact that our system is not affected by the most known types of paradox. The paper provides both the theoretical material and two fully documented exam...

Avon, Mauro

2011-01-01

215

Evaporator modeling - A hybrid approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to model two-phase flow evaporators. The main procedures for hybrid modeling includes: (1) Based on the energy and material balance, and thermodynamic principles to formulate the process fundamental governing equations; (2) Select input/output (I/O) variables responsible to the system performance which can be measured and controlled; (3) Represent those variables existing in the original equations but are not measurable as simple functions of selected I/Os or constants; (4) Obtaining a single equation which can correlate system inputs and outputs; and (5) Identify unknown parameters by linear or nonlinear least-squares methods. The method takes advantages of both physical and empirical modeling approaches and can accurately predict performance in wide operating range and in real-time, which can significantly reduce the computational burden and increase the prediction accuracy. The model is verified with the experimental data taken from a testing system. The testing results show that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating evaporator with the maximum error of ±8%. The developed models will have wide applications in operational optimization, performance assessment, fault detection and diagnosis

216

Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

Anda Zeidmane

2011-04-01

217

A new approach to magic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses the example of traditional practices of magic to suggest ways to incorporate cultural behaviors within the evolutionary paradigm. The first suggestion is to restrict hypotheses to only identifiable variables. This means avoiding the temptation of following the nonevolutionary social sciences in the practice of basing explanations on unverifiable guesses about what beliefs (or memes in evolutionary jargon may or may not inhabit people's brains. In contrast with previous explanations that magical practices result from beliefs and memes whose primarily purpose is to reduce anxiety, we propose that magic is a form of communication that promotes cooperation and often avoids anti-social behavior. This effect of increased cooperation could explain why traditional forms of magic have probably existed and had significant positive consequences for the participants. To be effective as a means of communication, magical rituals must specify both the content of the message and the receiver of the message. Although the content of the communicative message differs with different types of magic, all magical acts serve a purpose to influence the behavior of the party involved and that is the most significant identifiable effect of such behavior. An advantage of this approach over many previous explanations of magic is that because it focuses on identifiable phenomena, the definitions and explanations used in this approach can be falsified.

?vorovi? Jelena

2006-01-01

218

DOE systems approach and integration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six sites are now disposing of most of DOE's currently generated waste. These are: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Within DOE, experience with disposal of solid LLW has been that arid site disposal facilities (first four) appear to have performed well, while humid site disposal facilities (last two) have experienced some waste migration. DOE's intent, of course, is to operate all its waste disposal facilities so that public health and safety are not adversely affected. To ensure that this continues to be the case, activities are underway to increase use of waste form stabilization and engineered barriers where appropriate. For the sake of overall economy, these measures are to be applied as and where needed, through use of the systems approach. In this paper the author discusses two topics: the system approach, which DOE has decided to use for resolving waste disposal problems in the management of DOE's low-level wastes; and DOE's intended integration of activities underway at the waste management systems throughout DOE facilities. 2 figures

219

Proposed approach to uncertainty analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of methods are described that deal with the uncertainties inherent in the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Utilizing these methods, an approach to uncertainty analysis for the SCEPTER (Systematic Comprehensive Evaluation of Performance and Total Effectiveness of Repositories) Program is proposed. The approach recognizes two fundamental types of uncertainty: (1) uncertainty in the adequacy of performance assessment models; and (2) data uncertainties. The first type of uncertainty will be addressed through model verification and validation. The second type will be accounted for by using either a simulation sampling method, or first order-second moment stochastic methods. Among the former methods are Monte Carlo simulation, and Latin hypercube sampling. Among the latter methods are adjoint sensitivity and other first order numerical methods. The selection of an appropriate method depends on the data available and the application. A list of input and output variables, and a suggested level of sophistication for the uncertainty analysis, of each SCEPTER sub-system model is given. The relationship of performance assessment and uncertainty analysis between process, sub-system and system models is described

220

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

 
 
 
 
221

Approach/avoidance in dreams.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. PMID:22196966

Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

2012-03-01

222

‘Probabilistic’ approach to Richardson equations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of the ‘energy’ of classical free charges on the plane. We suggest considering the ‘probabilities’ of the system of charges occupying certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of ‘probability’ has similarities with the square of the Laughlin wavefunction. Next, we introduce the ‘partition function’, from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined. The ‘partition function’ is given by a multidimensional integral, which is similar to the Selberg integrals appearing in conformal field theory and random-matrix models. As a first application of this approach, we consider a system with the constant density of energy states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval where potential acts. In this case, the ‘partition function’ is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields a quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, which is shown to be described by a single expression all over from the dilute to the dense regime of pairs. It also provides additional insight into the physics of Cooper-paired states. (paper)

223

Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using non-equilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

Frossard, T.; Kartavtsev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Garny, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hohenegger, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, LPPC, BSP (Switzerland); Mitrouskas, D. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

2012-11-15

224

Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

2009-07-01

225

An approach to risk assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A strategy for delineating risk factors from use of neurotoxic chemicals was applied to the Danish working environment. An analysis using this strategy disclosed the need for internationally adopted criteria for neurotoxicity, and consequently a working group was established by the Nordic Council of Ministers with the task to propose criteria for neurotoxicity. Functional effects on the nervous system, such as reduction in memory and learning ability, decrease in attention, and alteration of behavior due to toxic chemicals in the environment is now being acknowledged as an important public health problem. This change in concern from obvious effects of high dose exposure to the more subtle effects of environmental exposure to neurotoxicants was incorporated in the criteria. The new criteria for evaluating neurotoxicity data has subsequently been used on 79 common industrial chemicals. The results indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc.

Hass, Ulla

1998-01-01

226

Complex System Approaches to Genetic Analysis: Bayesian Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic epidemiology is increasingly focused on complex diseases involving multiple genes and environmental factors, often interacting in complex ways. Although standard frequentist methods still have a role in hypothesis generation and testing for discovery of novel main effects and interactions, Bayesian methods are particularly well suited to modeling the relationships in an integrated “systems biology” manner. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the principles of Bayesian analysis and their advantages in this context and describe various approaches to applying them for both model building and discovery in a genome-wide setting. In particular, we highlight the ability of Bayesian methods to construct complex probability models via a hierarchical structure and to account for uncertainty in model specification by averaging over large spaces of alternative models. PMID:21029848

Wilson, Melanie A.; Baurley, James W.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Conti, David V.

2014-01-01

227

A Novel Approach for Identifying Intruder based on Multiple Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper reviews of research to identify the intrusion and intruder, most computers authenticate user ID and password before users can login these systems. However, danger soon comes if the two items are known to hackers. In this paper, we propose a system that finds who intrude and how they intrude in to the system. The information about the intruder and their saved information in the data warehouse to the other location without knowing to the intruder and in this duration server will find the information about the intruder. In future when intruder again enter in the network then caught and show the information about him and last time you enter in this network. For this technique I can reduce the network attack. And find more type of Network intrusion Detecting System with using data mining Approach. Our experimental results show that the recognition accuracy of students of computer science department is up to 99%.

Amit Kumar Sharma

2010-12-01

228

Phonetic Ambiguity Approaches, Touchstones, Pitfalls and New Approaches  

CERN Document Server

Phonetic ambiguity and confusibility are bugbears for any form of bottom-up or data-driven approach to language processing. The question of when an input is ``close enough'' to a target word pervades the entire problem spaces of speech recognition, synthesis, language acquisition, speech compression, and language representation, but the variety of representations that have been applied are demonstrably inadequate to at least some aspects of the problem. This paper reviews this inadequacy by examining several touchstone models in phonetic ambiguity and relating them to the problems they were designed to solve. An good solution would be, among other things, efficient, accurate, precise, and universally applicable to representation of words, ideally usable as a ``phonetic distance'' metric for direct measurement of the ``distance'' between word or utterance pairs. None of the proposed models can provide a complete solution to the problem; in general, there is no algorithmic theory of phonetic distance. It is unc...

Juola, P

1996-01-01

229

The inaction approach to gauge theories  

CERN Document Server

The inaction approach introduced previously for phi^4 is generalized to gauge theories. It combines the advantages of the effective field theory and causal approaches to quantum fields. Also, it suggests ways to generalizing gauge theories.

Pivovarov, Grigorii

2012-01-01

230

Subjective Transfer Function Approach for Analyzing Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Subjective Transfer Functions (STF) approach is a subjective measurement method for analyzing complex systems where many factors either directly or indirectly impact on system outcomes. In this approach, systems are analyzed from the perspective of th...

C. T. Veit, M. Callero

1983-01-01

231

A STRATEGIC APPROACH OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For a long time, management accounting has been used based on a predominantly technical approach which strictly aimed at computing the costs. Gradually, to the management accounting it has been added a decisional approach aimed at influencing the behaviou

Grosu Corina; Almasan Alina Carmen

2009-01-01

232

Speech Recognition Using Stochastic Approach: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In today’s world, Speech Recognition is very important and popular. Automatic Speech Recognition System consists of three phases: Preprocessing, Feature Extraction and Recognition. Speech recognition is the process of converting spoken words into text. In case of speech recognition the research followers are mainly using three different approaches namely Acoustic phonetic approach, Pattern recognition approach and Artificial intelligence approach. The main goal of this paper is to discuss t...

RANU DIXIT; NAVDEEP KAUR,

2013-01-01

233

Sustainability economics, ontology and the capability approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between sustainability economics and the capability approach has recently been explored. Here I shall discuss this relationship, and argue that a study of the ontology underlying the capability approach can help us to see more clearly the interconnections between sustainability economics and the capability approach. In particular, the interpretations of the capability approach as an ontological exercise, which have recently emerged in the literature, enable us to have a bette...

Martins, Nuno O.

2011-01-01

234

A Critical Analysis of the Knowledge Creation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of knowledge creation (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 will be analysed from a philosophical perspective. To begin with, the key motivations behind the discourse of knowledge creation and management are briefly discussed. The contemporary distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge is then explored. Following this, the work of Lyotard on knowledge in a (postmodern economy will be summarised. The paper then explores how some of the work by Foucault and Adorno may provide a new direction for developing research approaches in this area.

Stephen Probert

2003-11-01

235

Lilian Katz on the Project Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interview with Lilian Katz, one of the foremost authorities on the project approach to learning. Discusses the misconceptions and advantages of the project approach, the teacher's role in project-based work, and the qualities teachers need to insure its success. Gives historical background on the development of the approach, and some common…

Scholastic Early Childhood Today, 1996

1996-01-01

236

Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

"Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication" offers a variety of activities, projects, and approaches to energize pedagogy in technical communication and to provide a constructive critique of current practice. A practical collection, the approaches recommended here are readily adaptable to a range of technological and institutional…

Bridgeford, Tracy, Ed.; Kitalong, Karla Saari, Ed.; Selfe, Dickie, Ed.

2004-01-01

237

Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

Svabo, Connie

2009-01-01

238

Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel

2003-01-01

239

Towards a corporate approach for energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corporate approach is a well-known an much discussed subject. At present the corporate approach is not a legal possibility in the Netherlands. A study has been carried out to investigate the consequences of a corporate approach on the energy efficiency in departments of Philips Nederland

240

[Bone remodeling: new therapeutic approaches].  

Science.gov (United States)

High bone remodeling leads to bone loss and microarchitectural deteriorations characteristic of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators decrease bone remodeling by preventing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, whereas parathyroid hormone/teriparatide increase bone remodeling in favor of new bone formation. Better understanding of the molecular processes of bone remodeling has led to the development of agents to inhibit bone resorption, such as the human monoclonal antibody Denosumab targeting osteoclast-activating factor RANK Ligand, and odanacatib targeting the collagen-degrading enzyme cathepsin K. Agents capable to stimulate bone formation independently of bone resorption, such as antagonists of the osteoblast-inhibitory factor sclerostin, may provide new therapeutic approaches to osteoporosis. PMID:19626933

Ferrari, S

2009-06-10

 
 
 
 
241

Sequencing approaches in cancer treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of sequencing approaches is an important aspect in the field of cancer genomics, where next-generation sequencing has already been utilized for targeting oncogenes or tumour-suppressor genes, that can be sequenced in a short time period. Alterations such as point mutations, insertions/deletions, copy number alterations, chromosomal rearrangements and epigenetic changes are encountered in cancer cell genomes, and application of various NGS technologies in cancer research will encounter such modifications. Rapid advancement in technology has led to exponential growth in the field of genomic analysis. The $1000 Genome Project (in which the goal is to sequence an entire human genome for $1000), and deep sequencing techniques (which have greater accuracy and provide a more complete analysis of the genome), are examples of rapid advancements in the field of cancer genomics. In this mini review, we explore sequencing techniques, correlating their importance in cancer therapy and treatment. PMID:25131793

Sekar, D; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Hairul Islam, V I; Saravanan, S

2014-10-01

242

Concurrent Engineering: A Partnership Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development of a new course in concurrent engineering. Teaching concepts in product development benefits greatly from a hands-on approach. The authors have attempted to establish this goal in three ways: by developing and using a number of laboratories and demonstrations, by inviting speakers from industry who can make classroom lessons concrete, and by using cases as the basis for class discussion. This paper includes a discussion of the curriculum, of existing teaching materials, and of specific methods and materials developed for the course. The course was developed jointly by faculty and research assistants at the University of Washington (UW), the University of Puerto Ricos Mayagez campus (UPRM), and at Penn State (PSU), as part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP), funded through the ARPA Technology Reinvestment Program.

Barton, Russell R.; Nowack, Craig A.; Smith, Robert P.; Zayas-Castro, Jose L.

2011-03-10

243

[Pathogenetic approaches to treating constipations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Constipation affects 15-25% of people. Its mechanisms are various. There are constipations due to intestinal dyskinesia (functional constipation, irritated bowel syndrome), slow transit (colonic inertia), and muscular apparatus discoordination ensuring defecation (dyssynergic defecation). The treatment of different types of constipation uses prokinetics (type 4 serotonin receptor agonists, chlorine channels activators and guanylate cyclase C channel activators) or spasmolytics, among which pinaverium bromide (dicetel) has demonstrated its high efficacy. Biofeedback therapy or surgical techniques may be used. There is a need to prescribe laxatives in any type of constipation. A pathogenetic approach to treating constipation is most efficient. The paper characterizes stimulant, osmotic, volume, and emollient laxatives and agents stimulating the urge to defecate. It also gives the data of meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of different drug groups. Particular emphasis is laid of the effect of lactulose and its first preparation--duphalac. PMID:25306754

Luzina, E V

2014-01-01

244

Heuristic approach to train rescheduling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the defined network topology and the timetable assigned beforehand, the paper considers a train rescheduling in respond to disturbances that have occurred. Assuming that the train trips are jobs, which require the elements of infrastructure - resources, it was done by the mapping of the initial problem into a special case of job shop scheduling problem. In order to solve the given problem, a constraint programming approach has been used. A support to fast finding "enough good" schedules is offered by original separation, bound and search heuristic algorithms. In addition, to improve the time performance, instead of the actual objective function with a large domain, a surrogate objective function is used with a smaller domain, if there is such. .

Mladenovi? Snežana

2007-01-01

245

APPROACH OF STUDENTS TOWARDS SPAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The intention of the study was to discover existing eminence of SPAT amid students and to elevate the intensity of sports in culture. To dynamic the intention of the study a model of subject (30 students of Sonipat district were taken. The subjects were taken of both sexes aimlessly. Figures was composed during self made questionnaire which was specifically organized for the study intention, composed, necessary information during to all subjects at their training classes for assembled the most important figures and derivative information were also assembled. Instruct to construct the systematic and explanation division of figures more realistic and systematic, entitlement concerned as statistical equipments. The consequences of study illustrate that there is a fewer consciousness of rural region persons about SPAT. But behind all mostly subjects have superior encouraging approach and concentration towards SPAT.

