WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Takeuchi. Nuevo híbrido de Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) para Cuba/ Takeuchi. New cuban hybrid of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los Dendrobium forman parte de las orquídeas más cultivadas de todo el mundo; varios cultivares de este género son vendidos como flor de corte y se ubican en el cuarto lugar en ventas entre los productos de floricultura, después de las Palmáceas, Dracaena y Anthurium de corte. En este trabajo se presentan las principales características de un nuevo cultivar de orquídea epífita, perteneciente al género Dendrobium. Takeuchi, es el resultado de la polinización manu (more) al cruzada realizada en el mes de enero del 2007 entre Dendrobium x superbiens (progenitor madre) y Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (progenitor padre); la primera floración se obtuvo en el mes de enero del 2012. Se encuentra registrado en la base de datos de la Sociedad Hortícola Real de Inglaterra, autoridad internacional encargada del registro de cultivares híbridos de orquídeas. Este nuevo híbrido posee un alto potencial ornamental y estético. Abstract in english The Dendrobium are among the most cultivated orchids worldwide; they are sold as cut flowers and are ranked in the fourth place in sales among floricultural products, after Palms, Dracaena and Anthurium for cut. This paper presents the main characteristics of a new cultivar of epiphytic orchids, belonging to the genus Dendrobium. Takeuchi becomes from the cross pollination, in January 2007, between Dendrobium x superbiens (female parent) and Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (ma (more) le parent). The first flowering occurred in January 2012. This hybrid is registered in the database of the Royal Horticultural Society of England, international cultivar registration authority for orchid hybrids. This new hybrid has a high ornamental and esthetic potential.

Suárez Guerra, Lorenzo; Hernández Espinosa, María M; Téllez Beltrán, Georvis

2013-12-01

2

Technicolor theories with negative values of the Peskin-Takeuchi electroweak parameter S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson contribution to the Peskin-Takeuchi electroweak parameter S can be negative in a class of technicolor theories. This negative contribution can be large enough to cancel the positive technihadron contribution, showing that electroweak precision tests alone cannot be used to rule out technicolor as the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking

1993-02-01

3

Investigation of Threshold Voltage Variability at High Temperature Using Takeuchi Plot  

Science.gov (United States)

The property of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors’ (MOSFETs) threshold voltage (VT) variability at high temperature is investigated by evaluating the device matrix array test element group (DMA-TEG). It is revealed that VT variation is lower at high temperature than at room temperature, and that VT at high temperature has a strong correlation with VT at room temperature. The normal property of VT variability both at room and high temperatures is validated using the normal probability plot. The decrease in VT variation at high temperature stems from the reduction of the channel depletion layer width (Wdep). The temperature dependence of VT variation is evaluated using the Takeuchi plot, the VT variation normalization method. It is revealed that the change in BVT, the parameter of VT variation in the Takeuchi plot, is very small with varying temperature.

Takaaki Tsunomura,; Akio Nishida,; Toshiro Hiramoto,

2010-05-01

4

Aproximações entre o processo de adaptação de Piaget e os modos de conversão do conhecimento de Nonaka & Takeuchi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo relaciona conceitos da teoria de criação do conhecimento organizacional de Nonaka e Takeuchi com conceitos envolvidos no processo de equilibração majorante de Piaget. A pesquisa bibliográfica e exploratória busca relacionar tais teóricos a fim de enriquecer a pesquisa organizacional com contribuições da área educacional e da psicologia. A discussão aponta para uma aproximação entre os modos de conversão do conhecimento de Nonaka e Takeuchi, ou seja, socialização, externalização, combinação e internalização, com elementos envolvidos no processo de equilibração majorante de Piaget, tidos como assimilação, acomodação, conflito cognitivo e adaptação. Conclui-se que os referenciais tratados podem ser compreendidos como embasados em visão construtivista e interacionista.

Marina Ferreira de Castro Wille; Regina Alves de Morais Marques; Helena de Fátima Nunes Silva; Tânia Stoltz; Verônica Branco

2012-01-01

5

Correction of the connecting vowel and gender of the specific epithet in the name Sphingomonas macrogoltabidus Takeuchi et al. 1993 to Sphingomonas macrogolitabida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In accordance with the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), the connecting vowel and gender of the specific epithet macrogoltabidus in combination with the generic name Sphingomonas must be -i- and the ending must be changed to -a to agree with the gender of the generic name, respectively. Thus Sphingomonas macroboltabidus Takeuchi et al. 1993 should be Sphingomonas macrogolitabida corrig. Takeuchi et al. 1993.

Yabuuchi E

2002-05-01

6

Correction of the connecting vowel and gender of the specific epithet in the name Sphingomonas macrogoltabidus Takeuchi et al. 1993 to Sphingomonas macrogolitabida.  

Science.gov (United States)

In accordance with the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), the connecting vowel and gender of the specific epithet macrogoltabidus in combination with the generic name Sphingomonas must be -i- and the ending must be changed to -a to agree with the gender of the generic name, respectively. Thus Sphingomonas macroboltabidus Takeuchi et al. 1993 should be Sphingomonas macrogolitabida corrig. Takeuchi et al. 1993. PMID:12054221

Yabuuchi, Eiko

2002-05-01

7

Existential participation in Reality and the Ontodialogical focus - exemplified with Heidegger's, Takeuchi's and Corbin's interpretation of existence and death  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper I will introduce some standard view on hermeneutics and interpretation. I will present a conceptual distinction between different ideals of truth, in relation if these ideals views on the importance of the "knower's" existential participation in Reality as a central aspect of knowledge the "knower" has. I will inspired by philosophical hermeneutics and Henry Corbin introduce a distinction between gnostic and agnostic ideals of knowledge, acknowledging that both forms of knowledge ideals can be found in different hermeneutical traditions in different faith-traditions in the world, and very often are interwoven in each other. I will then focus on the "gnostic" knowledge ideal by giving a short example of how this knowledge ideal can be applied in different ways in different forms of religious-philosophical ontologies. This implicates also different forms of interpretations of what it means to be human. I will try to illustrate this by presenting three different "gnostic" existential interpretations of death, namely Heidegger's idea of existence (or Dasein) as being-to-death, Tanabe/Takeuchi's Buddhist-inspired idea of existence as being neither-dead-nor-alive, and Henry Corbin's interpretation of existence as constructed by and relating to the other-side-of-death. In relation to Corbin I will further present his view of the word of Mundus Imaginalis as he find this idea developed in Ibn al'-Arabi, the corresponding idea of a geosophical phenomenology of the world-of-the-resurrection-body, as Corbin finds this theme elaborated in pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy and esoteric Islam. I will argue that these ideas areclosely connected to Corbin's attempt to create an interpretational strategy for the three monistic religions, and especially "esoteric Islam". Finally I will reflect on how these different approaches to death is connected, with different possible constructions of not only ontology but also inter-subjectivity (a theme I hopefully will expand on in another paper). I will then present a preliminary idea of ontodialogical difference and indicate how this idea might work in relation to inter-religious dialogue.

Garsdal, Jesper

2010-01-01

8

Re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae): morphology, biology and phylogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (synonymous with rabbit genotype), a species closely related to Cryptosporidium hominis, the morphology, natural and experimental host specificity, and genetic characterisation were investigated. The morphology and diagnostic characteristics are typical of other intestinal species of Cryptosporidium, albeit with slightly larger oocysts (5.55-6.40×5.02-5.92 ?m; mean 5.98×5.38 ?m; length:width=1.1; n=50). Natural hosts appear to be European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experimental infections have been established in weanling rabbits (O. cuniculus), immunosuppressed Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and immunosuppressed adult Porton strain mice (Mus musculus), but not in neonatal mice. Patterns of infection measured by oocyst shedding are significantly different compared with C. hominis, particularly in rabbits. Histological examination reveals endogenous stages in the brush border of the epithelium of the small intestinal villi, but clinical signs are absent. Inoculation of human HCT-8 cells results in discrete clusters of endogenous stages. A close relationship with C. hominis is inferred from molecular analyses at the ssrRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) genes and a region encoding a product of unknown function (LIB13). Sequences contained limited, consistent polymorphisms at the ssrRNA, HSP70 and actin genes, were identical at the COWP and LIB13 genes and demonstrated two unique families at the GP60 gene. Although genetically closely related, there are significant biological differences between C. cuniculus and C. hominis that support these protozoa being separate species. This is based on the current understanding of these organisms and relies on the assumption that mating between these species would not normally occur. If this is subsequently demonstrated their categorisation may need to be re-addressed. PMID:20600069

Robinson, Guy; Wright, Steve; Elwin, Kristin; Hadfield, Stephen J; Katzer, Frank; Bartley, Paul M; Hunter, Paul R; Nath, Mintu; Innes, Elisabeth A; Chalmers, Rachel M

2010-07-01

9

Análise da técnica de takeuchi usada para o tratamento da origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar Analysis of the takeuchi procedure for the treatment of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Avaliação dos casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi, analisando o resultado cirúrgico imediato e tardio e a morbidade destes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Relato uma série de casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi. Métodos: Realizou-se a análise com coleta de dados dos prontuários de doze pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica no período de 1981 a 2003. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 5,9 ± 1,7 meses. A clínica preponderante foi insuficiência cardíaca, principalmente nos lactentes. O eletrocardiograma inicial em dez casos mostrou onda Q em DI e aVL e sinais de isquemia miocárdica. No ecocardiograma, observaram-se padrão de miocardiopatia dilatada em seis pacientes e insuficiência mitral. A idade média da correção cirúrgica foi de 31,8 ± 14,3 meses. A mortalidade cirúrgica imediata foi de 16% (dois pacientes) por disfunção cardíaca. No acompanhamento ambulatorial, houve a melhora da sintomatologia e das alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma, retorno da função cardíaca e melhora da insuficiência mitral. Durante o acompanhamento, três casos evoluíram com estenose supravalvar pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: A suspeita clínica dessa cardiopatia deve ser feita em todo lactente com insuficiência cardíaca. A correção cirúrgica com o emprego da técnica de Takeuchi se mostra eficaz, com baixo índice de mortalidade. Após a correção, há um retorno à normalidade da função cardíaca e a melhora da insuficiência mitral.BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure, analyzing their immediate and late surgical outcomes as well as the related morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure. METHODS: The analysis was based on data collected from the medical records of 12 patients undergoing surgical correction between 1981 and 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 5.9 ± 1.7 months. The predominant manifestation was heart failure, especially in the infants. The baseline electrocardiogram showed a Q wave in DI and aVL and signs of myocardial ischemia in ten cases. Echocardiogram with a pattern of dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation was found in six patients. The mean age at surgical correction was 31.8 ± 14.3 months. The immediate surgical mortality was 16% (two patients), from cardiac dysfunction. In the outpatient follow-up we observed that the symptoms, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, cardiac function and mitral regurgitation improved. Three cases progressed with supravalvar pulmonary stenosis during follow-up. CONCLUSION: This heart disease should be suspected in every infant presenting with heart failure. Surgical correction with the Takeuchi procedure has proven efficient, with a low mortality rate. Cardiac function returns to normal and mitral regurgitation improves after surgical correction.

Andrea Weirich Lenzi; Leo Solarewicz; Wanderley Saviollo Ferreira; Fábio Sallum; Nelson Itiro Miyague

2008-01-01

10

Análise da técnica de takeuchi usada para o tratamento da origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar/ Analysis of the takeuchi procedure for the treatment of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Avaliação dos casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi, analisando o resultado cirúrgico imediato e tardio e a morbidade destes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Relato uma série de casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi. Métodos: Realizou-se a análise com coleta de dados dos prontuários de doze pacientes submetidos à corre (more) ção cirúrgica no período de 1981 a 2003. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 5,9 ± 1,7 meses. A clínica preponderante foi insuficiência cardíaca, principalmente nos lactentes. O eletrocardiograma inicial em dez casos mostrou onda Q em DI e aVL e sinais de isquemia miocárdica. No ecocardiograma, observaram-se padrão de miocardiopatia dilatada em seis pacientes e insuficiência mitral. A idade média da correção cirúrgica foi de 31,8 ± 14,3 meses. A mortalidade cirúrgica imediata foi de 16% (dois pacientes) por disfunção cardíaca. No acompanhamento ambulatorial, houve a melhora da sintomatologia e das alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma, retorno da função cardíaca e melhora da insuficiência mitral. Durante o acompanhamento, três casos evoluíram com estenose supravalvar pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: A suspeita clínica dessa cardiopatia deve ser feita em todo lactente com insuficiência cardíaca. A correção cirúrgica com o emprego da técnica de Takeuchi se mostra eficaz, com baixo índice de mortalidade. Após a correção, há um retorno à normalidade da função cardíaca e a melhora da insuficiência mitral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure, analyzing their immediate and late surgical outcomes as well as the related morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure. METHODS: The analysis was based on data collected from the medical records of 12 patient (more) s undergoing surgical correction between 1981 and 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 5.9 ± 1.7 months. The predominant manifestation was heart failure, especially in the infants. The baseline electrocardiogram showed a Q wave in DI and aVL and signs of myocardial ischemia in ten cases. Echocardiogram with a pattern of dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation was found in six patients. The mean age at surgical correction was 31.8 ± 14.3 months. The immediate surgical mortality was 16% (two patients), from cardiac dysfunction. In the outpatient follow-up we observed that the symptoms, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, cardiac function and mitral regurgitation improved. Three cases progressed with supravalvar pulmonary stenosis during follow-up. CONCLUSION: This heart disease should be suspected in every infant presenting with heart failure. Surgical correction with the Takeuchi procedure has proven efficient, with a low mortality rate. Cardiac function returns to normal and mitral regurgitation improves after surgical correction.

Lenzi, Andrea Weirich; Solarewicz, Leo; Ferreira, Wanderley Saviollo; Sallum, Fábio; Miyague, Nelson Itiro

2008-03-01

11

Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President  

Science.gov (United States)

Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President

Morita, Utako

12

Isotopic exchange in the ethanol synthesis from CO + H/sub 2/. Comments on papers by A. Takeuchi and J. R. Katzer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of papers previously published by Takeuchi and Katzer suggesting mechanisms for the methanol and ethanol synthesis via CO hydrogenation without dissociation in the presence of supported Rh catalysts are not questioned. However, an alternate pathway for the oxygen scrambling at the C/sub 2/ level and an interpretation of the small, but significant, changes in the isotopic distribution of CO in the gas phase are presented.

Henrici-Olive, G.; Olive, S.

1984-05-24

13

Possible Origins of Extra Threshold Voltage Variability in N-Type Field-Effect Transistors by Intentionally Changing Process Conditions and Using Takeuchi Plot  

Science.gov (United States)

The origins of the threshold voltage (VT) variability of n-type field-effect transistors (NFETs), which have larger VT variability than p-type field-effect transistors (PFETs), are investigated using the Takeuchi plot and by intentionally changing process conditions. The process conditions investigated in this study are the polarity of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) gate electrodes, fluctuations of gate oxide thickness and gate oxide/substrate interface, and channel stress. It is confirmed by experiments that these process conditions negligibly affect VT variability in NFETs. This result does not contradict our previous result that channel profile nonuniformity is the major origin of the larger VT variability in NFETs than that in PFETs.

Takaaki Tsunomura,; Fumiko Yano,; Akio Nishida,; Toshiro Hiramoto,

2010-07-01

14

Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models Análisis de la relación entre la ingeniería del conocimiento y la gestión del conocimiento en base al modelo de Nonaka y Takeuchi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.La utilización de la Gestión del Conocimiento es fundamental en la creación de valor dentro de las empresas, siendo hoy por hoy una nueva forma de obtener ventajas competitivas en un mercado específico. Asimismo para el proceso de creación de valor es necesaria la utilización de Tecnologías de Información específicas, que permitan alcanzar los objetivos trazados al implementar un proyecto de Gestión del Conocimiento. En este sentido una de las Tecnologías de Información más completas y más eficientes, son los Knowledge Based System que a su vez forman parte de la Ingeniería del Conocimiento. Este artículo pretende analizar la relación existente entre la Gestión del Conocimiento, un modelo específico de creación de conocimiento, los Knowledge Based System y como estás Tecnologías de la Información juegan un rol muy importante en la creación, codificación y transferencia del conocimiento.

Christian Reyes

2007-01-01

15

Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market.Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project.In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering.This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.

Christian Reyes

2005-01-01

16

The S parameter for a Light Composite Higgs: a Dispersion Relation Approach  

CERN Multimedia

We derive a dispersion relation for the S parameter in the SO(5)/SO(4) Minimal Composite Higgs model. This generalizes the Peskin-Takeuchi formula to the case when a light Higgs boson is present in the spectrum. Our result combines an IR effect due to the reduction in the Higgs boson couplings with a UV contribution from the strong sector. It also includes a finite matching term, achieving a very good relative accuracy O(m_h/m_\\rho). We apply our formula in several toy examples, modeling the UV spectral density via Vector Meson Dominance.

Orgogozo, Axel

2012-01-01

17

Radioecological approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several kinds of method for estimation on internal radiation doses, due to radioactive effluents into the sea, were reviewed and discussed in the paper, chiefly on exposure pathway and specific activity methods. Special attention was payed to the importance of the critical pathway approach, when the effluent of the liquid radioactive waste from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant was examined. The methods, presented in the paper, may give us valuable information for safe control of marine environment. However, in order to estimate the dose rather practically and exactly, further developed information may be required through future investigations. The necessary information may not be limited in physical diffusion of soluble chemical elements through the sea, but biological and chemical information on radioecology including behaviour, ecology, biochemistry of the creatus of the sea and also biochemistry of man may be desired. (auth.)

1975-02-28

18

Evaluating six soft approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

Lene Sørensen; René Victor Valqui Vidal

2008-01-01

19

Evaluating six soft approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

2008-01-01

20

Evaluating Six Soft Approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Trajectory and smooth attractors for Cahn-Hilliard equations with inertial term  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is devoted to a modification of the classical Cahn-Hilliard equation proposed by some physicists. This modification is obtained by adding the second time derivative of the order parameter multiplied by an inertial coefficient ? > 0, which is usually small in comparison with the other physical constants. The main feature of this equation is the fact that even a globally bounded nonlinearity is 'supercritical' in the case of two and three space dimensions. Thus, the standard methods used for studying semilinear hyperbolic equations are not very effective in the present case. Nevertheless, we have recently proven the global existence and dissipativity of strong solutions in the 2D case (with a cubic controlled growth nonlinearity) and for the 3D case with small ? and arbitrary growth rate of the nonlinearity (see (Grasselli et al 2009 J. Evol. Eqns 9 371-404, Grasselli et al 2009 Commun. Partial Diff. Eqns 34 137-70)). The present contribution studies the long-time behaviour of rather weak (energy) solutions of that equation and it is a natural complement of the results of our previous papers (Grasselli et al 2009 J. Evol. Eqns 9 371-404, Grasselli et al 2009 Commun. Partial Diff. Eqns 34 137-70). In particular, we prove here that the attractors for energy and strong solutions coincide for both the cases mentioned above. Thus, the energy solutions are asymptotically smooth. In addition, we show that the non-smooth part of any energy solution decays exponentially in time and deduce that the (smooth) exponential attractor for the strong solutions constructed previously is simultaneously the exponential attractor for the energy solutions as well. It is worth noting that the uniqueness of energy solutions in the 3D case is not known yet, so we have to use the so-called trajectory approach which does not require uniqueness. Finally, we apply the obtained exponential regularization of the energy solutions for verifying the dissipativity of solutions of the 2D modified Cahn-Hilliard equation in the intermediate phase space of weak solutions (in between energy and strong solutions) without any restriction on ?.

Grasselli, Maurizio; Schimperna, Giulio; Zelik, Sergey

2010-03-01

22

The TLC Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

Welker, William A.

2002-01-01

23

Modular Approach for Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

24

Life Span Developmental Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

Ali Eryilmaz

2011-01-01

25

Perturbative symmetry approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of our paper is to formulate a perturbative version of the symmetry approach in the symbolic representation and to generalize it in order to make it suitable for the study of nonlocal and non-evolution equations. Our formalism is the development and incorporation of the perturbative approach of Zakharov and Schulman, the symbolic method of Sanders and Wang and the standard symmetry approach of Shabat et al. We apply our theory to describe integrable generalizations of the Benjamin-Ono type equations and to isolate integrable cases of the Camassa-Holm type equations. (author)

2002-06-07

26

STUTTERING-PSYCHOLINGUISTIC APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the linguistic material. Thus, the conclusions of this research study offer the possibility of promoting cross-cultural and cross-linguistic researches, with the aim of obtaining data which can be generalized beyond national boundaries, in stuttering pathology.

Carolina Bodea Ha?egan; Maria Anca; L?cr?mioara Prihoi

2012-01-01

27

The electronic approach VSCF  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

Hladky, Mark

28

Theoretical Approaches to Coping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

Stavroula Mitrousi; Antonios Travlos; Evmorfia Koukia; Sofia Zyga

2013-01-01

29

Unconventional approaches to fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume is dedicated to unconventional approaches to fusionthose thermonuclear reactors that, in comparison with Tokamak and other main lines, have received little attention in the worldwide scientific community. Many of the approaches considered are still in the embryonic stages. The authors-an international group of active nuclear scientists and engineers-focus on the parameters achieved in the use of these reactors and on the meaning of the most recent physical studies and their implications for the future. They also compare these approaches with conventional ones, the Tokamak in particular, stressing the non-plasma-physics requirements of fusion reactors. Unconventional compact toroids, linear systems, and multipoles are considered, as are the ''almost conventional'' fusion machines: stellarators, mirrors, reversed-field pinches, and EBT.

Brunelli, B.; Leotta, G.G.

1982-01-01

30

Unconventional approaches to fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume is dedicated to unconventional approaches to fusionthose thermonuclear reactors that, in comparison with Tokamak and other main lines, have received little attention in the worldwide scientific community. Many of the approaches considered are still in the embryonic stages. The authors-an international group of active nuclear scientists and engineers-focus on the parameters achieved in the use of these reactors and on the meaning of the most recent physical studies and their implications for the future. They also compare these approaches with conventional ones, the Tokamak in particular, stressing the non-plasma-physics requirements of fusion reactors. Unconventional compact toroids, linear systems, and multipoles are considered, as are the ''almost conventional'' fusion machines: stellarators, mirrors, reversed-field pinches, and EBT.

1982-01-01

31

RATING APPROACH IN EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of standardization in education which is a very important problem of ensuring the objective character and system in assessment Of learning success achievements. The aim of the article is consideration the possibility of rating approach usage in assessment of learning success achievements that unlike the traditional approach allows assessing not only the outcomes but the process of their achievement. Having its own advantages and disadvantages this approach, nevertheless, gives an opportunity to assess not by “deducting” but by “summing” the achievements. It is a stimulus for school children to a deliberate management of their own learning trajectory. Rating charts usage is one of the effective ways to maintain a student’s interest to his cognitive activity since these charts show the actual state in mastering a school subject and let him make necessary corrections in his learning trajectory in order to improve the outcomes according to his wishes.

Mikhailova Elena Konstantinovna

2012-01-01

32

Disability: a welfarist approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species' functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability.

Savulescu J; Kahane G

2011-03-01

33

Multiple Approaches to Islam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publication of the following articles by Al-Jami‘ah shows how  rich the subjects of Islamic studies are. From contemporary to classical themes there are gaps still left. This further proves that Islam, like any other religion, as a system of belief and cultural production which  serves as a context wherein textual works and norms are produced, can be approached from many dimensions. The texts, including books and other form of records, are always open to all readers, who can offer various approaches. Both classical and contemporary studies of Islam  are faced with various challenges which beg more perspectives. Although classical texts seem muted, new understanding is often born, when new approaches with different perspectives are employed. Likewise,  contemporary issues are of course dynamics. Studies of the current issues should flow dynamically in the way in which Muslim society progresses with an unpredicted pattern. Studies with new perspectives are always welcome.  

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2010-01-01

34

Technical approach document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

1989-01-01

35

Technical approach document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

1989-12-01

36

Approaching electrical tomography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A general approach to electrical tomography is here described, based on the distribution of the experimental data to the set of voxels in which the subsoil has been divided. This approach utilizes the sensitivity coefficients as factors of the convolution procedure to execute the back projection of the data, to obtain the 3D pictures of the subsoil. A subsequent probabilistic filtering technique is described to improve the pictures in view of sharp boundary models. Some models are finally presented, mostly regarding cubic buried anomalies as well as pipe-shaped and L-shaped anomalies.

P. L. Cosentino

2000-01-01

37

Diagnostic approach to osteoporosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnostic approach to osteoporosis usually involves an ample risk assessment, a physical examination, a radiograph of the thoracic and lumbar spine, a bone densitometry using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and a basic blood test. The aim of this approach is to assign a person to one of the WHO-based diagnostic categories, and to estimate the ten-year fracture risk of this individual. In countries where available, the individual ten-year fracture risk can now easily be calculated for men and women of forty years of age and above, by using a computer-driven calculation tool, called FRAXTM which has been developed by WHO recently. (author)

2009-01-01

38

Homogenization approach in engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

1975-01-01

39

A true comprehensive approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Comprehensive Approach (USCA) to preserving the global commons and protecting the earth from global warming is significantly flawed. USCA will take a long time to implement; it ignores the realities of the current international order; and the kind of analysis, infrastructure and sophistication demanded by USCA are absent within the domestic order of developing countries. Emission limitations on CO[sub 2] constitute the necessary initial steps in the development of a true comprehensive approach (TCA). A TCA begins by exploring our dependence on fossil fuels, as global warming is a problem of energy pollution. 68 refs., 2 tabs.

Guruswamy, L. (Arizona University, Tucson, AZ (USA))

1992-01-01

40

Approaches to acceptable risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

1997-04-30

 
 
 
 
41

Salt repository design approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

Matthews, S.C.

1983-01-01

42

Genetic approaches to somatosensation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three approaches to understanding peripheral pain pathways are described in this thesis. Cre-loxP technology has been used to delete genes specifically in specialised sensory neurons that respond to tissue damage (nociceptors). The sodium channel selective Nav1.8 promoter is used to drive Cre expres...

Abrahamsen, B.

43

Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathol...

Agresta Ferdinando; Ciardo Luigi; Mazzarolo Giorgio; Michelet Ivan; Orsi Guido; Trentin Giuseppe; Bedin Natalino

44

Salt repository design approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

1983-01-01

45

Islamic Approach in Counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah. PMID:23563898

Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

2013-04-01

46

Islamic Approach in Counseling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah.

Hanin Hamjah S; Mat Akhir NS

2013-04-01

47

Thematic curriculum approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teaching. However, it did not prove to be suitable for planning the majority of activities in thematic curriculum, for it follows with difficulty the process of exploring or storytelling i.e. it disrupts the subject matter coherence of thematic curriculum. Therefore, it is suggested that matrix should be used for disciplinary curriculum planning but for that of thematic curriculum only in exclusive cases. The matrix should be used primarily as a framework for evaluating the distribution of various types of abilities and problem situations in teaching. The logic of diverse approaches to teaching reflects itself in the manner of planning and organizing the teaching process. Conceptual, visual-graphic, structural and other aids employed during educational process planning should suit the nature of the approach chosen. On the basis of qualitative investigations of educational process, in the present paper considerations are given to various approaches to teaching development of various drafts for the planning of teaching, and recognition of the logic of storytelling and exploring in thematic curriculum.

Šefer Jasmina P.

2003-01-01

48

The oblique S parameter in Higgsless electroweak models  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a one-loop calculation of the oblique S parameter within Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking. We have used a general effective Lagrangian with at most two derivatives, implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2)L?SU(2)R-->SU(2)L+R with Goldstones, gauge bosons and one multiplet of vector and axial-vector resonances. The estimation is based on the short-distance constraints and the dispersive approach proposed by Peskin and Takeuchi.

Rosell, Ignasi

2012-10-01

49

The oblique S parameter in higgsless electroweak models  

CERN Multimedia

We present a one-loop calculation of the oblique S parameter within Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking. We have used a general effective Lagrangian with at most two derivatives, implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R -> SU(2)_{L+R} with Goldstones, gauge bosons and one multiplet of vector and axial-vector resonances. The estimation is based on the short-distance constraints and the dispersive approach proposed by Peskin and Takeuchi.

Rosell, Ignasi

2012-01-01

50

Approach to hemorrhoids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemorrhoids are a very common anorectal disorder defined as the symptomatic enlargement and abnormally downward displacement of anal cushions. The current pathophysiologies of hemorrhoids include the degenerative change of supportive tissue within the anal cushions, vascular hyperplasia, and hyperperfusion of hemorrhoidal plexus. Low-grade hemorrhoids are easily and effectively treated with dietary and lifestyle modification, medical intervention, and some office-based procedures. An operation is usually indicated in symptomatic high-grade and/or complicated hemorrhoids. Whilst hemorrhoidectomy has been the mainstay of surgical treatment, more recently other approaches have been employed including Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy, stapled hemorrhoidopexy, and doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation. Post-procedural pain and disease recurrence remain the most challenging problems in the treatment of hemorrhoids. This article deals with modern approaches to hemorrhoids based on the latest evidence and reviews of the literature. The management of hemorrhoids in complicated situations is also discussed.