Parul

2014-09-01

246

Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches  

CERN Document Server

Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

2011-01-01

247

Delirium: clinical approach and prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delirium, defined as an acute fluctuating change in mental state, with consciousness and cognitive impairment, has been found to have a high incidence in hospitalised patients, as well as being associated with increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged stays in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital and higher costs. However, delirium is not easy to detect, since its diagnosis is mainly clinical. Yet the importance of early diagnosis and possible prevention in the different clinical scenarios is clear, to improve patient prognosis. This review provides a practical approach to delirium management through: (a) its classification and diagnosis utilising validated tools and (b) the use of non-pharmacological protocols and of an early prediction model to identify high-risk patients, who are more likely to benefit from pharmacological prophylaxis. PMID:23040283

Mistraletti, Giovanni; Pelosi, Paolo; Mantovani, Elena Silvia; Berardino, Maurizio; Gregoretti, Cesare

2012-09-01

248

An Environmentalist Approach: Green Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A product interacts with the environment throughout the entire life cycle- from the design phase to disposal phase- and every product makes different environmental impacts in different life cycle stages. Thus, reducing the environmental impact of a product by just focusing on the waste that is produced after the production process, is not possible. For this, a holistic and proactive approach adoption is required which considers the entire life of a product from raw materials that will be used in production to wastes occurred in production process, from packages to recovery of end of life products. This will be possible by “Green Design” which integrates the product and process design with environmental issues.

Gulay Coskun Kasap

2011-04-01

249

Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

Montira Leelakriangsak

2013-12-01

250

Quantum Plasmas An Hydrodynamic Approach  

CERN Document Server

This book provides an overview of the basic concepts and new methods in the emerging scientific area known as quantum plasmas. In the near future, quantum effects in plasmas will be unavoidable, particularly in high density scenarios such as those in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma experiment or in compact astrophysics objects. Currently, plasmas are in the forefront of many intriguing questions around the transition from microscopic to macroscopic modeling of charged particle systems. Quantum Plasmas: an Hydrodynamic Approach is devoted to the quantum hydrodynamic model paradigm, which, unlike straight quantum kinetic theory, is much more amenable to investigate the nonlinear realm of quantum plasmas. The reader will have a step-by-step construction of the quantum hydrodynamic method applied to plasmas. The book is intended for specialists in classical plasma physics interested in methods of quantum plasma theory, as well as scientists interested in common aspects of two major areas of...

Haas, Fernando

2011-01-01

251

Satellite control: A comprehensive approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The prelaunch and post launch controls undertaken by the Telemetry Tracking and Telecommand (TTC) systems operated under the executive control of the Earth Segment using the European Test and Operations Language (ETOL) are discussed. The condition and status of the European Space Agency communication satellites that are in orbit are also monitored through ETOL. To employ common equipment and methodology throughout the complete life cycle of the satellite, prelaunch activities must be a simulation of expected post launch conditions. Such a comprehensive approach gives opportunities for reusing equipment and methodologies; it was applied to small satellites with industrial partners under direct ESA control using the CSMF (Communication Satellite Monitoring Facility) stand alone workstations and presents a cost effective solution enhancing safety of system operations.

Garner, J. T.

1993-01-01

252

Crohn's disease: current imaging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This paper discusses the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: We present a concept, which emphasizes different diagnostic aspects with regard to primary diagnosis, follow-up and assessment of complications of CD. The most effective imaging approach to various diagnostic problems of CD is discussed in detail. Discussion: With regard to the primary diagnosis barium studies should contribute to differentiate between CD and ulcerative colitis. Beyond that, these studies should evaluate location and extent of disease. During the follow-up bowel sonography provides staging of disease and enables the detection of complications at an early stage. CT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of complications, such as fistuale and abscesses. (orig.)

253

Carious dentine removal: current approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

Germana Coeli de Farias Sales

2008-01-01

254

Episodic memory: A comparative approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has certainly adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research.

GemaMartin-Ordas

1900-01-01

255

An approach to Shuttle evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic approach is outlined for upgrading the Space Shuttle to a 'Block-II' system which makes use of existing programs such as Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA). Descriptions are given of near-term evolutionary issues such as supportability and cost reduction which are addressed by the ASA. Upgrades proposed for shuttle evolution include an automated on-board checkout and verification as well as an improved launch-processing system. The Technology Bridging program addresses long-term evolution by identifying key emerging technologies that can be applied to shuttle field demonstrations. The Shuttle Evolution Study is also discussed which identifies 'block changes' that are essentially major changes to systems with an eye toward future efficiency and increased performance. Among the block changes identified are liquid rocket boosters, composite/lightweight external tanks, and unmanned/manned orbiter capability.

Nease, Ardell W.; Thiel, Richard M.; Smith, Kim E.

256

The thermodynamic approach to market  

CERN Document Server

The first (Russian) edition of the book was among the first monographs on econophysics. The book gives an explanation of several intriguing phenomena, providing new insights and answers to some deeply vexing questions. Why the economic "shock therapy" implemented in Eastern Europe was doomed to a failure whereas the approach adopted by China and Vietnam should inevitably lead to economic growth (damped, perhaps, by corruption and inconsistencies)? Why some restrictions imposed on markets are dangerous? Politicians (and laymen) usually believe that the more restrictions you impose on the society, the easier it is to govern. The reality seems to be more subtle. Some restrictions are necessary for the markets to function. However, restrictions on salary, for example, seem to always result in unemployment, as a simple "spin" model shows. Evidently, optimizing freedom is an equilibrium problem, and none of the extrema is devoid of danger. Why should crooked dealings be prevented? What is a reasonable rate of taxat...

Sergeev, Victor

2008-01-01

257

Rheological approaches to food systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Foods, consumer products and cosmetics belong to a wide range of colloidal and non-colloidal materials. Often, they are composite materials comprising several classes of fluid and solid constituents, including biopolymer gels, particulate suspensions, emulsions and foams. Length scales relevant for such materials may be anywhere between those associated with the molecular conformation of the ingredients up to long-scale dimensions of processing flows. The corresponding time scales may be in the sub-millisecond regime during aggregation of the ingredients or up to years during the shelf life of the final product. Rheological research of food material focuses on both the interaction between its ingredients, which might exhibit a complex rheological response function themselves and the influence of processing on the food structure and its properties. This brief overview summarizes suitable food rheology approaches and is grouped by the degree of abstraction of length scales and interactions. To cite this article: P. Fischer et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

Fischer, Peter; Pollard, Michael; Erni, Philipp; Marti, Irene; Padar, Stefan

2009-11-01

258

How to approach chronic anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present herein an approach to diagnosing the cause of chronic anemia based on a patient's history and complete blood cell count (CBC). Four patterns that are encountered frequently in CBCs associated with chronic anemias are considered: (1) anemia with abnormal platelet and/or leukocyte counts, (2) anemia with increased reticulocyte counts, (3) life-long history of chronic anemia, and (4) anemia with inappropriately low reticulocytes. The pathophysiologic bases for some chronic anemias with low reticulocyte production are reviewed in terms of the bone marrow (BM) events that reduce normal rates of erythropoiesis. These events include: apoptosis of erythroid progenitor and precursor cells by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, development of macrocytosis when erythroblast DNA replication is impaired, and development of microcytosis due to heme-regulated eIF2? kinase inhibition of protein synthesis in iron-deficient or thalassemic erythroblasts. PMID:23233579

Koury, Mark J; Rhodes, Melissa

2012-01-01

259

Statistical Physics Approaches to Seismicity  

CERN Document Server

This entry in the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer present a summary of some of the concepts and calculational tools that have been developed in attempts to apply statistical physics approaches to seismology. We summarize the leading theoretical physical models of the space-time organization of earthquakes. We present a general discussion and several examples of the new metrics proposed by statistical physicists, underlining their strengths and weaknesses. The entry concludes by briefly outlining future directions. The presentation is organized as follows. I Glossary II Definition and Importance of the Subject III Introduction IV Concepts and Calculational Tools IV.1 Renormalization, Scaling and the Role of Small Earthquakes in Models of Triggered Seismicity IV.2 Universality IV.3 Intermittent Periodicity and Chaos IV.4 Turbulence IV.5 Self-Organized Criticality V Competing mechanisms and models V.1 Roots of complexity in seismicity: dynamics or heterogeneity? V.2 Critical earthquakes ...

Sornette, D

2008-01-01

260

RBE from a microdosimetric approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the current status of microdosimetry and knowledge regarding the response of biological systems to radiation fields of differing linear energy transfer (LET). The primary objective is to investigate the potential application to radon daughter lung dosimetry. The concept of track structure and its statistical behaviour is discussed and applied to estimate the yield of double strand breaks (DSBs). The general microdosimetric approach to modelling radiation response is presented in terms of the hit-size effectiveness function and the behaviour for specific proposed functions is examined. Radiobiological investigations of the DSB, chromosome aberration and oncogenic transformation end points are reviewed with emphasis on recent developments. A simplified model system is developed illustrating the potential for analysis of the risk from radon daughter inhalation and published research directed towards this goal is discussed. (author). 66 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

 
 
 
 
261

Computational approach to Riemann surfaces  

CERN Document Server

This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

Klein, Christian

2011-01-01

262

Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant “additivity” properties: (i existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i and (ii are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the Markov order. The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally “most random” distributions.

Alexander N. Gorban

2010-05-01

263

Approaches for Keyword Query Routing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing number of datasets published on the Web as linked data brings both opportunities for high data availability of data. As the data increases challenges for querying also increases. It is very difficult to search linked data using structured languages. Hence, we use Keyword Query searching for linked data. In this paper, we propose different approaches for keyword query routing through which the efficiency of keyword search can be improved greatly. By routing the keywords to the relevant data sources the processing cost of keyword search queries can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we contrast and compare four models – Keyword level, Element level, Set level and query expansion using semantic and linguistic analysis. These models are used for keyword query routing in keyword search.

Mrs. Suwarna Gothane

2014-10-01

264

How I approach trabeculectomy surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to the most commonly performed surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma, trabeculectomy. It is important to recognise that the concept of trabeculectomy surgery can be difficult for patients to comprehend in the first place. Their disease is frequently ‘thrust upon them’ by doctors; in other words, they are frequently asymptomatic in the eye that the ophthalmologist is most concerned about. The therapy, at best, can only hope to maintain vision. Vision may well deteriorate as a result of the therapy. These concepts are vital in the consideration of any surgical intervention. Preventive therapy is always more difficult to introduce. This also means the surgeon is all the more challenged to produce the safest possible result. A well-rested surgeon and a calm surgical environment is the start, along with a confident surgical technique.

Ian Murdoch

2006-09-01

265

Chaotic inflation: A numerical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical study of chaotic inflation is presented. Following a semiclassical treatment of quantum effects, the dynamics is described as a random process. The relevant Langevin equation is then integrated numerically for a large number of realizations and results are evaluated as ensemble averages. For the understanding of the global structure of the universe the fact that different domains of the universe have different growth rates is important. This is handled by a new modified algorithm. The simulation results for the probability distribution functions at constant and proper volume are given for two typical initial conditions. We compare them to the approximate results of an already existing analytical approach. The picture of an eternally existing self-reproducing universe is confirmed. (orig.)

266

A stochastic approach to microphysics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presently widespread idea of ''vacuum population'', together with the quantum concept of vacuum fluctuations leads to assume a random level below that of matter. This stochastic approach starts by a reminder of the author's previous work, first on the relation of diffusion laws with the foundations of microphysics, and then on hadron spectrum. Following the latter, a random quark model is advanced; it gives to quark pairs properties similar to those of a harmonic oscillator or an elastic string, imagined as an explanation to their asymptotic freedom and their confinement. The stochastic study of such interactions as electron-nucleon, jets in e+e- collisions, or pp ? ?0 + X, gives form factors closely consistent with experiment. The conclusion is an epistemological comment (complementarity between stochastic and quantum domains, E.P.R. paradox, etc...)

267

Nonlinear approach in nuclear dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is focused on the various approaches that use the concept of nonlinear dispersive waves (solitons) in nonrelativistic nuclear physics. The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is shown that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The both instabilities may compensate each other and lead to stable solutions (solitons). A static scission configuration in cold ternary fission is considered in the framework of mean field approach. We suggest to use the inverse mean field method to solve single-particle Schroedinger equation, instead of constrained selfconsistent Hartree-Fock equations. It is shown, that it is possible to simulate one-dimensional three-center system in the approximation of reflectless single-particle potentials. The soliton-like solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries equation are using to describe collective excitations of nuclei observed in inelastic alpha-particle and proton scattering. The analogy between fragmentation into parts of nuclei and buckyballs has led us to the idea of light nuclei as quasi-crystals. We establish that the quasi-crystalline structure can be formed when the distance between the alpha-particles is comparable with the length of the De Broglia wave of the alpha-particle. Applying this model to the scattering of alpha-particles we obtain that the form factor of the clusterized nucleus can be factorized into the formfactor of the cluster and the density of clusters in the nucleus. It gives possibility to study the distribution of clusters in nuclei and to resolve what kind of distribution we are dealing with: a surface or volume one

268

Spinal trauma. An imaging approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Imhof, H. [University and General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics

2006-07-01

269

Nuclear security standard: Argentina approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentina has a comprehensive regulatory system designed to assure the security and safety of radioactive sources, which has been in place for more than fifty years. In 1989 the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission created the 'Council of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations' (CAPFMIN). This Council published in 1992 a Physical Protection Standard based on a deep and careful analysis of INFCIRC 225/Rev.2 including topics like 'sabotage scenario'. Since then, the world's scenario has changed, and some concepts like 'design basis threat', 'detection, delay and response', 'performance approach and prescriptive approach', have been applied to the design of physical protection systems in facilities other than nuclear installations. In Argentina, radioactive sources are widely used in medical and industrial applications with more than 1,600 facilities controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in spanish ARN). During 2005, measures like 'access control', 'timely detection of intruder', 'background checks', and 'security plan', were required by ARN for implementation in facilities with radioactive sources. To 'close the cycle' the next step is to produce a regulatory standard based on the operational experience acquired during 2005. ARN has developed a set of criteria for including them in a new standard on security of radioactive materials. Besides, a specific Regulatory Guide is being prepared to help licensees of facilities in design a security system and to fulfill the 'Design of Security System Questionnaire'. The present paper describes the proposed Standard on Security of Radioactive Sources and the draft of the Nuclear Security Regulatory Guidance, based on our regulatory experience and the latest international recommendations. (author)

270

Speech Recognition Using Stochastic Approach: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s world, Speech Recognition is very important and popular. Automatic Speech Recognition System consists of three phases: Preprocessing, Feature Extraction and Recognition. Speech recognition is the process of converting spoken words into text. In case of speech recognition the research followers are mainly using three different approaches namely Acoustic phonetic approach, Pattern recognition approach and Artificial intelligence approach. The main goal of this paper is to discuss the various techniques of speech recognition and study Hidden Markov Model of stochastic approach to develop voice based, user friendly interface software system.

RANU DIXIT

2013-02-01

271

An intelligent approach to nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnolo

Demming, Anna

2013-11-01

272

Reactor protection system, diverse approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Defence in depth design criteria, applied to nuclear instrumentation, in particular to reactor protection systems (RPS), includes redundancy, diversity and fail-safe behaviour. Typical two out of three, majority-voting systems meet redundancy criteria. A careful analysis of signal levels and polarity and the use of several techniques such as lives zeros, bias toward safe state, etc. guarantee same degree of fail-safe behaviour. Diversity criteria, in general, is met by the whole system using more than one method to protect the integrity of reactor (i.e. rod drop plus boron injection), but it is not met by a single instrumentation chain. Moreover, the increased information needs of supervision systems encourage the use of digital instrumentation in RPS; if the digital instrumentation has software based implementation, the diversity requirement could be mandatory for the instrumentation of each system. In this work three possible configuration of the First Reactor Protection System (rod drop) are analysed, the first is the traditional hardware approach, the second is a software based system, and the third is a proposed mix system. For all configurations, a redundant system two out of four (2004) is assumed. Availability and reliability points of view are taken into account. For the unreliability/unavailability analysis global values are assumed (order of magnitude). For hardware a value H lower than 10-3 is assumed and for software an S value is assumed. The first possiare an S value is assumed. The first possible configuration is a hardwired architecture. By means of unreliability tree and using the gates formulas the value for unreliability UR = H is calculated. In similar way is possible compute total unavailability UA = H. The use of non-redundant final actuation logic lead to this result. The second possible configuration is a software based architecture. In this case field bus and serial bus are used, the unreliability and the unavailability computed is UR = UA 5 S + H. Finally, the proposed configuration, a software based with programmable hardware backup architecture is analysed. In this case the unreliability computed is UR = 15 H2 and the unavailability is UA S + 6 H With this approach reliability lies on hardware and availability/functionality lies on software. In addition, the proposed architecture makes practical the use of redundant Rod Voting and Actuation Logic (one by rod) and pushes the reliability to H2. Implementing the hardware backup by programmable logic we gain in flexibility, in order to fit the system in different facilities. But a new question is arisen; is programmable logic real hardware? To address this matter, a CPLD based system was developed and now it is under test in the experimental reactor RA1

273

Another Approach to Model Attenuation  

Science.gov (United States)

Attenuation in the upper crust is a complex problem and a full understanding of where intrinsic attenuation remains problematic. This is particularly true in earth materials saturated with highly viscous liquids such as magma or bitumens. In fluid saturated materials, attenuation mechanisms have focused primarily on global and local type of fluid displacements. That is, the mechanisms have assumed that attenuation was produced only by fluid motions relative to the solids. Less emphasis has been placed on the potential mechanism for absorption within the fluids themselves. Here, we examine the mechanism of attenuation within the fluids themselves via rheological relaxation theory approach. In particular, the role of viscosity is generally examined with results on the frequency dependence on wave speed dispersion and attenuation. The evolution of elastic waveforms through such absorbing materials are also studied to evaluate the potential effects on seismic wave propagation. This work may also have implications towards the use of ultrasonic laboratory measurements in the interpretation of seismic frequency measurements.

Schmitt, D. R.; Qi, X.

2006-12-01

274

Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55:679-688, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044351

Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

2014-12-01

275

Laboratory approach to mitochondrial diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysfunction in mitochondrial processes has been related to several pathologies. In these disorders, the cell suffers oxidative imbalance that is mostly due to defects in pyruvate metabolism, mitochondrial fatty acids oxidation, the citric acid cycle or electron transport by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These metabolic alterations produce mitochondrial diseases that have been related to inherited syndromes, such as MERRF or MELAS. The main affected organs are brain, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart and liver, because of the high energetic demand and the oxidative metabolism. Moreover, the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegenerative processes, such as Parkinson disease or Alzheimer disease, as well as ageing, has been shown. Because mitochondrias are the target of several xenobiotics, such as aspirin, AZT or alcohol consumption, mitochondrial impairment has also been proposed as a mechanism of toxicity. Most laboratory tests that are available in the diagnosis of mitochondrial illness are assayed in tissue biopsies and are usually difficult to interpret. Recently, it has been shown that non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproic acid breath test, may be useful to assess mitochondrial function. This article attempts to show the laboratory approach to mitochondrial diseases, reviewing new techniques that could be of great value in the research of mitochondrial function, such as the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproic breath test. PMID:11800289

Parra, D; González, A; Mugueta, C; Martínez, A; Monreal, I

2001-09-01

276

Approaching ? without fine-tuning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the fine-tuning problem of dark energy cosmologies which arises when the dark energy density needs to initially lie in a narrow range in order for its present value to be consistent with observations. As recently noticed, this problem becomes particularly severe in canonical quintessence scenarios, when trying to reproduce the behavior of a cosmological constant, i.e., when the dark energy equation of state wQ approaches -1: these models may be reconciled with a large basin of attraction only by requiring a rapid evolution of wQ at low redshifts, which is in conflict with the most recent estimates from type Ia Supernovae discovered by Hubble space telescope. Next, we focus on scalar-tensor theories of gravity, discussing the implications of a coupling between the quintessence scalar field and the Ricci scalar ('extended quintessence'). We show that, even if the equation of state today is very close to -1, by virtue of the scalar-tensor coupling the quintessence trajectories still possess the attractive feature which allows to reach the present level of cosmic acceleration starting by a set of initial conditions which covers tens of orders of magnitude; this effect, entirely of gravitational origin, represents a new important consequence of the possible coupling between dark energy and gravity. We illustrate this effect in typical extended quintessence scenarios

277

Systems approaches to Coronavirus pathogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronaviruses comprise a large group of emergent human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV strains that cause significant morbidity and mortality in infected individuals, especially the elderly. As emergent viruses may cause episodic outbreaks of disease over time, human samples are limited. Systems biology and genetic technologies maximize opportunities for identifying critical host and viral genetic factors that regulate susceptibility and virus-induced disease severity. These approaches provide discovery platforms that highlight and allow targeted confirmation of critical targets for prophylactics and therapeutics, especially critical in an outbreak setting. Although poorly understood, it has long been recognized that host regulation of virus-associated disease severity is multigenic. The advent of systems genetic and biology resources provides new opportunities for deconvoluting the complex genetic interactions and expression networks that regulate pathogenic or protective host response patterns following virus infection. Using SARS-CoV as a model, dynamic transcriptional network changes and disease-associated phenotypes have been identified in different genetic backgrounds, leading to the promise of population-wide discovery of the underpinnings of Coronavirus pathogenesis. PMID:24842079

Schäfer, Alexandra; Baric, Ralph S; Ferris, Martin T

2014-06-01

278

Dosimetric approaches: pregnancy and lactation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern to the evaluation of radiation dose since radiation protection point of view: a)- The females overall body size and organ sizes are generally smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics), the effective doses could be 25 per cent higher than a man; b)- Female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry; female gonads doses could be up to 10 or 30 higher than male gonads (usually 3 order); c)- Risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; d)- During the pregnancy due to placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation exposure from the urinary bladder the embryo/fetus could receive doses that must be avoid; e)- In the case of nursing infant is of special concern in such an analysis to determine the interruption period to avoid doses in the nursing infant. The dosimetric approaches to take account to assess internal doses in the pregnant woman and during the breast feeding are discussed. (author)

279

Multidisciplinary approaches to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

After hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. The etiology of ICC in most patients is not known, but its incidence is on the rise worldwide. There are 3 morphologic subtypes of ICC that can be characterized on cross-sectional imaging, mass forming, periductal infiltrating, and intraductal growth; and the radiographic characteristics of ICC may vary based on the subtype. Complete surgical resection remains the only potentially curative option for patients with ICC. Routine lymphadenectomy at the time of surgical resection should be strongly considered, because lymph node status provides important prognostic information. After surgery, the 5-year survival rate for ICC remains poor at only 25% to 35% in most series. Although numerous clinical trials have been conducted using a variety of chemotherapy regimens to treat ICC, systemic options for ICC remain limited. Doublet gemcitabine and cisplatin therapy is currently considered the standard-of-care first-line therapy for patients with advanced disease. Because ICC is typically confined to the liver and systemic chemotherapy traditionally has had only limited efficacy, there has been increasing interest in locoregional therapy. Although locoregional therapy may include intra-arterial therapies, stereotactic radiotherapy, hepatic artery pump therapy, or ablation, most data are limited. The purpose of this article was to provide a multidisciplinary appraisal of the current therapeutic approaches to ICC. PMID:23963845

Maithel, Shishir K; Gamblin, T Clark; Kamel, Ihab; Corona-Villalobos, Celia Pamela; Thomas, Melanie; Pawlik, Timothy M

2013-11-15

280

Repository Closure and Sealing Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

 
 
 
 
281

Approach to crevice chemistry inferences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An approach to crevice chemistry inferences is presented. NWT reviewed the ionic species return after plant cooldown data for twelve PWRs. The data are limited since, generally, only data for sodium, magnesium and calcium cations, and chloride and sulfate anions are included. The solution chemistries were reviewed with respect to cation to anion equivalence ratios based on the following assumptions: all sodium, potassium, chloride and fluoride remain soluble; sulfate precipitates to the extent that calcium is present with residual sulfate remaining soluble; and all remaining calcium and magnesium precipitates as silicates. Plant chemistries were inferred as basic if their cation to anion equivalence ratio was greater than about 1.2 and acidic if the ratio was less than about 0.8. The total return chemistries after shutdown for various outages for the twelve plants were identified. The inferred pH conditions are also identified for each of those outages. These inferred pH conditions were then compared with the occurrence of intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the plants' steam generators. The occurrence of IGA and IGSCC appeared to correlate with an inferred pH that was basic. Plants with acidic conditions or with basic conditions and a phosphate buffer did not experience this corrosion

282

[Structural approach of vascular aging].  

Science.gov (United States)

The cardiovascular system is one of those target-organ systems of senescence where the effects of physiological ageing meet the consequences, accumulated with time, of pathological disorders. In man, these two processes are not easily disentangled, and despite the advances achieved in ultrasonic techniques the approach of structural parameters remains difficult. On the other hand, the morphological and functional unicity of the vascular wall in different species is such that observations made in animals are relevant. In rats, the structure-function relationship can be determined by histomorphometric analysis of the myocardium and vascular wall under standardized conditions of treatment. As the animals get older, the cardiac mass, related or not to body-weight, increases while the cardiac efficacy decreases. Hypertrophy of the heart is accompanied by a change in the enzymatic property of myosin. Simultaneously, the walls of the greater arteries become thicker, more rigid and less compliant, hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells being an essential component of vascular wall thickening. At the same time, the collagen fraction and the amount of collagen-bound calcium increase. The elastic component decreases, at least relatively, and the elastin-collagen ratio clearly diminishes with age. Altogether, these alterations are not different from those observed in human arterial hypertension. They result in a lesser permeability of the tunica media, facilitate the accumulation in the subendothelium of lipidic and/or proteinic compounds originating in plasma and constitute a link between ageing and atheromatous processes. PMID:1409471

Camilleri, J P

1992-07-22

283

New Approaches to Social Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social economy is a relatively new phenomenon, having started just a few decades ago, and due to this reason it has yet to reach great scale. Due to the phenomenon of global crisis propagation, the economies of all countries have been affected and have gone into an economical cycle recession phase, some economical agents hitting the climax of the crisis, practically shutting down their activities. Starting from this, some social problems started to accentuate: the number of unemployed people has risen, the poverty rate went up, the marginalization and social exclusion rates went up, the aging of the population has increased, the discrepancy between the rich and poor has widened and so on, and in this context social economy has gained a greater importance not only at an European level but also at an international level. As such, social economy may become one of the innovative and creative solutions which can contribute to a more human approach to economical problems, combining freedom of market with social responsibility to the benefit of the whole community.

Daniela VÎRJAN

2012-06-01

284

Current clinical approach to achalasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idiopathic achalasia is a rare primary motility disorder of the esophagus. The classical features are incomplete relaxation of a frequently hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES and a lack of peristalsis in the tubular esophagus. These motor abnormalities lead to dysphagia, stasis, regurgitation, weight loss, or secondary respiratory complications. Although major strides have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this rare disorder, including a probable autoimmune mediated destruction of inhibitory neurons in response to an unknown insult in genetically susceptible individuals, a definite trigger has not been identified. The diagnosis of achalasia is suggested by clinical features and confirmed by further diagnostic tests, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, manometry or barium swallow. These studies are not only used to exclude pseudoachalasia, but also might help to categorize the disease by severity or clinical subtype. Recent advances in diagnostic methods, including high resolution manometry (HRM, might allow prediction of treatment responses. The primary treatments for achieving long-term symptom relief are surgery and endoscopic methods. Although limited high-quality data exist, it appears that laparoscopic Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication is superior to endoscopic methods in achieving long-term relief of symptoms in the majority of patients. However, the current clinical approach to achalasia will depend not only on patients’ characteristics and clinical subtypes of the disease, but also on local expertise and patient preferences.

Alexander J Eckardt, Volker F Eckardt

2009-08-01

285

Development planning: A systematic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primary goal of an oil or gas field development is to maximize the present value of the investment. A systematically-prepared Plan of Development (POD) can assist operators in achieving the goal by ensuring that all factors are considered in evaluating, planning, and carrying out the field development. A POD should contain an evaluation of all major events that realistically may occur during the field development cycle. By considering these events in the planning stage their probability of occurrence, effect on operations, and risk-weighted financial impact can be analyzed before field development begins. Depending upon the financial impact of the event, the field development strategy can be planned to alter the probability of occurrence or to reduce the consequences of the event. The contents of a systematic plan of development are presented and discussed: design basis, exploitation, operations and maintenance, engineering, and economics. Two Southeast Asian Field examples are used to illustrate how field economics would have been enhanced had a development plan been prepared using a systematic approach

286

ECG Signal Analysis: Different Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several challenges in solving biomedical problems and making Digital Signal Processing as an essential and effective pedagogical approach to solve a problem of detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG signals. The detection of QRS complex has many clinical applications as it marks the beginning of the left ventricular contraction. A lot of possible heart malfunctions such as cardiac arrhythmias, transient ischemic episodes and silent myocardial ischemia or failures will be slow while monitoring of ECG signal in real-time during normal activity. Introducing an efficient method for arrhythmia detection can be very useful for better conceptual understanding of signal processing. In this paper, we discussed two methods to clean ECG signal corrupted by noise and to extract required parameters for detecting arrhythmia condition. One method is Hilbert Transform method and another method is Filter Bank method. These methods involve using filter techniques, algorithms of finding peaks & valleys, local maxima & minima etc, for determining R peaks, R-R intervals and QRS complexes.

S. Thulasi Prasad

2014-01-01

287

The Structural Collapse Approach Reconsidered  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo argumentaré que la reformulación que Roy Cook (forthcoming) hace de la paradoja de yablo en el sistema infinitario D es una genuina paradoja no circular, pero por motivos distintos a los defendidos por ese autor. La primera parte del trabajo consiste en mostrar que la ausencia de pun [...] tos fijos en la construcción es insuficiente para demostrar su no circularidad, a lo sumo prueba su no autorreferencialidad. La segunda parte consiste en volver a considerar el enfoque del colapso estructural que Cook rechaza, y argumentar que una correcta comprensión del mismo revela que la paradoja es genuinamente no circular. Abstract in english I will argue that Roy Cook’s (forthcoming) reformulation of Yablo’s Paradox in the infinitary system D is a genuinely non-circular paradox, but for different reasons than the ones he sustained. In fact, the first part of the job will be to show that his argument regarding the absence of fixed points [...] in the construction is insufficient to prove the noncircularity of it; at much it proves its non-self referentiality. The second is to reconsider the structural collapse approach Cook rejects, and argue that a correct understanding of it leads us to the claim that the infinitary paradox is actually non-circular.

Ignacio, Ojea.