Lohsiriwat V

2013-07-01

51

Approach to hemorrhoids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemorrhoids are a very common anorectal disorder defined as the symptomatic enlargement and abnormally downward displacement of anal cushions. The current pathophysiologies of hemorrhoids include the degenerative change of supportive tissue within the anal cushions, vascular hyperplasia, and hyperperfusion of hemorrhoidal plexus. Low-grade hemorrhoids are easily and effectively treated with dietary and lifestyle modification, medical intervention, and some office-based procedures. An operation is usually indicated in symptomatic high-grade and/or complicated hemorrhoids. Whilst hemorrhoidectomy has been the mainstay of surgical treatment, more recently other approaches have been employed including Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy, stapled hemorrhoidopexy, and doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation. Post-procedural pain and disease recurrence remain the most challenging problems in the treatment of hemorrhoids. This article deals with modern approaches to hemorrhoids based on the latest evidence and reviews of the literature. The management of hemorrhoids in complicated situations is also discussed. PMID:23715885

Lohsiriwat, Varut

2013-07-01

52

Sociocultural approach to textbook  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications) contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

Peši? Jelena M.

2005-01-01

53

Communicative Approach: Some Misapprehensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Though Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is acknowledged by the National Curriculum & Textbook Board (NCTB) and many English teachers as one of the most effective approaches in English language teaching in Bangladesh, there are still a number of misapprehensions about it. By comparing Johnstone; Sato and Kleinsasser and Thompson as well as Spada, this article focuses on four of the main misapprehensions, which are usually held by the language teachers and researchers.

Mohammad Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

54

Approaches to Improving Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses a few issues related to teaching improvement that are commonly found in tertiary education, such as curriculum development, student engagement, and ethical considerations. Scholars research on resolving these issues are investigated. Corresponding approaches to improving teaching of a year one information technology unit are proposed and experience is shared. The importance of teaching scholarship is also emphasized at the end of this paper.

Shang Gao; Jo Coldwell-Neilson; Andrzej Goscinski

2013-01-01

55

Disability: a welfarist approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species' functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability. PMID:22140353

Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

2011-03-01

56

[A dynamic neuropsychological approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are at least two approaches in evaluating neuropsychological patients. One is to analyze negative symptoms and find a correlation between a damaged brain lesion and a lost function. The other is to focus on the nature of positive symptoms and find a principle ruling a behavioral change caused by a lesion. Although both approaches are equally important, I focused on the latter approach in this symposium. Two syndromes, i.e. forced manipulation of tools and hyperlexia are interpreted in terms of the rivalry between the top-down process of inhibition and bottom-up process of stimulus processing, resulting in the predominance of the latter. Two other symptoms, i.e. misperception in a case of associative visual agnosia and habitual behavior in a frontal damaged-dementia are interpreted in the same terms, but resulting in the predominance of the top-down process. These syndromes clearly illustrate that the behavior is organized on the dynamic balance between the information generated internally and the one coming in from the environment.

Yamadori A

2000-12-01

57

[A dynamic neuropsychological approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are at least two approaches in evaluating neuropsychological patients. One is to analyze negative symptoms and find a correlation between a damaged brain lesion and a lost function. The other is to focus on the nature of positive symptoms and find a principle ruling a behavioral change caused by a lesion. Although both approaches are equally important, I focused on the latter approach in this symposium. Two syndromes, i.e. forced manipulation of tools and hyperlexia are interpreted in terms of the rivalry between the top-down process of inhibition and bottom-up process of stimulus processing, resulting in the predominance of the latter. Two other symptoms, i.e. misperception in a case of associative visual agnosia and habitual behavior in a frontal damaged-dementia are interpreted in the same terms, but resulting in the predominance of the top-down process. These syndromes clearly illustrate that the behavior is organized on the dynamic balance between the information generated internally and the one coming in from the environment. PMID:11464476

Yamadori, A

2000-12-01

58

Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years) underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3%) were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis), according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat.) of cases, and 90.6% (87) of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal peritonitis emergencies.

Agresta Ferdinando; Ciardo Luigi; Mazzarolo Giorgio; Michelet Ivan; Orsi Guido; Trentin Giuseppe; Bedin Natalino

2006-01-01

59

Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years) underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3%) were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis), according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat.) of cases, and 90.6% (87) of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal peritonitis emergencies.

Agresta, Ferdinando; Ciardo, Luigi Francesco; Mazzarolo, Giorgio; Michelet, Ivan; Orsi, Guido; Trentin, Giuseppe; Bedin, Natalino

2006-01-01

60

[Cystic pyeloureteritis. Our approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of massive cystic pyeloureteritis that had been diagnosed by ureterorenoscopy in a patient with recurrent urinary infection and episodes of nephritic colic. The reports published in the literature indicate there is no specific treatment for this disease whose etiology is unknown. Its pathogenesis has not been well-established and it is difficult to distinguish from other urothelial filling defects. Although it has also been reported that it may progress to malignancy, we believe that the therapeutic approach should be conservative.

Castillo Jimeno JM; González de Garibay AS; Ruiz Rubio JL; Sebastián Borruel JL

1992-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

[Psychosomatic approach in dermatovenerology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychosomatic approach is a component of psychodermatology, which accentuates a holistic principle and psychosocial unity of man. Research data concerning the neurogenic modulation of skin inflammations, together with the prevalence of psychosocial influences in dermatological patients, motivate an increased interest of dermatovenereologists in psychodermatology and in the interdisciplinary cooperation with clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and other pertinent specialists. The Section of the Psychodermatology of the Czech Dermatovenereological Society was established in September 3rd 2004, in order to improve dermatovenereological care and the quality of life in dermatological patients. PMID:16521399

Pánková, R

2006-01-01

62

[Psychosomatic approach in dermatovenerology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psychosomatic approach is a component of psychodermatology, which accentuates a holistic principle and psychosocial unity of man. Research data concerning the neurogenic modulation of skin inflammations, together with the prevalence of psychosocial influences in dermatological patients, motivate an increased interest of dermatovenereologists in psychodermatology and in the interdisciplinary cooperation with clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and other pertinent specialists. The Section of the Psychodermatology of the Czech Dermatovenereological Society was established in September 3rd 2004, in order to improve dermatovenereological care and the quality of life in dermatological patients.

Pánková R

2006-01-01

63

The collaboratory approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

64

A different approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper offers an alternative approach to solving conveying problems. Sandvik's Ruxon Belt-Twist{trademark} uses the belt turning method with polyurethane coated rollers. The belt is twisted and turned upside down on its return so that the clean side of the belt always faces down. This reduces wear and tear and maintenance problems for the return rollers. This system is used at the Salmisaari B power plant in Helsinki for moving coal from four underground coal silos. 6 figs.

Hovi, T. [Sandvik Mining and Construction (Finland)

2006-06-15

65

Predictive ecology: systems approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The world is experiencing significant, largely anthropogenically induced, environmental change. This will impact on the biological world and we need to be able to forecast its effects. In order to produce such forecasts, ecology needs to become more predictive--to develop the ability to understand how ecological systems will behave in future, changed, conditions. Further development of process-based models is required to allow such predictions to be made. Critical to the development of such models will be achieving a balance between the brute-force approach that naively attempts to include everything, and over simplification that throws out important heterogeneities at various levels. Central to this will be the recognition that individuals are the elementary particles of all ecological systems. As such it will be necessary to understand the effect of evolution on ecological systems, particularly when exposed to environmental change. However, insights from evolutionary biology will help the development of models even when data may be sparse. Process-based models are more common, and are used for forecasting, in other disciplines, e.g. climatology and molecular systems biology. Tools and techniques developed in these endeavours can be appropriated into ecological modelling, but it will also be necessary to develop the science of ecoinformatics along with approaches specific to ecological problems. The impetus for this effort should come from the demand coming from society to understand the effects of environmental change on the world and what might be performed to mitigate or adapt to them.

Evans MR; Norris KJ; Benton TG

2012-01-01

66

Approaches for Stereo Matching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

Takouhi Ozanian

1995-01-01

67

[Fournier syndrome: multidisciplinary approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fournier's gangrene, a form of necrotizing fasciitis, is an uncommon, fulminant, rapidly progressing subcutaneous infection of the scrotum and genito-perineal region, and may occur in all age groups. Most cases involve a mixed synergistic infection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and occur as a result of one of this mechanisms: local trauma, extension from a perineal, periurethral or ischiorectal infection. It is associated with a high mortality rate. Predisposing factors included diabetes mellitus, steroids or chemotherapy, alcohol abuse, malignancy and radiation therapy. This disease requires prompt treatment: early diagnosis, antibiotic therapy, nutritional support, immediate extensive surgical debridement and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The use of etherologue serum is a valuable adjunct in the therapy of Fournier's gangrene. We report a case of Fournier's syndrome treated with etherologue serum immuno-therapy, together with the conventional multidisciplinary approach. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on day 50 post intervention in good general conditions. The 3 years follow-up showed no recurrence of the disease. In conclusion we remark that the survival can be improved in patients with Fournier's gangrene by multidisciplinary approach. PMID:11765356

Vescio, G; Battaglia, M; Sommella, L; Gallelli, G; Manzo, F; Cristiano, S F; Valente, A; Musella, S

68

[Acoustic neurinoma. Otoneurosurgical approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 1973 until November 1984, 224 cerebello-pontine angle tumors, 180 of them isolated neurinomas, were operated on. In a large majority of cases (160) through the widened trans-labyrinthine approach, advocated by House and Hitselberger was used. Despite advances in diagnostic procedures two out of three of these neurinomas were discovered only when they were already quite big. The post-operative overall death rate was 5 p. 100, tumor removal was complete in 96 p. 100 of cases and the facial nerve continuity was respected in 87 p. 100 of cases. These overall results can be still improved because in the last 50 cases, no death occurred, the removal was always total and the facial nerve continuity was respected in 96 p. 100 of cases. The problem of hearing preservation, impossible by this approach, is discussed. The necessity of facial nerve preservation and total removal, in order to prevent recurrence, is emphasized. It often seems very difficult to preserve hearing and to completely remove the tumor and at the same time, have the highest chance of saving the facial nerve.

Pellet W; Cannoni M; Pech A; Triglia JM

1987-01-01

69

Endoscopic approach to achalasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia.

Michaela Müller; Alexander J Eckardt; Till Wehrmann

2013-01-01

70

Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. DISCUSSION: Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. SUMMARY: The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being.

Affinita A; Catalani L; Cecchetto G; De Lorenzo G; Dilillo D; Donegani G; Fransos L; Lucidi F; Mameli C; Manna E; Marconi P; Mele G; Minestroni L; Montanari M; Morcellini M; Rovera G; Rotilio G; Sachet M; Zuccotti GV

2013-01-01

71

Stochastic Approach to Stereo Vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stochastic optimization approach to stereo matching is presented. Unlike conventional correlation matching and feature matching, the approach provides a dense array of disparities, eliminating the need for interpolation. First, the stereo matching probl...

S. T. Barnard

1986-01-01

72

Alternative approaches to population structure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are three approaches to DNA identification: tectonic, halieutic and icarian, of which the tectonic is sensible, the halieutic impractical, and the icarian idiotic. The rationale and consequences of these approaches are detailed.

Morton NE

1995-01-01

73

Proteomics approaches to fibrotic disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This review provides an introduction to mass spectrometry based proteomics and discusses several proteomics approaches that are relevant in understanding the pathophysiology of fibrotic disorders and the approaches that are frequently used in biomarker discovery.

Gucek Marjan

2012-01-01

74

Proteomics - new analytical approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Recent developments in the sequencing of the human genome have indicated that the number of coding gene sequences may be as few as 30,000. It is clear, however, that the complexity of the human species is dependent on the much greater diversity of the corresponding protein complement. Estimates of the diversity (discrete protein species) of the human proteome range from 200,000 to 300,000 at the lower end to 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 at the high end. In addition, proteomics (the study of the protein complement to the genome) has been subdivided into two main approaches. Global proteomics refers to a high throughput examination of the full protein set present in a cell under a given environmental condition. Focused proteomics refers to a more detailed study of a restricted set of proteins that are related to a specified biochemical pathway or subcellular structure. While many of the advances in proteomics will be based on the sequencing of the human genome, de novo characterization of protein microheterogeneity (glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation as well as the incorporation of lipid components) will be required in disease studies. To characterize these modifications it is necessary to digest the protein mixture with an enzyme to produce the corresponding mixture of peptides. In a process analogous to sequencing of the genome, shot-gun sequencing of the proteome is based on the characterization of the key fragments produced by such a digest. Thus, a glycopeptide and hence a specific glycosylation motif will be identified by a unique mass and then a diagnostic MS/MS spectrum. Mass spectrometry will be the preferred detector in these applications because of the unparalleled information content provided by one or more dimensions of mass measurement. In addition, highly efficient separation processes are an absolute requirement for advanced proteomic studies. For example, a combination of the orthogonal approaches, HPLC and HPCE, can be very powerful for high resolution peptide mapping (hydrophobicity and ionic charge). This presentation will describe the development of new instrumentation based on the combination of capillary-based separation systems, including reversed phase and ion exchange HPLC integrated with on-line mass spectrometry. This approach can be used for stand-alone shot-gun sequencing or integrated with 2D-gel proteomic studies. Examples will include global studies such as the yeast proteome and focused studies on selected protein extracts such as secreted and nuclear proteins from mammalian cells

2001-01-01

75

Pelvic Exenteration: Surgical Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the incidence of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer has decreased due to the understanding of the anatomy of pelvic structures and the adoption of total mesorectal excision, local recurrence in the pelvis still remains a significant and troublesome complication. While surgery for recurrent rectal cancer may offer a chance for a cure, conservative management, including radiation and chemotherapy, remain widely accepted courses of treatment. Recent improvement in imaging modalities, perioperative care, and surgical techniques, including bone resection and wound coverage, have allowed for reductions in operative mortality, though postoperative morbidity still remains high. In this review, the techniques, including surgical approaches, employed for management of locally recurrent rectal cancer are highlighted.

2012-01-01

76

Editorial: Approaching 125.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes.

Goodman S

2012-02-01

77

Therapeutic approaches for Shankopathies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the current treatments for these disorders are mostly focused on behavioral and educational approaches. The considerable clinical and molecular heterogeneity of ASD present a significant challenge to the development of an effective treatment targeting underlying molecular defects. Deficiency of SHANK family genes causing ASD represent an exciting opportunity for developing molecular therapies because of strong genetic evidence for SHANKs as causative genes in ASD and the availability of a panel of Shank mutant mouse models. In this article we review the literature suggesting the potential for developing therapies based on molecular characteristics and discuss several exciting themes that are emerging from studying Shank mutant mice at the molecular level and in terms of synaptic function. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2013.

Wang X; Bey A; Chang L; Krystal AD; Jiang YH

2013-03-01

78

Therapeutic approaches for Shankopathies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the current treatments for these disorders are mostly focused on behavioral and educational approaches. The considerable clinical and molecular heterogeneity of ASD present a significant challenge to the development of an effective treatment targeting underlying molecular defects. Deficiency of SHANK family genes causing ASD represent an exciting opportunity for developing molecular therapies because of strong genetic evidence for SHANKs as causative genes in ASD and the availability of a panel of Shank mutant mouse models. In this article we review the literature suggesting the potential for developing therapies based on molecular characteristics and discuss several exciting themes that are emerging from studying Shank mutant mice at the molecular level and in terms of synaptic function. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2013. PMID:23536326

Wang, Xiaoming; Bey, Alexandra; Chang, Leeyup; Krystal, Andrew D; Jiang, Yong-Hui

2013-03-27

79

Slurry pipeline design approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-12-19

80

Modelling approaches for angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a functional vasculature within a tumour is a requisite for its growth and progression. This fact has led to the design of therapies directed toward the tumour vasculature, aiming either to prevent the formation of new vessels (anti-angiogenic) or to damage existing vessels (vascular targeting). The development of agents with different mechanisms of action requires powerful preclinical models for the analysis and optimization of these therapies. This review concerns 'classical' assays of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, recent approaches to target identification (analysis of gene and protein expression), and the study of morphological and functional changes in the vasculature in vivo (imaging techniques). It mainly describes assays designed for anti-angiogenic compounds, indicating, where possible, their application to the study of vascular-targeting agents. PMID:15120043

Taraboletti, G; Giavazzi, R

2004-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Therapeutic approach to insomnia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insomnia is the inability to reconcile or maintain sleep or the feeling of not having a good night's sleep, resulting in daytime dysfunction. It affects health and the quality of life of patients who suffer from it. However, up to 10% of insomniac patients do not receive an adequate treatment. Insomnia requires an integrated approach, treating the causes or triggers and symptoms, and assessing their impact on the patient. Treatment must be based on strategies of changing behaviour and changes in lifestyle that are associated, and when deemed necessary, pharmacological treatment. The main hypnotics are benzodiazepines and Z drugs or non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, on not finding any evidence of clinically significant differences between the use of one or the other. Both therapeutic groups are effective in the treatment of insomnia in the short term, but there is no evidence on their long-term effectiveness.

López de Castro F; Fernández Rodríguez O; Mareque Ortega MA; Fernández Agüero L

2012-05-01

82

Microscopic approach to polaritons  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction between excitons and light has been investigated in detail. The perturbational approach turns out to be invalid. However, an exact solution can be obtained directly from the Schrödinger equation for a fixed light field. This solution corresponds to a nonlinear optical response contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained. It is discussed whether the magnitude of the exciton-photon interaction energy has any influence on the exciton binding. The concept of polariton fields is introduced (i.e., the electric and polarization field per polariton), and it is seen that close to resonance the electric field per polariton is essentially zero while the polarization field per polariton is essentially the excitonic dipole moment per unit volume. From the wave function of the polariton it is seen that in a very broad spectral range around the resonance the polariton is essentially an exciton that travels through the crystal with the speed of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave function derived in the present work is then sufficient.

Skettrup, Torben

1981-01-01

83

Approaches to endoscopic ampullectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ampullary tumors, usually adenomas, are often encountered during endoscopic evaluation, especially in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Because of the risk of progression to adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenomas should be treated. Endoscopic therapy is an appropriate option and recent experience highlights the effectiveness and safety of this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Several authors have published experiences with endoscopic ampullectomy. In the current era, endoscopic ampullectomy is performed like a snare polypectomy using a side-viewing duodenoscope. Tumors are removed either en bloc or in a piecemeal fashion with retrieval of all tissue. Because of the potential for incidental carcinoma when all tissue is removed, complete retrieval is essential. Although initially used as primary therapy, thermal ablation, such as ionized argon coagulation (IAC), is now commonly used as adjunctive therapy. Prophylactic pancreatic or biliary stent placement is also performed to minimize risks of pancreatitis, jaundice, cholangitis, and stenosis. Endoscopic therapy is effective in removing more than 80% of adenomas, though several sessions may be necessary. Complications are reported in 20% of patients from most series and include acute pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, orifice stenosis, and, rarely death. Recurrence of the adenoma can occur, especially in FAP patients, and warrants periodic surveillance. SUMMARY: Endoscopic ampullectomy appears to be an effective method for treating ampullary tumors. However, complications are significant and only well-trained and experienced endoscopists should perform ampullectomy. Future research should focus on multicenter, randomized clinical trials to determine the best therapeutic approach for patients with ampullary tumors and to determine methods to decrease complication rates associated with endoscopic therapy.

Wong RF; DiSario JA

2004-09-01

84

Rehabilitation approaches to stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes the state of the science in stroke rehabilitation dealing with three main topics: (1) General approach to stroke rehabilitation (stroke services and stroke units), (2) Neurophysiological and pharmacological interventions (facilitation of brain repair mechanisms) and (3) Experimental approaches (neuronal transplantation). Stroke rehabilitation is an active process beginning during acute hospitalisation, progressing to a systematic program of rehabilitation services and continuing after the individual returns to the community. There is world-wide consensus that stroke patients should be treated at specialised stroke unit with specially trained medical and nursing staff, co-ordinated multidisciplinary rehabilitation and education programs for patients and their families. Stroke Unit has been shown to be associated with a long-term reduction of death and of the combined poor outcomes of death and dependency, independent of patients age, sex, or variations in stroke unit organisations. No study has clearly shown to what extent the beneficial effect is due to specific rehabilitation strategies. New imaging studies in stroke patients indicate altered post stroke activation patterns, which suggest some functional reorganisation. Reorganisation may be the principle process responsible for recovery after stroke. It is assumed that different post ischaemic interventions like physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, electrical stimulation, etc. facilitates such changes. Scientific evidence demonstrating the values of specific rehabilitation interventions after stroke is limited. Comparisons between different methods in current use have so far mostly failed to show that any particular physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy or stroke rehabilitation strategy is superior to another. Clinical data are strongly in favour of early mobilisation and training. Pharmacological interventions in animals revealed that norepinephrine, amphetamine and other alpha-adrenergic stimulating drugs can enhance motor performance after unilateral ablation of the sensory motor cortex. The clinical data in humans are rather contradictory. Neural grafting and neurogenesis are new potential modes of stroke therapy. Neural grafting enhanced functional outcome and reduced thalamic atrophy in rats only when combined with housing in enriched environments. Recent studies have shown that stem cells can differentiate to neurons in the adult human dentate gyrus in vivo.

Aichner F; Adelwöhrer C; Haring HP

2002-01-01

85

New approaches to COPD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No currently available treatments reduce the progression or suppress the inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, with a better understanding of the inflammatory and destructive process, several targets have been identified, and new treatments are now in clinical development. Several specific therapies are directed against the influx of inflammatory cells into the airways and lung parenchyma that occurs in COPD, including adhesion molecule and chemokine-directed therapy, as well as therapies to inhibit tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Broad spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs are also in development, and include inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-gamma. More specific approaches include antioxidants, inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and leukotriene B4 receptor antagonists. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calcium-activated chloride channel inhibitors have the potential to inhibit mucus hypersecretion. Other therapies are targeted at the structural changes of COPD. Therapy to inhibit fibrosis is being developed against transforming growth factor-beta1 and protease activated receptor-2. There is also a search for serine proteinase and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors to prevent lung destruction and the development of emphysema, as well as drugs such as retinoids that may even reverse this process. There is the need for validated biomarkers and monitoring techniques in early clinical studies with new therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

P. J. Barnes

2005-01-01

86

Panniculitides, an algorithmic approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The issue of inflammatory diseases of subcutis and its mimicries is generally considered a difficult field of dermatopathology. Yet, in my experience, with appropriate biopsies and good clinicopathological correlation, a specific diagnosis of panniculitides can usually be made. Thereby, knowledge about some basic anatomic and pathological issues is essential. Anatomy differentiates within the panniculus between the fatty lobules separated by fibrous septa. Pathologically, inflammation of panniculus is defined and recognized by an inflammatory process which leads to tissue damage and necrosis. Several types of fat necrosis are observed: xanthomatized macrophages in lipophagic necrosis; granular fat necrosis and fat micropseudocysts in liquefactive fat necrosis; mummified adipocytes in "hyalinizing" fat necrosis with/without saponification and/or calcification; and lipomembranous membranes in membranous fat necrosis. In an algorithmic approach the recognition of an inflammatory process recognized by features as elaborated above is best followed in three steps: recognition of pattern, second of subpattern, and finally of presence and composition of inflammatory cells. Pattern differentiates a mostly septal or mostly lobular distribution at scanning magnification. In the subpattern category one looks for the presence or absence of vasculitis, and, if this is the case, the size and the nature of the involved blood vessel: arterioles and small arteries or veins; capillaries or postcapillary venules. The third step will be to identify the nature of the cells present in the inflammatory infiltrate and, finally, to look for additional histopathologic features that allow for a specific final diagnosis in the language of clinical dermatology of disease involving the subcutaneous fat.

Zelger B

2013-08-01

87

New approaches to therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a major complication of the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). LID comprises two major components, the priming process responsible for its onset and the expression of involuntary movements that underlies its clinical manifestation. The mechanisms responsible for these components are partially understood and their biochemical basis is being unraveled but avoidance and treatment remain an issue. In this chapter, we review what is known about the involvement of dopaminergic systems in LID and the way in which dopaminergic therapy can be used to avoid the onset of LID or to reverse or suppress involuntary movements once these have been established. The involvement of specific dopamine receptor subtypes, continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) and continuous drug delivery (CDD) is reviewed. However, a major role is emerging in the avoidance and suppression of LID through the use of nondopaminergic mechanisms and we consider the present and future use of glutamatergic drugs, serotoninergic agents, adenosine antagonists and others as a means of improving therapy. There is compelling basic science supporting a role for nondopaminergic approaches to LID but at the moment the translational benefit to PD is not being achieved as predicted. There needs to be further consideration of why this is the case and how in future, both experimental models of dyskinesia and clinical trial design can be optimized to ensure success.

Brotchie J; Jenner P

2011-01-01

88

Endoscopic approaches to obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given the emerging role of endoscopic procedures in the treatment of obesity and rapid changes in endoscopic technologies and techniques, this review considers the current state of endoscopic management of obesity. Endoluminal interventions performed entirely through the GI tract by using flexible endoscopy offer the potential for an ambulatory weight loss procedure that may be safer and more cost- effective compared with current surgical approaches. Endoscopic techniques attempt to mimic the anatomic features of bariatric surgery. Accordingly, there are two main endoscopic weight loss modalities - restrictive and malabsorptive. Restrictive procedures act to decrease gastric volume by space-occupying prosthesis and/or by suturing or stapling devices, while malabsorptive procedures tend to create malabsorption by preventing food contact with the duodenum and proximal jejunum. The former include intragastric balloon treatment, endoluminal vertical gastroplasty, transoral gastroplasty and transoral endoscopic restrictive implant system, while the latter include duodenojejunal bypass sleeve. Gastroduodenojejunal bypass sleeve is a combination of both procedures. Except for intragastric balloon, all mentioned procedures are rather new, tested on a small number of human subjects, with a high rate of success, but with limited knowledge on safety and long-term efficacy. The role of gastric electrical stimulation and intragastric injections of botulinum toxin in obesity treatment is also considered as is the role of minimally invasive bariatric endoscopic interventions.

Stimac D; Majanovi? SK

2012-01-01

89

Engineered Approaches To  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ROD Number: EPA/ROD/R03-91/112. InSitu Metals Treatment; Williamsport, PA. June 28.6. U.S. EPA. 1998. General Site Information. Avco Lycoming (Williamsport Division). February.7. Eugene Dennis, U.S. EPA RPM. 1999. Comments on Draft Case Study Report. January 27.8. Fax Transmittal from Dan Jacobs, ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, to Dawn Carroll, U.S. EPA. 1999.Comments on Draft Case Study Report. February 9.Engineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated SolventsA-49Case Study #6Pilot and Full Scale Anaerobic In-situ Reactive Zone at an Abandoned Manufacturing Facility,Emeryville, CaliforniaSummary InformationSite Name, Location Abandoned Manufacturing Facility,Emeryville, CaliforniaEPA ID Number Not ApplicableMechanism(s) Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination andMetal PrecipitationTechnology Electron Donor Addition (Molasses)Configuration Direct InjectionTechnology Scale Pilot and FullMedia/Matrix Treated GroundwaterContaminants Targeted TCE, hex...

Chlorinated Solvents

90

Exploring the integrated approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The integration of family planning with maternal and child health and nutrition has been implemented in India, but integration with developmental activities like community development involves the linking up of several different disciplines. Current trends of the integrated approach to family planning in the ESCAP countries are discussed by administrators from Bangkok, Manilla, Bangalore, Islamabad, and Trivandrum, India. IPPF experience in the nongovernmental sector found that to succeed, projects must be clearly described, realistic, and capable of evaluation. Development programs can be integrated with family planning programs as well as family planning/population education programs can be integrated with development projects. Possible areas of integration are income-generating skills/services; training programs; nutrition and health (home extension services); environmental sanitation and personal hygiene; water supply, tube wells; water management, conservation; and, utilization of agricultural by-products. The message of family planning can be effectively communciated through community organizations. In the Philippines, services which could be transferred to the field were transferred to volunteers in the barangays (neighborhoods) who worked on other projects, e.g. cooperatives, nutrition. All forum participants agreed that integration is a very good concept, but practising it is a complex reality. PMID:12309576

1979-01-01

91

Skull base approaches in neurosurgery  

Science.gov (United States)

The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable. In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe. The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field? In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described. These approaches are: 1) pterional approach 2) frontolateral approach 3) transsphenoidal approach 4) suboccipital lateral approach These approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy.

2010-01-01

92

Energy Efficient Approaches: Altruist Energy Efficient Approach is the Best  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the energy efficient approaches and the importance of Altruistic approach in the absence of nearest neighboring nodes to the receiver. Two energy-efficient approaches have been proposed one is in-situ energy efficient approach, and the other is altruistic energy efficient approach. In the first approach existing nodes in network are only used and in second approach additional nodes called altruists are used. Generally comparison is done with five protocols with respect to these approaches and identifies altruistic DISH to be the right choice since it conserves 40-80 percent of energy, maintains the throughput advantage, and the cost efficiency compared to protocols without this approach is two times more. Our study also shows that an in-situ energy efficient approach is suitable only in certain confined scenarios. When transmit-receive pair wishes to initiate communication, neighboring nodes share their knowledge of channel usage. This helps to considerably reduce collisions and increases throughput significantly. However, it comes at the cost of increased energy consumption since idle nodes have to stay awake to overhear and acquire channel usage information. In fact this can be as high as 264% of a power-saving protocol without cooperation. The core idea is to introduce specialized nodes called altruists in the network whose only role is to acquire and share channel usage information. All other nodes, termed peers, go in to the sleep mode when idle due to this power consumption will be less. This altruistic approach seems to be complicated because it needs additional nodes to be deployed.