2012-05-01

288

Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

2014-05-01

289

An optogenetic approach in epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optogenetic tools comprise a variety of different light-sensitive proteins from single-cell organisms that can be expressed in mammalian neurons and effectively control their excitability. Two main classes of optogenetic tools allow to either depolarize or hyperpolarize, and respectively generate or inhibit action potentials in selective populations of neurons. This opens unprecedented possibilities for delineating the role of certain neuronal populations in brain processing and diseases. Moreover, optogenetics may be considered for developing potential treatment strategies for brain diseases, particularly for excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Expression of the inhibitory halorhodopsin NpHR in hippocampal principal cells has been recently used as a tool to effectively control chemically and electrically induced epileptiform activity in slice preparations, and to reduce in vivo spiking induced by tetanus toxin injection in the motor cortex. In this review we give a comprehensive summary of what has been achieved so far in the field of epilepsy using optogenetics, and discuss some of the possible strategies that could be envisaged in the future. We also point out some of the challenges and pitfalls in relation to possible outcomes of using optogenetics for controlling network excitability, and associated brain diseases. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'New Targets and Approaches to the Treatment of Epilepsy'. PMID:22698957

Kokaia, Merab; Andersson, My; Ledri, Marco

2013-06-01

290

Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

291

Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

Nasibeh Faghih

2013-01-01

292

Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

Misra Usha

2008-01-01

293

Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions. PMID:25071503

Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele; Mueller, Karsten; Buschmann, Tilo; Turner, Robert

2014-01-01

294

Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions. PMID:25071503

Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele; Mueller, Karsten; Buschmann, Tilo; Turner, Robert

2014-01-01

295

The Wonder Approach to learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

L'Ecuyer, Catherine

2014-01-01

296

The wonder approach to learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder, no end or meaning (no beauty and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment, the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole.

Catherine L'Ecuyer

2014-10-01

297

Understanding Progress: A Heterodox Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of understanding and measuring well-being as a result of “progress” on the basis of today’s dominant epistemological framework. Market criteria distort social values by allowing purchasing power to define priorities, likening luxury goods to basic needs; in the process they reinforce patterns of discrimination against disadvantaged social groups and women, introducing fatal distortions into the analysis. Similarly, because there are no appropriate mechanisms to price natural resources adequately, the market overlooks the consequences of the abuse of natural resources, degrading the quality of life, individually and collectively, or—in the framework of Latin American indigenous groups—foreclosing the possibility of “living well”. We critique the common vision of the official development discourse that places its faith on technological innovations to resolve these problems. The analysis points to the need for new models of social and environmental governance to promote progress, approaches like those suggested in the paper that are inconsistent with public policies currently in place. At present, the social groups forging institutions to assure their own well-being and ecological balance are involved in local processes, often in opposition to the proposals of the political leaders in their countries.

Blanca Lemus

2013-01-01

298

Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A possible scenario of the Boomerang mission includes the approach to Deimos prior to the landing of Phobos. The needed excess ?V w.r.t. simple scenario (elliptical orbit à near-Phobos orbit) amounts to 0.67 km s-1 (1.6 vs 0.93 km s-1). The Boomerang mission basically repeats the Phobos-SR (2011) architecture, where the transfer-orbiting spacecraft lands on the Phobos surface and a small return vehicle launches the return capsule to Earth. We consider the Boomerang mission as an important step in Mars exploration and a direct precursor of Mars Sample Return. The following elements of the Boomerang mission might be directly employed, or serve as the prototypes for the Mars Sample return in future: Return vehicle, Earth descent module, Transfer-orbital spacecraft. We urge the development of this project for its high science value and recognize its elements as potential national contribution to an international Mars Sample Return project. Galimov E.M., Phobos sample return mission: scientific substantiation, Solar System Res., v.44, No.1, pp5-14, 2010. Chappaz L., H.J. Melosh, M. Vaguero, and K.C. Howell, Material transfer from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos, 43rd Lunar and planetary Science Conference, paper 1422, 2012.

Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

299

Pulmonary embolism: A diagnostic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the availability of many diagnostic modalities and the advent of new tests, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE remains a challenge. Clinical manifestations can be notoriously deceptive and there is not a single test, that can be relied on solely, to exclude PE. Although it has been regarded as the gold standard test, pulmonary angiography has not been tested against a reference standard and thromboembolic events have been reported after a normal study. Therefore the diagnosis of PE depends on judicious utilization of the available tests in the right clinical setting, as the accuracy of the results of the investigations, depends largely on the pretest clinical probability. Simple investigations such as chest radiograph, electrocardiogram and arterial blood gas, are used to enhance the clinical probabilities, rather than confirming or refuting the diagnosis of PE. On the other hand, Perfusion ventilation (VQ scan and computerized tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA, are the main screening tests used for patients with suspected PE. Recently CTPA has largely replaced VQ scan, in many centres. As both VQ scan and CTPA have their limitations, other diagnostic modalities, such as D-dimer and Compression ultrasound of the legs (CUS, are used as adjunctive diagnostic investigations. High probability and normal VQ scan, especially when combined with the concordant clinical probability, has a high positive and negative predicative value, respectively. On the other hand, CTPA is more sensitive and specific than VQ scan, though it has to be combined with CUS and clinical probability, to reduce the chance of missing PE. Although many diagnostic algorithms have been advocated, the discretion of the clinician and clinical experience, still has a major role to play in the diagnosis of PE. In this article, we try to come with a plausible approach to the diagnosis of PE, based on the current literature.

Abdelaziz Muntasir

2006-01-01

300

Diagnostic approach to cardiac amyloidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyloidosis is a relatively rare disease that may be underdiagnosed and could affect the entire human body. Many organs may be affected, which could increase the morbidity and mortality. Cardiac involvement is the leading cause of poor prognosis. Patients with cardiac amyloidosis are usually admitted with heart failure. The clinical presentation varies greatly, and using the correct approach is important in identifying cardiac amyloidosis. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic heart failure. He had increased brain natriuretic peptide levels, a low ejection fraction, and left and right ventricular hypertrophy with granular sparkling as seen by echocardiography. These findings led us to perform a cardiac biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Further investigation revealed that the patient had amyloid light-chain type amyloidosis due to multiple myeloma. He is now undergoing the 3rd phase of chemotherapy. Congo-red stain is usually used by physicians to histologically confirm amyloidosis, with which apple-green birefringence indicates amyloid deposits. Other stains such as direct fast scarlet (DFS) and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) can also confirm the presence of amyloid deposits. In the present case, DFS and HE were used, both of which suggested amyloid deposits surrounding myocardial cells. The use of a combination of stains can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of amyloidosis. However, the typical echocardiographic appearances would be enough to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis when it is impossible for the patient to undergo a cardiac biopsy, if an additional histological specimen from another tissue such as abdominal fat confirms amyloidosis. PMID:25011639

Amin, Hilman Zulkifli; Mori, Shumpei; Sasaki, Naoto; Hirata, Kenichi

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

Lambovska Maya

2011-09-01

302

A structural approach for measuring fiscal disparities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiscal disparities arise from differences in costs and capacity to produce a standard package of public services. This paper proposes to use a structural modelling approach as basis for measuring fiscal disparities across municipalities. This approach differs from the widely used reduced-form approach, in the sense that identification of minimum required costs or expenditure need is made by reference to a structural model of the fiscal and spending behavior of local governments. The empirical...

Langørgen, Audun; Aaberge, Rolf

1999-01-01

303

Unified mechanical approach to piezoelectric bender modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anewanalytical modeling approach for piezoelectric bending elements is described. The approach is based on the beam theory under quasi-static equilibrium condition. It uses the theory of superposition of piezoelectric action in the bender and external moments and forces acting on the bender. Due to the differential approach, this model is applicable to any geometrical design for which the beam theory holds. The distinction between the piezoelectric action and the external loads makes the mode...

Dunsch, Robert; Breguet, Jean-marc

2006-01-01

304

Heuristic Approach for Balancing Shift Schedules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a heuristic approach for balancing shift schedules is proposed. For the shift schedules, various constraints which have usually been considered in realworld industry are used, and the objective is to minimize the differences of the workloads in each workgroup. The constraints and objective function are implemented in the proposed heuristic approach. Using a simple instance, the efficiency of the proposed heuristic approach is proved

305

A data mining approach to computational taxonomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates an approach of knowledge discovery and data mining in insufficient databases. An application of Computational Taxonomy analysis demonstrates that the approach is effective in such a data mining process. The approach is characterized by the use ot both the second type of domain knowledge and visualization. This type of knowledge is newly defined in this study and deduced from supposition about background situations of the domain. The supposition is triggered by strong i...

Perichinsky, Gregorio; Garci?a Marti?nez, Ramo?n

2000-01-01

306

A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA

2009-01-01

307

A surgical approach to posterior pilon fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior pilon fractures are injuries of the posterior tibial plafond that likely occur through a combined rotational and axial load mechanism and are often difficult to treat with standard surgical approaches to the ankle. We describe an alternative surgical approach to this injury using posteromedial, posterolateral, or combined approaches and present a series of patients with either radiographic or functional outcomes at a minimum of 1-year follow up that were treated by this method. PMID:20182256

Amorosa, Louis F; Brown, Gabriel D; Greisberg, Justin

2010-03-01

308

THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the cri...

MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE; BOGDAN GEORGESCU

2012-01-01

309

Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communica- tion offers a variety of activities, projects, and approaches to energize pedagogy in technical communication and to provide a constructive critique of current practice. A practical collection, the approaches recommended here are readily adaptable to a range of technological and institutional contexts, as well as being theoretically grounded and pedagogically sound. Throughout the collection, its editors and contributors demonstrate the i...

Bridgeford, Tracy; Kitalong, Karla Saari; Selfe, Richard

2004-01-01

310

English Reading Base on Social Constructivist Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explains the constructivist approach to reading teaching and shows how a dialogic approach to reading empowers readers to position themselves as participants in making meaning together with the text and its authors, rather than remaining as mute outsiders to the reading process. This shift in constructing reader -roles means that our students need to take a strategic approach to their reading, and will need careful scaffolding to help them develop effective, independent reading str...

Qian Huang

2009-01-01

311

A HYBRID APPROACH FOR RURAL FEEDER DESIGN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a population based approach for conductor size selection in rural radial distribution system is presented. The proposed hybrid approach implies a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach in combination with mutant property of differential evolution (DE) for conductor size selection in radial distribution system. The conductor size for each feeder segment is selected such that the total cost of capital investment and capitalized cost of energy losses is minimized while constra...

DAMANJEET KAUR

2012-01-01

312

Optimal online learning: a Bayesian approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently proposed Bayesian approach to online learning is applied to learning a rule defined as a noisy single layer perceptron. In the Bayesian online approach, the exact posterior distribution is approximated by a simple parametric posterior that is updated online as new examples are incorporated to the dataset. In the case of binary weights, the approximate posterior is chosen to be a biased binary distribution. The resulting online algorithm is shown to outperform several other online approaches to this problem.

Solla, Sara A.; Winther, Ole

1999-09-01

313

The rehabilitative approach in rheumatoid arthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rehabilitative approach for the patient with rheumatoid arthritis should be early, global and complementary to an early pharmacological therapy, in the context of a multidisciplinary approach, that should include physicians with different specialties and other health professionals. Evaluation scales assessing disability and quality of life are necessary for the rehabilitative approach. These can be classified in 2 groups: specific tools and generic tools, each evaluating different compone...

Pappone, N.; Maddali Bongi, S.; Arioli, G.

2011-01-01

314

Some important points of the French safety approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The traditional deterministic approach has been completed with the development of the French electronuclear program mainly in two directions: the probabilistic approach and the approach of severe accidents

315

Hopf bifurcation analysis a frequency domain approach  

CERN Document Server

This book is devoted to the frequency domain approach, for both regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcation analyses. Besides showing that the time and frequency domain approaches are in fact equivalent, the fact that many significant results and computational formulas obtained in the studies of regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcations from the time domain approach can be translated and reformulated into the corresponding frequency domain setting, and be reconfirmed and rediscovered by using the frequency domain methods, is also explained. The description of how the frequency domain approach can b

Moiola, Jorge L

1996-01-01

316

Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

2000-01-01

317

Multiperipheral and polyperipheral approaches to pionization  

CERN Document Server

Introduction of Regge trajectories in addition to the pomeron, which appears in Mueller's approach to pionization, is shown to predict a small dip. The analysis is motivated by a multiperipheral approach. The question whether this approach may lead to an understanding of the peak in the pionic distribution or the asymmetry effect is discussed. A new (polyperipheral) approach based on the exchange of several chains is introduced in order to account for the observed effects. It leads naturally to Mandelstam cuts and is compared with a partonic picture. (16 refs).

Bishari, M; Nussinov, S

1972-01-01

318

A psychological approach to the study skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many researches about the formation of professional skills for pedagogical students during training process, and they have given certain results. These researches often approach this problem follow two ways.First, it is the way which approaches to technique aspects and manipulation of the action during the process of human activities. Second, it is the way which approaches to capacity of human actions. We would like to approach toward skills which are the ability to perform an action of human being.

Fang K. L.

2012-12-01

319

Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

Dale, Michael

2010-09-15

320

A Unified Approach to Modeling and Programming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

SIMULA was a language for modeling and programming and provided a unied approach to modeling and programming in contrast to methodologies based on structured analysis and design. The current development seems to be going in the direction of separation of modeling and programming. The goal of this paper is to go back to the future and get inspiration from SIMULA and propose a unied approach. In addition to reintroducing the contributions of SIMULA and the Scandinavian approach to object-oriented programming, we do this by discussing a number of issues in modeling and programming and argue3 why we consider a unied approach to be an advantage.

Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; MØller-Pedersen, Birger

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Belene nuclear power plant contracting approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

contracting approaches can be briefly summarized as follows: Turnkey Approach - main advantages: all responsibilities rest in a Contractor or Consortium. Main disadvantages - limited project control by Owner and restricted local participation. For Split Package Contract Approach main advantage are more favorable financing conditions and increased local participation. Main disadvantage is the increased interface problems. For Multiple package Contract Approach main advantages are the opportunity to tailor the plant and maximum increase of local participation. Main disadvantages are maximum responsibility to the Owner due to interfaces and compatibility of systems and technologies. (author)

322

Physical approach to complex systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but turned out to be very useful also in physics - like, for example, fractal geometry. Further methods discussed borrow from the formalism of complex networks, from the theory of critical phenomena and from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Each of these methods is helpful in analyses of specific aspects of complexity and all of them are mutually complementary.

Kwapie?, Jaros?aw; Dro?d?, Stanis?aw

2012-06-01

323

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

2008-01-01

324

Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a…

Harper, Casandra E.

2011-01-01

325

Optimization approach within an interventional radiology department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present an approach aimed at optimizing working conditions and radioprotection for the different actors in interventional radiology. This approach comprises a monitoring of personnel dosimetry, a workstation analysis with risk assessment, and the taking into account of patient dosimetry. For each of these aspects, the authors discuss procedures and available devices (dosemeters and other detection or dose measurement equipment)

326

An Agile Course-Delivery Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the world of software development, agile methodologies have gained popularity thanks to their lightweight methodologies and flexible approach. Many advocates believe that agile methodologies can provide significant benefits if applied in the educational environment as a teaching method. The need for an approach that engages and motivates…

Capellan, Mirkeya

2009-01-01

327

Constructivist Approaches for Career Counselors. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

A constructivist framework can often appear vague and abstract to the novice counselor. The abstract and nebulous realm of meaning-making, which is central to constructivist approaches, can be frustrating for a linear, task-oriented counselor. This digest explains the approaches used in constructivist counseling. The need to use constructivist…

Hoskins, Marie

328

Non deterministic approach of neutronic. Modelization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fundamental hypothesis on which lays neutronic codes is that the neutron number is sufficiently great for able representing by a density function. In this study we present an adjoint approach which permits the determination of the mean number of particles in function of initial or particular conditions. The non deterministic approach allows then to determine a statistic dispersion around this mean number

329

The approaches to learning of specialist physicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have provided information about the approaches to studying and learning used by medical students. However, no published work is available on the approaches of practising doctors. The Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory for Medical Students (ADLIMS) was modified and administered to a random sample of 308 physicians (internists). Generally speaking, physicians seem to have lower scores on surface approach and higher scores on deep approach than students. Level of clinical experience did not appear to influence this finding. However, marked differences were apparent between the approaches adopted by physicians with additional postgraduate academic training and those without. The former had a much stronger tendency to use the more desirable deep approach. The latter seemed to rely more on the less desirable surface approach. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine whether this difference is attributable to self-selection of those who have already developed a deep approach or is causally related to a training in research. Although these findings must be interpreted with caution, some implications are clear. Physicians should become more aware of the way they learn and about the way they teach. Inappropriate patterns of learning may be entrenched during the undergraduate and immediate postgraduate years. If validated, these findings may provide support for the inclusion of research projects in medical school and during specialist training. PMID:2319967

Newble, D I; Hejka, E J; Whelan, G

1990-03-01

330

CLP Approaches to 2D Angle Placements  

CERN Document Server

The paper presents two CLP approaches to 2D angle placements, implemented in CHIP v.5.3. The first is based on the classical (rectangular) cumulative global constraint, the second on the new trapezoidal cumulative global constraint. Both approaches are applied to a specific presented.

Szczygiel, T

2001-01-01

331

Approaches to Study of Distance Education Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 89 on-campus and 50 teleconferencing students (71 percent response) showed that 83 percent of externals were over 19 and 94 percent of internals were 18 or less. External students had higher scores for intrinsic motivation, interrelating ideas, and deep approach; internal students for fear of failure, surface approach, achievement…

Wong, Shu-Lun

1992-01-01

332

Reflections on Narrative Approaches to Moral Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares narrative approaches to Kohlberg's theory of moral development along five dimensions: values relevance, legitimacy, universality, rationality, and commensurability. Argues that, contrary to Kohlberg's theory, narrative approaches may lead to contradiction in epistemology, nihilism in moral choices, and opportunism in relationships.…

Lourenco, Orlando

1996-01-01

333

Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

2012-01-01

334

The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.

2008-01-01

335

The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

2004-01-01

336

An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

MacNab, Brent R.

2012-01-01

337

Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…

2002

338

Rehabilitating the Patient with Arthritis: Team Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Canadian family physicians must revolutionize their approach to the treatment of patients with arthritis. The consequences of the disease are so diverse that it demands a total approach by a team of specially trained professionals. By learning what the rehabilitation team offers, the physician can create treatment strategies and help improve the patient's quality of life.

Guthrie, Nancy

1990-01-01

339

Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

2007-01-01

340

Making Sense of Approaches to Moral Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a metatheoretical analysis of "approaches" to moral education and how we make sense of them. Such approaches are commonly analyzed with simple, binary category schemes, for example, being categorized as either 'indirect' or 'direct' in nature. This kind of minimal framework clearly oversimplifies the complex nature of any…

Sanger, Matthew; Osguthorpe, Richard

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Conceptual approach to modeling karst development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karst is probably one of the most complicated hydrogeological systems at all.Its structure is complex and it changes in time. In the article conceptual approaches are described which could help establishing numerical simulation models for karst development. These approaches repose on the systems theory and the concept of the pure karst.

Mihael Bren?i?

1995-12-01

342

Conceptual approach to modeling karst development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Karst is probably one of the most complicated hydrogeological systems at all.Its structure is complex and it changes in time. In the article conceptual approaches are described which could help establishing numerical simulation models for karst development. These approaches repose on the systems theory and the concept of the pure karst.

Mihael Bren?i?

1995-01-01

343

A Gentle Approach for Young Infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gentle Approach is a method for lifting infants younger than 6 months that promotes security and reassurance during adult-imposed changes in position. Developed at the Emmi Pilker National Methodological Institute for Residential Nurseries in Budapest, Hungary, the approach provides continual support and less opportunity for unprotected…

Suskind, Diana; Kozma, Marta

344

Narrative approach in psychological support of families  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are discussed opportunities of the narrative approach in psychological support of families. Advantages of the narrative approach are brevity, high efficiency and possibility to transfer responsibility for changes to families. In article such psychological technicians as a deconstruction, externalization, writing of alternative story are considered.

Preobrazhenskaya A. O.

2012-03-01

345

A STRATEGIC APPROACH OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a long time, management accounting has been used based on a predominantly technical approach which strictly aimed at computing the costs. Gradually, to the management accounting it has been added a decisional approach aimed at influencing the behaviou

Grosu Corina

2009-05-01

346

A Novel Approach to Teaching Teamwork  

Science.gov (United States)

Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are "practically" based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during the…

Drake, Robert; Goldsmith, Geraldine; Strachan, Rebecca

2006-01-01

347

Fictitious Cavity Approach to the Casimir Effect  

CERN Document Server

We obtain expressions for the Casimir energy and force following an approach which may be applied to cavities made up of arbitrary materials. In the case of planar cavities we obtain the well known Lifshitz formula. The approach is easily generalizable to other geometries.

Mochan, W Luis

2007-01-01

348

A Completely Covariant Approach to Transformation Optics  

CERN Document Server

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics.

Thompson, R T; Frauendiener, J

2010-01-01

349

A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

1986-01-01

350

Effects of Teacher Training in Disciplinary Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of four approaches to teacher preparation in classroom discipline, including Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training, Adlerian-based approaches, Glasser's Reality Therapy, and Canter's Assertive Discipline, are reviewed in this document. These systems have been widely used for inservice teacher education for a decade or more, and each has…

Emmer, Edmund T.

351

Televised Dance: Evaluation of Three Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine whether dance-trained, television-trained, and regular television viewing audiences would evaluate different approaches to televising dance differently. Three versions of a dance performance were videotaped: (1) version A, a one-camera, one-shot recording; (2) version B, a two-camera, real-time-edited approach

Oglesbee, Frank W.

352

A completely covariant approach to transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

353

Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The human capabilities approach developed by the economist Amartya Sen links development, quality of life and freedom. This article explores the key ideas in the capability approach of: capability, functioning, agency, human diversity and public participation in generating valued capabilities. It then considers how these ideas relate specifically…

Walker, Melanie

2005-01-01

354

Probabilistic approach to earthquake prediction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evaluation of any earthquake forecast hypothesis requires the application of rigorous statistical methods. It implies a univocal definition of the model characterising the concerned anomaly or precursor, so as it can be objectively recognised in any circumstance and by any observer.A valid forecast hypothesis is expected to maximise successes and minimise false alarms. The probability gain associated to a precursor is also a popular way to estimate the quality of the predictions based on such precursor. Some scientists make use of a statistical approach based on the computation of the likelihood of an observed realisation of seismic events, and on the comparison of the likelihood obtained under different hypotheses. This method can be extended to algorithms that allow the computation of the density distribution of the conditional probability of earthquake occurrence in space, time and magnitude. Whatever method is chosen for building up a new hypothesis, the final assessment of its validity should be carried out by a test on a new and independent set of observations. The implementation of this test could, however, be problematic for seismicity characterised by long-term recurrence intervals. Even using the historical record, that may span time windows extremely variable between a few centuries to a few millennia, we have a low probability to catch more than one or two events on the same fault. Extending the record of earthquakes of the past back in time up to several millennia, paleoseismology represents a great opportunity to study how earthquakes recur through time and thus provide innovative contributions to time-dependent seismic hazard assessment. Sets of paleoseimologically dated earthquakes have been established for some faults in the Mediterranean area: the Irpinia fault in Southern Italy, the Fucino fault in Central Italy, the El Asnam fault in Algeria and the Skinos fault in Central Greece. By using the age of the paleoearthquakes with their associated uncertainty we have computed, through a Montecarlo procedure, the probability that the observed inter-event times come from a uniform random distribution (null hypothesis. This probability is estimated approximately equal to 8.4% for the Irpinia fault, 0.5% for the Fucino fault, 49% for the El Asnam fault and 42% for the Skinos fault. So, the null Poisson hypothesis can be rejected with a confidence level of 99.5% for the Fucino fault, but it can be rejected only with a confidence level between 90% and 95% for the Irpinia fault, while it cannot be rejected for the other two cases. As discussed in the last section of this paper, whatever the scientific value of any prediction hypothesis, it should be considered effective only after evaluation of the balance between the costs and benefits introduced by its practical implementation.

G. D'Addezio

2002-06-01

355

NRTMA: Common purpose; complementary approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Near Real Time Material Accountancy (NRTMA) is a leading edge technical solution to in- process verification in bulk handling facilities. It facilitates non-intrusive inspection and allows safeguards conclusions to be drawn without plant shut down. NRTMA is fully operational in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp), providing regular assurance of high quality material control. At its core are a number of statistical algorithms to process the data. This paper covers the techniques deployed by BNFL and Euratom for NRTMA in the Thorp facility located at Sellafield. As early as 1982, a number of important decisions were taken by BNFL in support of safeguards. In addition to the pursuit of high precision measurement of nuclear materials flow, BNFL set out a comprehensive suite of instrumentation to allow frequent nuclear materials inventory determination and materials balancing. These instruments provide Euratom with a comprehensive set of plant-specific data in computerised form. The operator and the safeguards regulator have complementary requirements from the working NRTMA System for nuclear material control. BNFL requires uninterrupted operation whilst demonstrating full compliance with all regulations. In practice, this means that plutonium plants can remain operational between annual Physical Inventory Takings, and a system of early warnings and diagnostic indicators are available continuously to the operator and the inspectors. The Safeguards Inspectorate, of course, wants to be assured that there has been no diversion of plutonium, in line with safeguards goals. During commissioning, BNFL's NRTMA System has focused on identifying any underlying uncertainties in the measurements systems. Error components have been identified and quantified by anomaly resolution tools and by process investigations. This has been invaluable in identifying specific effects and in providing a running overview of plant accountancy performance. The NRTMA process models and methods for in-process inventory determination were further refined in this period. BNFL is now extending the NRTMA System to farther integrate remaining estimates of systematic uncertainties. Euratom's safeguards inspection scheme has taken advantage of the BNFL NRTMA System. From a verification point of view, NRTMA supports fulfilment of the monthly timeliness component of the safeguards approach. The flow component of the system is covered by extensive verification activities on a continuous inspection basis using a wide range of safeguards techniques such as process monitoring, C/S and independent safeguards equipment. Euratom and BNFL have worked in a spirit of co-operation, co-ordinated within a Framework Working Group. Provision of interim-inventories and the use of NRTMA were part of the criteria for European Commission approval of the safeguards techniques in the chemical plant reprocessing areas. These criteria and general terms of reference regarding the use of NRTMA were agreed between ESO and BNFL and recorded in a formal NRTMA Framework Document. The Data Evaluation Sector of ESO is the principal point of contact with BNFL on NRTMA statistical aspects. In order to evaluate NRTMA balances, a simplified process model was created by ESO, together with a related statistical model for the measurement errors and their propagation. It included the definition of particular testing variables suitable for safeguards anomaly detection, and sensitivity studies based on Monte Carlo simulations. ESO's need in evaluating the statistical analysis was to integrate the alarm probability level required with the assurance gained from other safeguards verifications, and maximise efficiency and effective use of inspector resources. The NRTMA data collection system fully supports interim inventory declaration. ESO consider alarms as being when all error components have been exceeded. The Inspectorate is routinely provided with interim inventory declarations at vessel level, in electronic form, and uses this to complement the BNFL analysis by conducting further sta

356

Visualization of nonprecision instrument approaches using VRML  

Science.gov (United States)

In this position paper we propose a synthetic vision software system for visualizing non-precision instrument approaches based on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) ISO/IEC CD 14772 standard which is conceptually included in the upcoming MPEG4 multimedia industry standard. In addition to the two dimensional information provided by traditional approach plates the user is presented a three dimensional representation of the approach with the ability to interactively investigate approach parameters. Due to its hardware independence, the system is scalable from general aviation to air transport and defense applications. As a proof of concept, we have modeled the non-precision approach (LOC/DME-C) to Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado.

Wagner, Michael G.; Hatakeyama, Alan

1999-07-01

357

Energy management - The delayed flap approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

Bull, J. S.

1976-01-01

358

Hybrid biasing approaches for global variance reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new variant of Monte Carlo—deterministic (DT) hybrid variance reduction approach based on Gaussian process theory is presented for accelerating convergence of Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS) approach implemented in the SCALE package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The new approach, denoted the Gaussian process approach, treats the responses of interest as normally distributed random processes. The Gaussian process approach improves the selection of the weight windows of simulated particles by identifying a subspace that captures the dominant sources of statistical response variations. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach utilizes particle importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive weight window biasing. In contrast to the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach identifies the response correlations (via a covariance matrix) and employs them to reduce the computational overhead required for global variance reduction (GVR) purpose. The effective rank of the covariance matrix identifies the minimum number of uncorrelated pseudo responses, which are employed to bias simulated particles. Numerical experiments, serving as a proof of principle, are presented to compare the Gaussian process and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation of the estimated responses. - Highlights: ? Hybrid Monte Carlo Deterministic Method based on Gaussian Process Model is introduced. ? Method employs deterministic model to calculate responses correlations. ? Method employs correlations to bias Monte Carlo transport. ? Method compared to FW-CADIS methodology in SCALE code. ? An order of magnitude speed up is achieved for a PWR core model.

359

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

360

Study strategies and approaches to learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study students’ study strategies have been compared to their approaches to learning. The time students spend on different study activities has been investigated at the Technical University of Denmark, and as a pilot project a few students also filled in a reduced version of Bigg's Study Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities. There was however a much stronger linear correlation (significant at the 0.01 level) between the deep-surface ratio and the totalstudy load. The same result was observed when measuring other students’ study strategy and learning approach for a single course. The empirical basis is still too limited to draw conclusive conclusions, but it raises some intriguing questions. Is time more important than the kind of learning activities for obtaining conceptual understanding – is all that matters from a teaching point of view to ensure that the students spend long hours studying?

Christensen, Hans Peter

 
 
 
 
361

A Dialectical Approach to Positive Organizational Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last decade, an academic movement emerged towards the study of positive phenomena in management and organization studies. Since then, two different scientific research streams have emerged in line with this positive approach to management: 1 positive organizational scholarship (POS, which proposes a trait approach view of positive virtues and strengths and sees the environment as a moderator variable which facilitates or not the exhibition of corresponding positive behaviours; and positive organizational behaviour (POB, which defends a state-like perspective of positive characteristics, thus putting a strong emphasis on situational factors as determinants of positive behaviour, leaving a marginal role to positive psychological traits. As a critical comparison between these two different research streams is yet to be done, in this paper I propose a dialectical approach to study positivity in organizations and contrast these two different ontological approaches to positivity in organizations. I presented arguments to demonstrate that each of these approaches alone constitute quite a limited proposal in that each of them seems to misleadingly assume that: traits cannot be changed; they show incongruence between assumptions and purpose and; they constitute biased viewpoints. A dialectical approach makes possible to overcome these shortcomings by assuming both personality characteristics and environmental features relate each other in an intertwined complex way to produce positive behaviour in organizations. I finally present some practical implications that a dialectical approach would have to organizations and managers.