B. Sunil Kumar#1, P. SivaChandrika*2, A. Shiva Kumar*3, K. Srinivasulu*4, Y. Rama Krishna

2013-01-01

93

Geometric approaches to mesh generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review three approaches to mesh generation that axe based on analyzing and accounting for the geometric structure of the domain. In the first approach, due to Armstrong, the domain is partitioned into subdomains based on the medial-axis transform, a tool for analyzing spatial structures. In the second approach, due to Cox, the design history defines a geometric structure of the domain. The design primitives of that structure are meshed separately, and mesh overlap is accounted for by coupling equations. The third approach argues that mesh generation ought to be integrated into the shape design process, by meshing design features separately and resolving overlapping meshes by standard geometric computations.

Hoffmann, C.M.

1995-12-31

94

New approaches to knowledge acquisition  

CERN Multimedia

It is well recognized that knowledge acquisition is the critical bottleneck of knowledge engineering. This book presents three major approaches of current research in this field, namely the psychological approach, the artificial intelligence approach and the software engineering approach. Special attention is paid to the most recent advances in knowledge acquisition research, especially those made by Chinese computer scientists. A special chapter is devoted to its applications in other fields, e.g. language analysis, software engineering, computer-aided instruction, etc., which were done in Ch

Lu, R-Q

1994-01-01

95

Material Modelling - Composite Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is part of a research project on "Control of Early Age Cracking" - which, in turn, is part of the major research programme, "High Performance Concrete - The Contractor's Technology (HETEK)", coordinated by the Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1997.A composite-rheological model of concrete is presented by which consistent predictions of creep, relaxation, and internal stresses can be made from known concrete composition, age at loading, and climatic conditions. No other existing "creep prediction method" offers these possibilities in one approach.The model is successfully justified comparing predicted results with experimental data obtained in the HETEK-project on creep, relaxation, and shrinkage of very young concretes cured at a temperature of T = 20^o C and a relative humidity of RH = 100%. The model is also justified comparing predicted creep, shrinkage, and internal stresses caused by drying shrinkage with experimental results reported in the literature on the mechanical behavior of mature concretes. It is then concluded that the model presented applied in general with respect to age at loading.From a stress analysis point of view the most important finding in this report is that cement paste and concrete behave practically as linear-viscoelastic materials from an age of approximately 10 hours. This is a significant age extension relative to earlier studies in the literature where linear-viscoelastic behavior is only demonstrated from ages of a few days. Thus, linear-viscoelastic analysis methods are justified from the age of approximately 10 hours.The rheological properties of plain cement paste are determined. These properties are the principal material properties needed in any stress analysis of concrete. Shrinkage (autogeneous or drying) of mortar and concrete and associated internal stress states are examples of analysis made in this report. In this context is discussed that concrete strength is not an invariable material property. It is a property the potentials of which is highly and negatively influenced by any damage caused by stress concentrations such as introduced by eigenstrain/stress actions like shrinkage, temperature, and alkali-aggregate reactions.Based on the overall positive results reported it is suggested that creep functions needed in Finite Element Analysis (FEM-analysis) of structures can be established from computer-simulated experiments based on the model presented - calibrated by only a few real experiments.

Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

1997-01-01

96

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” ... Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR table ...

97

Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

Chacko, George K., Ed.

98

Pulmonary embolism: the team approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case has been made for a multidisciplined approach in all cases of suspected pulmonary embolus. There are substantial problems in the clinical recognition of this enigmatic entity. Therefore, all available diagnostic and therapeutic expertise is required. Selected cases have been used for illustration and to support the thesis of a realistic team approach

1974-01-01

99

Holistic approach to chronic constipation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By "holistic approach" (greek "olos" = "all") we mean a clinical approach which is not only confined to the diseased segment of the body, say the inert large bowel or the spastic pelvic floor in case of constipation, but takes under consideration the whole "mind and body complex", which is a unique ...

Pescatori Mario

100

MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of the managerial approach to public administration, starting from the distinction identified by some authors between management and administration. The paper has a twofold structure: in the first sections it provides a theoretical conceptual framework for approaching the issue of the managerial approach to public administration; in the following sections, the authors discuss the managerial approach with regard to the Romanian administrative sector. In the conclusion section, the paper tries to offer an answer to the question where do we stand as a country with regard to the implementation of the managerial approach in public administration. While some progress has been made, there are nonetheless steps that still need to be taken.

Cristina Maria MORA; Tudor ?ICL?U

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Approaches for learning Prolog programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding Prolog programming is a challenge for many beginners, and many instructors and researchers have proposed and adopted varied teaching approaches to help learners to understand Prolog easily. However, it is not known whether any of the teaching approaches currently in use is appropriate from a learner's perspective. This paper reports the results of an investigation into which approaches are suitable for Prolog novices and why they are appropriate.We first categorise the teaching approaches which are currently in use in mainstream Prolog introductory textbooks, and highlight how they have been used over the past 25 years. We then discuss the appropriateness of each approach, by addressing their advantages and disadvantages based on interviews with learners. Using this information, a larger picture of the suitability of these teaching approaches is drawn, and finally we suggest what factors may influence it and discuss possible improvements. The findings of this study suggest that an approach based on emphasising the declarative features of the language is the most appropriate, as a component of a blended learning strategy.

Shanshan Yang; Mike Joy

2007-01-01

102

Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss two approaches to obtain neutron detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, a uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focused through a pinhole, and streaked. Calculations show that 20-ps time resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that a time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse.

Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Campbell, D.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Cable, M.D.; Graves, W.R.; Lane, S.M.; Lerche, R.A.; Price, R.H.; Stearns, D.G.; Mourou, G.A.; Prussin, S.G.

1985-05-01

103

Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse.

Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Campbell, D.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Cable, M.D.; Graves, W.R.; Lane, S.M.; Lerche, R.A.

1984-10-05

104

Inelastic transport: a pseudoparticle approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss a pseudoparticle NEGF approach as a tool to describe transport in molecular junctions in the language of many-body states of the molecule. A method developed by Oh et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 205302] is applied to inelastic transport in the case of strong electron-vibron interaction. The approach can be seen as a generalization of the exact mapping developed by Bonca and Trugman [Phys. Rev. Lett., 1995, 75, 2566] which includes information on the Pauli exclusion principle and Fermi electron distribution in the leads. Within simple model calculations of inelastic transport in junctions, we compare the pseudoparticle approach to other approximate NEGF schemes. PMID:22797677

White, Alexander J; Galperin, Michael

2012-07-16

105

Inelastic transport: a pseudoparticle approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We discuss a pseudoparticle NEGF approach as a tool to describe transport in molecular junctions in the language of many-body states of the molecule. A method developed by Oh et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 205302] is applied to inelastic transport in the case of strong electron-vibron interaction. The approach can be seen as a generalization of the exact mapping developed by Bonca and Trugman [Phys. Rev. Lett., 1995, 75, 2566] which includes information on the Pauli exclusion principle and Fermi electron distribution in the leads. Within simple model calculations of inelastic transport in junctions, we compare the pseudoparticle approach to other approximate NEGF schemes.

White AJ; Galperin M

2012-10-01

106

An Approach to Interface Synthesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events.

Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

1995-01-01

107

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is at the bottom of your screen where it says, “Ask a question.” Since you have tuned ... this approach myself since 2005, and currently use it for most of my primary and even some ...

108

[Surgical approaches to thalamic tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes the results of surgical treatment of patients with thalamic tumors of different topographic variants. Since 1985 till 2010 127 patients were operated, 147 direct surgical interventions were performed. Repeated surgeries were required due to partial resection of a tumor or recurrence. In most cases resection of tumors was performed via transcallosal (48%) and occipital interhemispheric (29%) approaches. Less common approaches included transcortical (frontal, temporal, parietal) (14%), pterional through lateral and basal parts of Sylvian fissure (6%) and subtentorial supracerebellar (3%). Selection of approach is based on topographic features of tumor within thalamus, direction of its growth and relations with adjacent structures (internal capsule, brainstem, hypothalamus, ventricular system). Each approach has its own advantages and drawbacks which are highlighted in the paper. PMID:21698917

Konovalov, A N; Kadyrov, Sh U

2011-01-01

109

Anterior approach for knee arthrography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2001-06-01

110

STP Approach To Equilibrium Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The ApproachToEquilibrium program displays the number of particles on one half of a box as a function of time after a small hole is made in the partition dividing the box in half. The purpose of this simulation is to gain insight into the tendency of macroscopic systems to approach a well defined equilibrium macrostate and the improtance of fluctuations in equilibrium. ApproachToEquilibrium is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready- to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp ApproachToEquilibrium.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional Open Source Physics programs for Statistical and Thermal Physics can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2008-10-10

111

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to tonight’s webcast. ... by Biomet Orthopedics. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health.

112

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your screen where it says, “Ask a question.” Since you have tuned into this webcast, you have ... this procedure. I have used this approach myself since 2005, and currently use it for most of ...

113

Classical approach in quantum physics  

CERN Multimedia

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the help of Poincar$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$ section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treating as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semicla...

Solov'ev, Evgeni A

2010-01-01

114

Intrabeam scattering in stochastic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beam emittance growth caused by intrabeam scattering in particle accelerators is examined in a stochastic approach with the Fokker-Planck equation. The results are compared with ordinary analysis based on binary Coulomb collisions which have been develope...

Y. Mori

1990-01-01

115

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Taperloc ® Microplasty™ June 16, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, live from Mount Caramel New ... hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening ...

116

A Systems Approach to Leadership  

CERN Multimedia

Systems Based Leadership (SBL) is an approach to creating sustained high performance in conditions of high complexity and uncertainty. SBL places various developments in Systems Science into an actionable method for use by everyday leaders

Coffey, Geoffrey

2010-01-01

117

System approach to chemistry course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

Valentina G. Derendyaeva; Lorina E. Kruglova

2010-01-01

118

Approaches to hydrogen infrastructure worldwide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper briefly presents an overview on hydrogen infrastructure worldwide, as follows: Imperial College and ICEPT; E4 technique; hydrogen infrastructure issues; different infrastructure approaches; what is happening now.

Hart, David [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Energy Policy and Technology

2006-07-01

119

Posterior approach to the shoulder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe a modified posterior approach to the shoulder and to present their clinical application in 12 cadaver specimens and a prospective series of 11 patients with glenoid fractures from 1994 to 2003. In the proposed approach Deltoid is reflected superiorly without detachment, approaching the interval between Infraspinatus and Teres Minor muscles exposing the glenoid. Witch this technique the Axilar bundle was 26,5 mm to the posterior glenoid rim. The patients had low surgical times (54 min), low bleeding (77 cc), and no nerve complications. All had good and excellent results in the UCLA score in the first 30 postoperative days. We consider this approach safe, it allows an excellent exposure of the glenoid fractures, and facilitates the functional recovery to the patients.

2005-01-01

120

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to ... should know that this is done under direct vision. Yeah. You are seeing everything you’re doing. ...

 
 
 
 
121

Groundbreaking approach to disaster relief  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The humanitarian response to Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May, heralds a fundamentally new approach to relief coordination. As a result, a unique survey showed what really happened to the survivors. Sarah Cumberland reports.

122

An evolutionary approach to Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Understanding the distinction between function and role is vexing and difficult. While it appears to be useful, in practice this distinction is hard to apply, particularly within biology. Results I take an evolutionary approach, considering a series...

Lord Phillip

123

Diagnostic approach to pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an interstitial lung disease with distinctive clinical, radiologic, physiological and pathological findings. We report an additional case of this rare condition, diagnosed on first medical evaluation by transbronchial lung biopsy and discuss the diagnostic approach.

Delgrange E; Delgrange B; Wallon J; Rosoux P

1994-10-01

124

Approaches of Qualitative Process Modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes new approaches for qualitative reasoning of steady state processes. The qualitative model can be developed by abstracting quantitative equations or by using e.g. a flowsheeting program to evaluate derivatives, from which the qualitativ...

M. Hurme

1997-01-01

125

Systems approaches in risk assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adverse drug events (ADEs) remain a universal problem in drug development, regulatory review, and clinical practice with a substantial financial burden on the global health-care system. Recent advances in molecular and "omics" technologies, along with online databases and bioinformatics, have enabled a more integrative approach to understanding drug-target (protein) interactions, both desirable and undesirable, within a biological system. This has led to the development of systems approaches to risk assessment in an attempt to complement and improve on contemporary observational and predictive strategies for assessing risk. Although still in an evolutionary phase, systems approaches have the potential to markedly advance our understanding of ADEs and ability to predict them. Systems approaches will also move personalized medicine forward by enabling better identification of individual and subgroup risk factors.

Lesko LJ; Zheng S; Schmidt S

2013-05-01

126

Surgical Approaches to Esophageal Cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. Esophageal resection remains the primary treatment in most centers. A number of approaches to esophageal resection have been described. METHODS: The authors review the current approaches to esophageal resection and adjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer. RESULTS: Transthoracic, transhiatal, and minimally invasive techniques are currently employed in esophageal surgery for malignancy. A number of authors favor extended mediastinal and cervical lymphadenectomy in hopes of improving survival. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting appears to offer some promise. CONCLUSIONS: No consensus of opinion exists regarding the optimal approach or extent of esophageal resection for cancer. Prospective, randomized trials of neoadjuvant therapy may determine its efficacy. Newer approaches may enhance quality of life. PMID:10758533

Teng; Karl

1999-01-01

127

Surgical Approaches to Esophageal Cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. Esophageal resection remains the primary treatment in most centers. A number of approaches to esophageal resection have been described. METHODS: The authors review the current approaches to esophageal resection and adjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer. RESULTS: Transthoracic, transhiatal, and minimally invasive techniques are currently employed in esophageal surgery for malignancy. A number of authors favor extended mediastinal and cervical lymphadenectomy in hopes of improving survival. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting appears to offer some promise. CONCLUSIONS: No consensus of opinion exists regarding the optimal approach or extent of esophageal resection for cancer. Prospective, randomized trials of neoadjuvant therapy may determine its efficacy. Newer approaches may enhance quality of life.

Teng S; Karl R

1999-01-01

128

Biomimetic approaches for biomaterials development  

CERN Multimedia

Biomimetics, in general terms, aims at understanding biological principles and applying them for the development of man-made toolsand technologies. This approach is particularly important for the purposeful design of passive as well as functional biomaterials that mimicphysicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of natural materials, making them suitable, for example, for biomedical devices oras scaffolds for tissue regeneration.The book comprehensively covers biomimetic approaches to the development of biomaterials, including: an overview of naturally occurring

Mano, Joao F

2013-01-01

129

The information-processing approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The information-processing (IP) approach to perception and cognition arose as a reaction to behaviourism. This reaction mainly concerned the nature of explanation in scientific psychology. The "standard" account of behaviour, phrased in strictly external terms, was replaced by a "realist" account, phrased in terms of internal entities and processes. An analysis of the theoretical language used in IP psychology shows an undisciplined state of affairs. A great number of languages is simultaneously in use; no level of analysis is unambiguously referred to; and basic concepts such as information and processing remain largely undefined. Nevertheless, over the past 25 years the IP approach has developed into a disciplined and sophisticated experimental science. A look at actual practice hints at the basic reason for its success. The approach is not so much concerned with absolute or intrinsic properties of the human information processor, but with what can be called its relative or differential properties. A further analysis of this feature of the IP approach in terms of the formal language of a logical system makes explicit the basis of its success. The IP approach can be regarded as developing an empirical difference calculus on an unspecified class of objects, phrased in terms of a simulated "theory-neutral" observation language, and with operators that are structurally analogous to logical operators. This reinterpretation of what the IP approach is about brings a number of advantages. It strengthens its position as an independent science, clarifies its relation with other approaches within psychology and other sciences within the cognitive science group, and makes it independent of philosophical subtleties.

van der Heijden AH; Stebbins S

1990-01-01

130

The information-processing approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The information-processing (IP) approach to perception and cognition arose as a reaction to behaviourism. This reaction mainly concerned the nature of explanation in scientific psychology. The "standard" account of behaviour, phrased in strictly external terms, was replaced by a "realist" account, phrased in terms of internal entities and processes. An analysis of the theoretical language used in IP psychology shows an undisciplined state of affairs. A great number of languages is simultaneously in use; no level of analysis is unambiguously referred to; and basic concepts such as information and processing remain largely undefined. Nevertheless, over the past 25 years the IP approach has developed into a disciplined and sophisticated experimental science. A look at actual practice hints at the basic reason for its success. The approach is not so much concerned with absolute or intrinsic properties of the human information processor, but with what can be called its relative or differential properties. A further analysis of this feature of the IP approach in terms of the formal language of a logical system makes explicit the basis of its success. The IP approach can be regarded as developing an empirical difference calculus on an unspecified class of objects, phrased in terms of a simulated "theory-neutral" observation language, and with operators that are structurally analogous to logical operators. This reinterpretation of what the IP approach is about brings a number of advantages. It strengthens its position as an independent science, clarifies its relation with other approaches within psychology and other sciences within the cognitive science group, and makes it independent of philosophical subtleties. PMID:2281128

van der Heijden, A H; Stebbins, S

1990-01-01

131

Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach - e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression - which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster - because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods.

Stein M; Beer M; Kreinovich V

2013-10-01

132

Approaches to Learning in Statistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, Australian higher education institutions have become a destination for many international students, mainly from South East Asia. If their educational culture is quite different to the Australian educational culture, then their approaches to learning might be different to that of local students. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the approaches to learning of students in statistics units and relate these to background variables such as country of origin, gender and work commitments. This study is significant because there are many international students at Macquarie University and no data of this type has been collected for our students in the past.Our analyses showed that there were no significant differences in the approaches to learning of local and international; and male and female students; however, we found a significant difference between undergraduate and postgraduate students, with postgraduates more likely to adopt deep strategies to learning.

Ayse Bilgin; Sue Crowe

2009-01-01

133

Polysemy: Theoretical and Computational Approaches  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

versions of conference papers, as is often thecase for edited works, but seem to have been specially commissioned for the purposesof this book, which makes it even more exciting to examine.The book is composed of 11 chapters. It is not formally divided into parts, butchapters dealing more specifically with the computational aspects of polysemy aregrouped together at the end (and constitute about one third of the volume).Chapter 1 is an overview written by the volume editors. Yael Ravin and Claudia Leacockprovide a survey of the main theories of meaning and their treatment of polysemy.These include the classical Aristotelian approach revived by Katz and Fodor (1963),Rosch's (1977) prototypical approach which has its roots in Wittgenstein's PhilosophicalInvestigations (1953), and the relational approach recently exemplified by WordNet (Fellbaum1998), which (although the authorsdo not mention it) can be traced back to Peirce's(1931--1958) and Selz's (1913, 19

Yael Ravin; Claudia Leacock (editors; Jean Veronis

134

A Reverse Approach to Superconductivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the normal operator approach, our reverse approach starts from the state vector in the Hilbert space. In this work, we give a concise introduction to our recent work in this aspect. By postulating a superconducting state (SCS) to be a generalized coherent state (GCS) constructed by pure group theory, we show that some important properties such as the Cooper pairs of the SCS naturally appear in this new framework without resorting to the microscopic origin. This latter characteristic renders this theory a more universal feature in comparison with other theories developed by the operator approach. The studies on the residue of the pair-wise constraint due to the collapse of the GCS lead to a “flat/steep” band model for searching new superconductors.

Shuiquan Deng; Claudia Felser; Jürgen Köhler

2013-01-01

135

PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION: POLITICAL ECONOMY APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political economy research of product differentiation objective implies comprehensive approach. The objective consists in system view on this problem. This approach implies exposure of interconnections in the network of economic system. These interconnections form conditions for product differentiation and display product differentiation manifestation forms. Political economy approach also implies finding a product differentiation economic law. Novelty indication of the article is the following: product differentiation research is lead not only from micro- and macroeconomic point of view that was formed in the western science tradition, but also from the political economy point of view. Market side of the problem with some elements of consumption analysis has being researched in the previous studies. Production aspect is researched along with consumption one and market one in the present study. The present article main result is hypothesis about product differentiation economic law evidence. Product differentiation economic law causes, essence, mechanism, characteristics and manifestation forms are also described in the article.

Chernov Mikhail Vadimovich

2012-01-01

136

Mathematics Approaches in Compressed Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical approaches refer to make quantitative descriptions, deductions and calculations through the use of mathematics concepts, approaches and techniques, then draw some new conclusions and foresee by mathematical analysis and judgment. In recent years, Compressed Sensing theory (CS) provides solutions in alleviating the huge amount of information demand in the pressure of signal sampling, transmission and storage pressure. It is a novel signal sampling theory under the condition that the signal is compressible or sparse.In this case, the signal can be reconstructed accurately from the small amount of signal values if the signal is sparse or compressible. This paper introduces the CS theory framework and key technical issues, and focus on the analysis of the application of mathematical approaches in three aspects of the signal sparse representation, signal sparse transformation and reconstruction.In the end, Some mathematics problems of compressed sensing to solve are given and further development is pointed out.  

Jianhua Zhou; Siwang Zhou; Qiang Fan

2013-01-01

137

New approach to the nasopharynx: The maxillary swing approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new approach to expose the nasopharynx and the paranasopharyngeal space is described. The maxilla, severed from its bony connections, is swung laterally to provide exposure of the nasopharynx. Tumors in the nasopharynx and the paranasopharyngeal space can be adequately resected and tubings for aft...

Wei, WI; Lam, KH; Sham, JST

138

Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. Nonetheless, a number of promising approaches have appeared in recent years based on semiconductors, membranes, vesicles, and molecular systems. In this Account the author will describe some of the approaches that my own group has taken to the design of chemical systems for artificial photosynthesis.

Meyer, T.J. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1989-05-01

139

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program.

Bevensee, R.M.; Cabayan, H.S.; Deadrick, F.J.; Martin, L.C.; Mensing, R.W.

1980-09-01

140

Writing approaches of nursing students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 20years, research has focused on the writing processes of college students, however, despite recent support for writing as a tool of reflection in nursing education, little is known about how it is that nursing students go about writing papers and assignments as part of their professional education. In order to determine the writing processes of nursing students, the Inventory of Processes in College Composition, a self-response questionnaire, was administered to 169 nursing students. Results support the independence of the writing approaches that nursing students use and similarity to the writing approaches of a general college student population.

Lavelle E; Ball SC; Maliszewski G

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher’s own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and also the strong methodological implications of this approach. The researcher’s struggle to remain open is elaborated. Here “openness” is regarded as something more than a principle for research practice. It is a way to relate both to oneself and the other, to emotions as well as actions, to the inner as well as the external world.

Ellen Ramvi

2012-01-01

142

Approaches to mechanical coronary thrombectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coronary thrombi are an integral part of acute coronary syndromes. Since the introduction of the AngioJet Rheolytic thrombectomy device in 1999, mechanical thrombectomy has replaced intracoronary thrombolysis during catheter-based procedures. Other approaches include simple suction aspiration, cut and aspirate devices and clot disruption by ultrasound or laser-induced cavitation. These device classes differ in the completeness of thrombus removal, ease of use, complication profile, as well as clinical evidence of benefit. The current approaches to mechanical thrombectomy are reviewed from these perspectives.

Baim DS

2006-07-01

143

Writing approaches of nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 20years, research has focused on the writing processes of college students, however, despite recent support for writing as a tool of reflection in nursing education, little is known about how it is that nursing students go about writing papers and assignments as part of their professional education. In order to determine the writing processes of nursing students, the Inventory of Processes in College Composition, a self-response questionnaire, was administered to 169 nursing students. Results support the independence of the writing approaches that nursing students use and similarity to the writing approaches of a general college student population. PMID:22112918

Lavelle, Ellen; Ball, Susan C; Maliszewski, Genevieve

2011-11-23

144

Systems biology approach to bioremediation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a 'black box' in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the 'black box'.

Chakraborty R; Wu CH; Hazen TC

2012-06-01

145

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

146

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program.

1979-08-09

147

Strategy making : the approach matters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE – More than ever, businesses need to get their strategy right. Part of achieving this is the approach to strategy making that is chosen. The purpose of this paper is to describe how strategy making happens on the continuum of deliberate practice versus emerging strategy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY...

Pretorius, Marius; Maritz, Rachel

148

Dark Matter: A Multidisciplinary Approach  

CERN Multimedia

We review the current status of accelerator, direct and indirect Dark Matter (DM) searches, focusing on the complementarity of different techniques and on the prospects for discovery. After taking a census of present and upcoming DM-related experiments, we review the motivations to go beyond an "accelerator-only" approach, and highlight the benefits of multidisciplinarity in the quest for DM.

Bertone, Gianfranco

2007-01-01

149

Face recognition using eigenface approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, a face recognition system using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm was implemented. The algorithm is based on an eigenfaces approach which represents a PCA method in which a small set of significant features are used to describe the variation between face images. E...

Slavkovi? Marijeta; Jevti? Dubravka

150

Exploring approaches to dynamic adaptation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we compare current approaches to dynamic adaptation (DA) and identify the need for further research on mechanisms for DA, which should allow for higher compositionality and flexibility. Moreover, after exploring the research landscape in DA we identified the need for a framework that p...

Fox, Jorge; Clarke, Siobhán

151

Coordinate Geometric Approach to Spherometer  

CERN Document Server

The spherometer used for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces is explicitly based on a geometric relation unique to circles and spheres. We present an alternate approach using coordinate geometry, which reproduces the well-known result for the spherometer and also leads to a scheme to study aspherical surfaces. We shall also briefly describe some of the modified spherometers.

Khan, Sameen Ahmed

2013-01-01

152

PERTURBATION APPROACH FOR QUANTUM COMPUTATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss how to simulate errors in the implementation of simple quantum logic operations in a nuclear spin quantum computer with many qubits, using radio-frequency pulses. We verify our perturbation approach using the exact solutions for relatively small (L = 10) number of qubits.

G. P. BERMAN; D. I. KAMENEV; V. I. TSIFRINOVICH

2001-04-01

153

Automatic Multi Document Summarization Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Text summarization can be of different nature ranging from indicative summary that identifies the topics of the document to informative summary which is meant to represent the concise description of the original document, providing an idea of what the whole content of document is all about. Approach: Single document summary seems to capture both the information well but it has not been the case for multi document summary where the overall comprehensive quality in presenting informative summary often lacks. It is found that most of the existing methods tend to focus on sentence scoring and less consideration is given to the contextual information content in multiple documents. Results: In this study, some survey on multi document summarization approaches has been presented. We will direct our focus notably on four well known approaches to multi document summarization namely the feature based method, cluster based method, graph based method and knowledge based method. The general ideas behind these methods have been described. Conclusion: Besides the general idea and concept, we discuss the benefits and limitations concerning these methods. With the aim of enhancing multi document summarization, specifically news documents, a novel type of approach is outlined to be developed in the future, taking into account the generic components of a news story in order to generate a better summary.

Yogan J. Kumar; Naomie Salim

2012-01-01

154

Corporate Governance: An Institutionalist Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Even though our understanding of corporate governance has evolved from a rigid model of “command and control” toward a more flexible model of incentive mechanisms, numerous and major shortcomings continue to plague efforts to resolve the conflicts of interest inherent in the managerial approach to c...

Cobbaut, Robert; Lenoble, Jacques

155

Intrabeam scattering in stochastic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beam emittance growth caused by intrabeam scattering in particle accelerators is examined in a stochastic approach with the Fokker-Planck equation. The results are compared with ordinary analysis based on binary Coulomb collisions which have been developed by Bjorken and Mtingwa. (author).

1990-01-01

156

PPBS--A New Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, organizations have had problems during the implementation phase of Program Planning Budgeting Systems (PPBS). Under the approach developed by the Educational Management Development Center (EMDEC), several school systems develop similar PPB systems, with EMDEC as the coordinating hub. District personnel are first familiarized with the…

Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Educational Management Development Center.

157

Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

Stark, Richard B., Ed.

158

Innovative approach to staff management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reveals the essence of reproduction approach to the management staff that meets the requirements of an information type of production. A classification of the functions of personnel management, depending on the role of man in the workplace is given. Topical aspects of implementing the functions of personnel management in Russian enterprises are considered.

Rodionova Elena Viktorovna

2011-01-01

159

Writing Approaches of Graduate Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The writing approach framework provides a comprehensive perspective on college-level academic writing based on the relationship of writers' beliefs and strategies to the quality of written outcomes. However, despite increased demands for more and better writing at the graduate level, little is known about graduate-level writing processes or about…

Lavelle, Ellen; Bushrow, Kathy

2007-01-01

160

[Traumatic brain injury: integrated approach].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traumatic brain injury is a public health problem with significant economic and social impact. Its incidence has increased worldwide at the expense of developing countries and remains as the major cause of morbidity and mortality among young adults. The authors present a general and integrated approach of this pathology contextualizing epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutical aspects.

Oliveira E; Lavrador JP; Santos MM; Lobo Antunes J

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

1981-01-01

162

A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

Ramvi, Ellen

2012-01-01

163

Biosensor Approach to Psychopathology Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively ...

Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P. Read

164

Rigorous energy density functional approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rigorous approach for constructing of energy density functionals is developed using the local-scale point transformation method. The exact kinetic energy density tau(rho) contains two terms: the original Weizsaecker term tausub(w)(rho) and a Thomas-Fermi-like term tausub(..gamma..)(rho). An energy density functional E(rho) is built up within a Slater determinant approximation using the most general Skyrme-type forces. It is demonstrated that all Hartree-Fock nuclear ground state results are reproduced quite accurately and consequently E(rho) includes the shell effects accounted mostly by the particular form of tau(rho). The approach presented is compared with both Extended Thomas-Fermi and Expectation Value methods. Further possible applications are briefly considered.

Dimitrova, S.S.; Petkov, I.Zh.; Stoitsov, M.V.