Miguel Pereira Lopes

2013-04-01

362

Radiologic approach to diffuse infiltrative lung disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiology approach to diffuse infiltrative lung disease (DILD) is based on a chest radiography and CT. Chest radiography can categorize DILD into five main patterns of abnormality: linear, reticular, cystic, nodular, and ground-glass patterns. The CT patterns of DILD can be classified into six patterns including thickened interlobular septa, reticular, cystic, nodular, ground-glass, and consolidation patterns. The pertinent differential diagnosis of DILD is based on the pattern recognition approach of abnormalities, and a specific diagnosis can often be made using chest radiography and CT. This pictorial essay illustrates the radiology pattern recognition approach for DILD using chest radiography and CT

363

Investigation of Noninvasive Approaches for Pressure Measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate pressure measurements of the contents in pipes or tanks are useful in several applications. However, internally mounted sensors are not permissible in some cases. Therefore, external clamp-on transducers are preferred. In this work, two approaches have been considered. One approach examined changes in ultrasonic signals reflected from the fluid-vessel interface. The other approach examined the resonance frequency of the media inside the pressure vessel. A two-dimensional finite element model of the resonance frequency measurement has also been studied.

Guers, Manton J.; Fontana, Christopher J.; Zilinskis, Daniel R.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

2007-03-01

364

Celebrating Diverse Minds: Using Different Pedagogical Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

The idea of science for all has been echoed nationwide. In order to be successfully implemented, inclusive quality pedagogical approaches are essential. These approaches should be authentic not just to the nature and content of science but also to children's diverse cultural and personal strengths. At the same time school systems will have to be aware of and avoid pitfalls that led to unequal access to science learning in the past. The question is: What do quality approaches look like? This chapter provides the answer to this pertinent question.

Dyasi, Hubert M.

2006-01-01

365

A statistical approach to plasma profile analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general statistical approach to the parameterisation and analysis of tokamak profiles is presented. The modelling of the profile dependence on both the radius and the plasma parameters is discussed, and pertinent, classical as well as robust, methods of estimation are reviewed. Special attention is given to statistical tests for discriminating between the various models, and to the construction of confidence intervals for the parameterised profiles and the associated global quantities. The statistical approach is shown to provide a rigorous approach to the empirical testing of plasma profile invariance. (orig.)

366

Evaluating model abstractions: a quantitative approach  

Science.gov (United States)

An 'evaluation' approach devised for an inductive reasoning system called logic-based discrete-event inductive reasoner is the focus of this paper. The underlying inductive reasoning methodology utilizes abstractions as its primary means to deal with lack of knowledge. Based on abstractions and their treatments as assumptions, the logic-based discrete-event inductive reasoning system allows non- monotonic predictions. The evaluation approach takes into account explicitly the role of abstractions employed in non- monotonically derived multiple predictions. These predictions are ranked according to the type and number of abstractions used. The proposed evaluation approach is also discussed in relation to the dichotomy of model validation and simulation correctness.

Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zeigler, Bernard P.; Cellier, Francois E.

1998-08-01

367

A Black feminist approach to nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the presence of a body of Black feminist literature, the growing body of nursing literature on feminism and the feminist approach to research remains narrowly focused on White feminist concerns. By essentially ignoring the realities of Black women, nursing has reproduced the errors of previous White feminists. This article demonstrates the relevance of the Black feminist approach to nursing by applying it in combination with general feminist research principles and anthropological theory in research concerned with low-income Black women's experiences with dysphoria and depression. The findings of the research suggest that a combination approach more clearly illuminates how context effects dysphoria in poor Black women. PMID:7992489

Barbee, E L

1994-10-01

368

Enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report a new enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine is presented. A 66-year-old female, having a large C3-C4-C5 chordoma, recurrent after surgery and following radiotherapy, underwent a surgical resection. The approach allows a wide retraction of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx from the midline, only sacrificing the superior laryngeal nerve on one side. Its continuity can be re-established later by adopting the stent in tube technique. The approach we used presents al...

Sartoris, Alberto; Crosetti, Erika; Succo, Giovanni

2001-01-01

369

Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach  

CERN Document Server

The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,

Maloberti, Franco

2011-01-01

370

Multiobjective optimization approach: thermal food processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to utilize a multiobjective optimization technique for the thermal sterilization of packaged foods. The multiobjective optimization approach used in this study is based on the optimization of well-known aggregating functions by an adaptive random search algorithm. The applicability of the proposed approach was illustrated by solving widely used multiobjective test problems taken from the literature. The numerical results obtained for the multiobjective test problems and for the thermal processing problem show that the proposed approach can be effectively used for solving multiobjective optimization problems arising in the food engineering field. PMID:20492109

Abakarov, A; Sushkov, Y; Almonacid, S; Simpson, R

2009-01-01

371

Evaluating Modelling Approaches for Medical Image Annotations  

CERN Document Server

Information system designers face many challenges w.r.t. selecting appropriate semantic technologies and deciding on a modelling approach for their system. However, there is no clear methodology yet to evaluate "semantically enriched" information systems. In this paper we present a case study on different modelling approaches for annotating medical images and introduce a conceptual framework that can be used to analyse the fitness of information systems and help designers to spot the strengths and weaknesses of various modelling approaches as well as managing trade-offs between modelling effort and their potential benefits.

Opitz, Jasmin; Sattler, Ulrike

2010-01-01

372

Resource Leveling Using Petrinet and Memetic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of scheduling activities dynamic for a project, within the available resources and adhering to precedence relationships is NP hard combinatorial. Traditional approaches and their extensions are limited in application for simultaneous scheduling of resources with leveling. Considering the need for improved modeling and scheduling techniques, this paper proposes the use of Petrinet based approach aided by memetic algorithm. Manufacturing projects involving either a single or multi resources can be optimally leveled and scheduled. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated with case studies.

K. Raja

2007-01-01

373

Non-Blocking Approach in Concurrency Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Majority of the research in database management system on conventional techniques requires additional efforts for deadlock detection and elimination. A deadlock occurs when a transaction waits for locks held by another transaction, which in turn, is waiting (directly or indirectly for locks held by the first transaction. In this paper we have proposed a method for non blocking approach in concurrency control. The proposed approach is a distributed approach for construction of data access graphs at data sites, within a distributed static locking environment.

Minakshi Sangwan

2014-06-01

374

Theoretical approaches to ethnicity, nationalism and nation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author takes into consideration main theory of ethnicity and nationalism: primordialism, perennialism, modernism, ethno-symbolism, post-modernism, and interactionism. He pays his attention on both good and bad features of the different theoretical approaches in order to formulate his own approach. In addition, he offers several the most famous and convincing definitions and typologies of the nations and nationalism. At the end, he tries to make definitions of the ethnicity (ethnical connectedness, ethnical resource, e. g. language, religion, "race", ethnic myths etc, ethnic category, and ethnic as well as to briefly outline his own approach that is basically interactionist with some additions of ethno-symbolism.

Baki? Jovo

2006-01-01

375

Cavity approach to the random solid state.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin. PMID:16241698

Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M; Mézard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

2005-09-30

376

Multiscale modeling in solid mechanics computational approaches  

CERN Document Server

This unique volume presents the state of the art in the field of multiscale modeling in solid mechanics, with particular emphasis on computational approaches. For the first time, contributions from both leading experts in the field and younger promising researchers are combined to give a comprehensive description of the recently proposed techniques and the engineering problems tackled using these techniques. The book begins with a detailed introduction to the theories on which different multiscale approaches are based, with regards to linear Homogenisation as well as various nonlinear approach

Galvanetto, Ugo

2009-01-01

377

Novel Approach to Indoor Propagation Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An indoor propagation prediction for personal communication systems isdemanded for modern wireless services. There are two main generalapproaches for indoor propagation modeling: empirical anddeterministic. Both of them have their advantages and disadvantages.Novel semi-deterministic approach to modeling of propagation ofelectromagnetic waves inside buildings, which combines bothdeterministic and empirical approaches is introduced. It is based onray-launching technique, Monte Carlo method and statistics. The modelis very fast and requires only easy to obtain inputs. The model iscapable of wide-band parameters prediction as well. A description ofthe new approach together with firs results of the model implementationand its evaluation by measurements are presented.

K. Novotny

2000-09-01

378

A HYBRID APPROACH FOR RURAL FEEDER DESIGN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a population based approach for conductor size selection in rural radial distribution system is presented. The proposed hybrid approach implies a particle swarm optimization (PSO approach in combination with mutant property of differential evolution (DE for conductor size selection in radial distribution system. The conductor size for each feeder segment is selected such that the total cost of capital investment and capitalized cost of energy losses is minimized while constraints of voltage at each node and current carrying capacity of conductor is within the limits. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with the help of 32-node test system.

DAMANJEET KAUR

2012-08-01

379

Cavity Approach to the Random Solid State  

CERN Document Server

The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin.

Mao, X; Mézard, M; Weigt, M; Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M.; Mezard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

2005-01-01

380

Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

1991-09-12

 
 
 
 
381

Approaches to Sensitivity Analysis in MOLP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents two approaches to the sensitivity analysis in multi-objective linear programming (MOLP. The first one is the tolerance approach and the other one is the standard sensitivity analysis. We consider the perturbation of the objective function coefficients. In the tolerance method we simultaneously change all of the objective function coefficients. In the standard sensitivity analysis we change one objective function coefficient without changing the others. In the numerical example we compare the results obtained by using these two different approaches.

Sebastian Sitarz

2014-02-01

382

Radiotherapy problem under fuzzy theoretic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuzzy set theoretic approach is used for radiotherapy problem. The problem is faced with two goals: the first is to maximize the fraction of surviving normal cells and the second is to minimize the fraction of surviving tumor cells. The theory of fuzzy sets has been employed to formulate and solve the problem. A linguistic variable approach is used for treating the first goal. The solutions obtained by the modified approach are always efficient and best compromise. A sensitivity analysis of the solutions to the differential weights is given

383

A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Recent advances in developmental biology have yielded detailed models of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) involved in cell specification and other processes in embryonic differentiation. Such networks form the bedrock on which a systems biology approach to developme...

384

Optimal taxation policy maximum-entropy approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object of this paper is firstly to present entropic measure of income inequality and secondly to develop maximum entropy approaches for the optimal reduction of income inequality through taxation. .

Jana P.

2003-01-01

385

Different approaches to TMD Evolution with scale  

CERN Document Server

Many apparently contradictory approaches to TMD factorization and its non-perturbative content exist. This talk evaluated the different methods and proposed tools for resolving the contradictions and experimentally adjudicating the results.

Collins, John

2014-01-01

386

a New Approach to the Family Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter, we introduce a new approach to formulate the family structure of the standard model. Trying to mimic the highly constrained representation structure of the standard model while extending the symmetry, we propose an SU(4) ? SU(3) ? SU(2) ? U(1) symmetry with a SM-like chiral spectra basically “derived” from the gauge anomaly constraints. Embedding the SM leads to SU(4)A ? SU(3)C ? SU(2)L ? U(1)X models, which upon the SU(4)A ? U(1)Y symmetry breaking, gives the three families naturally as a result. A specific model obtained from the approach is illustrated. The model, or others from our approach, holds promise of a very interesting phenomenology. We sketch some of the results here. An interesting possibility of supersymmetrizing the model with the EW-Higgses already in the spectrum is noted. A comparison with other approaches is also discussed.

Kong, Otto C. W.

387

Structured synthesis of MEMS using evolutionary approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we discuss the hierarchy that is involved in a typical MEMS design and how evolutionary approaches can be used to automate the hierarchical synthesis process for MEMS. The paper first introduces the flow of a structured MEMS design process and emphasizes that system-level lumped-parameter model synthesis is the first step of the MEMS synthesis process. At the system level, an approach combining bond graphs and genetic programming can lead to satisfactory design candidates as system-level models that meet the predefined behavioral specifications for designers to trade off. Then at the physical layout synthesis level, the selection of geometric parameters for component devices and other design variables is formulated as a constrained optimization problem and addressed using a constrained genetic algorithm approach. A multiple-resonator microsystem design is used to illustrate the integrated design automation idea using these evolutionary approaches.

Fan, Zhun; Achiche, Sofiane

2008-01-01

388

Triton photodisintegration in three-dimensional approach  

CERN Document Server

Two- and three- particles photodisintegration of the triton is investigated in a three-dimensional (3D) Faddeev approach. For this purpose the Jacobi momentum vectors for three particles system and spin-isospin quantum numbers of the individual nucleons are considered. Based on this picture the three-nucleon Faddeev integral equations with the two-nucleon interaction are formulated without employing the partial wave decomposition. The single nucleon current as well as $\\pi-$ and $\\rho-$ like exchange currents are used in an appropriate form to be employed in 3D approach. The exchange currents are derived from AV18 NN force. The two-body t-matrix, Deuteron and Triton wave functions are calculated in the 3D approach by using AV18 potential. Benchmarks are presented to compare the total cross section for the two- and three- particles photodisintegration in the range of $E_{\\gamma}<30 MeV$. The 3D Faddeev approach shows promising results.

Shalchi, M A; 10.1140/epja/i2012-12006-9

2012-01-01

389

Approaches for Enhancing Reliability of Software Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In modern world, we are highly dependent upon computer for most of our works. As we know, all computers are controlled by software. So, to operate a computer in a proper manner, software reliability is very necessary.Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment. The high complexity of software is the major contributing factor of Software reliability problems. Various approaches can be used to improve the reliability of software, however, it is hard to balance development time and budget with software reliability. For good reliability, two approaches have to be used, namely, reactive and proactive approach.This paper provides an overview of Software reliability, hardware reliability, reactive and proactive approaches.

Priyanka #1, Trilok Gabba

2013-07-01

390

A graphical approach to relatedness inference.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimation of relatedness structure in natural populations using molecular marker data has become an important tool in population biology, resulting in a variety of estimation procedures for specific sampling scenarios. In this article a general approach is proposed, in which the detailed relationship structure, typically a pedigree graph or partition, is considered to be the object of inference. This makes available tools used in complex model selection theory which have demonstrated effectiveness. An important advantage of this approach is that it permits a fully Bayesian approach to the problem, providing a principled and accessible way to measure statistical error. The approach is demonstrated by applying the minimum description length principle. This technique is used in model selection to provide a rational way of comparing models of varying complexity. We show how the resulting score may be interpreted and applied as a Bayesian posterior density. PMID:17169391

Almudevar, Anthony

2007-03-01

391

Phased approach to achieving PRA quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) risk informed approach to regulation uses insights from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), along with traditional deterministic requirements to help focus regulatory and licensee attention on safety significant issues. PRA quality is a key contributor to the success of this regulatory strategy. A phased approach to achievement of state of the art PRA quality is described, which the NRC believes will support the continued use of risk informed decision making while encouraging progress in improving the scope, level of detail and technical adequacy of PRA models. The phased approach also includes development of consensus standards and associated guidance to promote a common understanding, between the NRC and its licensees, of the definition of PRA quality, and to establish the NRC's expectations concerning licensee PRAs. Anticipated outcomes of the phased approach include consistent processes for PRA development, efficiency in regulatory decision making, and improved licensee and NRC understanding of the most important contributors to plant safety. (author)

392

Everyday Life Sensing by Living Lab Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective, agile and trusted eServcies Co-creation needs to align the formalized business procedures with the need for innovating business genuinely on the spot, or ad-hoc, namely understanding the real needs of users. An emerging innovation approach called "Living Lab" is such a 'in-vivo' and 'in-situ' approach, which emphasizes understanding users' needs in their real life contexts. Living Lab is a combination of user-centric and context-centric innovation paradigm. In this paper, we present a study of everyday lives of Chinese University students by mobile sensing based Living Lab approach. Finally, we discuss the implications of Living Lab approach and our future work. 

Tingan Tang

2014-06-01

393

Design margin approach in LMFBR nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new approach recommended for the treatment of core disruptive accidents in LMFBR safety is outlined. In place of the traditional approach in which an extreme assumed core disruption would be treated as a design basis accident for the plant containment, an approach which emphasizes prevention of such events to a confirmable low probability coupled with a margin of protection for unknowns is outlined. In addition, it is shown that the margin of protection may be provided by designing for characterized damage loadings. Recommendations are also made for standardization of these margins through national code committee action. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor is used as an example of the application of such an approach. 15 references. (U.S.)