1986-09-01

165

[Chronic cough: a practical approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic cough (more than 8 weeks) is a frequent symptom (30 millions consultations/ year). The most encountered causes are: asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux, post nasal drip. Practically we propose the following approach: 1. clinical history, physical examination, chest-X ray, spirometry; 2. to exclude a post infection cough or secondary to an ACEI; 3. in case of high clinical probability of asthma, post-nasal drip, gastro-oesophageal reflux, to treat adequately. In case of negative clinical probability or unsuccessful treatment, metacholine test, oesophageal studies, PEF recording, CT thorax, bronchoscopy, CT sinuses are the most useful tests, using clinical history as guide. Using such an approach, treatment is successful in the vast majority of cases.

Frey JG; Tschopp JM

2005-06-01

166

[Chronic cough: a practical approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic cough (more than 8 weeks) is a frequent symptom (30 millions consultations/ year). The most encountered causes are: asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux, post nasal drip. Practically we propose the following approach: 1. clinical history, physical examination, chest-X ray, spirometry; 2. to exclude a post infection cough or secondary to an ACEI; 3. in case of high clinical probability of asthma, post-nasal drip, gastro-oesophageal reflux, to treat adequately. In case of negative clinical probability or unsuccessful treatment, metacholine test, oesophageal studies, PEF recording, CT thorax, bronchoscopy, CT sinuses are the most useful tests, using clinical history as guide. Using such an approach, treatment is successful in the vast majority of cases. PMID:16044795

Frey, J G; Tschopp, J M

2005-06-01

167

Bayesian approach to rough set  

CERN Multimedia

This paper proposes an approach to training rough set models using Bayesian framework trained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The prior probabilities are constructed from the prior knowledge that good rough set models have fewer rules. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is conducted through sampling in the rough set granule space and Metropolis algorithm is used as an acceptance criteria. The proposed method is tested to estimate the risk of HIV given demographic data. The results obtained shows that the proposed approach is able to achieve an average accuracy of 58% with the accuracy varying up to 66%. In addition the Bayesian rough set give the probabilities of the estimated HIV status as well as the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

Marwala, Tshilidzi

2007-01-01

168

New Approaches to Classical Liberalism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the following three novel and original philosophical approaches to classical liberalism: Den Uyl and Rasmussen's perfectionist argument from meta-norms, Gaus's justificatory model, and Kukathas's conscience-based theory of authority. None of these three approaches are utilitarian or consequentialist in character. Neither do they appeal to the notion of a rational bargain as it is typical within contractarianism. Furthermore, each of these theories rejects the idea that classical liberalism should be grounded on considerations of interpersonal justice such as those that are central to the Lockean tradition. It is argued that these three theories, despite their many attractive features, fail to articulate in a convincing manner some central classical liberal concerns.

Nicolas Maloberti

2012-01-01

169

[Dyslexia: a continuing developmental approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After reviewing the various theories trying to explain the different forms of dyslexia, the author attempts to show how studying the different stages in learning to read and the processes brought into play at each stage allow for a different approach to the problem. Based on work done by Utha Frith, the author sets out three main strategies that go together and follow each other in developing reading skills: recognizing sigh-symbols, sound units and spelling patterns. He analyzes the implied processes and considers six different kinds of dyslexia based on on-going genetic analysis. He suggests that this new approach toward dyslexia favors new tools in research and in creating support programs for dyslexic children.

Høien T

1989-01-01

170

Integral Approach to Mental Suffering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article further develops one section by the same name in another article published in the International Journal of Transpersonal Studies entitled Integral Approach in Transpersonal Psychotherapy (Boggio Gilot, 2003) by proposing a model of mental suffering based on uniting scientific psychology with meditative wisdom (e.g., derived from Yoga Vedanta). The role of spiritual vision underlines a wider understanding of the origins of mental suffering, including damage from ontological unawareness and egoism, non-ethical factors usually ignored in psychology. These give rise to destructive poisons of the mind such as pride, greed, fear, resentment, envy, and intolerance, which characterize egoic narcissism. This comparative approach to psychology and meditative wisdom allows for an expansion of developmental and psychotherapeutic theories.

Laura Boggio Gilot

2008-01-01

171

Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

2009-07-01

172

Quantum mechanics a paradigms approach  

CERN Multimedia

This innovative new text presents quantum mechanics in a manner that directly reflects the methods used in modern physics research—making the material more approachable and preparing students more thoroughly for real research. Most texts in this area start with a bit of history and then move directly to wave-particle problems with accompanying heavy mathematical analysis; Quantum Mechanics provides a foundation in experimental phenomena and uses a more approachable, less intimidating, more powerful mathematical matrix model. Beginning with the Stern-Gerlach experiments and the discussion of spin measurements, and using bra-ket notation, the authors introduce an important notational system that is used throughout quantum mechanics. This non-traditional presentation is designed to enhance students’ understanding and strengthen their intuitive grasp of the subject.

McIntyre, David H

2012-01-01

173

Consistent approach for quantum measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a close form without referring the time-dependent Hamiltonian to the total system, a consistent approach for quantum measurement is proposed based on Zurek's triple model of quantum decoherence [W. Zurek, Phys. Rev. D 24, 1516 (1981)]. An exactly solvable model based on the intracavity system is dealt with in detail to demonstrate the central idea in our approach: by peeling off one collective variable of the measuring apparatus from its many degrees of freedom, as the pointer of the apparatus, the collective variable decouples with the internal environment formed by the effective internal variables, but still interacts with the measured system to form a triple entanglement among the measured system, the pointer, and the internal environment. As another mechanism to cause decoherence, the uncertainty of relative phase and its many-particle amplification can be summed up to an ideal entanglement or a Shmidt decomposition with respect to the preferred basis.

2002-01-01

174

Proteomic approaches in circadian biology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillators that drive the rhythmic expression of a broad array of genes that orchestrate metabolism and physiology. Recent evidence indicates that posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms play essential roles in modulating circadian gene expression, particularly for the molecular mechanism of the clock. In contrast to genetic technologies that have long been used to study circadian biology, proteomic approaches have so far been limited and, if applied at all, have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Here, we review the proteomics approaches applied to date in the circadian field, and we also discuss the exciting potential of using cutting-edge proteomics technology in circadian biology. Large-scale, quantitative protein abundance measurements will help to understand to what extent the circadian clock drives system wide rhythms of protein abundance downstream of transcription regulation.

Robles MS; Mann M

2013-01-01

175

Biopsychosocial approach to orthotic intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthotic intervention should be individualized and patient or client centered. The best outcomes occur when orthotic interventions are designed with patient involvement and holistic consideration of the individual's unique personal attributes, context, and environment. The authors discuss Shelley's story, which illustrates an approach to orthotic intervention that is based on Engel's biopsychosocial model and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Fifteen guiding principles for the biopsychosocial orthotic approach are presented. Orthoses that are thoughtfully designed with patient input, carefully constructed and monitored, and modified as needed, can make a difference in a person's life by relieving pain, providing joint stabilization, protecting vulnerable tissues and enabling valued activity and participation. This, in turn, promotes physical and emotional well-being. PMID:21055903

McKee, Pat R; Rivard, Annette

2010-11-05

176

Biopsychosocial approach to orthotic intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Orthotic intervention should be individualized and patient or client centered. The best outcomes occur when orthotic interventions are designed with patient involvement and holistic consideration of the individual's unique personal attributes, context, and environment. The authors discuss Shelley's story, which illustrates an approach to orthotic intervention that is based on Engel's biopsychosocial model and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Fifteen guiding principles for the biopsychosocial orthotic approach are presented. Orthoses that are thoughtfully designed with patient input, carefully constructed and monitored, and modified as needed, can make a difference in a person's life by relieving pain, providing joint stabilization, protecting vulnerable tissues and enabling valued activity and participation. This, in turn, promotes physical and emotional well-being.

McKee PR; Rivard A

2011-04-01

177

Tinnitus: a multidisciplinary clinical approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides a clinical step-by-step approach for assessing a patient with tinnitus as primary complaint. The medical diagnosis of the disease provoking the tinnitus has to be made first in a comprehensive evaluation, including imaging. The psycho-acoustic characteristics and the influence on health-related quality of life is a compulsory complementary assessment to establish a complete picture of the patient.

Van de Heyning P; Meeus O; Blaivie C; Vermeire K; Boudewyns A; De Ridder D

2007-01-01

178

Tinnitus: a multidisciplinary clinical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a clinical step-by-step approach for assessing a patient with tinnitus as primary complaint. The medical diagnosis of the disease provoking the tinnitus has to be made first in a comprehensive evaluation, including imaging. The psycho-acoustic characteristics and the influence on health-related quality of life is a compulsory complementary assessment to establish a complete picture of the patient. PMID:18225603

Van de Heyning, P; Meeus, O; Blaivie, C; Vermeire, K; Boudewyns, A; De Ridder, D

2007-01-01

179

New materials approaches to tribology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume is a collection of papers presented at the symposium on New Materials Approaches to Tribology: Theory and Applications. The authors emphasize the tribology of solid surfaces in extreme environments. The topics cover a range of tribological issues, from atomic and molecular scale calculations to experimental procedures for measuring tribological parameters in extreme environments. The book includes papers that emphasize coatings, solid film lubricants, ceramics, lubricious oxides, and the effects of ion and laser processing.

Pope, L.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Fehrenbacher, L.L. (Technology Assessment and Transfer, Inc., Annapolis, MD (US)); Winer, W.O. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA))

1989-01-01

180

Energetic approach for ductile tearing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a Ji tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter Gfr is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters Ji and Gfr, intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Face recognition using eigenface approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, a face recognition system using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm was implemented. The algorithm is based on an eigenfaces approach which represents a PCA method in which a small set of significant features are used to describe the variation between face images. Experimental results for different numbers of eigenfaces are shown to verify the viability of the proposed method.

Slavkovi? Marijeta; Jevti? Dubravka

2012-01-01

182

Thermodynamic approach to generalized continua  

Science.gov (United States)

Governing equations of dissipative generalized solid mechanics are derived by thermodynamic methods in the Piola-Kirchhoff framework using the Liu procedure. The isotropic small-strain case is investigated in more detail. The connection to the Ginzburg-Landau type evolution, dual internal variables, and a thermodynamic generalization of the standard linear solid model of rheology is demonstrated. Specific examples are chosen to emphasize experimental confirmations and predictions beyond less general approaches.

Ván, Peter; Berezovski, Arkadi; Papenfuss, Christina

2013-07-01

183

Imbalanced Data Learning Approaches Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work deals with a well-known problem inmachine learning, that classes have generallyskewed prior probabilities distribution. This situation of imbalanced data is a handicap when tryingtoidentify the minority classes , usually more interesting one In real world applications. This paper isanattempt to list the different approachs proposed inscientific research to deal with the imbalanced datalearning, as well a comparison between various applications cases performed on this subject.

Mohamed Bekkar; Taklit Akrouf Alitouche

2013-01-01

184

Computational approaches to energy materials  

CERN Document Server

The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

2013-01-01

185

Current approach to seronegative myasthenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The group of patients with weakness or fatigue who have electrophysiological evidence of neuromuscular transmission defects, but no antibodies against either acetyl choline receptor or muscle specific kinase, need special evaluation and therapeutic consideration. Such seronegative patients may have low affinity antibodies but may also be late onset of a congenital myasthenic syndrome. This review discuss the practical approach toward the condition of seronegative myasthenia. PMID:20852878

Argov, Zohar

2010-09-18

186

Current approach to seronegative myasthenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The group of patients with weakness or fatigue who have electrophysiological evidence of neuromuscular transmission defects, but no antibodies against either acetyl choline receptor or muscle specific kinase, need special evaluation and therapeutic consideration. Such seronegative patients may have low affinity antibodies but may also be late onset of a congenital myasthenic syndrome. This review discuss the practical approach toward the condition of seronegative myasthenia.

Argov Z

2011-01-01

187

Executive Coaching A Psychodynamic Approach  

CERN Document Server

This book aims to provide the reader with a clear and concise introduction to psychodynamic concepts and their application to executive coaching. It is designed to demonstrate the value that a psychodynamic approach can bring to business coaching when applied in a thoughtful and skilful way. The central message is that a psychodynamic perspective enables coaches to understand their clients in depth and to address important underlying issues that often hinder or even sabotage the client's effectiveness and success at work.

Sandler, Catherine

2011-01-01

188

Local Approach to Hawking Radiation  

CERN Document Server

We consider an approach to the Hawking effect which is free of the asymptotic behavior of the metric or matter fields, and which is not confined to one specific metric configuration. As a result, we find that for a wide class of spacetime horizons there exists an emission of particles out of the horizon. As expected, the energy distribution of the radiating particles turns out to be thermal.

Peltola, Ari

2008-01-01

189

Humanoid Introspection: A Practical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe an approach to robot introspection based on self observation and communication. Self observation is what the robot should do in order to build, represent and understand its internal state. It is necessary to translate the state representation in order to build a suitable input to an ontology that supplies the meaning of the internal state. The ontology supports the linguistic level that is used to communicate information about the robot state to the human user.

Ignazio Infantino; Giovanni Pilato; Riccardo Rizzo; Filippo Vella

2013-01-01

190

A Game Theoretic Approach to  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, multi-agent systems have become one of the mostpromising approaches for organizing software. However, the demand forcapabilities of autonomous decision making poses some requirements onagent architectures. It is necessary, in fact, that the behavior of an agentbe suitably constrained to make it socially compatible with the communityof agents. In this paper, we propose a model for obligations and ruleswhich is inspired to E. Goman's work in sociology, and which can beintegrated in existing BDI (Belief, Desire, Intention) agent architectures.

Guido Boella; Leonardo Lesmo

191

Nonlinear approach to ternary scission  

CERN Document Server

Description of three-center configuration within mean-field approaches meets uncertainties to select a peculiar set of constraints. We suggest to use the inverse mean field method to solve single-particle Schroedinger equation, instead of constrained selfconsistent Hartree-Fock equations. It is shown, that it is possible to simulate one-dimensional three-center system in the approximation of reflectless single- particle potentials (authors)

Kartavenco, V G

2002-01-01

192

Accident management approach in Armenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed.

1999-10-08

193

[Psychodynamic approach to sex disorders].  

Science.gov (United States)

When treating patients with sexual disorders, the necessary distinction between organic and functional dysfunction is far from being sufficient in itself, and may even inspire an over-inflexible and rigid therapeutic attitude. The psychodynamic approach sets out to take into consideration the patient's appeal in its entirety, including the symptoms described. In psychodynamic theory, sexotherapy is one form of psychotherapy, but the therapeutic attitude will not be fundamentally modified by the fact that a disorder is functional or organic. PMID:6529220

Mimoun, M S

1984-05-01

194

[Psychodynamic approach to sex disorders  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When treating patients with sexual disorders, the necessary distinction between organic and functional dysfunction is far from being sufficient in itself, and may even inspire an over-inflexible and rigid therapeutic attitude. The psychodynamic approach sets out to take into consideration the patient's appeal in its entirety, including the symptoms described. In psychodynamic theory, sexotherapy is one form of psychotherapy, but the therapeutic attitude will not be fundamentally modified by the fact that a disorder is functional or organic.

Mimoun MS

1984-05-01

195

An Appearance Based Approach To  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present an approach for tracking people and detecting human-object interactions using monocamerasurveillance video. The approach is based on a robust appearance based correlogram mode lwhich combines histogram information to model color distributions of people and objects in thescene. The models are dynamically built from non-stationary objects which are the outputs ofbackground subtraction, and are used to track objects on a frame-by-frame basis. We are able todetect when people merge into groups and to segment them even during partial occlusion. We canalso detect when a person deposits or removes an object. The models persist when a person orobject leaves the scene and are used to identify them when they reappear. Experiments show thatthe models are able to accommodate perspective foreshortenings that occur with overhead cameraangles, as well as partial occlusion. The results show that this is an effective approach able toprovide important information to algorithms performing higher-level analysis such as activityrecognition, where human-object interactions play an important role.

196

Ecosystem approaches to human health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function.

Nielsen N. Ole

2001-01-01

197

Approach to managing elevated creatinine.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a systematic approach to finding the underlying cause of an elevated creatinine level. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: This diagnostic approach is based on a synthesis of information from reference works on nephrology, articles found through a MEDLINE search, and the author's personal experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Elevated creatinine levels suggest the differential diagnosis of renal failure (RF). History and a complete physical examination are important, keeping in mind that RF is often asymptomatic in the early stages. After repeating the creatinine test to verify results, baseline tests should be ordered to identify the cause of the RF. Comparing results of serial tests is essential for determining whether RF is acute or chronic, stable or progressive. An ultrasound scan is particularly useful for eliminating an obstructive cause; the size of the kidney can indicate whether disease is acute or chronic. Complementary blood tests and imaging studies might be useful. CONCLUSION: Diagnosing and managing RF can appear complex, but a systematic approach will help you find the cause and treat the condition.

Tremblay R

2004-01-01

198

Technical approach to groundwater restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

1993-01-01

199

Pragmatic approaches to genetic screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pragmatic approaches to genetic testing are discussed and appraised. Whilst there are various schools of pragmatism, the Deweyan approach seems to be the most appreciated in bioethics as it allows a historical approach indebted to Hegel. This in turn allows the pragmatist to specify and balance principles in various contexts. There are problems with where to draw a line between what is referred to here as the micro- and macro-level of doing bioethics, unless one is simply to be classified as a principlist. Whilst most discussions on genetics occur at a macro level, most specifying must be done also at a micro level - the clinical encounter. Whilst pragmatism encourages us to understand better social and scientific factors and puts into perspective statements like 'playing God', doubts are raised about the 'consensus' process and how one can put aside fundamental values such as the moral status of the embryo on which there is general disagreement. If those doing pragmatism do not endorse these values, there seems to be little ground for process and compromise with those who do. It seems therefore that pragmatism cannot ignore values, even those which are not endorsed by everyone. PMID:15906941

Mallia, Pierre; ten Have, Henk

2005-01-01

200

Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism) and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.

Schalk W. Vorster

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Neuromodulation: selected approaches and challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The brain operates through complex interactions in the flow of information and signal processing within neural networks. The 'wiring' of such networks, being neuronal or glial, can physically and/or functionally go rogue in various pathological states. Neuromodulation, as a multidisciplinary venture, attempts to correct such faulty nets. In this review, selected approaches and challenges in neuromodulation are discussed. The use of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes has been proven effective in the modulation of neurite outgrowth in culture and in aiding regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. Studying neural circuits using computational biology and analytical engineering approaches brings to light geometrical mapping of dynamics within neural networks, much needed information for stimulation interventions in medical practice. Indeed, sophisticated desynchronization approaches used for brain stimulation have been successful in coaxing 'misfiring' neuronal circuits to resume productive firing patterns in various human disorders. Devices have been developed for the real-time measurement of various neurotransmitters as well as electrical activity in the human brain during electrical deep brain stimulation. Such devices can establish the dynamics of electrochemical changes in the brain during stimulation. With increasing application of nanomaterials in devices for electrical and chemical recording and stimulating in the brain, the era of cellular, and even intracellular, precision neuromodulation will soon be upon us.

Parpura V; Silva GA; Tass PA; Bennet KE; Meyyappan M; Koehne J; Lee KH; Andrews RJ

2013-02-01

202

Immunogenomics approaches for vaccine evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vaccines represent a potent tool to prevent or contain diseases with high morbidity or mortality. However, despite their widespread use, there is still a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effective elicitation of protective immune responses by vaccines. The integrated co-operation between cells and molecules of innate and adaptive immune systems is under intense study by several groups and constantly updated. The recent development of new technologies and computational tools permits the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the interactions between all of the components of immunity over time. This study reviews recent progress in exploiting an immunogenomics approach, within the systems biology strategy, to study and evaluate vaccine strategies for infectious and neoplastic diseases. The final goal of this approach is 2-fold, looking for novel and unpredictable mechanisms as well as identifying common immune signatures, relevant for predicting immune responsiveness to improve the design of vaccine strategies. Such approach, indeed, would enable the switch from 'empirical' to 'knowledge-based' vaccinology, leading to a patient-tailored treatment.

Petrizzo A; Tornesello M; Buonaguro FM; Buonaguro L

2012-07-01

203

Immunogenomics approaches for vaccine evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccines represent a potent tool to prevent or contain diseases with high morbidity or mortality. However, despite their widespread use, there is still a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effective elicitation of protective immune responses by vaccines. The integrated co-operation between cells and molecules of innate and adaptive immune systems is under intense study by several groups and constantly updated. The recent development of new technologies and computational tools permits the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the interactions between all of the components of immunity over time. This study reviews recent progress in exploiting an immunogenomics approach, within the systems biology strategy, to study and evaluate vaccine strategies for infectious and neoplastic diseases. The final goal of this approach is 2-fold, looking for novel and unpredictable mechanisms as well as identifying common immune signatures, relevant for predicting immune responsiveness to improve the design of vaccine strategies. Such approach, indeed, would enable the switch from 'empirical' to 'knowledge-based' vaccinology, leading to a patient-tailored treatment. PMID:22894136

Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Tornesello, Marialina; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

204

Network approaches to drug discovery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Advances in genomics technologies are providing a very large amount of data on genome-wide gene expression profiles, protein molecules and their interactions with other macromolecules and metabolites. Molecular interaction networks provide a useful way to capture this complex data and comprehend it. Networks are beginning to be used in drug discovery, in many steps of the modern discovery pipeline, with large-scale molecular networks being particularly useful for the understanding of the molecular basis of the disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss network approaches used for drug target discovery and lead identification in the drug discovery pipeline. By reconstructing networks of targets, drugs and drug candidates as well as gene expression profiles under normal and disease conditions, the paper illustrates how it is possible to find relationships between different diseases, find biomarkers, explore drug repurposing and study emergence of drug resistance. Furthermore, the authors also look at networks which address particular important aspects such as off-target effects, combination-targets, mechanism of drug action and drug safety. EXPERT OPINION: The network approach represents another paradigm shift in drug discovery science. A network approach provides a fresh perspective of understanding important proteins in the context of their cellular environments, providing a rational basis for deriving useful strategies in drug design. Besides drug target identification and inferring mechanism of action, networks enable us to address new ideas that could prove to be extremely useful for new drug discovery, such as drug repositioning, drug synergy, polypharmacology and personalized medicine.

Chandra N; Padiadpu J

2013-01-01

205

Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.

1997-12-01

206

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

1994-05-01

207

A Broader Approach to Personalization  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this article we will demonstrate the technologythrough an example scenario where a user accesses theMETU Virtual Bookstore to buy a book about historyof military weapons. The user selects "history" in hisfirst click, "military" in his second click and "weapons"on his third click. The user then clicks "primitive",views it for 15 seconds, backs out, clicks "sophisticated",views for 10 seconds and buys a book entitled "Historyof Sophisticated Military Weapons". This scenariois used in the rest of the article to demostrate thetechnology behind our approach to personalization.

Ibrahim Cingil; Asuman Dogac; Ayca Azgin

208

Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

R. Moussavi; H. Rafii-Tabar

2005-01-01

209

Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed.

Musarò A

2013-09-01

210

Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism.

Fischer BA; Zigmond MJ

2011-01-01

211

A Centering Approach to Pronouns  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we present a formalization of the centering approach to modeling attentional structure in discourse and use it as the basis for an algorithm to track discourse context and bind pronouns. As described in Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein (1986), the process of centering attention on entities in the discourse gives rise to the intersentential transitional states of continuing, retaining and shifting. We propose an extension to these states which handles some additional cases of multiple ambiguous pronouns. The algorithm has been implemented in an HPSG natural language system which serves as the interface to a database query application.

Brennan, S E; Pollard, C J; Brennan, Susan E.; Friedman, Marilyn Walker; Pollard, Carl J.

1994-01-01

212

Fidelity approach to Gaussian transitions  

CERN Document Server

The fidelity approach to the Gaussian transitions in spin-one XXZ spin chains with three different values of Ising-like anisotropy lambda is analyzed by means of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique for systems of large sizes. We find that, despite the success in the cases of lambda=2.59 and 1, the fidelity susceptibility fails to detect the Gaussian transition for lambda=0.5. Thus our results demonstrate the limitation of the fidelity susceptibility in characterizing quantum phase transitions, which was proposed recently in general frameworks.

Tzeng, Yu-Chin; Chen, Yung-Chung; Yang, Min-Fong

2008-01-01

213

New approaches to embryo selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Embryo selection has been an important topic since the introduction of assisted reproduction, with embryo morphology being the most obvious criterion. Although morphology serves as indicator for overall IVF laboratory quality, its statistical assessment limits the possibility to identify the most implantation-competent embryos. In order to reach a direct picture of the developing embryo, invasive procedures such as preimplantation genetic screening or transcriptome and proteome analysis of biopsied embryonic tissue were initially prioritized and are still under investigation. More recently, focus has shifted towards noninvasive techniques that maintain the integrity of the embryo. Metabolomic profiling of culture medium from growing embryos attracted much research. Although successful in a pilot study, that approach failed in a randomized controlled trial. Other metabolomics studies are on their way but not yet available for routine clinical use. The most promising strategy at present is the combined evaluation of morphology and developmental kinetics using time-lapse imaging. This has brought new insights into certain characteristics that enable deselection of embryos at an early stage of development and to identify others with high potential for successful implantation. However, there is still considerable room for improvement. Further strategies will most likely involve the combination of several different approaches. During ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction, there is a difference in the implantation ability of the individual embryos. Numerous approaches have been proposed in order to identify embryos that are most likely to result in a pregnancy. Some were simply based on the daily observation of embryo growth at static time points whilst others were based on invasive procedures to investigate part of the embryo by cytogenetic or molecular biological methods. However, these approaches have so far not resulted in a major breakthrough. More recent strategies are aimed at applying non-invasive technologies to completely avoid interference with the embryo's developmental competence. Some are look at by-products of the metabolism of the embryo by indirect means; however, there is as yet no commercial device globally available that may be used in clinical routine. The only technology that is already impacting the field of embryo selection is time-lapse imaging. It enables the documentation of morphological changes over time, a so-called morphokinetic analysis. Following the course of embryo development from the oocyte up to the blastocyst stage allows for a very detailed evaluation of key events or key time-points associated with implantation or with failed implantation. Although the perfect tool has not been developed, the existing strategies may already help in identifying the single embryo with the highest probability to succeed.

Montag M; Toth B; Strowitzki T

2013-06-01

214

Cognitive reasoning a formal approach  

CERN Multimedia

Dealing with uncertainty, moving from ignorance to knowledge, is the focus of cognitive processes. Understanding these processes and modelling, designing, and building artificial cognitive systems have long been challenging research problems. This book describes the theory and methodology of a new, scientifically well-founded general approach, and its realization in the form of intelligent systems applicable in disciplines ranging from social sciences, such as cognitive science and sociology, through natural sciences, such as life sciences and chemistry, to applied sciences, such as medicine,

Anshakov, Oleg M

2010-01-01

215

An evolutionary approach to Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the distinction between function and role is vexing and difficult. While it appears to be useful, in practice this distinction is hard to apply, particularly within biology. Results I take an evolutionary approach, considering a series of examples, to develop and generate definitions for these concepts. I test them in practice against the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI). Finally, I give an axiomatisation and discuss methods for applying these definitions in practice. Conclusions The definitions in this paper are applicable, formalizing current practice. As such, they make a significant contribution to the use of these concepts within biomedical ontologies.

Lord Phillip

2010-01-01

216

Experimental immunotherapeutic approaches for atherosclerosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic options in atherosclerosis have largely been limited to the control of risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, or diabetes. However, atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which dyslipidemia and inflammation are equally involved in disease pathogenesis. Moreover, abundant epidemiological and experimental evidence point to an important modulatory role of innate and adaptive immunity in atherogenesis, providing novel therapeutic targets for this disease. Indeed, there is now accumulating data in animal models demonstrating the potential for immunotherapeutic approaches to treat atherosclerosis. These include both general and antigen-specific ways of modulating immune functions, and they show great promise for the development of alternative and/or adjuvant therapies for atherosclerosis.

Amir S; Binder CJ

2010-01-01

217

Palatini Approach Beyond Einstein's Gravity  

CERN Document Server

I review recent results obtained for extensions of general relativity formulated within the Palatini formalism, an approach in which metric and connection are treated as independent geometrical entities. The peculiar dynamics of these theories, governed by second-order equations and having no new degrees of freedom, makes them specially suitable to address certain aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology, construct nonsingular bouncing cosmologies, and explore black hole interiors, which in the Reissner-Nordstrom case develop a compact core of finite density instead of a point-like singularity.

Olmo, Gonzalo J

2011-01-01

218

MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP – A THEORETICAL APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper endeavors to offer an overviewof the major theories on leadership and theway in which it in?uences the managementof contemporary organizations. Numerousscholars highlight that there are numerousoverlaps between the concepts of managementand leadership. This is the reason why the ?rstsection of the paper focuses on providing anextensive overview of the literature regarding themeaning of the two aforementioned concepts.The second section addresses more in depth theconcept of leadership and managerial leadershipand focuses on the ideal pro?le of the leader.The last section of the paper critically discussesvarious types of leadership and more speci?callymodern approaches to the concept and practicesof leadership.

Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

2007-01-01

219

Compiler Construction -- a Pedagogical Approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present paper is to revisit some important topics regardingpedagogical issues on the teaching of concepts and techniques of programminglanguages and compiler construction. Essentially, a unified formal model is usedin the proposed approach to explore the exposition of the students to a set oflessons with growing complexity, with a heavy practical component, all sharingthe same common formal model. Experiments start with the definition of regularlanguages, aimed to introduce concepts and give the students familiarity withformal languages and their description through a metalanguage suitable for directmapping into finite-state automata. Context-free languages are then considered asa simple extension of regular languages, both in grammar and acceptor aspects.

Joo Jos Neto; Csar Bravo Pariente; Fabrizio Leonardi

220

Energy storage a new approach  

CERN Multimedia

Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale.  This revolutionary book describes   technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years, but presents new material that could transform the energy industry.  Regardless where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources- energy storage is something that the industry MUST learn and practice.  With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in China

Zito, Ralph

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Price strategies – a microeconomic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims at a microeconomic approach of the price strategies, pointing out the ratio between revenue – cost, or marginal revenue – marginal cost, in the case of different objectives proposed by the enterprise, objectives supported by certain levels of the price. The effects of implementing various price levels, with the contribution of the market through demand quantity, lead the firm to reach diverse goals: actual maximum profit; maximum turnover; an equilibrium state allowing the protection against possible competitors, but also trying to avoid loss risk; a rational resources use by the price fixed at the marginal cost level, or only the survival in difficult times.

Litr?, A. V.

2012-01-01

222

Chemoselective approaches to glycoprotein assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oligosaccharides on proteins and lipids play central roles in human health and disease. The molecular analysis of glycoconjugate function has benefited tremendously from new methods for their chemical synthesis, which provides homogeneous material not attainable from biosynthetic systems. Still, glycoconjugate synthesis requires the manipulation of multiple stereocenters and protecting groups and remains the domain of a few expert laboratories around the world. This account summarizes chemoselective approaches for assembling homogeneous glycoconjugates that attempt to reduce the barriers to their synthesis. The objective of these methods is to make glycoconjugate synthesis accessible to a broader community, thereby accelerating progress in glycobiology.

Hang, Howard C.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

2001-02-23

223

Setup reduction approaches for machining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

Gillespie, L.K.

1997-04-01

224

Approach Merotopological Spaces and their Completion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces the concept of an approach merotopological space and studies its category-theoretic properties. Various topological categories are shown to be embedded into the category whose objects are approach merotopological spaces. The order structure of the family of all approach merotopologies on a nonempty set is discussed. Employing the theory of bunches, bunch completion of an approach merotopological space is constructed. The present study is a unified look at the completion of metric spaces, approach spaces, nearness spaces, merotopological spaces, and approach merotopological spaces.

Mona Khare; Surabhi Tiwari

2010-01-01

225

Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. Nonetheless, a number of promising approaches appeared in recent years based on semiconductors, membranes, vesicles, and molecular system. The chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis are based on a series of well-established chemical principles, the development of an extensive supporting synthetic chemistry, and the discovery of new catalytic systems and the principles by which they operate. It is impressive that nearly all of the background chemistry and photochemistry has appeared within the last 10-15 years. It seems inevitable that, with continued progress in this area, devices of the type implied here, or at least having some of their features, will be successfully constructed. Even if they have no economic value, the ability to incorporate the broadly based set of ideas required to deal with making them will be impressive demonstration of the growing high technology capabilities of modern chemistry.

Meyer, T.J.

1989-05-01

226

A different approach to logic  

CERN Multimedia

This paper outlines an approach to mathematical logic which is different from the standard one. We list the most relevant features of the system. In first-order logic there exist two different concepts of term and formula, in place of these two concepts in our approach we have just one notion of expression. The set-builder notation is enclosed as an expression-building pattern. In our system we can easily express second-order and all-order conditions (the set to which a quantifier refers is explicitly written in the expression). The meaning of a sentence will depend solely on the meaning of the symbols it contains, it will not depend on external 'structures'. Our deductive system is based on a very simple definition of proof and provides a good model of human mathematical deductive process. The soundness and consistency of the system are proved, as well as the fact that our system is not affected by the most known types of paradox. The paper provides both the theoretical material and two fully documented exam...

Avon, Mauro

2011-01-01

227

Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

228

APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and intentions of business competitors. Education in the field of CI enhances the ability of managers to cope with risks, to resolve the threats from competition, to anticipate market opportunities and to sustain or to gain a market advantage. In order to present a more consistent view of competitive intelligence, we have highlighted in the body of our study the importance of organizational culture and intelligence, and the various approaches of specialized literature on competitive intelligence: practical view, academic and interdisciplinary view. The main conclusion is that competitive intelligence supports the manager in making better documented decisions, with greater speed and confidence. In this sense, it becomes difficult to identify any aspect of the activity of the company that does not have a benefit as a result of the use of CI. Regarded as an instrument to improve the competitiveness, CI contributes to the continuous improvement of the quality of the products, services and solutions offered by companies, and on the other hand, has an important role in increasing the companies innovation capability.

Ioan PETRI?OR; Natalia Ana STR?IN (SILA?)

2013-01-01

229

Approaching Bose-Einstein condensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial role of the bosonic ground level. If so, a correct treatment of the problem, including the ground level population N0 by construction, leads to BEC in a straightforward way. For a density of states of the form G(?)???, the chemical potential ? is explicitly calculated as a function of the temperature T and of the number N of bosons, for various significant values of the positive exponent ?. In the thermodynamic limit, in which the boson number N diverges and BEC is a sharp process, the chemical potential ? is a singular function of T at the critical temperature TB, determined by an appropriate critical exponent. The condensate population N0 is studied analytically and numerically as a function of the temperature, for various values of N and for different ?. This provides an accurate description of the way BEC approaches the character of a sharp phase transition. Some aspects of the real experiments on BEC, involving a finite number of bosons, are also illustrated.

2011-01-01

230

Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

2009-07-01

231

Transradial approach for coronary interventions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of coronary interventions performed through the radial artery. METHODS: We studied 103 patients with ages from 38 to 86 years (57±8.7), 90 (87%) males, and: radial pulse with a good amplitude, presence of ulnar pulse, a good collateral flow through the palmar arch assessed with the Allen's test. RESULTS: The vascular approach was obtained in 97 (94%) patients, 88 (91%) treated electively and 9 (9%) during acute myocardial i (more) nfarction, for primary angioplasty; 56 (64%) unstable angina; 22 (25%) stable angina; 10 (11%) were asymptomatic, 6 referred for recanalization of chronic occlusion and 4 silent ischemia in the first week after acute myocardial infarction. We approached 107 arteries: anterior descending artery, 49 (46%); right coronary artery, 27 (25%); circumflex artery, 25 (23%); diagonal artery, 6 (6%); and 2 saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 129 lesions: 80 (62%) B2 type; 23 (18%) B1 type; 17 (13%) C type; and 9 (7%). A type. There were 70 stents , and 59 balloon angioplasties performed. Thirty-two (33%) patients used GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The mean duration of the elective procedure was 42.3±12.8 min. Success, correct stent deployment and residual lesion

Brito, José Carlos; Azevedo Júnior, Antônio; Oliveira, Adriano; Von Sohsten, Roberto; Santos Filho, Ademar; Carvalho, Heitor

2001-05-01

232

Minimally invasive approach for myomectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumor of the uterus in women of reproductive age. However, most of them are asymptomatic and do not require any treatment. Menorrhagia and pelvic pain are the most usual symptoms, and some women may present with infertility or pregnancy-related complications. In those with abnormal uterine bleeding, one should exclude other causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding including endometrial cancer. Diagnosis of uterine fibroid is established by pelvic ultrasonography with or without saline infusion hysterosonography. Management options depend on the patient's fertility potential and desire for future pregnancy. Submucous myoma should be treated by a hysteroscopic approach. Intramural and subserous myomas in women who opt for nonsurgical treatment could be treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), or medical treatment such as selective gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, progesterone receptor modulators, or aromatase inhibitors. All interventions aside from hysterectomy provide temporary relief, although myomectomy, UAE, and HIFU provides more durable symptom relief relative to current medical management. Patients wishing to preserve their fertility are best treated by myomectomy, which can be done by laparoscopy. A laparoscopic approach is more advantageous than laparotomy, but laparoscopic suturing is more demanding. This can be overcome by robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy.

Agdi M; Tulandi T

2010-05-01

233

Congregational analysis revisited: Empirical approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research problem of concern here is: What criteria should be used when congregations are analysed? Congregations as faith communities are defined variously. Discerning the local congregation as a defined and as an empirical subject plays a major role in answering the research question. The theological points of departure are that any measure of a local congregation has to deal with issues like faithfulness to the gospel and the missional identity and integrity of the congregation as a contextual faith community. The hypothesis is that, when theologically informed and motivated, congregations can and should be analysed in the process of continuing reformation. This article describes a number of approaches to and outcomes of empirical research related to congregational analysis. Follow-up research to be submitted for publication will deal with the missional identity, the ministerial role-fulfilment of the congregation, and a proposal to analyse these in a way that is theologically faithful and contextually relevant.How to cite this article: Nel, M., 2009, ‘Congregational analysis revisited: Empirical approaches’, HTS Teologiese/Theological Studies 65(1), Art. #187, 13 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.187

Malan Nel

2009-01-01

234

Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture) and the RTU (Riga Technical University), respectively.

Anda Zeidmane; Sarmite Cernajeva

2011-01-01

235

Approach to rectal cancer surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rectal cancer is a distinct subset of colorectal cancer where specialized disease-specific management of the primary tumor is required. There have been significant developments in rectal cancer surgery at all stages of disease in particular the introduction of local excision strategies for preinvasive and early cancers, standardized total mesorectal excision for resectable cancers incorporating preoperative short- or long-course chemoradiation to the multimodality sequencing of treatment. Laparoscopic surgery is also increasingly being adopted as the standard rectal cancer surgery approach following expertise of colorectal surgeons in minimally invasive surgery gained from laparoscopic colon resections. In locally advanced and metastatic disease, combining chemoradiation with radical surgery may achieve total eradication of disease and disease control in the pelvis. Evidence for resection of metastases to the liver and lung have been extensively reported in the literature. The role of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases is showing promise in achieving locoregional control of peritoneal dissemination. This paper summarizes the recent developments in approaches to rectal cancer surgery at all these time points of the disease natural history.

Chua TC; Chong CH; Liauw W; Morris DL

2012-01-01

236

DRID- A New Merging Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Merging of clusters is a deterministic approach which provides results in an efficient manner. It involves the data input values as per the suitability of the algorithm. There are various advantages for merging of clusters like to improve the quality of clusters, to reduce the noise level and to increase the performance of the algorithm. Merging of clusters is possible in any environment it totally depends on the availability of the type of dataset values. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for merging of cluster. This proposed algorithm merges the clusters which is placed near by to each other because of Cluster balancing is a key factor to achieve good performance. The performance of DRID heavily depends on the dataset availibity and type of environment used by the user. The crucial step in this algorithm is how to select the best and next cluster for merging and splitting.Experimental results and comparisons actually demonstrate that the proposed DRID is an effective approach which helps to reduce execution time and increase the overall performance of the algorithm

Rimmy Chuchra

2012-01-01

237

'Probabilistic' approach to Richardson equations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of the 'energy' of classical free charges on the plane. We suggest considering the 'probabilities' of the system of charges occupying certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of 'probability' has similarities with the square of the Laughlin wavefunction. Next, we introduce the 'partition function', from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined. The 'partition function' is given by a multidimensional integral, which is similar to the Selberg integrals appearing in conformal field theory and random-matrix models. As a first application of this approach, we consider a system with the constant density of energy states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval where potential acts. In this case, the 'partition function' is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields a quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, which is shown to be described by a single expression all over from the dilute to the dense regime of pairs. It also provides additional insight into the physics of Cooper-paired states.

Pogosov WV

2012-02-01

238

'Probabilistic' approach to Richardson equations.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of the 'energy' of classical free charges on the plane. We suggest considering the 'probabilities' of the system of charges occupying certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of 'probability' has similarities with the square of the Laughlin wavefunction. Next, we introduce the 'partition function', from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined. The 'partition function' is given by a multidimensional integral, which is similar to the Selberg integrals appearing in conformal field theory and random-matrix models. As a first application of this approach, we consider a system with the constant density of energy states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval where potential acts. In this case, the 'partition function' is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields a quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, which is shown to be described by a single expression all over from the dilute to the dense regime of pairs. It also provides additional insight into the physics of Cooper-paired states. PMID:22301673

Pogosov, W V

2012-02-22

239

Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

2009-01-01

240

Approach/avoidance in dreams.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

Malcolm-Smith S; Koopowitz S; Pantelis E; Solms M

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Bioremediation: A systematic, tiered approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A potential bioremediation project must be approached with the knowledge that each site will exhibit different and unique characteristics and will require a specific bioremediation plan. Therefore, a tiered response is appropriate, starting with a screening level determination (Tier 1: feasibility of bioremediation and development of a rough estimate of remediation time and costs), continuing with pilot scale studies (Tier 2) and ending with a complete work plan, budget and project management plan for a full-scale bioremediation effort which is conducted in the field (Tier 3). Information gained from work performed in the lower tiers is utilized in higher tiers to determine the feasibility of bioremediation, method(s) of bioremediation selected, location of treatment (in place or in above ground treatment cells), to seek alternative remedial technologies or to develop more specific information before any decision can be made. By following a systematic and tiered approach, costly bioremediation project delays and failures can be averted. The potential effectiveness of bioremediation is affected by technical, economic and regulatory factors. As progress is made from one tier to the next, more information becomes available and, therefore, the bioremediation project becomes more well-defined. Generally, larger sums of money are committed as the project moves to higher tiers. However, there is an accompanying increase in the level of confidence that the remediation will be completed accurately and cost-effectively.

Forsyth, J.V. III; Wrubel, N. [Dames and Moore, Inc., Willow Grove, PA (United States); Bleam, R. [Bioscience, Inc., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

242

Diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solitary thyroid nodules present as localized tumefactions of the thyroid gland readily detectable clinically. They are frequent (2-5% of the general population) and due to a variety of causes, each requiring a specific treatment; hence the need for a systematized diagnostic approach. On scintigraphic grounds, on can distinguish between ''warm'' or ''extinctive'' nodules (10% and 20% of the cases respectively), which are a priori benign, and ''cold'' nodules (70%), which in 1 out of 10 cases correspond to a differentiated epithelioma with excellent post-operative prognosis. Three methodological data call for comments: the images supplied by technetium may differ from those supplied by radioactive iodine, which remains the reference radioisotope; there is no clinical criterion of malignancy, but fluid-containing nodules are almost invariably benign; needle cytology is the best means of selecting nodules for surgery and histology which is the only reliable diagnostic examination. We therefore propose, albeit with due caution, a diagnostic approach based on the sequence scintigraphy-needle exploration and cytology and aimed at limiting surgery to purely therapeutic purposes

1985-12-07

243

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

2005-01-01

244

A new approach to magic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses the example of traditional practices of magic to suggest ways to incorporate cultural behaviors within the evolutionary paradigm. The first suggestion is to restrict hypotheses to only identifiable variables. This means avoiding the temptation of following the nonevolutionary social sciences in the practice of basing explanations on unverifiable guesses about what beliefs (or memes in evolutionary jargon) may or may not inhabit people's brains. In contrast with previous explanations that magical practices result from beliefs and memes whose primarily purpose is to reduce anxiety, we propose that magic is a form of communication that promotes cooperation and often avoids anti-social behavior. This effect of increased cooperation could explain why traditional forms of magic have probably existed and had significant positive consequences for the participants. To be effective as a means of communication, magical rituals must specify both the content of the message and the receiver of the message. Although the content of the communicative message differs with different types of magic, all magical acts serve a purpose to influence the behavior of the party involved and that is the most significant identifiable effect of such behavior. An advantage of this approach over many previous explanations of magic is that because it focuses on identifiable phenomena, the definitions and explanations used in this approach can be falsified.

?vorovi? Jelena

2006-01-01

245

The ethnoprimatological approach in primatology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and long-term sympatries between humans and nonhuman primates (hereafter primates) are central to the behavioral ecology, conservation, and evolutionary trajectories of numerous primate species. Ethnoprimatology emphasizes that interconnections between humans and primates should be viewed as more than just disruptions of a "natural" state, and instead anthropogenic contexts must be considered as potential drivers for specific primate behavioral patterns. Rather than focusing solely on the behavior and ecology of the primate species at hand, as in traditional primatology, or on the symbolic meanings and uses of primates, as in socio-cultural anthropology, ethnoprimatology attempts to merge these perspectives into a more integrative approach. As human pressures on environments continue to increase and primate habitats become smaller and more fragmented, the need for a primatology that considers the impact of human attitudes and behavior on all aspects of primate lives and survival is imperative. In this special issue, we present both data-driven examples and more general discussions that describe how ethnoprimatological approaches can be both a contribution to the core theory and practice of primatology and a powerful tool in our goal of conservation action. PMID:20806335

Fuentes, Agustin; Hockings, Kimberley J

2010-09-01

246

Bionanoparticles, a green nanochemistry approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: In the past decade, considerable attention has been paid for the development of novel strategies for the synthesis of different kind of nano-objects. Most of the current strategies are usually working by the use physical or chemical principles to develop a myriad of nano-objects with multiple applications. Main fields of nanotechnology applications range from catalysis, micro- and nano-electronics (semiconductors, single electrons transistors), non-linear opti (more) c devices, photo-electrochemistry to biomedicine, diagnostics, foods and environment, chemical analysis and others. Results: Two main avenues for nanoparticles synthesis: cell-free extract and cell cultivation have been reported. The state of art of both biotechnological approaches for different type nanoparticles are reviewed in this work. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a revolutionary field just at its onset, the trend in the next decades being its integration with the green chemistry approach. Several strategies involving exhaustive strain selection, cultivation modes, recombinant gene expression, metabolic engineering, protein re-design and re-engineering, and predictive modeling will allow to create nanobioreactors, a new nanobiotechnology arena with a high potential impact in many fields.

Cauerhff, Ana; Castro, Guillermo R

2013-05-01

247

A holonic approach to dynamic manufacturing scheduling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing scheduling is a complex combinatorial problem, particularly in distributed and dynamic environments. This paper presents a holonic approach to manufacturing scheduling, which in opposite to traditional approaches, distributes the scheduling functions over several entities, combining th...

Leitão, Paulo; Restivo, Francisco

248

Biliary lithiasis approach in open laparoscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laparoscopic approach is currently the elective approach in the treatment of non complicated biliary lithiasis.There was a time when an umbilical herniation presented a series of problems at the time of deciding on the approach to be taken.The paper refers to 2 cases of laparoscopic approach in the treatment of symptomatised biliary lithiasis, with an open laparoscopy technique through umbilical hernia ton ring.The repair of herniation was performed in the same operative act with good immediate results.

2000-01-01

249

Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

Svabo, Connie

2009-01-01

250

Valuing Public Goods: The Life Satisfaction Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"This paper discusses a novel approach to elicit people?s preferences fornpublic goods, namely the life satisfaction approach. Reported subjective well-beingndata are used to directly evaluate utility consequences of public goods. The strengthsnof this approach are compared to traditional appro...

Luechinger, Bruno S Frey, Simon; Stutzer, Alois

251

Towards a corporate approach for energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corporate approach is a well-known an much discussed subject. At present the corporate approach is not a legal possibility in the Netherlands. A study has been carried out to investigate the consequences of a corporate approach on the energy efficiency in departments of Philips Nederland.

2003-01-01

252

How I approach trabeculectomy surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to the most commonly performed surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma, trabeculectomy. It is important to recognise that the concept of trabeculectomy surgery can be difficult for patients to comprehend in the first place. Their disease is frequently ‘thrust upon them’ by doctors; in other words, they are frequently asymptomatic in the eye that the ophthalmologist is most concerned about. The therapy, at best, can only hope to maintain vision. Vision may well deteriorate as a result of the therapy. These concepts are vital in the consideration of any surgical intervention. Preventive therapy is always more difficult to introduce. This also means the surgeon is all the more challenged to produce the safest possible result. A well-rested surgeon and a calm surgical environment is the start, along with a confident surgical technique.

Ian Murdoch

2006-01-01

253

Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant “additivity” properties: (i) existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii) existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i) and (ii) are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the Markov order). The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally “most random” distributions.

Alexander N. Gorban; Pavel A. Gorban; George Judge

2010-01-01

254

Chaotic inflation: A numerical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical study of chaotic inflation is presented. Following a semiclassical treatment of quantum effects, the dynamics is described as a random process. The relevant Langevin equation is then integrated numerically for a large number of realizations and results are evaluated as ensemble averages. For the understanding of the global structure of the universe the fact that different domains of the universe have different growth rates is important. This is handled by a new modified algorithm. The simulation results for the probability distribution functions at constant and proper volume are given for two typical initial conditions. We compare them to the approximate results of an already existing analytical approach. The picture of an eternally existing self-reproducing universe is confirmed. (orig.)

1991-01-14

255

Dietary Approaches to Prevent Hypertension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elevated blood pressure arises from a combination of environmental and genetic factors and the interactions of these factors. A substantial body of evidence from animal studies, epidemiologic studies, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials has demonstrated that certain dietary patterns and individual dietary elements play a prominent role in the development of hypertension. Changes in diet can lower blood pressure, prevent the development of hypertension, and reduce the risk of hypertension-related complications. Dietary strategies for the prevention of hypertension include reducing sodium intake, limiting alcohol consumption, increasing potassium intake, and adopting an overall dietary pattern such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet or a Mediterranean diet. In order to reduce the burden of blood pressure-related complications, efforts that focus on environmental and individual behavioral changes that encourage and promote healthier food choices are warranted.

Bazzano LA; Green T; Harrison TN; Reynolds K

2013-10-01

256

Crohn's disease: current imaging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This paper discusses the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: We present a concept, which emphasizes different diagnostic aspects with regard to primary diagnosis, follow-up and assessment of complications of CD. The most effective imaging approach to various diagnostic problems of CD is discussed in detail. Discussion: With regard to the primary diagnosis barium studies should contribute to differentiate between CD and ulcerative colitis. Beyond that, these studies should evaluate location and extent of disease. During the follow-up bowel sonography provides staging of disease and enables the detection of complications at an early stage. CT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of complications, such as fistuale and abscesses. (orig.)

1998-01-01

257

IAEA safeguards approaches and goals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IAEA safeguards provide a technical means of verifying that political obligations undertaken by States party to international agreements relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are being honored. The Agency assures the international community that States party to Safeguards Agreements are complying with their undertaking not to use facilities and divert nuclear materials from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices. The task of IAEA safeguards can be summed up as to detect diversion of nuclear materials committed to peaceful uses of nuclear energy, or the misuse of equipment or facilities subject to certain safeguards agreements, and to deter such diversion or misuse through the risk of early detection. This lecture concentrates on the factors the Agency takes into account in designing and implementing safeguards approaches at facilities. (author)

2001-10-05

258

RBE from a microdosimetric approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the current status of microdosimetry and knowledge regarding the response of biological systems to radiation fields of differing linear energy transfer (LET). The primary objective is to investigate the potential application to radon daughter lung dosimetry. The concept of track structure and its statistical behaviour is discussed and applied to estimate the yield of double strand breaks (DSBs). The general microdosimetric approach to modelling radiation response is presented in terms of the hit-size effectiveness function and the behaviour for specific proposed functions is examined. Radiobiological investigations of the DSB, chromosome aberration and oncogenic transformation end points are reviewed with emphasis on recent developments. A simplified model system is developed illustrating the potential for analysis of the risk from radon daughter inhalation and published research directed towards this goal is discussed. (author). 66 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs.

1995-01-01

259

Clinical approach to young hypertension.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypertension affects approximately 30% of the population worldwide. It is a serious disease, expensive to treat, and can lead to long-term morbidity and mortality. Young hypertension, defined as hypertension occurring in patients aged 40 or younger, is now seen more frequently. A correct and holistic approach in the evaluation of patients with suspected young hypertension is essential, as the underlying cause is demonstrable in more than half of the cases. Among these causes include primary aldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, renal parenchymal disease and renal artery stenosis. The detection of these causes is important as it provides an opportunity to convert an incurable disease into a potentially curable disease, hence avoiding the long-term sequelae and complications of hypertension.

Norlela SUKOR

2013-01-01

260

Alternative approaches to transmission investment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current regulatory framework at the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) was outlined with reference to the 10-year outlook of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO). Power transmitters currently respond to the IMO's outlook, while the OEB approves applications and cost recovery in rates. The Working Group on Congestion has recommended that the IMO produce a 10-year resource plan, that transmitters produce a 10-year expansion plan, and that the OEB develop a framework for project assessment and rate relief. The Task Force has concluded that merchant transmission is not proven, that transmission is an essential public infrastructure, and that regulatory responsibilities and approval processes should be clarified and streamlined. It was noted that the OEB's approach to regulation should be consistent, clear, predictable, fair, timely and in the public interest.

Vlahos, P. [Ontario Energy Board, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Transperineal laparoscopy: a new approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We describe and evaluate a new transperineal laparoscopic approach for male patients, designed to facilitate laparoscopic prostatectomy and cystectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We operated on 12 patients. We did three laparoscopic prostatectomies and nine laparoscopic cystectomies. On five, an ileal conduit was made, and on the other four, an orthotopic bladder was constructed. An incision was made in the perineum. A space was bluntly created between the rectum and the prostate. A cannula was then introduced up to the Douglas pouch, which was opened to enter the peritoneal cavity. RESULTS: One patient of the three prostatectomies needed incontinence pads. None of the four orthotopic bladder cases presented daytime incontinence. The urethra of one of the patients who had an ileal conduit was injured. No other significant complications occurred. CONCLUSION: Transperineal laparoscopy in male patients is a feasible technique that may be an alternative for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery in women, but further assessment is required.

Sanchez-de-Badajoz E; Jimenez-Garrido A; Salvi M

2011-04-01

262

Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

Fatemeh Rahiminejad; Shahin Akhondzadeh

2010-01-01

263

A bandstructure approach to thermoelectricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present the early results of our ongoing effort to identify and characterize new TE materials. Using the linear muffin-tin orbital method, we have studied the shape of the eigenenergy surfaces of the conduction electrons in Si and other TE materials. We describe a multi-valley multi-band computational approach in which we perform the Fermi-integrations directly over the 3D eigenenergy surfaces. Furthermore, by performing these integrations against a delta-function in carrier energy, ?, we are able to characterize the geometric non-scattering structural aspects of the material in terms of a ''partial conductivity'' function, ?(?). From this standpoint, it is possible to quantitatively compare the TE properties of different materials within the same structural family, and to gain some insight into the TE structure/function relationship. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

1994-08-10

264

An approach to Shuttle evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic approach is outlined for upgrading the Space Shuttle to a 'Block-II' system which makes use of existing programs such as Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA). Descriptions are given of near-term evolutionary issues such as supportability and cost reduction which are addressed by the ASA. Upgrades proposed for shuttle evolution include an automated on-board checkout and verification as well as an improved launch-processing system. The Technology Bridging program addresses long-term evolution by identifying key emerging technologies that can be applied to shuttle field demonstrations. The Shuttle Evolution Study is also discussed which identifies 'block changes' that are essentially major changes to systems with an eye toward future efficiency and increased performance. Among the block changes identified are liquid rocket boosters, composite/lightweight external tanks, and unmanned/manned orbiter capability.

Nease, Ardell W.; Thiel, Richard M.; Smith, Kim E.

265

Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:23217177

Musarò, Antonio

2013-01-03

266

Episodic memory: a comparative approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research.

Martin-Ordas G; Call J

2013-01-01

267

Critical approaches to health psychology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health psychology generally prioritizes scientific method as its means of enquiry, and positivism as its theoretical foundation. In the broader domain of social psychology, however, we are now seeing the emergence of a new paradigm, 'critical social psychology', which draws extensively upon postmodern theorizing, and, in particular, discursive methods of analysis and inquiry. In this article, I describe what is meant by critical social psychology, how it differs from the mainstream, and examine some of its implications for health psychology. My aim is to open up debate between mainstream and critical approaches. In adopting an explicit challenge to the way health psychology is currently conceived, it invites dialogue over the methods, theorization and practical applications of our discipline.

Rogers WS

1996-01-01

268

Termination Analysis Approach and Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An active database system is a system which provides the same functionalities as a classic database system and is, equally, capable to react, automatically, to state changes by means of rules said active rules. The triggering of these rules can produce an infinite cycle and leads to the no termination problem. In this study, we propose a method of termination analysis of active rules based on Petri nets (PN) and give an object oriented representation to implement it. This approach is better than the previous ones because it takes into a count composite events and the rule priority on the one hand and both rule representation and rule analysis are performed in the same PN on the other hand.

L. Baba-hamed; H. Belbachir

2006-01-01

269

A practical approach to rickets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rickets is a condition in which there is failure of normal mineralisation (osteomalacia) of growing bone. Whilst osteomalacia may be present in adults, rickets cannot occur. It is generally caused by a lack of mineral supply which can either be as a result of deficiency of calcium (calciopaenic rickets) or of phosphate (phosphopaenic rickets) although, in addition, renal tubular acidosis may also interfere with the process of mineralisation and cause rickets. Only calciopaenic and distal renal tubular disorders will be discussed in this chapter. The commonest cause of rickets is still vitamin D deficiency which is also responsible for problems other than rickets. Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or responsiveness may also cause similar problems. Distal renal tubular acidosis may be caused by a variety of metabolic errors similar to those of osteoclasts. One form of DRTA also causes a form of osteopetrosis. This chapter describes these conditions in detail and sets out a logical approach to treatment.