394

Approach to low back pain - physiotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article forms part of our allied health series for 2014, which aims to provide information about the management approach of different allied health professionals, using the case example of uncomplicated, mechanical low back pain. PMID:24600672

Hancock, Mark

2014-03-01

395

Approach to low back pain - acupuncture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article forms part of our allied health series for 2014, which aims to provide information about the management approach of different allied health professionals, using the case example of uncomplicated, mechanical low back pain. PMID:24791769

Ee, Carolyn

2014-05-01

396

An MBO Approach to Teaching Organizational Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the management by objectives approach to teaching organizational communication, where students set their own objectives and deadlines for the course and arrange a "contract" with the instructor, resulting in better student motivation. (SR)

Roebuck, Deborah Britt

1989-01-01

397

Stochastic resonance: A residence time approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Stochastic Resonance phenomenon is described as a synchronization process between periodic signals and the random response in bistable systems. The residence time approach as a useful tool in characterizing hidden periodicities is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

398

On the Semiclassical Approach to Quantum Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

The emergent semiclassical time approach to resolving the problem of time in quantum gravity involves heavy slow degrees of freedom providing via an approximately Hamilton-Jacobi equation an approximate timestandard with respect to which the quantum mechanics of light fast degrees of freedom can run. More concretely, this approach involves Born-Oppenheimer and WKB ansatze and some accompanying approximations. In this paper, I investigate this approach for concrete scaled relational particle mechanics models, i.e. models featuring only relative separations, relative angles and relative times. I consider the heavy-light interaction term in the light quantum equation - necessary for the semiclassical approach to work, firstly as an emergent-time dependent perturbation of the emergent-time-dependent Schrodinger equation for the light subsystem. Secondly, I consider a scheme in which the backreaction is small but non-negligible, so that the l-subsystem also affects the form of the emergent time. I also suggest tha...

Anderson, Edward

2011-01-01

399

Language Teaching and Task Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During recent years, some notions about tasks have been considered as the major part of analysis in different teaching approaches and teachers are being more interested in the use of task-based approach both in foreign and in second language teaching. The word 'task' refers to some special activities that are carried out in the classroom. These activities are performed by putting an emphasis on meaning. In this approach Grammatical Competence and communicative competence are extremely emphasised, that is being able to adjust with grammatical norms and being able to convey ideas. Consequently, grammatical competence in this approach is made by 'internal self-regulating processes' and it helps to convey the meaning in 'appropriate conditions'. The main goal of this article is to introduce and discuss some major principles of task-based language teaching and indicates how teachers can apply them in their curriculum.

Sayed Mahdi Rozati

2014-06-01

400

Downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Nighttime vehicle detection is an essential problem to be solved in the development of highway surveillance systems that provide information about the vehicle speed, traffic volume, and traffic jams, and so on. In this paper, a novel downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection is presented. In the proposed approach, a rough position of vehicle headlights is detected first. Then, a downhill simplex optimization approach is adopted to find the accurate location of vehicle headlights. For the optimization process, a novel cost function is designed and various headlights are evaluated for possible headlight positions on the detected vehicles, locating an optimal headlight position. Simulation results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed approach for headlights detection.

Kang, Ho-Joong; Kim, Ho-Kun; Oh, Il-Whan; Choi, Kyoung-Ho

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
401

The Team Approach to Pain Relief  

Science.gov (United States)

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

402

A New Email Retrieval Ranking Approach  

CERN Document Server

Email Retrieval task has recently taken much attention to help the user retrieve the email(s) related to the submitted query. Up to our knowledge, existing email retrieval ranking approaches sort the retrieved emails based on some heuristic rules, which are either search clues or some predefined user criteria rooted in email fields. Unfortunately, the user usually does not know the effective rule that acquires best ranking related to his query. This paper presents a new email retrieval ranking approach to tackle this problem. It ranks the retrieved emails based on a scoring function that depends on crucial email fields, namely subject, content, and sender. The paper also proposes an architecture to allow every user in a network/group of users to be able, if permissible, to know the most important network senders who are interested in his submitted query words. The experimental evaluation on Enron corpus prove that our approach outperforms known email retrieval ranking approaches.

AbdelRahman, Samir; Bahgat, Reem; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2504

2010-01-01

403

A New Email Retrieval Ranking Approach  

CERN Document Server

Email Retrieval task has recently taken much attention to help the user retrieve the email(s) related to the submitted query. Up to our knowledge, existing email retrieval ranking approaches sort the retrieved emails based on some heuristic rules, which are either search clues or some predefined user criteria rooted in email fields. Unfortunately, the user usually does not know the effective rule that acquires best ranking related to his query. This paper presents a new email retrieval ranking approach to tackle this problem. It ranks the retrieved emails based on a scoring function that depends on crucial email fields, namely subject, content, and sender. The paper also proposes an architecture to allow every user in a network/group of users to be able, if permissible, to know the most important network senders who are interested in his submitted query words. The experimental evaluation on Enron corpus prove that our approach outperforms known email retrieval ranking approaches

AbdelRahman, Samir; Bahgat, Reem; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2504

2010-01-01

404

A new approach to LIBOR modeling  

CERN Document Server

We provide a general and flexible approach to LIBOR modeling based on the class of affine factor processes. Our approach respects the basic economic requirement that LIBOR rates are non-negative, and the basic requirement from mathematical finance that LIBOR rates are analytically tractable martingales with respect to their own forward measure. Additionally, and most importantly, our approach also leads to analytically tractable expressions of multi-LIBOR payoffs. This approach unifies therefore the advantages of well-known forward price models with those of classical LIBOR rate models. Several examples are added and prototypical volatility smiles are shown. We believe that the CIR-process based LIBOR model might be of particular interest for applications, since closed form valuation formulas for caps and swaptions are derived.

Keller-Ressel, Martin; Teichmann, Josef

2009-01-01

405

Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kinds of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vector fields and electromagnetic fields leads to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configuration in plasma medium.

406

A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

Capron, Alexander Morgan

1988-01-01

407

COMPETENTNCE AND VALUE APPROACHES AT HIGHER SCHOOL ??????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publication opens unity of competence's and value's approaches in university education as bases of pedagogical process in modern conditions, which should include mutual assistance of all of its participants.?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????, ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????????.

?.?. ???????

2010-08-01

408

Local compactness in approach spaces I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces some definitions of a concept of local compactness in approach spaces. The basic relationships between these concepts is studied, and measures of local compactness are defined.

C. Verbeeck

1998-09-01

409

Structure of hypernuclei in relativistic approaches  

CERN Document Server

We review the relativistic mean-field approach to various aspects of hypernuclei. It was Brockmann and Weise who first applied this approach to hypernuclei. At that time, it had been already observed experimentally that the spin-orbit splittings in hypernuclei are significantly smaller than that in ordinary nuclei. The relativistic approach was suitable for a discussion of spin-orbit splittings in hypernuclei, as the spin-orbit interaction is naturally emerged with the relativistic framework. Since this seminal work, many developments have been done and the relativistic approach has been applied both to the ground state and to excited states of hypernuclei. We summarize those developments in the Chapter. We shall concentrate on $\\Lambda$-hypernuclei and do not discuss $\\Sigma$ hypernuclei, since the theoretical treatment is rather similar to each other.

Hagino, K

2014-01-01

410

Alternative approach to community detection in networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of community detection is relevant in many disciplines of science and modularity optimization is the widely accepted method for this purpose. It has recently been shown that this approach presents a resolution limit by which it is not possible to detect communities with sizes smaller than a threshold which depends on the network size. Moreover, it might happen that the communities resulting from such an approach do not satisfy the usual qualitative definition of ...

Medus, A. D.; Dorso, C. O.

2008-01-01

411

Concise Image Maps - A Design Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work proposes an approach of concise image map design according to which a differentiated visual hierarchy can be established and the visual figure-ground segregation improved so that the user´s attention can be effectively guided to the relevant information. It makes contributions to form a theoretical basis for the design and use of image maps, and validates the effectiveness and user friendliness of the strategies involved in the approach of concise image map design in usability tests.

Murphy, Christian E.

2014-01-01

412

Density functional approach for inhomogeneous star polymers  

CERN Document Server

We propose microscopic density functional theory for inhomogeneous star polymers. Our approach is based on fundamental measure theory for hard spheres, and on Wertheim's first- and second-order perturbation theory for the interparticle connectivity. For simplicity we consider a model in which all the arms are of the same length, but our approach can be easily extended to the case of stars with arms of arbitrary lengths.

Malijevsky, A; Sokolowski, S

2005-01-01

413

A new Arnoldi approach for polynomial eigenproblems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we introduce a new generalization of the method of Arnoldi for matrix polynomials. The new approach is compared with the approach of rewriting the polynomial problem into a linear eigenproblem and applying the standard method of Arnoldi to the linearised problem. The algorithm that can be applied directly to the polynomial eigenproblem turns out to be more efficient, both in storage and in computation.

Raeven, F.A.

1996-12-31

414

Defining electricity markets. An arbitrage cost approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Market definition is a crucial component of antitrust policy. There is, however, no universally accepted method of carrying out market definition. While several approaches have been presented in the literature, each has its share of drawbacks. This paper suggests that a modeling technique based upon the theory of arbitrage is well suited to answering this question. After the empirical approach is presented, it is used to calculate antitrust market definitions between electricity hubs in the American West

415

Replica Approach in Random Matrix Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Chapter outlines the replica approach in Random Matrix Theory. Both fermionic and bosonic versions of the replica limit are introduced and its trickery is discussed. A brief overview of early heuristic treatments of zero-dimensional replica field theories is given to advocate an exact approach to replicas. The latter is presented in two elaborations: by viewing the $\\beta=2$ replica partition function as the Toda Lattice and by embedding the replica partition function i...

Kanzieper, Eugene

2009-01-01

416

Recognition of voice commands using hybrid approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computerized systems with voice user interfaces could save time and ease the work of healthcare practitioners. To achieve this goal voice user interface should be reliable (to recognize the commands with high enough accuracy) and properly designed (to be convenient for the user). The paper deals with hybrid approach implementation issues for the voice commands recognition. By the hybrid approach we assume the combination of several different recognition methods to achieve higher recognition a...

Rudz?ionis, Vytautas; Ratkevic?ius, Kastytis; Rudz?ionis, Algimantas; Ras?kinis, Gailius; Maskeliu?nas, Rytis

2013-01-01

417

A holonic approach to dynamic manufacturing scheduling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing scheduling is a complex combinatorial problem, particularly in distributed and dynamic environments. This paper presents a holonic approach to manufacturing scheduling, where the scheduling functions are distributed by several entities, combining their calculation power and local optimization capability. In this scheduling and control approach, the objective is to achieve fast and dynamic re-scheduling using a scheduling mechanism that evolves dynamically to combine centralized ...

Paulo Leitão; Francisco José de Oliveira Restivo

2008-01-01

418

A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a high throughput combinatorial approach to photonic metamaterial optimization. The new approach is based on parallel synthesis and subsequent optical characterization of large numbers of spatially addressable nanofabricated metamaterial samples (libraries) with quasi-continuous variation of design parameters under real manufacturing conditions. We illustrate this method for Fano-resonance plasmonic nanostructures, arriving at explicit recipes for high quality factors needed for switching and sensing applications

419

Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)

420

Towards Lagrangian approach to quantum computations (revised)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work is discussed possibility and actuality of Lagrangian approach to quantum computations. Finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces used in this area provide some challenge for such consideration. The model discussed here can be considered as an analogue of Weyl quantization of field theory via path integral in L. D. Faddeev's approach. Weyl quantization is possible to use also in finite-dimensional case, and some formulas may be simply rewritten with change of integrals t...

Vlasov, Alexander Yu

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Group Rekeying Approach for Group Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To enhance the performance of the key management in group communication, we present an improved rekeying approach based on the LKH and OFT schemes in this study. The RSA crypto scheme is used to rekey the keys and the performance of the approach is better than LKH and OFT. The proposed rekeying scheme is top-down and meets forward and backward security.

Chunbo Ma

2008-01-01

422

Simulating Fibre Suspensions: Lagrangian versus Statistical Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibre suspensions exhibit complex dynamical flow phenomena and are at the same time of immense practical importance, notably in the pulp and paper industries. NTNU and TU Delft have in a collaborative research project adopted two alternative strategies in the simulation of dilute fibre suspensions, namely a statistical approach [2] and a Lagrangian particle treatment [4]. The two approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we aim for the first time to compare the performance of the two.

Zhao, L. H.; Andersson, H. I.; Gillissen, J. J. J.; Boersma, B. J.

423

From Lotka to the entropy generation approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The entropy approach to the evolution of open systems is analyzed, using Lotka’s principle as a starting point. A Lagrangian is sought after to develop an analytical method for the evaluation of the stationary states of open irreversible systems. The stationary conditions for open systems are first obtained on the basis of the entropy generation and its maximum principle, suggesting them as a link between the classical engineering thermodynamics approach and the more mathematical Lotka point of view.

Lucia, Umberto; Sciubba, Enrico

2013-09-01

424

On the Blaschke approach of ruled surface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper using E. Study map and the Blaschke approach we studied a ruled surface as a curve on the dual unit sphere. The Blaschke approach proceeds by defining a sequence of ruled surfaces associated with the ruled surface. The relative positions of these surfaces and their distribution parameters characterize the local properties of the original surface. A necessary condition for a ruled surface to be closed is derived. Moreover, an example of application is investigated in detail.

Rashad A. Abdel Baky

2003-06-01

425

Renormalization Group Approach to Dissipative System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to understand the dynamical mechanism of the friction phenomena, we heavily rely on the numerical analysis using various methods: molecular dynamics, Langevin equation, lattice Boltzmann method, Monte Carlo, e.t.c.. We propose a new method which has the following characteristic points: 1) the geometrical approach to the statistical mechanical system; 2) the continuum approach using Feynman's path integral (generalized version); 3) the holographic (higher-dimensional...

Ichinose, Shoichi

2013-01-01

426

04. Experiential Integrative Approaches to Heart Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Experiential Workshop This session will highlight two of the most important, yet frequently overlooked, determinants of heart health: mind-body interactions and nutrition. These areas will be explored through didactic and experiential learning. The session will begin with a short presentation by Dr Adi Haramati on the physiology of stress and the scientific basis for mind-body approaches to de-stress, followed by an experiential autogenic exercise ...

Haramati, Adi; Eisenberg, David; Devries, Stephen

2013-01-01

427

A possible new approach of quantum measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is proposed a possible new approach of quantum measurements (QMS), disconnected of the traditional interpretation of uncertainty relations and independent of any appeal to the strange idea of collapse (reduction) of wave functions. The new approach regards QMS as a statistical samplings (but not as simple detection acts) and their description as a distinct task, independent of actual procedures of quantum mechanics. A QMS is described by means of transformations of probab...

Dumitru, S.

2002-01-01

428

t he Cluster Approach in northern Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.

Jessica Huber

2007-12-01

429

Resource Leveling Using Petrinet and Memetic Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of scheduling activities dynamic for a project, within the available resources and adhering to precedence relationships is NP hard combinatorial. Traditional approaches and their extensions are limited in application for simultaneous scheduling of resources with leveling. Considering the need for improved modeling and scheduling techniques, this paper proposes the use of Petrinet based approach aided by memetic algorithm. Manufacturing projects involving either a single or multi r...

Raja, K.; Kumanan, S.

2007-01-01

430

A clustering approach for web vulnerabilities detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new algorithm aimed at the vulnerability assessment of web applications following a blackbox approach. The objective is to improve the detection efficiency of existing vulnerability scanners and to move a step forward toward the automation of this process. Our approach covers various types of vulnerabilities but this paper mainly focuses on SQL injections. The proposed algorithm is based on the automatic classification of the responses returned by the web servers using d...