Allgrove J

2009-01-01

270

A practical approach to rickets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickets is a condition in which there is failure of normal mineralisation (osteomalacia) of growing bone. Whilst osteomalacia may be present in adults, rickets cannot occur. It is generally caused by a lack of mineral supply which can either be as a result of deficiency of calcium (calciopaenic rickets) or of phosphate (phosphopaenic rickets) although, in addition, renal tubular acidosis may also interfere with the process of mineralisation and cause rickets. Only calciopaenic and distal renal tubular disorders will be discussed in this chapter. The commonest cause of rickets is still vitamin D deficiency which is also responsible for problems other than rickets. Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or responsiveness may also cause similar problems. Distal renal tubular acidosis may be caused by a variety of metabolic errors similar to those of osteoclasts. One form of DRTA also causes a form of osteopetrosis. This chapter describes these conditions in detail and sets out a logical approach to treatment. PMID:19494664

Allgrove, Jeremy

2009-06-03

271

Synthetic approaches to multifunctional indenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synthesis of multifunctional indenes with at least two different functional groups has not yet been extensively explored. Among the plausible synthetic routes to 3,5-disubstituted indenes bearing two different functional groups, such as the [3-(aminoethyl)inden-5-yl)]amines, a reasonable pathway involves the (5-nitro-3-indenyl)acetamides as key intermediates. Although several multistep synthetic approaches can be applied to obtain these advanced intermediates, we describe herein their preparation by an aldol-type reaction between 5-nitroindan-1-ones and the lithium salt of N,N-disubstituted acetamides, followed immediately by dehydration with acid. This classical condensation process, which is neither simple nor trivial despite its apparent directness, permits an efficient entry to a variety of indene-based molecular modules, which could be adapted to a range of functionalized indanones.

Neus Mesquida; Sara López-Pérez; Immaculada Dinarès; Ermitas Alcalde

2011-01-01

272

The thermodynamic approach to market  

CERN Document Server

The first (Russian) edition of the book was among the first monographs on econophysics. The book gives an explanation of several intriguing phenomena, providing new insights and answers to some deeply vexing questions. Why the economic "shock therapy" implemented in Eastern Europe was doomed to a failure whereas the approach adopted by China and Vietnam should inevitably lead to economic growth (damped, perhaps, by corruption and inconsistencies)? Why some restrictions imposed on markets are dangerous? Politicians (and laymen) usually believe that the more restrictions you impose on the society, the easier it is to govern. The reality seems to be more subtle. Some restrictions are necessary for the markets to function. However, restrictions on salary, for example, seem to always result in unemployment, as a simple "spin" model shows. Evidently, optimizing freedom is an equilibrium problem, and none of the extrema is devoid of danger. Why should crooked dealings be prevented? What is a reasonable rate of taxat...

Sergeev, Victor

2008-01-01

273

Neurobiological approach to machine intelligence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A neurobiological approach to machine intelligence is presented. Four principles of nervous system organization and modification are used as inspiration to design a general learning and conjecturing system. Specific ideas about the nature of perception and the nature of the environment guide the system's design. The system learns constraints inherent in the environment and self-organizes into high-level units based on its experience. Associative recall is performed using two different procedures, pseudo-likelihood and relaxation operations. The theoretical capabilities and convergence properties of these procedures are explored. Simulation in two different environments are presented. A letters world simulation shows how the system performs under various circumstances. A numbers world simulation demonstrates that the system can speculate about its environment by producing a list of interesting conjectures in number theory.

Davis, B.R.

1982-01-01

274

An Environmentalist Approach: Green Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A product interacts with the environment throughout the entire life cycle- from the design phase to disposal phase- and every product makes different environmental impacts in different life cycle stages. Thus, reducing the environmental impact of a product by just focusing on the waste that is produced after the production process, is not possible. For this, a holistic and proactive approach adoption is required which considers the entire life of a product from raw materials that will be used in production to wastes occurred in production process, from packages to recovery of end of life products. This will be possible by “Green Design” which integrates the product and process design with environmental issues.

Gulay Coskun Kasap; Deniz Peker

2011-01-01

275

Approaches to resolving trade disputes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Wilson DW; Thiermann AB

2003-08-01

276

Carious dentine removal: current approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

Ana Karina Maciel de Andrade; Marcos Antonio Japiassú Resende Montes; Isabel Cristina Celerino de Moraes Porto; Germana Coeli de Farias Sales; Rodivan Braz

2008-01-01

277

Extending cosmology: the metric approach  

CERN Multimedia

Introducing a fundamental constant of nature with dimensions of acceleration into the theory of gravity makes it possible to extend gravity in a very consistent manner. In the non-relativistic regime a MOND-like theory with a modification in the force sector is obtained, which is the weak-field limit of a very general metric relativistic theory of gravity. Since the mass and length scales involved in the dynamics of the whole universe require small accelerations of the order of Milgrom's acceleration constant (\\mathsf{a}_0), it turns out that the relativistic theory of gravity can be used to explain the expansion of the universe. In this work it is explained how to built that relativistic theory of gravity in such a way that the overall large-scale dynamics of the universe can be treated in a pure metric approach without the need to introduce dark matter and/or dark energy components.

Mendoza, S

2012-01-01

278

A New Approach for FCSRs  

Science.gov (United States)

The Feedback with Carry Shift Registers (FCSRs) have been proposed as an alternative to Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) for the design of stream ciphers. FCSRs have good statistical properties and they provide a built-in non-linearity. However, two attacks have shown that the current representations of FCSRs can introduce weaknesses in the cipher. We propose a new “ring” representation of FCSRs based upon matrix definition which generalizes the Galois and Fibonacci representations. Our approach preserves the statistical properties and circumvents the weaknesses of the Fibonacci and Galois representations. Moreover, the ring representation leads to automata with a quicker diffusion characteristic and better implementation results. As an application, we describe a new version of F-FCSR stream ciphers.

Arnault, Francçois; Berger, Thierry; Lauradoux, Cédric; Minier, Marine; Pousse, Benjamin

279

Neurobiological approach to computing devices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the old metaphor of classical cybernetics the brain can be considered as a computer. Newer theoretical endeavours reverse the question and ask: what could neurobiology offer to engineers of near-future generation computer systems? Three not completely disjoint abstract functions of the nervous system, namely pattern formation, pattern recognition and action, can be treated in a unified conceptual framework. Storage and retrieval mechanisms of information are connected to fault-tolerant, adaptive parallel structures. "Learning" and "plastic behaviour" are interpreted in terms of the theory of non-linear dynamic systems. As neural development and plasticity can be approached by deterministic models superimposed by random influence, noise might also have a positive role to play during the operation of technical computing devices. Molecular computation is discussed in relation to eventual hardware realization of "neurobiology-based" computers.

Erdi P

1988-01-01

280

Neurobiological approach to computing devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the old metaphor of classical cybernetics the brain can be considered as a computer. Newer theoretical endeavours reverse the question and ask: what could neurobiology offer to engineers of near-future generation computer systems? Three not completely disjoint abstract functions of the nervous system, namely pattern formation, pattern recognition and action, can be treated in a unified conceptual framework. Storage and retrieval mechanisms of information are connected to fault-tolerant, adaptive parallel structures. "Learning" and "plastic behaviour" are interpreted in terms of the theory of non-linear dynamic systems. As neural development and plasticity can be approached by deterministic models superimposed by random influence, noise might also have a positive role to play during the operation of technical computing devices. Molecular computation is discussed in relation to eventual hardware realization of "neurobiology-based" computers. PMID:3355882

Erdi, P

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach  

CERN Multimedia

The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant "additivity" properties: (i) existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii) existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i) and (ii) are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the {\\em Markov order}). The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally "most random" distributions.

Gorban, A N; Judge, G

2010-01-01

282

Synthetic approaches for noncentrosymmetric molybdates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of second-order Jahn-Teller active Mo (VI) centers and chiral organic amines is discussed as an approach to crystallographic noncentrosymmetry. Several series of reactions, conducted under mild hydrothermal conditions, were designed to probe important reaction variables. Correlations between reagent and solvent concentrations and the molybdate structure were investigated using composition space analysis, which allows for the isolation of specific reaction variables. The effects of amine structure variation were probed using multiple series of related amines, which consisted of either linear diamines or ethylenediamine derivatives. The addition of fluoride results in the loss of amine-based structural variations. Chiral organic amines were used to demonstrate the viability of using such components to control the three-dimensional symmetry in new materials. The synthesis, structure, and characterization of eight new organically templated polyoxomolybdates and polyoxofluoromolybdates are reported. PMID:18821818

Hubbard, Desmond J; Johnston, Alexander R; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Sarjeant, Amy Narducci; Norquist, Alexander J

2008-10-01

283

Synthetic approaches for noncentrosymmetric molybdates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of second-order Jahn-Teller active Mo (VI) centers and chiral organic amines is discussed as an approach to crystallographic noncentrosymmetry. Several series of reactions, conducted under mild hydrothermal conditions, were designed to probe important reaction variables. Correlations between reagent and solvent concentrations and the molybdate structure were investigated using composition space analysis, which allows for the isolation of specific reaction variables. The effects of amine structure variation were probed using multiple series of related amines, which consisted of either linear diamines or ethylenediamine derivatives. The addition of fluoride results in the loss of amine-based structural variations. Chiral organic amines were used to demonstrate the viability of using such components to control the three-dimensional symmetry in new materials. The synthesis, structure, and characterization of eight new organically templated polyoxomolybdates and polyoxofluoromolybdates are reported.

Hubbard DJ; Johnston AR; Casalongue HS; Sarjeant AN; Norquist AJ

2008-10-01

284

Canonical approach to quantum gravity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

General relativity has the property that, under the natural projection mapping, the image of the constraint surface in the phase space is a proper subset of the configuration space. This feature is not shared by other field theories of direct physical interest such as the Yang-Mills theory, nor by constrained systems which have been modeled after general relativity and analyzed in detail. Therefore, to gain insight into this feature, a new example with a finite number of degrees of freedom is introduced and quantized. The analysis suggests that, in the canonical approach, the reduced phase-space method is likely to yield an incomplete description of quantum gravity. In particular, contrary to the indication provided by this method, quantum gravity may admit states with negative energies.

Ashtekar, A.; Horowitz, G.T.

1982-12-15

285

Statistical Physics Approaches to Seismicity  

CERN Document Server

This entry in the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer present a summary of some of the concepts and calculational tools that have been developed in attempts to apply statistical physics approaches to seismology. We summarize the leading theoretical physical models of the space-time organization of earthquakes. We present a general discussion and several examples of the new metrics proposed by statistical physicists, underlining their strengths and weaknesses. The entry concludes by briefly outlining future directions. The presentation is organized as follows. I Glossary II Definition and Importance of the Subject III Introduction IV Concepts and Calculational Tools IV.1 Renormalization, Scaling and the Role of Small Earthquakes in Models of Triggered Seismicity IV.2 Universality IV.3 Intermittent Periodicity and Chaos IV.4 Turbulence IV.5 Self-Organized Criticality V Competing mechanisms and models V.1 Roots of complexity in seismicity: dynamics or heterogeneity? V.2 Critical earthquakes ...

Sornette, D

2008-01-01

286

Transradial approach for coronary interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of coronary interventions performed through the radial artery. METHODS: We studied 103 patients with ages from 38 to 86 years (57±8.7), 90 (87%) males, and: radial pulse with a good amplitude, presence of ulnar pulse, a good collateral flow through the palmar arch assessed with the Allen's test. RESULTS: The vascular approach was obtained in 97 (94%) patients, 88 (91%) treated electively and 9 (9%) during acute myocardial infarction, for primary angioplasty; 56 (64%) unstable angina; 22 (25%) stable angina; 10 (11%) were asymptomatic, 6 referred for recanalization of chronic occlusion and 4 silent ischemia in the first week after acute myocardial infarction. We approached 107 arteries: anterior descending artery, 49 (46%); right coronary artery, 27 (25%); circumflex artery, 25 (23%); diagonal artery, 6 (6%); and 2 saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 129 lesions: 80 (62%) B2 type; 23 (18%) B1 type; 17 (13%) C type; and 9 (7%). A type. There were 70 stents , and 59 balloon angioplasties performed. Thirty-two (33%) patients used GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The mean duration of the elective procedure was 42.3±12.8 min. Success, correct stent deployment and residual lesion <20%, was reached in 100% of the lesions treated with stent implantation; arterial dilation with residual lesion <50% was obtained in 96% of the lesions treated with transluminal coronary angioplasty (TCA). Complications, were: 1 (1.0%) non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction; 2 (2%) hematomas in the forearm; and 2 losses of radial pulse. CONCLUSION: Radial artery aproach is practical and safe for percutaneous coronary interventions there was a low incidence of complications.

Brito José Carlos; Azevedo Júnior Antônio; Oliveira Adriano; Von Sohsten Roberto; Santos Filho Ademar; Carvalho Heitor

2001-01-01

287

Alzheimer's disease: an evolutionary approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disease associated with advanced age whose causes are still not fully known. Approaching the disease from an evolutionary standpoint may help in understanding the root cause of human vulnerability to the disease. AD is very common in humans and extremely uncommon in other mammals, which suggests that the genetic changes underlying the alterations in cerebral structure or function that have taken place over the course of the evolution of the genus Homo have left specific neurons in the human brain particularly vulnerable to factors which trigger the disease. Most of the genes whose mutation leads to AD are involved in synaptic plasticity. Evidence has also been found relating AD to neuronal oxidative stress. Neurons in certain association areas of the human brain retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood, such as the increased expression of genes related to synaptic activity and plasticity, incomplete myelination and elevated aerobic metabolism, which can cause an increase in oxidative stress in these neurons. Oxidative stress can cause myelin breakdown and epigenetic changes in the promoter region of genes related to synaptic plasticity, reducing their expression. These changes may in some cases induce hyperphosphorylation of tau and ?-amyloid deposits, which are characteristic of AD. The adaptation of humans to the cognitive niche probably required an increase in synaptic plasticity and activity and neuronal metabolism in neurons in areas related to certain cognitive functions such as autobiographical memory, social interaction and planning. The cost of these changes may have been the brain's increased vulnerability to factors which can trigger AD. This vulnerability may have resulted from the evolutionary legacies that have occurred over the course of the evolution of the human brain, making AD a possible example of antagonistic pleiotropy. The evolutionary approach allows apparently unrelated data from different disciplines to be combined in a manner that may lead to an improved understanding of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's.

Bufill E; Blesa R; Augustí J

2013-04-01

288

Nuclear security standard: Argentina approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentina has a comprehensive regulatory system designed to assure the security and safety of radioactive sources, which has been in place for more than fifty years. In 1989 the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission created the 'Council of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations' (CAPFMIN). This Council published in 1992 a Physical Protection Standard based on a deep and careful analysis of INFCIRC 225/Rev.2 including topics like 'sabotage scenario'. Since then, the world's scenario has changed, and some concepts like 'design basis threat', 'detection, delay and response', 'performance approach and prescriptive approach', have been applied to the design of physical protection systems in facilities other than nuclear installations. In Argentina, radioactive sources are widely used in medical and industrial applications with more than 1,600 facilities controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in spanish ARN). During 2005, measures like 'access control', 'timely detection of intruder', 'background checks', and 'security plan', were required by ARN for implementation in facilities with radioactive sources. To 'close the cycle' the next step is to produce a regulatory standard based on the operational experience acquired during 2005. ARN has developed a set of criteria for including them in a new standard on security of radioactive materials. Besides, a specific Regulatory Guide is being prepared to help licensees of facilities in design a security system and to fulfill the 'Design of Security System Questionnaire'. The present paper describes the proposed Standard on Security of Radioactive Sources and the draft of the Nuclear Security Regulatory Guidance, based on our regulatory experience and the latest international recommendations. (author)

2007-01-01

289

Speech Recognition Using Stochastic Approach: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s world, Speech Recognition is very important and popular. Automatic Speech Recognition System consists of three phases: Preprocessing, Feature Extraction and Recognition. Speech recognition is the process of converting spoken words into text. In case of speech recognition the research followers are mainly using three different approaches namely Acoustic phonetic approach, Pattern recognition approach and Artificial intelligence approach. The main goal of this paper is to discuss the various techniques of speech recognition and study Hidden Markov Model of stochastic approach to develop voice based, user friendly interface software system.

RANU DIXIT; NAVDEEP KAUR

2013-01-01

290

Logical and epistemological approach to critical thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two main approaches in the conceptualization of critical thinking, logical and epistemological, are presented and analyzed in this paper. The review of logical approach begins with defining its general framework (relationship between critical thinking and informal logic) and afterwards we analyze abilities and skills which are seen as basic constituents of critical thinking. In the review of epistemological approach we analyze four conceptions that present the main directions in criticizing logical approach, and also in developing the broader perspective on critical thinking that includes specific view of knowledge and its development, noncognitive dispositions and the role of subject based knowledge. At the end, we discuss the relationship between logical and epistemological approach. We claim and justify that they should be understood as complementary approaches, and we consider specific contribution of each approach to comprehensive definition of critical thinking. .

Peši? Jelena

2007-01-01

291

Adolescent asthma: a developmental approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update providers on how best to address asthma in adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Asthma is a common chronic disease, with increased prevalence in minority populations, especially those living in poverty. Published treatment guidelines form the basis of modern asthma treatment, based on disease severity, frequency of symptoms, and lung function measured by spirometry. Written asthma action plans are recommended for patients with persistent asthma. Treating teens with asthma can be challenging, as they may deny disease, underreport symptoms, abandon medication regimens, and engage in risk-taking behaviors. Psychiatric comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and even posttraumatic stress disorder can have profound effects on the adolescent with asthma, making the treatment much more challenging. SUMMARY: Pediatricians should utilize a developmental approach, incorporating guideline-based therapies when developing treatment plans for teens with asthma. Resources such as school-based health centers, community health workers, mental health professionals, and possibly asthma specialists are all valuable aids to the physician in the medical home in providing care coordination for their teens with asthma.

Sadof M; Kaslovsky R

2011-08-01

292

New Approaches to Social Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social economy is a relatively new phenomenon, having started just a few decades ago, and due to this reason it has yet to reach great scale. Due to the phenomenon of global crisis propagation, the economies of all countries have been affected and have gone into an economical cycle recession phase, some economical agents hitting the climax of the crisis, practically shutting down their activities. Starting from this, some social problems started to accentuate: the number of unemployed people has risen, the poverty rate went up, the marginalization and social exclusion rates went up, the aging of the population has increased, the discrepancy between the rich and poor has widened and so on, and in this context social economy has gained a greater importance not only at an European level but also at an international level. As such, social economy may become one of the innovative and creative solutions which can contribute to a more human approach to economical problems, combining freedom of market with social responsibility to the benefit of the whole community.

Daniela VÎRJAN

2012-01-01

293

System approach to MEMS commercialization  

Science.gov (United States)

It is common to underestimate the challenges of integrating the at least four technologies in any MEMS product: the three technologies of any semiconductor device (electronics, packaging and testing) plus the MEMS microstructure. For some specific areas of application, for example for photonics, optics technology/components must also be integrated. While traditional semiconductor devices utilize standardized and inexpensive packaging and testing procedures and equipment, MEMS require custom solutions that introduce multiple physical domains, such as light in the case of photonics, directly to a potentially moving structure on the die. This heightened complexity coupled with nonstandard packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies has a dramatic impact on functionality, reliability and cost. Being developed and successfully proven for a period of about twenty-five years the System Approach to MEMS Commercialization is based on three major principles: · A priori understanding of the interdependence of technologies integrated into MEMS products: micro-machining, IC technology, packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies. · Parallel development or implementation of these technologies within the MEMS product. · Redistribution of manufacturing complexity from individual to batch realm. Integrating packaging and testing and other (optics) components into the microstructure and including some of the testing and functional algorithms in the ASIC reduce cost by simplifying more expensive individual manufacturing steps. The overall results of redistribution complexity from individual manufacturing technologies into batch manufacturing technologies are dramatic cost reduction, performance and quality improvement and shorter time to market.

Vaganov, Vladimir I.; Belov, Nickolai; in't Hout, Sebastiaan R.

2003-04-01

294

Common approach to common interests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

NONE

2001-06-01

295

Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive advantage and the factors impacting competitive advantage. The integrated model of competitive advantage is proposed in the paper.Article in LithuanianSpar?iai kintanti verslo aplinka ir rink? globalizacija lemia vis did?jan?i? konkurencij? beveik visuose verslo sektoriuose. Vykstantys evoliuciniai poky?iai skatina ?mones grei?iau mokytis, atitinkamai reaguoti ir aktyviai prisitaikyti prie aplinkos ir pa?ioms keistis. Išryšk?jus pramon?s ?moni? geb?jimo ?gyti konkurencin? pranašum? problemai, d?mesys j? lemian­tiems veiksniams laikytinas aktualiu. Straipsnio autor?s išsamiai analizuoja vyraujan?ius poži?rius ir konkurencin? pranašum? lemian?ius veiksnius bei si?lo integruot?j? konkurencinio pranašumo model?.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Edita Ragelskaja; Renata Korsakien?

2011-01-01

296

Endometriosis: a life cycle approach?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To improve the still fragmented understanding of endometriosis, a life cycle approach was adopted that revealed unexpected aspects of the natural history of the disease throughout a woman's life. Three age-related stages of endometriosis are distinguished. In premenarcheal and adolescent endometriosis, 2 types can be distinguished: a classic form that can occur before menarche, and a congenital obstructive form that is caused by uterine anomaly and outflow obstruction. The lesions include superficial peritoneal implants, but adhesions and endometrioma can also occur. It is suggested that premenarcheal and possibly adolescent endometriosis develop by activation of resting stem cells shed at the time of neonatal retrograde uterine bleeding. In the adult, endometriosis can be related to uterine preconditioning by cyclic menstruations acting as a priming mechanism for deep placentation. In adult life, the typical lesions are peritoneal, ovarian, and deep or adenomyotic endometriosis. More recently, endometriosis has been associated with endometrial dysfunction and myometrial junctional zone hyperplasia. These uterine changes can be linked with some major obstetrical syndromes. In postmenopause, endometriosis can develop or be reactivated both in the presence or absence of exogenous estrogens and can spread to a variety of organs and structures causing constrictive lesions.

Brosens I; Puttemans P; Benagiano G

2013-10-01

297

Endometriosis: a life cycle approach?  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the still fragmented understanding of endometriosis, a life cycle approach was adopted that revealed unexpected aspects of the natural history of the disease throughout a woman's life. Three age-related stages of endometriosis are distinguished. In premenarcheal and adolescent endometriosis, 2 types can be distinguished: a classic form that can occur before menarche, and a congenital obstructive form that is caused by uterine anomaly and outflow obstruction. The lesions include superficial peritoneal implants, but adhesions and endometrioma can also occur. It is suggested that premenarcheal and possibly adolescent endometriosis develop by activation of resting stem cells shed at the time of neonatal retrograde uterine bleeding. In the adult, endometriosis can be related to uterine preconditioning by cyclic menstruations acting as a priming mechanism for deep placentation. In adult life, the typical lesions are peritoneal, ovarian, and deep or adenomyotic endometriosis. More recently, endometriosis has been associated with endometrial dysfunction and myometrial junctional zone hyperplasia. These uterine changes can be linked with some major obstetrical syndromes. In postmenopause, endometriosis can develop or be reactivated both in the presence or absence of exogenous estrogens and can spread to a variety of organs and structures causing constrictive lesions. PMID:23500453

Brosens, Ivo; Puttemans, Patrick; Benagiano, Giuseppe

2013-03-15

298

Approaches to Modeling of Recrystallization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control of the material microstructure in terms of the grain size is a key component in tailoring material properties of metals and alloys and in creating functionally graded materials. To exert this control, reliable and efficient modeling and simulation of the recrystallization process whereby the grain size evolves is vital. The present contribution is a review paper, summarizing the current status of various approaches to modeling grain refinement due to recrystallization. The underlying mechanisms of recrystallization are briefly recollected and different simulation methods are discussed. Analytical and empirical models, continuum mechanical models and discrete methods as well as phase field, vertex and level set models of recrystallization will be considered. Such numerical methods have been reviewed previously, but with the present focus on recrystallization modeling and with a rapidly increasing amount of related publications, an updated review is called for. Advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in terms of applicability, underlying assumptions, physical relevance, implementation issues and computational efficiency.

Håkan Hallberg

2011-01-01

299

Bianchi high scrotal approach revisited.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cryptorchidism is a common paediatric complaint and is traditionally managed surgically by orchidopexy. We aimed to prospectively review the success of the Bianchi high scrotal incision technique for performing orchidopexy in boys with palpable non-descended testis. A total of 206 orchidopexies were performed in 85 patients during a 5-year period. Testicular position was assessed at follow-up clinics at 6 weeks, 6 months and 2 years. Patients were also asked if they were pain free at each subsequent visit. A total of 206 Bianchi orchidopexies were performed successfully in 156 patients; one patient required an additional inguinal incision. The only post-operative complications were infections in two patients. Testes were palpable and remained in the scrotal sac after 6 weeks, 6 months and 2 years in 122 patients. Scarring was minimal and all patients and their parents were happy with the cosmetic appearance of the testes at follow-up. Our results led us to conclude that the high scrotal single incision Bianchi technique should be recommended to replace the traditional inguinal approach, which requires an additional incision in the management of undescended testis within the inguinal canal.

Samuel DG; Izzidien AY

2008-06-01

300

Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG). EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block) and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG). Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

Misra Usha; Kalita Jayantee; Nair Pradeep

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Dosimetric approaches: pregnancy and lactation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern to the evaluation of radiation dose since radiation protection point of view: a)- The females overall body size and organ sizes are generally smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics), the effective doses could be 25 per cent higher than a man; b)- Female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry; female gonads doses could be up to 10 or 30 higher than male gonads (usually 3 order); c)- Risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; d)- During the pregnancy due to placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation exposure from the urinary bladder the embryo/fetus could receive doses that must be avoid; e)- In the case of nursing infant is of special concern in such an analysis to determine the interruption period to avoid doses in the nursing infant. The dosimetric approaches to take account to assess internal doses in the pregnant woman and during the breast feeding are discussed. (author)

2001-01-01

302

An optogenetic approach in epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optogenetic tools comprise a variety of different light-sensitive proteins from single-cell organisms that can be expressed in mammalian neurons and effectively control their excitability. Two main classes of optogenetic tools allow to either depolarize or hyperpolarize, and respectively generate or inhibit action potentials in selective populations of neurons. This opens unprecedented possibilities for delineating the role of certain neuronal populations in brain processing and diseases. Moreover, optogenetics may be considered for developing potential treatment strategies for brain diseases, particularly for excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Expression of the inhibitory halorhodopsin NpHR in hippocampal principal cells has been recently used as a tool to effectively control chemically and electrically induced epileptiform activity in slice preparations, and to reduce in vivo spiking induced by tetanus toxin injection in the motor cortex. In this review we give a comprehensive summary of what has been achieved so far in the field of epilepsy using optogenetics, and discuss some of the possible strategies that could be envisaged in the future. We also point out some of the challenges and pitfalls in relation to possible outcomes of using optogenetics for controlling network excitability, and associated brain diseases. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'New Targets and Approaches to the Treatment of Epilepsy'. PMID:22698957

Kokaia, Merab; Andersson, My; Ledri, Marco

2012-06-12

303

Angioedema: Diagnosis and treatment approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angioedema (AE) is defined as sudden, localized and transient swelling of the skin and/or mucous membranes. This swelling condition is a result of interstitial edema from vasoactive mediators increasing the permeability of postcapillary venules of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. When localized to the skin, it presents as asymmetric, nonpitting, nondependent, and occasionally painful edema. However, mucosal attacks, such as laryngeal edema and bowel involvement can produce severe discomfort and life-threatening symptoms. There are several forms including those involving dysfunction or depletion of the C1-inhibitor gene (classical hereditary AE types and acquired AE), allergic AE, drug-induced AE (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced AE, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced AE), idiopathic and a recently described form, HAE type 3. These various forms of AE have overlapping symptoms, but some unique clinical and historical features as well as presence of accompanying urticaria can aid in the differential diagnosis. The key to successful management is to rule out conditions that masquerade as AE, detection and avoidance of triggers, early recognition of attacks, and aggressive airway management when warranted. In this article, common and rare forms as well as clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment approaches for AE are reviewed.

Ali Tahsin Güne?; Sevgi Akarsu

2013-01-01

304

Suprapubic approach for laparoscopic appendectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of laparoscopic appendectomy using two suprapubic port incisions placed below the pubic hair line. DESIGN: Prospective hospital based descriptive study. SETTINGS: Department of surgery of a tertiary care teaching hospital located in Rohtas district of Bihar. The study was carried out over a period of 11months during November 2011 to September 2012. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy five patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy with three ports (one 10-mm umbilical for telescope and two 5 mm suprapubic as working ports) were included. Operative time, conversion, complications, hospital stay and cosmetic results were analyzed. RESULTS: Total number of patients was 75 which included 46 (61.33%) females and 29 (38.67%) males with Mean age (±Standard deviation {SD}) at the time of the diagnosis was 30.32 (±8.86) years. Mean operative time was 27.2 (±5.85) min. One (1.33%) patient required conversion to open appendectomy. No one patient developed wound infection or any other complication. Mean hospital stay was 22.34 (±12.18) h. Almost all patients satisfied with their cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: A laparoscopic approach using two supra pubic ports yields the better cosmetic results and also improves the surgeons working position during laparoscopic appendectomy. Although, this study had shown better cosmetic result and better working position of the surgeon, however it needs further comparative study and randomized controlled trial to confirm our findings.

Singh MK; Kumar MK; Mohan L

2013-07-01

305

Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma.

Quigley EA; Halpern AC

2013-04-01

306

Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

Nasibeh Faghih; Md Azree Othuman Mydin; Mohd Rodzi Ismail

2013-01-01

307

Conceptual Approach to Forecasting Demand ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers a conceptual approach to forecasting demand on products of a production or trading company using economic and mathematical methods. It justifies importance of modelling and forecasting consumer demand on goods. It provides a classification of methods of forecasting demand in two dimensions: from subjective to objective ones and from na?ve to cause-effect ones. It systemises groups of factors that influence demand and analyses character of their influence. It develops a concept of forecasting demand on products of a company using economic and mathematical methods, which consists of four stages: identification of factors that influence demand, selection of mathematical dependence, check of adequacy and accuracy of the model and forecast of demand. It builds forecast demand models for a specific trading company: Brown’s adaptive polynomial model of the first order; and two-factor model, demand in which depends on the price of a good and its changes. It checks adequacy of each model and performs forecast of demand on products of a company.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ??????. ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????: ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? ? ????????-????????????. ????????????????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????. ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????: ??????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????: ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????; ????????????? ??????, ? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ?? ?????????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????.

Andreishina Nataliia B.

2013-01-01

308

Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization is often narrowly defined to meet specific needs for information. This may however limit the general usefulness of the information gained, for example, if the specific purpose limited the characterization to a subset of variables. In general, data available in the solid waste area are limited and often with limited representation. This chapter describes common approaches and methods in waste characterization including common terms, sampling, characterization methods and data evaluation. The focus is on the characterization of waste as it is generated or collected, while specific issues on characterization related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2.5). If information about waste is required, it is always advisable to check the literature and the internet to see if relevant data is available already. However, in all cases the relevance of the data with respect to cultural, climatic and economical basis as well as the quality and age of the data available must be carefully assessed.

Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.

2011-01-01

309

Molecular approaches to child psychopathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Basic research into the genetics of childhood psychiatric disorders has substantially increased during the last two decades. Specific genetic mutations have been characterized in some developmental disorders (e.g., fragile X syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome), but thus far identification of etiological gene mutations in psychiatric illnesses has been unsuccessful. Several psychiatric disorders serve as examples of the current state of molecular approaches in child psychopathology. Investigations to date of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) have not resulted in the discovery of a gene of major effect. Some studies have implicated the D2 and D4 dopamine receptors as having a direct role in the etiology of GTS, but other studies have disputed those findings. However, the dopamine D2 receptor may modulate the severity of GTS. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a reported association with a low-activity allele of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase; however, the low-activity genotype is also seen in a significant proportion of unaffected individuals. For reading disability two distinct phenotypes (phonological awareness and single-word reading) have been linked to separate loci on chromosomes 6 and 15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a reported association with the dopamine transporter. Findings of a genetic locus for the personality trait of novelty seeking remain controversial.

Alsobrook JP 2nd; Pauls DL

1998-04-01

310

Approaching ? without fine-tuning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the fine-tuning problem of dark energy cosmologies which arises when the dark energy density needs to initially lie in a narrow range in order for its present value to be consistent with observations. As recently noticed, this problem becomes particularly severe in canonical quintessence scenarios, when trying to reproduce the behavior of a cosmological constant, i.e., when the dark energy equation of state wQ approaches -1: these models may be reconciled with a large basin of attraction only by requiring a rapid evolution of wQ at low redshifts, which is in conflict with the most recent estimates from type Ia Supernovae discovered by Hubble space telescope. Next, we focus on scalar-tensor theories of gravity, discussing the implications of a coupling between the quintessence scalar field and the Ricci scalar ('extended quintessence'). We show that, even if the equation of state today is very close to -1, by virtue of the scalar-tensor coupling the quintessence trajectories still possess the attractive feature which allows to reach the present level of cosmic acceleration starting by a set of initial conditions which covers tens of orders of magnitude; this effect, entirely of gravitational origin, represents a new important consequence of the possible coupling between dark energy and gravity. We illustrate this effect in typical extended quintessence scenarios.

2004-09-15

311

An integral approach to medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article we suggest that despite decades of compelling research in suchfields as behavioral medicine and mind-body medicine, a more integral, less fragmented approach is still needed. We argue that one of the obstacles to realizing a more holistic-oriented medicine (ie, biopsychosociocultural) has been the lack of a comprehensive conceptual framework. We therefore propose the application in medicine of modern-day philosopher Ken Wilber's 4-quadrant model, which interfaces the dimensions of interior and exterior with those of the individual and collective. The article suggests that Wilber's framework offers a simple yet elegant heuristic tool for conceptualizing health and illness, investigating the efficacy of different treatment modalities, exploring the multifactorial nature of disease, and informing both research methodology and medical education. We further argue that this model has relevance for both the complementary and alternative as well as conventional medical fields, offering researchers, clinicians, and educators a way to clarify and operationalize otherwise vague concepts such as "holistic" and "integrative."

Astin JA; Astin AW

2002-03-01

312

Nonperturbative approaches to quantum gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The perturbative nonrenormalizability of Einstein's theory of general relativity does not preclude its nonperturbative quantization. By recasting general relativity in terms of SU(2) spinors, Ashtekar has recently achieved much progress in the canonical quantization program. The author presents two complementary efforts to further this program. The first is a novel lattice regularization of Einstein's theory based on Ashtekar's spinorial approach and the Hamiltonian lattice gauge theory of Kogut and Susskind. He introduces a natural representation of quantum states of the gravitational field based on holomorphic functionals of SL(2,C) holonomy group elements. The constraints are transcribed to the lattice, and their action on the state space is briefly investigated. He constructs and employs a computer program to examine the regulated algebra of constraints in the limit that the lattice spacing goes to zero, and he found that it fails too close. The implications of this result are discussed. The second part of the thesis contains two investigations aimed at solving the constraints of general relativity for the two unconstrained degrees of freedom. The first of these describes a new constraint reduction procedure made possible by the simplification in the constraints in terms of the spinorial variables. He shows how the diffeomorphism constraint becomes much simpler, and he reduces the constraint set to one partial differential equation for a special choice of initial data. In the last chapter he finds the general solution to the constraint plus evolution equations of Einstein's theory in the strong coupling limit

1988-01-01

313

NHS contracts: an agency approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The White Paper Working for Patients has produced dramatic changes in the organization of health care in the UK that will soon be followed by analogous reforms in other countries. The core of the reform is represented by the separation of the responsibility for purchasing health care from providing the services. The creation of this internal market is said to enhance efficiency, but some peculiar characteristics of health care prevent a Pareto optimal solution being reached. This paper describes the purchaser-provider relationship using an innovative principal agent model to assess the relative merits of the different forms of contracts. The model is also used to show how competition among providers allows the purchaser to extract this private information. From a theoretical point of view, the approach is innovative in the formulation of the principal's objective function; the interesting finding is that the presence of a stringent budget constraint alters both risk-sharing conditions and the First-best contract proposed by the literature. From a policy point of view, the paper explains why in the first wave over 75% of contracts between purchasers and providers were block contracts. It is also demonstrated why this contractual form should be avoided.

Levaggi R

1996-07-01

314

Understanding Progress: A Heterodox Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of understanding and measuring well-being as a result of “progress” on the basis of today’s dominant epistemological framework. Market criteria distort social values by allowing purchasing power to define priorities, likening luxury goods to basic needs; in the process they reinforce patterns of discrimination against disadvantaged social groups and women, introducing fatal distortions into the analysis. Similarly, because there are no appropriate mechanisms to price natural resources adequately, the market overlooks the consequences of the abuse of natural resources, degrading the quality of life, individually and collectively, or—in the framework of Latin American indigenous groups—foreclosing the possibility of “living well”. We critique the common vision of the official development discourse that places its faith on technological innovations to resolve these problems. The analysis points to the need for new models of social and environmental governance to promote progress, approaches like those suggested in the paper that are inconsistent with public policies currently in place. At present, the social groups forging institutions to assure their own well-being and ecological balance are involved in local processes, often in opposition to the proposals of the political leaders in their countries.

David Barkin; Blanca Lemus

2013-01-01

315

Intelligent Approaches for Vectorizing Image Outlines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two computing approaches, based on linear and conic splines, are proposed here in reviewed and extended for vectorizing image outlines. Both of the approaches have various phases including extracting outlines of images, detecting corner points from the detected outlines, and curve fitting. Interpolation splines are the bases of the two approached. Linear spline approach is straight forward as it does not have a degree of freedom.in terms of some shape controller in its description. However, the idea of the soft computing approach, namely simulated annealing, has been utilized for conic splines. This idea has been incorporated to optimize the shape parameters in the description of the generalized conic spline. Both of the linear and conic approaches ultimately produce optimal results for the approximate vectorization of the digital contours obtained from the generic shapes.

2013-01-01

316

[Abdominal aortic surgery. Transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach?].  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past five years a retroperitoneal approach was used in 34 patients and the transabdominal route in 49 patients for treatment of abdominal aortosclerosis. Both groups were identical with respect to age, sex and preoperative morbidity. In patients with previous laparotomy the retroperitoneal approach was always chosen. There was no significant difference with regard to postoperative complications. The only significant difference between the two groups after the operation was a trend towards earlier defecation among the patients treated by the retroperitoneal approach. We can not demonstrate any important advantage or disadvantage of the retroperitoneal approach. The transabdominal approach provides an opportunity to examine the abdominal organs for malignancy. We found one asymptomatic gastric cancer. The retroperitoneal approach is particularly suitable in patients who have undergone laparotomy before for expected severe abdominal adhesions. PMID:1412286

Wasmuth, H H; Røkke, O; Abendstein, H; Moland, J H; Danielsen, S

1992-08-30

317

[Abdominal aortic surgery. Transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past five years a retroperitoneal approach was used in 34 patients and the transabdominal route in 49 patients for treatment of abdominal aortosclerosis. Both groups were identical with respect to age, sex and preoperative morbidity. In patients with previous laparotomy the retroperitoneal approach was always chosen. There was no significant difference with regard to postoperative complications. The only significant difference between the two groups after the operation was a trend towards earlier defecation among the patients treated by the retroperitoneal approach. We can not demonstrate any important advantage or disadvantage of the retroperitoneal approach. The transabdominal approach provides an opportunity to examine the abdominal organs for malignancy. We found one asymptomatic gastric cancer. The retroperitoneal approach is particularly suitable in patients who have undergone laparotomy before for expected severe abdominal adhesions.

Wasmuth HH; Røkke O; Abendstein H; Moland JH; Danielsen S

1992-08-01

318

New approaches to molecular diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in understanding the molecular basis of rare and common disorders, as well as in the technology of DNA analysis, are rapidly changing the landscape of molecular genetic and genomic testing. High-resolution molecular cytogenetic analysis can now detect deletions or duplications of DNA of a few hundred thousand nucleotides, well below the resolution of the light microscope. Diagnostic testing for "single-gene" disorders can be done by targeted analysis for specific mutations, by sequencing a specific gene to scan for mutations, or by analyzing multiple genes in which mutation may lead to a similar phenotype. The advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing facilitates the analysis of multiple genes and now is being used to sequence the coding regions of the genome (the exome) for clinical testing. Exome sequencing requires bioinformatic analysis of the thousands of variants that are identified to find one that is contributing to the pathology; there is also a possibility of incidental identification of other medically significant variants, which may complicate genetic counseling. DNA testing can also be used to identify variants that influence drug metabolism or interaction of a drug with its cellular target, allowing customization of choice of drug and dosage. Exome and genome sequencing are being applied to identify specific gene changes in cancer cells to guide therapy, to identify inherited cancer risk, and to estimate prognosis. Genomic testing may be used to identify risk factors for common disorders, although the clinical utility of such testing is unclear. Genetic and genomic tests may raise new ethical, legal, and social issues, some of which may be addressed by existing genetic nondiscrimination legislation, but which also must be addressed in the course of genetic counseling. The purpose of this article is to assist physicians in recognizing where new approaches to genetic and genomic testing may be applied clinically and in being aware of the principles of interpretation of test results.

Korf BR; Rehm HL

2013-04-01

319

New approaches to molecular diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in understanding the molecular basis of rare and common disorders, as well as in the technology of DNA analysis, are rapidly changing the landscape of molecular genetic and genomic testing. High-resolution molecular cytogenetic analysis can now detect deletions or duplications of DNA of a few hundred thousand nucleotides, well below the resolution of the light microscope. Diagnostic testing for "single-gene" disorders can be done by targeted analysis for specific mutations, by sequencing a specific gene to scan for mutations, or by analyzing multiple genes in which mutation may lead to a similar phenotype. The advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing facilitates the analysis of multiple genes and now is being used to sequence the coding regions of the genome (the exome) for clinical testing. Exome sequencing requires bioinformatic analysis of the thousands of variants that are identified to find one that is contributing to the pathology; there is also a possibility of incidental identification of other medically significant variants, which may complicate genetic counseling. DNA testing can also be used to identify variants that influence drug metabolism or interaction of a drug with its cellular target, allowing customization of choice of drug and dosage. Exome and genome sequencing are being applied to identify specific gene changes in cancer cells to guide therapy, to identify inherited cancer risk, and to estimate prognosis. Genomic testing may be used to identify risk factors for common disorders, although the clinical utility of such testing is unclear. Genetic and genomic tests may raise new ethical, legal, and social issues, some of which may be addressed by existing genetic nondiscrimination legislation, but which also must be addressed in the course of genetic counseling. The purpose of this article is to assist physicians in recognizing where new approaches to genetic and genomic testing may be applied clinically and in being aware of the principles of interpretation of test results. PMID:23571590

Korf, Bruce R; Rehm, Heidi L

2013-04-10

320

Dual approaches for defects condensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. Due to the fact that the QCD running coupling constant becomes larger as we go into the low energy (or large distance) limit of the theory, a perturbative treatment of its infrared (IR) region is impossible. In particular, a formal mathematical demonstration of color confinement and a complete physical understanding of the exact mechanism that confines quarks and gluons are two missing points in our current knowledge of the IR-QCD. It was known that due to the Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields in a electric condensate that usual superconductors should confine magnetic monopoles. That point led to the conjecture that the QCD vacuum could be a condensate of chromomagnetic monopoles, a dual superconductor (DSC). Such a chromomagnetic condensate should be responsible for the dual Meissner effect which is expected to lead to the confinement of color charges immersed in this medium. In dual superconductor models of color confinement, magnetic monopoles appear as topological defects in points of the space where the abelian projection becomes singular. Also, condensation of other kinds of defects such as vortices in superfluids and line-like defects in solids are responsible for a great variety of phase transitions, which once more proves the relevance of the subject. In the present work we review two methods that allow us to approach the condensation of defects: the Kleinert Mechanism (KM) and the Julia-Toulouse Mechanism (JTM). We show that in the limit where the vortex gauge field goes to zero, which we identify as the signature of the condensation of defects in the dual picture, these are two equivalent dual prescriptions for obtaining an effective theory for a phase where defects are condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where defects are diluted. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Pharmacosynthetics: Reimagining the pharmacogenetic approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pharmacology, in its broadest interpretation, is defined as the study of the interaction between physiological entities and drugs. In modern neuropsychopharmacology, this interaction is viewed as the drug itself on one side and signal transducer (receptor), the signal transduction cascade (effector proteins, second messengers), the cellular response (transcriptional regulation, activity modulation), the organ response (brain circuitry modulation), and, finally, the whole organism response (behavior) on the other. In other words, pharmacology has structured itself around the idea that the exogenous molecule (the drug) encodes a "signal" leading to everything on the other side including, in extreme renditions, a physiological response. The inference is that engaging a particular signal transduction pathway in a defined cell type leads inexorably to a prototypic physiological response. Thus, for instance, serotonergic activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors in rat aortic smooth muscle cells leads to an increase in intracellular Ca(++) (via IP? release) and smooth muscle contraction (Roth et al., 1986). Here, we suggest that the invention of synthetic ligand--GPCR pairs (aka DREADDs, RASSLS, 'pharmacogenetics') permits the study of pharmacology using a shifted equation: more of the signal transduction elements moved to the left and, subsequently, under experimental control. For the purposes of disambiguation and to clarify this new interpretation as a creation of pharmacological manipulation, we present the term pharmacosynthetics to describe what has heretofore been called pharmacogenetics or chemicogenetics. This review discusses this new interpretation and reviews recent applications of the technology and considerations of the approach. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Optogenetics (7th BRES).

Farrell MS; Roth BL

2013-05-01

322

Multivariate approaches in plant science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of proteomics is to get an overview of the proteins expressed at a given point in time in a given tissue and to identify the connection to the biochemical status of that tissue. Therefore sample throughput and analysis time are important issues in proteomics. The concept of proteomics is to encircle the identity of proteins of interest. However, the overall relation between proteins must also be explained. Classical proteomics consist of separation and characterization, based on two-dimensional electrophoresis, trypsin digestion, mass spectrometry and database searching. Characterization includes labor intensive work in order to manage, handle and analyze data. The field of classical proteomics should therefore be extended to also include handling of large datasets in an objective way. The separation obtained by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry gives rise to huge amount of data. We present a multivariate approach to the handling of data in proteomics with the advantage that protein patterns can be spotted at an early stage and consequently the proteins selected for sequencing can be selected intelligently. These methods can also be applied to other data generating protein analysis methods like mass spectrometry and near infrared spectroscopy and examples of application to these techniques are also presented. Multivariate data analysis can unravel complicated data structures and may thereby relieve the characterization phase in classical proteomics. Traditionally statistical methods are not suitable for analysis of the huge amounts of data, where the number of variables exceed the number of objects. Multivariate data analysis, on the other hand, may uncover the hidden structures present in these data. This study takes its starting point in the field of classical proteomics and shows how multivariate data analysis can lead to faster ways of finding interesting proteins. Multivariate analysis has shown interesting results as a supplement to classical proteomics and added a new dimension to the field of proteomics.

Gottlieb, D.M.; Schultz, j.

2004-01-01

323

Pulmonary embolism: A diagnostic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the availability of many diagnostic modalities and the advent of new tests, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a challenge. Clinical manifestations can be notoriously deceptive and there is not a single test, that can be relied on solely, to exclude PE. Although it has been regarded as the gold standard test, pulmonary angiography has not been tested against a reference standard and thromboembolic events have been reported after a normal study. Therefore the diagnosis of PE depends on judicious utilization of the available tests in the right clinical setting, as the accuracy of the results of the investigations, depends largely on the pretest clinical probability. Simple investigations such as chest radiograph, electrocardiogram and arterial blood gas, are used to enhance the clinical probabilities, rather than confirming or refuting the diagnosis of PE. On the other hand, Perfusion ventilation (VQ) scan and computerized tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA), are the main screening tests used for patients with suspected PE. Recently CTPA has largely replaced VQ scan, in many centres. As both VQ scan and CTPA have their limitations, other diagnostic modalities, such as D-dimer and Compression ultrasound of the legs (CUS), are used as adjunctive diagnostic investigations. High probability and normal VQ scan, especially when combined with the concordant clinical probability, has a high positive and negative predicative value, respectively. On the other hand, CTPA is more sensitive and specific than VQ scan, though it has to be combined with CUS and clinical probability, to reduce the chance of missing PE. Although many diagnostic algorithms have been advocated, the discretion of the clinician and clinical experience, still has a major role to play in the diagnosis of PE. In this article, we try to come with a plausible approach to the diagnosis of PE, based on the current literature.

Abdelaziz Muntasir; Wali Siraj; Hamad Mahir; Krayem Ayman; Samman Yaseen

2006-01-01

324

Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The research on sulfite pulping has been characterized by the attempts to explain its chemistry. The. different approach presented is incited by perceptions about the (still) unsolved problem of the ultrastructural features of lignin in wood. A simple kinetic model has been chosen to describe the reaction order of lignin as "concentration" (weight) in the dissolution kinetics, the cooking liquor being used in substantial excess. Three states of lignin were used: in wood as sawdust (W), in milled. wood (MW) and as milled wood lignin (MWL). Cooks were performed at pH 1.5, and 6. (measured at room temperature). The lignin was also modified chemically in two ways: alkaline borohydride reduction and diazomethane methylation. The reaction order (with the kinetics used) was found to be about 2/3, which is the value to be expected for particles of equal size reacting, at the particle surface. The cooks were carried onto completion, defined as the maximum amount of dissolved lignin. Depending on the state of lignin, apart dissolved more or less "immediately". The kinetic results are presented in dissolution/time and Arrhenius diagrams. Some experiments were made to ensure that counterfeit results were evaded. It was found that lignin is very reactive, that is why the sulfonation chemistry alone does not necessarily determine its dissolution rate. It became evident that the ultrastructure dispersion of lignin in wood is beneficial for its dissolution. For W, the rate was much higher at pH 1.5 than at 6. MW lignin and MWL dissolved (after extraction of the "immediate" lignin) at higher rates than W lignin. For MWL, the rate difference between pH 1.5 and 6 was moderate, compared to W lignin. Borohydride reduction did not affect the lignin dissolution from W, but gave a large decrease of sulfonation rate for MWL. Methylation had also a small rate effect for W, but again a large decrease for MWL.

BjØrkmann, Anders

2001-01-01

325

Nonperturbative approaches to quantum gravity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The perturbative nonrenormalizability of Einstein's theory of general relativity does not preclude its nonperturbative quantization. By recasting general relativity in terms of SU(2) spinors, Ashtekar has recently achieved much progress in the canonical quantization program. The author presents two complementary efforts to further this program. The first is a novel lattice regularization of Einstein's theory based on Ashtekar's spinorial approach and the Hamiltonian lattice gauge theory of Kogut and Susskind. He introduces a natural representation of quantum states of the gravitational field based on holomorphic functionals of SL(2,C) holonomy group elements. The constraints are transcribed to the lattice, and their action on the state space is briefly investigated. He constructs and employs a computer program to examine the regulated algebra of constraints in the limit that the lattice spacing goes to zero, and he found that it fails too close. The implications of this result are discussed. The second part of the thesis contains two investigations aimed at solving the constraints of general relativity for the two unconstrained degrees of freedom. The first of these describes a new constraint reduction procedure made possible by the simplification in the constraints in terms of the spinorial variables. He shows how the diffeomorphism constraint becomes much simpler, and he reduces the constraint set to one partial differential equation for a special choice of initial data. In the last chapter he finds the general solution to the constraint plus evolution equations of Einstein's theory in the strong coupling limit.

Renteln, P.A.

1988-01-01

326

An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for approximate Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes. A comparison with averages obtained by Monte-Carlo sampling shows that our method achieves good accuracy.

Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

2004-01-01

327

Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

Lambovska Maya; Marchev Angel

2011-01-01

328

A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA

2009-01-01

329

Complementary integrative approach for treating pruritus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat pruritus for both patients and medical providers. CAM includes natural products, mind-body medicine, and manipulative and body-based practices. In this overview, we summarize current evidence, possible mechanisms and clinical approaches for treating pruritus with CAM techniques. We focus on pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis, herpes zoster, chronic urticaria, burns, and postoperative contexts where the evidence for CAM approaches is promising.

Pfab F; Schalock PC; Napadow V; Athanasiadis GI; Yosipovitch G; Ring J

2013-03-01

330

Considerations on the stochastic approach in economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents several views on stochastic aspects in economic modeling. The authors analyzed the necessity of stochastic approach in economics, they described the specificity of stochastic models in this field and they presented the premises of this approach as well as the tools used. An analogy on stochastic events in economics and physics is also presented. Some views on the stochastic approach in production and energy consumption models are presented in the final part of the paper.

Smeureanu Ion; Gheorghe Ruxanda

2013-01-01

331

A Geometric Approach to Noncommutative Principal Bundles  

CERN Document Server

From a geometrical point of view it is, so far, not sufficiently well understood what should be a "noncommutative principal bundle". Still, there is a well-developed abstract algebraic approach using the theory of Hopf algebras. An important handicap of this approach is the ignorance of topological and geometrical aspects. The aim of this thesis is to develop a geometrically oriented approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal bundles based on dynamical systems and the representation theory of the corresponding transformation group.

Wagner, Stefan

2011-01-01

332

Endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach for parasphenoidal myxoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The parasphenoidal region is a difficult location to gain access to and contains a lot of vital neurovascular structures that have risk of injury during surgery. The transnasal endoscopic approach for this region has been described in several cadaveric studies in recent years. Herein we present a case of parasphenoidal myxoma, extending to the anteroinferior border of the cavernous sinus in a 48-year-old woman. The tumor was completely removed by the endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach. No postoperative complication was seen. The endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach may be a good alternative to external approaches in selective skull base tumors. PMID:20190945

Tosun, Fuat; Durmaz, Abdullah; Deveci, M Salih; Hidir, Yusuf

2009-09-01

333

Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

2000-01-01

334

Hopf bifurcation analysis a frequency domain approach  

CERN Multimedia

This book is devoted to the frequency domain approach, for both regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcation analyses. Besides showing that the time and frequency domain approaches are in fact equivalent, the fact that many significant results and computational formulas obtained in the studies of regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcations from the time domain approach can be translated and reformulated into the corresponding frequency domain setting, and be reconfirmed and rediscovered by using the frequency domain methods, is also explained. The description of how the frequency domain approach can b

Moiola, Jorge L

1996-01-01

335

Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

Dale, Michael

2010-09-15

336

A psychological approach to the study skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many researches about the formation of professional skills for pedagogical students during training process, and they have given certain results. These researches often approach this problem follow two ways.First, it is the way which approaches to technique aspects and manipulation of the action during the process of human activities. Second, it is the way which approaches to capacity of human actions. We would like to approach toward skills which are the ability to perform an action of human being.

Ho K. H.; Fang K. L.

2012-01-01

337

[Therapeutic approach of hereditary angioedema].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Hereditary Angioedema was first described by William Osler in 1888 and it is caused by a hereditary or acquired deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Treatment is indicated for acute attacks or prophylaxis of angioedema which occur in the subcutaneous tissue respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts. Treatment includes attenuated androgens, inhibitors of kininogen or plasminogen, like tranexamic acid or e-aminocaproic acid and the administration of C1-INH concentrate. We describe the peculiarities of the treatment chosen for 10 patients (4 families) with HAE and their evolution. METHODS: Ten patients (1-38 years old) with HAE were diagnosed by clinical history and laboratory evaluation. The following tests were performed for the complement system: C1-INH, C4 and C3 levels and hemolytic assay (CH50 and APH50) for the classic and alternative pathways. Treatment was initiated considering severity of symptoms, age, gender and therapeutic response of the patient. RESULTS: Clinical evaluation showed: 4/10 patients with recurrent subcutaneous edema; 3/10 with previous laryngeal edema and 3/10 with sporadic symptoms. Different severity of symptoms was verified in the same family. The laboratory evaluation detected: low C1-INH levels (10/10); low serum C4 level (8/10); undetectable CH50 (3/10) and low CH50 levels (6/10); low APH50 levels (2/10). Six out of ten patients did not receive any specific treatment and 2 of them had high risk of asphyxia. One adolescent had been controlled with e-aminocaproic acid, one child had been changed from danazol to tranexamic acid, a 30 year old female patient had received oxandrolone and a 38 year old man had been treated with danazol. CONCLUSIONS: Although HAE is caused by the same defect and affects members of the same family, various approaches have been taken to treat these patients. We observed different alternatives of prophylactic therapy for HAE, of which some did not require drug therapy.

Chagas Kde N; Arruk VG; Andrade ME; Vasconcelos Dde M; Kirschfink M; Duarte AJ; Grumach AS

2004-07-01

338

Endoscopic endonasal approaches to the cavernous sinus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the cavernous sinus (CS) has proven a challenge for the skull base surgeon. Traditional approaches include the transcranial route, which broaches the lateral wall of the CS and has a high risk of cranial nerve weakness. A medial approach is more logical but the microscopic transsphenoidal approach has a restricted view. The endoscopic endonasal approach provides an alternative medial approach with improved visualization to that provided with the microscope. We describe our results using this approach for resection of CS tumors. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients treated surgically at a tertiary care referral center between January 2004 and February 2011 with a purely endoscopic endonasal approach to the CS. RESULTS: Out of 400 total endoscopic skull base cases, 41 (10.3%) involved the cavernous sinus. The most common approach was the transsphenoidal transsellar approach (31 patients, 75.6%). Other approaches included the tran-sethmoidal transsphenoidal parasellar (4 patients, 9.8%) and transmaxillary transpterygoidal (6 patients, 14.6%). The most common pathology was pituitary macroadenoma (24 patients, 58.5%). Gross total resection was achieved in 18 patients (43.9%). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak was not encountered in any patient postoperatively. Complications included 1 case of new postoperative VIth nerve palsy, 1 case of intraoperative hemorrhage, 2 cases of persistent diabetes insipidus, and 2 cases of sinusitis. CONCLUSION: The endoscopic endonasal approach is a safe and effective option for tumor resection in the CS using a medial to lateral route for selected cases. Morbidity is low and a variety of reconstructive options are available.

Raithatha R; McCoul ED; Woodworth GF; Schwartz TH; Anand VK

2012-01-01

339

Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise

2009-01-01

340

Lateral approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lateral approach described by Volker Hempel and Dr. Dilip Kotharihas been further studied, evaluated and described in detail in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate lateral approach of supraclavicular brachial plexus block, mainly in terms of successes rate and complication rat...

Sahu, DK; Sahu, Anjana

 
 
 
 
341

A New Approach to Classical Statistical Mechanics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new approach to classical statistical mechanics is presented; this is based on a new method of specifying the possible “states” of the systems of a statistical assembly and on the relative frequency interpretation of probability. This approach is free from the concept of ensemble, the ergodic hypo...