Dessiatnikoff, Anthony; Akrout, Rim; Alata, Eric; Kaaniche, Mohamed; Nicomette, Vincent

2011-01-01

431

Transotic approach to the cerebellopontine angle. 1992.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transotic approach to the cerebellopontine angle has been developed at the University of Zurich for the removal of acoustic tumors in an effort to increase operative exposure and enhance facial nerve preservation and reconstruction. Key steps involve the total removal of all pneumatic cell tracts with middle ear and eustachian tube obliteration, followed by complete otic capsule removal for tumor exposure. This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and technique of this approach. PMID:18534339

Browne, J Dale; Fisch, Ugo

2008-04-01

432

Understanding images using knowledge based approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an approach to image understanding focusing on low level image processing and proposes a rule-based approach as part of larger knowledge-based system. The general system has a yerarchical structure that comprises several knowledge-based layers. The main idea is to confine at the lower level the domain independent knowledge and to reserve the higher levels for the domain dependent knowledge, that is for the interpretation

433

Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed.

McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

1998-01-01

434

A Model-driven Measurement Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Companies using domain specific languages in a model-driven development process need to measure their models. However, developing and maintaining a measurement software for each domain specific mod- eling language is costly. Our contribution is a model-driven measurement approach. This measurement approach is model-driven from two view- points: 1) it measures models of a model-driven development process; 2) it uses models as unique and consistent metric specifications, w.r.t a metric specific...

Monperrus, Martin; Je?ze?quel, Jean-marc; Champeau, Joe?l; Hoeltzener, Brigitte

2008-01-01

435

Cloud computing methods and practical approaches  

CERN Document Server

This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

Mahmood, Zaigham

2013-01-01

436

A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery  

CERN Document Server

We report a high through-put combinatorial approach to photonic metamaterial optimization. The new approach is based on parallel synthesis and consecutive optical characterization of large numbers of spatially addressable nano-fabricated metamaterial samples (libraries) with quasi-continuous variation of design parameters under real manufacturing conditions. We illustrate this method for Fano-resonance plasmonic nanostructures arriving at explicit recipes for high quality factors needed for switching and sensing applications.

Plum, E; Chen, W T; Fedotov, V A; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

2010-01-01

437

An osteopathic approach to performing arts medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

An osteopathic approach to the performing artist is a complete approach. It involves spending adequate time with the performing artist to obtain a complete history and evaluation. It requires attention to the performer's lifestyle, practice habits, exercise routine, nutrition, stress level, and coexisting medical problems. Because an injury to a performing artist can be physically, emotionally, and financially devastating, these patients deserve a comprehensive treatment plan to allow for the best opportunity for recovery. PMID:17097485

Shoup, David

2006-11-01

438

Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of “markets” that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

Friedrich K. Jondral

2008-05-01

439

Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of "markets" that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

Burgkhardt Dennis

2008-01-01

440

Microsurgical Anatomy for Lateral Approaches to the Foramen Magnum with Special Reference to Transcondylar Fossa (Supracondylar Transjugular Tubercle) Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microsurgical anatomy for lateral approaches to the foramen magnum, especially for transcondylar fossa (supracondylar transjugular tubercle) approach, was studied using cadavers. The transcondylar fossa approach is an approach in which extradural removal of the posterior portion of the jugular tubercle through the condylar fossa is added to the far lateral approach. Some differences between this approach and the transcondylar approach are demonstrated. The atlanto-occipital joint and the jugu...

Matsushima, Toshio; Natori, Yoshihiro; Katsuta, Toshiro; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Fukui, Masashi; Rhoton, Albert L.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Vegetative states--an integrative approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The integrative approach to vegetative state remains a challenge. In this article we have presented the evidence for conventional and alternative therapies that can be applied to this condition. Some are intended to support the patient and prevent complications; others enhance the ability of relatives to interact with their loved ones; while others are intended to shorten the vegetative state period. The approaches we reviewed were based on availability of data on MEDLINE and/or their potential to broaden our conceptual approach to vegetative state. Some approaches highlighted within the article including nutritional support, acupuncture, and homeopathy, seem to have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio. Yet, the complexity of vegetative state makes it challenging to recommend an integrative protocol. Rather we recommend an individualized approach, based on patient co-morbidities, caregiver and health professional preferences, and availability of therapists. Other approaches, including herbal medicine, mind-body therapies, intercessory prayer, energy medicine, and shamanism were not included due to the lack of available information and evidence. We acknowledge that a lack of evidence for efficacy is not equivalent to evidence for a lack of efficacy. Further research is critically needed to advance our treatment approach to this challenging state. Vegetative state is a condition that continues to humble the medical world. What we do not know eclipses that which we know. The critical question of what the vegetative state patient experiences continues to mystify us. Our philosophical stance insists that we treat the patient as one who is aware. Simultaneously we struggle with what, if anything, we can successfully do to "reawaken" the patient. PMID:15712763

Schiff, Elad; Kim, Yoon-Hang; Maizes, Victoria

2005-01-01

442

A holistic approach to bit preservation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which is to keep bits intact and readable, is far more complex than first anticipated, even in this narrow definition. This paper takes a more holistic approach to bit preservation, and looks at how an optimal bit preservation strategy can be found, when requirements like confidentiality, availability and costs are taken into account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the various findings from previous research which have led to the holistic approach to bit preservation. This paper also includes an introduction to digital preservation with a focus on the role of bit preservation, which sets the scene for why bit preservation deserves attention in a holistic approach. Findings: The paper presents different means to find an optimal bit preservation strategy. This consists of a model to delimit bit preservation activities, and will briefly discuss how specific material can require different bit preservation strategies as well as pointing to how such strategies can be evaluated. Research limitations/implications The operational results described here are still missing work to be fully operational. However, the holistic approach is in itself an important result. Furthermore, in spite of the shortcomings, the results can assist in analysis and evaluation of bit preservation strategies. Originality/value This paper is an extract of the findings presented in the doctoral thesis “A holistic approach to bit preservation”. The findings are relevant for any organisation that is required to do bit preservation of its digital material.

Zierau, Eld

2012-01-01

443

Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…

Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.

2008-01-01

444

Entrainment and motor emulation approaches to joint action: Alternatives or complementary approaches?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joint actions, such as music and dance, rely crucially on the ability of two, or more, agents to align their actions with great temporal precision. Within the literature that seeks to explain how this action alignment is possible, two broad approaches have appeared. The first, what we term the entrainment approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of the behavioural dynamics of the system of two agents. The second, what we term the emulator approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of mechanisms, such as forward and inverse models, that are implemented in the brain. They have often been pitched as alternative explanations of the same phenomena; however, we argue that this view is mistaken, because, as we show, these two approaches are engaged in distinct, and not mutually exclusive, explanatory tasks. While the entrainment approach seeks to uncover the general laws that govern behaviour the emulator approach seeks to uncover mechanisms. We argue that is possible to do both and that the entrainment approach must pay greater attention to the mechanisms that support the behavioural dynamics of interest. In short, the entrainment approach must be transformed into a neuroentrainment approach by adopting a mechanistic view of explanation and by seeking mechanisms that are implemented in the brain.

Lincoln John Colling

2014-09-01

445

Sustainable Development: Does the Capability Approach have Anything to Offer? : Outlining a Legitimate Freedom Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although the sustainability of development is one of the most important problems facing the world, it has received little attention from the capability approach. This article asks whether the capability approach has anything to offer the debate that has continued for over a quarter of a century. Answering positively, the article outlines a legitimate freedom approach as a fruitful way forward. The approach draws on Thomas Scanlon's contractualist ethics, suggesting ways to understand the limits to freedoms, the non-identity problem and environmental ethics.

Crabtree, Andrew

2013-01-01

446

Entrainment and motor emulation approaches to joint action: Alternatives or complementary approaches?  

Science.gov (United States)

Joint actions, such as music and dance, rely crucially on the ability of two, or more, agents to align their actions with great temporal precision. Within the literature that seeks to explain how this action alignment is possible, two broad approaches have appeared. The first, what we term the entrainment approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of the behavioral dynamics of the system of two agents. The second, what we term the emulator approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of mechanisms, such as forward and inverse models, that are implemented in the brain. They have often been pitched as alternative explanations of the same phenomena; however, we argue that this view is mistaken, because, as we show, these two approaches are engaged in distinct, and not mutually exclusive, explanatory tasks. While the entrainment approach seeks to uncover the general laws that govern behavior the emulator approach seeks to uncover mechanisms. We argue that is possible to do both and that the entrainment approach must pay greater attention to the mechanisms that support the behavioral dynamics of interest. In short, the entrainment approach must be transformed into a neuroentrainment approach by adopting a mechanistic view of explanation and by seeking mechanisms that are implemented in the brain. PMID:25309403

Colling, Lincoln J; Williamson, Kellie

2014-01-01

447

Transradial approach versus transfemoral approach for coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, approximately 1.7 million cardiac catheterizations are performed each year, making it the fifth most common procedure. In this article, the author reviews the literature on the alternative transradial approach versus the traditional transfemoral approach for cardiac catheterization. Through a meta-analysis, clinical trials were thoroughly analyzed. The clinical and procedural outcomes are compared to provide evidence that the transradial approach for coronary angiography and angioplasty is associated with lower risks of adverse outcomes compared with the traditional transfemoral approach. An educational focus highlights the role of the nurse practitioner to ensure proper assessment and management of patients after transradial access. PMID:24595253

Mullin, Megan K

2014-01-01

448

Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented

449

Novel and Flexible Approach to Trust Negotiations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the progress of society today Current real applications require flexible approaches to trust negotiations, especially in light of the widespread use of mobile devices. Moreover the ubiquitous nature of online peer-to-peer systems, and the increasing number of moving objects involved in online transactions, negotiators must be allowed to switch roles to guarantee dependability, availability of resources and peers. Existing method mostly focused on the assurance of privacy and confidentiality with the goal of guaranteeing that no actual information about a negotiator’s properties is disclosed. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to trust negotiations that offers a general solution to those issues by developing major extensions to previous approaches by presenting a multi session dependable approach to trust negotiations. This proposed framework supports voluntary and unpredicted interruptions, enabling the negotiating parties to complete the negotiation despite temporary unavailability of resources. In our approach the protocols address issues related to validity, temporary loss of data, and extended unavailability negotiators. For increasing robustness and efficiency we showed how our negotiation protocol can withstand in most significant attacks.

G. Ramachandran

2013-10-01

450

Alternative approach to general coupled linear optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Twiss parameters provide a convenient description of beam optics in uncoupled linear beamlines. For coupled beamlines, a variety of approaches are possible for describing the linear optics; here, we propose an approach and notation that naturally generalizes the familiar Twiss parameters to the coupled case in three degrees of freedom. Our approach is based on an eigensystem analysis of the matrix of second-order beam moments, or alternatively (in the case of a storage ring) on an eigensystem analysis of the linear single-turn map. The lattice functions that emerge from this approach have an interpretation that is conceptually very simple: in particular, the lattice functions directly relate the beam distribution in phase space to the invariant emittances. To emphasize the physical significance of the coupled lattice functions, we develop the theory from first principles, using only the assumption of linear symplectic transport. We also give some examples of the application of this approach, demonstrating its advantages of conceptual and notational simplicity.

Wolski, Andrzej

2005-11-29

451

A neural network approach to cloud classification  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that, using high-spatial-resolution data, very high cloud classification accuracies can be obtained with a neural network approach. A texture-based neural network classifier using only single-channel visible Landsat MSS imagery achieves an overall cloud identification accuracy of 93 percent. Cirrus can be distinguished from boundary layer cloudiness with an accuracy of 96 percent, without the use of an infrared channel. Stratocumulus is retrieved with an accuracy of 92 percent, cumulus at 90 percent. The use of the neural network does not improve cirrus classification accuracy. Rather, its main effect is in the improved separation between stratocumulus and cumulus cloudiness. While most cloud classification algorithms rely on linear parametric schemes, the present study is based on a nonlinear, nonparametric four-layer neural network approach. A three-layer neural network architecture, the nonparametric K-nearest neighbor approach, and the linear stepwise discriminant analysis procedure are compared. A significant finding is that significantly higher accuracies are attained with the nonparametric approaches using only 20 percent of the database as training data, compared to 67 percent of the database in the linear approach.

Lee, Jonathan; Weger, Ronald C.; Sengupta, Sailes K.; Welch, Ronald M.

1990-01-01

452

Approaches for Categorization of Reusable Software Components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reuse repositories manager manages the reusable software components in different categories and needs to find the category of reusable software components. In this paper, we have used different pure and hybrid approaches to find the domain relevancy of the component to a particular domain. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA approach, LSA, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD technique, LSA Semi-Discrete Matrix Decomposition (SDD technique and Naive Bayes Approach purely as well as hybrid, are evaluated to determine the Domain Relevancy of software components. It exploits the fact that Feature Vector codes can be seen as documents containing terms -the identifiers present in the components- and so text modeling methods that capture co-occurrence information in low-dimensional spaces can be used. The FV code representation of clusters or domains is used to find the domain-relevancy of the software components. PLSA has provided better results than LSA retrieval techniques in terms of Precision and Recall but its time complexity is too high. SVD Transformation with Naïve Bayes scheme has outperformed all other approaches and shows better results than the existing approach (LSA being used by some open source code repositories e.g. Sourceforge. The DR-value determined is close to the manual analysis, used to be performed by the programmers/repository managers. Hence, the tool can also be utilized for the automatic categorization of software components and this kind of automation may improve the productivity and quality of software development.

Parvinder S. Sandhu

2007-01-01

453

Transradial approach to lower extremity interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ravikiran Korabathina1, Sidharth S Yadav1, John T Coppola2, Cezar S Staniloae21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincents Catholic Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Cardiac and Vascular Institute, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Percutaneous interventions of the coronary and peripheral vessels have historically been performed using a femoral artery approach. There has been increasing recognition of postprocedural bleeding complications and its impact on short- and long-term mortality. Because of its now recognized safety, the transradial approach has recently emerged as a preferred method compared to the transfemoral approach. The limitations associated with the distance from the puncture site to the lesion location are being addressed as new tools are developed for the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In this review, we discuss the many facets of the transradial approach to lower extremity endovascular interventions, highlighting its safety and efficacy. Approaches to special populations including individuals with prior surgical bypass, Leriche’s syndrome, and those committed to chronic anticoagulation are also reviewed.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, endovascular interventions, transradial interventions, aorto-iliac angioplasty

Ravikiran Korabathina

2010-07-01

454

Pragmatic risk assessment approach for product development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper proposes a practical assessment approach to estimate duration of the product development process incorporating risk management principles. Risk assessment, as a crucial part of risk management process, is a systematic process for estimating the risk level of previously identified and recognized risks. Currently, the best-known relationship in risk assessment is that risk level equals the product of two factors – likelihood and impact. The proposed approach treats these factors as random variables with triangular probability distributions in order to mitigate biases due to subjective risk estimation. Based on a literature review, the approach considers probability functions assigned to estimated values which together with Monte Carlo simulation avoid fixed single-point estimations and deterministic simulation issues. Relating this kind of assessment with previously established risk mapping on the product development process broadens insight about the influence of risk on the process metrics. Since, risk assessment is still mostly approached in terms of individual reasoning, intuition or previous experience, providing a practical method for assessing risks can enhance and facilitate the usability of risk management principles in product development companies. The proposed approach is illustrated using an example, which involves an automated car washing facility product development process.

Skec, S.; Stankovic, T.

2012-01-01

455

Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

2013-01-01

456