Nijalingappa Umakantha

342

A New Approach to Classical Statistical Mechanics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new approach to classical statistical mechanics is presented; this is based on a new method of specifying the possible “states” of the systems of a statistical assembly and on the relative frequency interpretation of probability. This approach is free from the concept of ensemble, the ergodic hypothesis, and the assumption of equal a priori probabilities.

Nijalingappa Umakantha

2011-01-01

343

Surgical approaches for cesarean section in cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine practitioners are often presented with dystocias that require a cesarean section. Many practitioners perform this surgery using the same approach each time due to their comfort with one specific approach or lack of familiarity of other available options. The goal of this article is to explain...

Schultz, Loren G.; Tyler, Jeff W.; Moll, H. David; Constantinescu, Gheorghe M.

344

A dynamic approach to vehicle scheduling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a dynamic approach to the vehicle scheduling problem. We discuss the potential benefit of our approach compared to the traditional one, where the vehicle scheduling problem is solved only once for a whole period and the travel times are assumed to be fixed. In our dynamic approac...

Huisman, D.; Freling, R.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.

345

A Completely Covariant Approach to Transformation Optics  

CERN Document Server

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics.

Thompson, R T; Frauendiener, J

2010-01-01

346

Conceptual approach to modeling karst development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karst is probably one of the most complicated hydrogeological systems at all.Its structure is complex and it changes in time. In the article conceptual approaches are described which could help establishing numerical simulation models for karst development. These approaches repose on the systems theory and the concept of the pure karst.

Mihael Bren?i?

1995-01-01

347

A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach

Tassa, Tamir

2007-01-01

348

BBM Approach to Outdoor Recreation Programming.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The benefits based management (BBM) approach to outdoor recreation programming is a technique focused on outcomes and benefits derived from participating in outdoor recreation activities. This approach can be used to establish the significance of college outdoor programs on campus. The four premises of BBM are the articulation of outcome-oriented…

Harwell, Rick; Brookover, Bob

349

Operational approach to complementarity and duality relations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a fully operational and consistent approach to complementarity. In contrast to previous approaches, in this proposal the duality relations emerge exclusively from the outcomes of simultaneous measurements performed on every run of the experiment and under the same experimental conditions. This can be done without assuming any definite relationship between the measurement performed and the complementary observables being studied.

2004-01-01

350

«FRIENDLY» COMPLAINING BEHAVIORS: TOWARD A RELATIONAL APPROACH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relational approach is often presented as a strategy to retain customers, but it may also be an appropriate approach to encourage customers to complain, as a review of literature shows. Using information contained in complaints and giving the right answers (distributive, procedural and interacti...

Prim-Allaz, Isabelle; Pras, Bernard

351

Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise

2009-01-01

352

A Gentle Approach for Young Infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gentle Approach is a method for lifting infants younger than 6 months that promotes security and reassurance during adult-imposed changes in position. Developed at the Emmi Pilker National Methodological Institute for Residential Nurseries in Budapest, Hungary, the approach provides continual support and less opportunity for unprotected…

Suskind, Diana; Kozma, Marta

353

A Systems Approach to Diagnostic Prescriptive Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This five-part document presents three approaches to research on instructional improvement, with the final two sections concentrating on problems and implications for diagnostic prescriptive instruction. Part 1 reviews comparative instructional effectiveness studies. Part 2 discusses the Trait-Treatment Interaction Approach (TTI) which is…

Kozma, Robert B.; And Others

354

Group Rekeying Approach for Group Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To enhance the performance of the key management in group communication, we present an improved rekeying approach based on the LKH and OFT schemes in this study. The RSA crypto scheme is used to rekey the keys and the performance of the approach is better than LKH and OFT. The proposed rekeying...

Chunbo Ma; Jun Ao

355

The "Rear-View Mirror" Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "rear-view mirror" approach referred to by McLuhan refers to new media being used with the methods of older, different media. A Sens-it (SENtence- SENtence- SITuation) cell model is suggested as an effective use of interactive videodisk systems in contrast to the communicative competence approach. (Author/LMO)

Nord, James

1987-01-01

356

A New Approach on Flight Training: ASIMIL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a new approach to deal with flight training. We will analyze the various methods used during the implementation of the software (Virtual reality and Case Based Reasoning). This approach introduces a client/server architecture that enables the user to have automated real-time assi...

Aka, Michel; Frasson, Claude

357

A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

2004-09-27

358

A Novel Approach to Teaching Teamwork  

Science.gov (United States)

|Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are "practically" based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during…

Drake, Robert; Goldsmith, Geraldine; Strachan, Rebecca

2006-01-01

359

A variational approach to perturbative calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variational approach to perturbative calculations of the first order in the wavefunction and second order in the energy is described. Pedagogically simple variational wavefunctions are used to evaluate the dipolar polarizabilities of He and isoelectronic ions, and the dispersion coefficient for the H-H asymptotic potential, to illustrate the usefulness of the approach.

2005-01-01

360

Analysis and Evaluation of Organizational Change Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organizational change is the trend for the further development and which been explained is the enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Prescriptive approach and emergent approach are two main types of models for organizational change. The ‘Seven S Framework’ from Peters and his colleague to ...

Yuan Liu

 
 
 
 
361

Discourse analysis: integrating theoretical and methodological approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article by Carmel Seibold describes a study of 20 single midlife women undertaken in Melbourne, Australia, and an approach to analysis that fuses theoretical and methodological approaches and might best be described as discourses analysis which includes consideration of embodiment and materialism.

Seibold C

2006-01-01

362

Discourse analysis: integrating theoretical and methodological approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article by Carmel Seibold describes a study of 20 single midlife women undertaken in Melbourne, Australia, and an approach to analysis that fuses theoretical and methodological approaches and might best be described as discourses analysis which includes consideration of embodiment and materialism. PMID:17100211

Seibold, Carmel

2006-01-01

363

A structural approach for measuring fiscal disparities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiscal disparities arise from differences in costs and capacity to produce a standard package of public services. This paper proposes to use a structural modelling approach as basis for measuring fiscal disparities across municipalities. This approach differs from the widely used reduced-form approa...

Langørgen, Audun; Aaberge, Rolf

364

Managing Technological Change A Strategic Partnership Approach  

CERN Document Server

Management of technology (MOT) is a field of study dedicated to the planning and ongoing assessment of technology in organizations, incorporating the innovation, development, and engineering processes into one discipline. Managing Technological Change: A Strategic Partnership Approach fills a critical void by presenting an integrative, strategic, and participative approach to technology management from a multi-industry perspective.

Haddad, Dr Carol J Joyce

2002-01-01

365

Perturbation theory approach to intermolecular interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general perturbation theory approach to intermolecular interactions is described. Various symmetry adapted perturbation theories can be shown to represent specific cases of this general approach and to differ in the degree of symmetry forcing on the unperturbed wavefunction. Numerical results for the He... He interaction are presented and discussed.

Jeziorski, B.; Kolos, W. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland))

1981-10-01

366

CLP Approaches to 2D Angle Placements  

CERN Multimedia

The paper presents two CLP approaches to 2D angle placements, implemented in CHIP v.5.3. The first is based on the classical (rectangular) cumulative global constraint, the second on the new trapezoidal cumulative global constraint. Both approaches are applied to a specific presented.

Szczygiel, T

2001-01-01

367

Current and emerging technology approaches in genomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To introduce current and emerging approaches that are being utilized in the field of genomics so the reader can conceptually evaluate the literature and appreciate how these approaches are advancing our understanding of health-related issues. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: Each approach is described and includes information related to how it is advancing research, its potential clinical utility, exemplars of current uses, challenges related to technologies used for these approaches, and when appropriate information related to understanding the evidence base for clinical utilization of each approach is provided. Web-based resources are included for the reader who would like more in-depth information and to provide opportunity to stay up to date with these approaches and their utility. CONCLUSIONS: The chosen approaches-genome sequencing, genome-wide association studies, epigenomics, and gene expression-are extremely valuable approaches for collecting research data to help us better understand the pathophysiology of a variety of health-related conditions, but they are also gaining in utility for clinical assessment and testing purposes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our increased understanding of the molecular underpinnings of disease will assist with better development of screening tests, diagnostic tests, tests that allow us to prognosticate, tests that allow for individualized treatments, and tests to facilitate post-treatment surveillance.

Conley YP; Biesecker LG; Gonsalves S; Merkle CJ; Kirk M; Aouizerat BE

2013-03-01

368

NRTMA: Common purpose; complementary approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Near Real Time Material Accountancy (NRTMA) is a leading edge technical solution to in- process verification in bulk handling facilities. It facilitates non-intrusive inspection and allows safeguards conclusions to be drawn without plant shut down. NRTMA is fully operational in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp), providing regular assurance of high quality material control. At its core are a number of statistical algorithms to process the data. This paper covers the techniques deployed by BNFL and Euratom for NRTMA in the Thorp facility located at Sellafield. As early as 1982, a number of important decisions were taken by BNFL in support of safeguards. In addition to the pursuit of high precision measurement of nuclear materials flow, BNFL set out a comprehensive suite of instrumentation to allow frequent nuclear materials inventory determination and materials balancing. These instruments provide Euratom with a comprehensive set of plant-specific data in computerised form. The operator and the safeguards regulator have complementary requirements from the working NRTMA System for nuclear material control. BNFL requires uninterrupted operation whilst demonstrating full compliance with all regulations. In practice, this means that plutonium plants can remain operational between annual Physical Inventory Takings, and a system of early warnings and diagnostic indicators are available continuously to the operator and the inspectors. The Safeguards Inspectorate, of course, wants to be assured that there has been no diversion of plutonium, in line with safeguards goals. During commissioning, BNFL's NRTMA System has focused on identifying any underlying uncertainties in the measurements systems. Error components have been identified and quantified by anomaly resolution tools and by process investigations. This has been invaluable in identifying specific effects and in providing a running overview of plant accountancy performance. The NRTMA process models and methods for in-process inventory determination were further refined in this period. BNFL is now extending the NRTMA System to farther integrate remaining estimates of systematic uncertainties. Euratom's safeguards inspection scheme has taken advantage of the BNFL NRTMA System. From a verification point of view, NRTMA supports fulfilment of the monthly timeliness component of the safeguards approach. The flow component of the system is covered by extensive verification activities on a continuous inspection basis using a wide range of safeguards techniques such as process monitoring, C/S and independent safeguards equipment. Euratom and BNFL have worked in a spirit of co-operation, co-ordinated within a Framework Working Group. Provision of interim-inventories and the use of NRTMA were part of the criteria for European Commission approval of the safeguards techniques in the chemical plant reprocessing areas. These criteria and general terms of reference regarding the use of NRTMA were agreed between ESO and BNFL and recorded in a formal NRTMA Framework Document. The Data Evaluation Sector of ESO is the principal point of contact with BNFL on NRTMA statistical aspects. In order to evaluate NRTMA balances, a simplified process model was created by ESO, together with a related statistical model for the measurement errors and their propagation. It included the definition of particular testing variables suitable for safeguards anomaly detection, and sensitivity studies based on Monte Carlo simulations. ESO's need in evaluating the statistical analysis was to integrate the alarm probability level required with the assurance gained from other safeguards verifications, and maximise efficiency and effective use of inspector resources. The NRTMA data collection system fully supports interim inventory declaration. ESO consider alarms as being when all error components have been exceeded. The Inspectorate is routinely provided with interim inventory declarations at vessel level, in electronic form, and uses this to complement the BNFL analysis by conducting further sta

2001-11-02

369

On weighting approaches for missing data.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review the class of inverse probability weighting (IPW) approaches for the analysis of missing data under various missing data patterns and mechanisms. The IPW methods rely on the intuitive idea of creating a pseudo-population of weighted copies of the complete cases to remove selection bias introduced by the missing data. However, different weighting approaches are required depending on the missing data pattern and mechanism. We begin with a uniform missing data pattern (i.e. a scalar missing indicator indicating whether or not the full data is observed) to motivate the approach. We then generalise to more complex settings. Our goal is to provide a conceptual overview of existing IPW approaches and illustrate the connections and differences among these approaches. PMID:21705435

Li, Lingling; Shen, Changyu; Li, Xiaochun; Robins, James M

2011-06-24

370

On weighting approaches for missing data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We review the class of inverse probability weighting (IPW) approaches for the analysis of missing data under various missing data patterns and mechanisms. The IPW methods rely on the intuitive idea of creating a pseudo-population of weighted copies of the complete cases to remove selection bias introduced by the missing data. However, different weighting approaches are required depending on the missing data pattern and mechanism. We begin with a uniform missing data pattern (i.e. a scalar missing indicator indicating whether or not the full data is observed) to motivate the approach. We then generalise to more complex settings. Our goal is to provide a conceptual overview of existing IPW approaches and illustrate the connections and differences among these approaches.

Li L; Shen C; Li X; Robins JM

2013-02-01

371

Solubility approach for modeling waste glass liquidus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The liquidus temperature of a waste glass (the temperature at which the system glass + crystalline material is in equilibrium with the amorphous glass of the same composition) often is a measure of the solubility of a specific component in the waste in the base glass. A new approach toward predicting the liquidus temperatures of waste glasses has been developed based on solubility. The approach predicts liquidus temperature as well as more complicated expressions developed by other researchers. At the same time, simple process control limits can be easily derived from this model, which is difficult to do with other approaches. While the approach is not applicable to all waste glass components, it can be used for important species such as nickel-iron spinel, chromium oxide, and probably plutonium dioxide. The approach also has led to two new techniques for determining liquidus of waste glass systems.

Plodinec, M.J.

1999-07-01

372

Assessing Global Adoption of One Health Approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transdisciplinary One Health (OH) approaches have been rediscovered as a promising tactic for addressing complex health risks at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. However, there is little evidence of widespread adoption of OH approaches as the new operating normal for addressing these complex health issues. We have used a transformational change model as an evaluation tool and part of an overall assessment of the global adoption of OH approaches. This assessment establishes a point of reference for measuring progress toward OH approaches being the new operating normal. Global adoption of OH approaches will require more strategic efforts to build the case (value proposition), recruiting a broader pool of One Health champions, solidifying partnerships and unifying OH efforts.

Hueston W; Appert J; Denny T; King L; Umber J; Valeri L

2013-07-01

373

A probiotic approach to caries management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The surgical approach has been the predominate mode of caries management for the past 150 years. Dentistry has, however, in recent years moved toward an antibiotic/antimicrobial model of disease management. This approach, however, raises serious questions: (1) do the antibiotic/antimicrobial agents (chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, fluoride, etc) kill all offending organisms?; (2) if so, do the agents preclude the re-entry of the same organisms from external sources?; and (3) if the agents do kill all the offending organisms, do any remaining pathogenic organisms have selective advantage in repopulating the tooth surfaces? To overcome the problems inherent in an antibiotic/antimicrobial approach, probiotic methods are currently under study as means of caries management. This paper discusses probiotic approaches, such as genetically modified Streptococcus mutans and targeted antimicrobials in the management of dental caries. Implications for this approach in the management of other diseases are also presented.

Anderson MH; Shi W

2006-03-01

374

THE RETROPERITONEAL APPROACH TO THE ABDOMINAL AORTA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the community of the vascular surgeons, it has always been amatter of debate which surgical approach is tolerated better by the patient undergoing a reconstruction of the abdominal aorta. Transperitoneal approach offers several advantages: l. simple and very fast approach (very important in emergency cases), 2. allows evaluation of the whole intraabdominal cavity, 3. it is easy to expose common iliac arteries, iliac bifurcation and both external iliac arteries, 4. reconstruction of both renal arteries, as well as visceral arteries, can be performed from the infrarenal aorta, 5. inferior mesenteric artery and eventually polar renal arteries can be incorporated in infrarenal aortic graft. Anterolateral retroperitoneal approach, and various modifications (e.g. extended retroperitoneal) have been described as a well-accepted alternative to the transperitoneal approach. In most centers, the retroperitoneal approach is used actually in well-defined indication both depending on the patient and the anatomy of the aortic aneurysm. Disadvantages are also listed: l. quite time consuming compared with transperitoneal approach which makes it less attractive in emergency situations, 2. redo-operations might present a problem, 3. reimplantation of the inferior mesenteriac artery is made more difficult, 4. access to the right common iliac artery and iliac bifurcation, as well as right renal artery is cumbersome, 5. retroperitoneal approach is contraindicated in the presence of venosus anomalies. The general conclusion might be that none of the different approaches has a uniform advantage or disadvantage and that surgeons and their patients will be served best by both approaches, the choice of which is primarily dependent on the anatomical and technical requirements in each individual.

A. Nevelsteen; I. Fourneau; K. Daenens

2005-01-01

375

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

376

Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

"Understanding the Montessori Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Montessori Approach and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early childhood and and its…

Isaacs, Barbara

2012-01-01

377

Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill

2012-01-01

378

A Dialectical Approach to Positive Organizational Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last decade, an academic movement emerged towards the study of positive phenomena in management and organization studies. Since then, two different scientific research streams have emerged in line with this positive approach to management: 1) positive organizational scholarship (POS), which proposes a trait approach view of positive virtues and strengths and sees the environment as a moderator variable which facilitates or not the exhibition of corresponding positive behaviours; and positive organizational behaviour (POB), which defends a state-like perspective of positive characteristics, thus putting a strong emphasis on situational factors as determinants of positive behaviour, leaving a marginal role to positive psychological traits. As a critical comparison between these two different research streams is yet to be done, in this paper I propose a dialectical approach to study positivity in organizations and contrast these two different ontological approaches to positivity in organizations. I presented arguments to demonstrate that each of these approaches alone constitute quite a limited proposal in that each of them seems to misleadingly assume that: traits cannot be changed; they show incongruence between assumptions and purpose and; they constitute biased viewpoints. A dialectical approach makes possible to overcome these shortcomings by assuming both personality characteristics and environmental features relate each other in an intertwined complex way to produce positive behaviour in organizations. I finally present some practical implications that a dialectical approach would have to organizations and managers.

Miguel Pereira Lopes

2013-01-01

379

Analysis of accidents during instrument approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

General aviation and air taxi approach phase accidents, which occurred during Visual and Instrument Flight Rules (VFR and IFR, respectively) over the last 25 years, were analyzed. The data suggest that there is a 204% higher risk during the approach and landing phase of VFR flights, than during similar IFR operations (14.82 vs. 7.27 accidents/100,000 approaches). Alarmingly, the night single pilot IFR (SPIFR) accident rate is almost 8 times the rate of day IFR, 35.43 vs. 4.47 accidents/100,000 approaches, and two and a half times that of day VFR approaches, 35.43 vs. 14.82 accidents/100,000 approaches. Surprisingly, the overall SPIFR accident rates are not much higher than dual-pilot IFR (DPIFR), 7.27 vs. 6.48 accidents/100,000 approaches. The generally static ratio of the statistics for SPIFR/DPIFR accident rates may be accounted for by little or no change in general aviation cockpit technology during the last 25 years, and because IFR operational flight task management training has not kept pace.

Bennett CT; Schwirzke M

1992-04-01

380

Record Deduplication using Sporogenous Programming Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different types of digital libraries and e-commerce websites are exist with duplicate contents. Previously many systems are present for removing replica or duplicate items. Previous approaches are implemented in different repositories for detection of duplicate records. It can provides the organized or alignment based results. Those approaches are detect the results are near duplicate and range based results. These approaches are reducing the computation cost and time. Result is not contains any quality data. Increasing the digital libraries data quality new approaches are implementing in present system. This new approach is known as a sporogenous programming popularly known as sporogenous programming. Sporogenousprogramming contains the three major operations here. Those operations are selection, crossover and mutation. All three operations are performing in database. Execution of operations applies the de-duplication function. After removing the duplicate records apply the suggested function. These two functions are working properly and it can contain less computational resources utilization in implementation. Compare to all previous approaches present approach provides less burden, efficient and accurate results display here. It can provide good evidence based results.

Gousiya Begum, S. Raja Manohara Rao, K. Mona Chary

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Transseptal dorsal approaches to the wrist.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The dorsal approach to the wrist is the exposure of choice for most of the surgical procedures on the radiocarpal and intercarpal joints. Contrary to the volar approach, it encounters neither the main arteries nor the motor nerve branch. However, the dorsal approach goes necessarily through the extensor retinaculum. We describe two transseptal dorsal approaches that pass through the extensor retinaculum in the thickness of a septum between two compartments. A virtual space was developed beneath the infratendinous retinaculum (which is a deep layer covering the floor of the extensor compartments) to expose the periosteum, the ligaments and the joint capsule without opening the extensor compartments. METHODS: Twenty cadaveric wrists have been dissected to study the feasibility of the two transseptal approaches. Ten wrists were exposed through a 3-4 transseptal approach, passing through the extensor retinaculum in the thickness of the septum between the third and fourth compartments. Ten wrists were exposed through a 4-5 transseptal approach, passing through the extensor retinaculum in the thickness of the septum between the fourth and fifth compartments. The extent of violations of extensor compartments and joint capsule, and the exposed anatomical structures were noted. At the end of each dissection, the whole extensor system was outrightly removed for histological study. RESULTS: The feasibility of the transseptal approaches was demonstrated for all the dissected wrists. The dissection plane beneath the infratendinous retinaculum was macroscopically and microscopically highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: The transseptal approaches provide a good exposure to the dorsal side of the wrist joint, without opening the extensor tendon compartments.

Zemirline A; Hoël G; Naïto K; Uguen A; Liverneaux P; Le Nen D

2013-04-01

382

[Otoplasty: results after anterior versus posterior approach].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: In otoplasty, an anterior approach with sutures is commonly used, because it is not aggressive with cartilage. The aim of this study on otoplasty was to evaluate the usefulness of the anterior approach, comparing it to the results obtained after the posterior approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study on 25 otoplasties performed at a University Hospital during the period 2004-2008. Clinical records from 13 patients (25 otoplasties), between 7-41 years of age, were reviewed. In the anterior approach, the anterior surface of the auricular cartilage is scratched with a rasp. The antihelix shape is obtained and mattress sutures are placed through the anterior surface of the ear. RESULTS: Out of 25 otoplasties, 92% were bilateral and 8%, unilateral; 54% of the patients were children and 46%, adults; anaesthesia was local in 20% and general in 80%. We performed 11 anterior and 14 posterior approach otoplasties. After an anterior approach, complications were suture extrusion in 82%, foreign body reaction in 9%, and revision surgery was needed in 28% of 11 otoplasties performed. After a posterior approach, complications were suture extrusion in 21%, foreign body reaction in 7%, and revision surgery was needed in 7% of 14 otoplasties performed. A good aesthetic result was obtained in almost all the cases (85%). Extrusion rate was statistically more common after the anterior approach. CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, otoplasty is a simple technique for treatment of prominent ears, with good aesthetic results. The most common complication is suture extrusion, more frequent after an anterior approach.

Echarri San Martín R; Hernando Cuñado M; Montojo Woodeson J; Plaza Mayor G

2011-05-01

383

Solving gas treating problems - a different approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The variety of sour gas fields and the different methods used to treat the gases produced has restricted the development of a generalized approach to resolving gas treating problems. The industrial importance of solving these problems has resulted in an accumulation of different knowledge and experiences. In this paper the authors briefly review the approaches taken to resolve the corrosion, fouling and operating difficulties encountered at the Ram River Gas Plant. The first part of the paper describes the problems and solutions attempted during the period 1972-1978 while the second part details the current approach to solving operating difficulties.

Hall, W.D.; Barron, J.G.

1981-01-01

384

Algorithmic approach to lower lid blepharoplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The debate continues around transconjunctival versus transcutaneous approaches. Despite the perceived safety of the former, many experienced surgeons continue to advocate the latter. This review aims to present a balanced view of each approach. It will first address the anatomic basis of lower lid aging and then organize recent literature and associated discussion into the transconjunctival and transcutaneous approaches. The integrated algorithm employed by the senior author will be presented. Finally this review will describe less mainstream suture techniques for lower lid rejuvenation and lower lid blepharoplasty complications with a focus upon lower lid malposition.

Collar RM; Lyford-Pike S; Byrne P

2013-02-01

385

Theoretical approaches to ethnicity, nationalism and nation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author takes into consideration main theory of ethnicity and nationalism: primordialism, perennialism, modernism, ethno-symbolism, post-modernism, and interactionism. He pays his attention on both good and bad features of the different theoretical approaches in order to formulate his own approach. In addition, he offers several the most famous and convincing definitions and typologies of the nations and nationalism. At the end, he tries to make definitions of the ethnicity (ethnical connectedness), ethnical resource, e. g. language, religion, "race", ethnic myths etc, ethnic category, and ethnic as well as to briefly outline his own approach that is basically interactionist with some additions of ethno-symbolism.

Baki? Jovo

2006-01-01

386

Cavity Approach to the Random Solid State  

CERN Document Server

The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin.

Mao, X; Mézard, M; Weigt, M; Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M.; Mezard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

2005-01-01

387

Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

1991-09-12

388

Deferred correction approach on generic transport equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this study, a two dimensional Steady Convection-Diffusion was solved, using Deferred correction approach, and results were compared with standard spatial discretization schemes. Numerical investigations were carried out based on the velocity and flow direction, for various diffusivity coefficients covering a range from diffusive to convective flows. The results show that the Deferred Ted Correction Approach gives more accurate and stable results in relation to UDS and CDs discretization of convective terms. Deferred Correction Approach caters for the wiggles for convective flows in case of central difference discretization of the equation and also caters for the dissipative error generated by the first order upwind discretization of convective fluxes. (author)

2004-01-01

389

The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians  

CERN Document Server

The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians is developed in order to establish contact with other approaches to fluids. Three variants of the perfect fluid approach are looked at. The first is an explicit linear lagrangian constructed directly from the clebsch potentials, this has fixed equation of state and explicit expression for the pressure but is less general than a perfect fluid. The second is lagrangians more general than that of a perfect fluid which are constructed from higher powers of the comoving vector. The third is lagrangians depending on two vector fields which can represent both density flow and entropy flow.

Roberts, Mark D

2009-01-01

390

A Critical Approach for Building Teacher Knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper advocates a Popperian approach for empowering teachers to build knowledge when faced with uncertainty or obstacles.  It begins with a discussion of the need for schools to use a critical approach for knowledge development and sharing of knowledge.  Next, I discuss Popper’s three core concepts of critical rationalism to illustrate its relevance in teacher knowledge development, followed by a description of how journal keeping can be situated in Popper’s Three Worlds. The paper concludes with a discussion of how Popper’s approach can be effective in promoting and sustaining teacher knowledge growth.

Stephanie Chitpin

2010-01-01

391

Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach  

CERN Multimedia

The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,

Maloberti, Franco

2011-01-01

392

Managing abnormal blood lipids: a collaborative approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current data and guidelines recommend treating abnormal blood lipids (ABL) to goal. This is a complex process and requires involvement from various healthcare professionals with a wide range of expertise. The model of a multidisciplinary case management approach for patients with ABL is well documented and described. This collaborative approach encompasses primary and secondary prevention across the lifespan, incorporates nutritional and exercise management as a significant component, defines the importance and indications for pharmacological therapy, and emphasizes the importance of adherence. Use of this collaborative approach for the treatment of ABL ultimately will improve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:16286609

Fletcher, Barbara; Berra, Kathy; Ades, Phil; Braun, Lynne T; Burke, Lora E; Durstine, J Larry; Fair, Joan M; Fletcher, Gerald F; Goff, David; Hayman, Laura L; Hiatt, William R; Miller, Nancy Houston; Krauss, Ronald; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Stone, Neil; Wilterdink, Janet; Winston, Mary

2005-11-15

393

Rough Set Approach to User Modeling  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intelligence of an interactive system is exhibited through the automation of its intelligentbehaviors, namely, effectiveness in performing tasks and adaptiveness to both variations oftask conditions and different users. Having a good user modeling component in any intelligentinteractive system becomes crucial to the performance of that system. We have developed acomputational approach to building intelligent tutoring systems in conjunction with our newlyproposed framework for ITS [1]. This computational approach employs two exploratory AItechniques --- a hybrid knowledge representation model as an implementation mechanism ofITS and a rough set [2] approximation approach to user modeling. In this article, we focus ondiscussing the rough set approach to user modeling of the system in detail.1 IntroductionResearch in building intelligent computer assisted learning environments (more often known asintelligent tutoring systems, ITS) has been ongoing for more than 20--25 year...

Binghui Helen Wu

394

Fado tagging system: a new tagging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fado Tagging System has been developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI Data Acquisition Project at CERN. We shall present in this paper the differences between this tagging system approach and the traditional one.

1990-01-01

395

Approaches for Enhancing Reliability of Software Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In modern world, we are highly dependent upon computer for most of our works. As we know, all computers are controlled by software. So, to operate a computer in a proper manner, software reliability is very necessary.Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment. The high complexity of software is the major contributing factor of Software reliability problems. Various approaches can be used to improve the reliability of software, however, it is hard to balance development time and budget with software reliability. For good reliability, two approaches have to be used, namely, reactive and proactive approach.This paper provides an overview of Software reliability, hardware reliability, reactive and proactive approaches.

Priyanka #1, Trilok Gabba

2013-01-01

396

A holonic approach to dynamic manufacturing scheduling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing scheduling is a complex combinatorial problem, particularly in distributed and dynamic environments. This paper presents a holonic approach to manufacturing scheduling, where the scheduling functions are distributed by several entities, combining their calculation power and local optim...

Leitão, Paulo; Restivo, Francisco

397

Homogeneity: From Caratheodory's approach to Gibbs thermodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider thermodynamics of homogeneous systems in the framework of Caratheodory's approach. We work in a configuration space where independent variables are all extensive, and we show that the requirement for homogeneity symmetry of the integrable 1-form ?Qrev, which represents the infinitesimal heat exchanged reversibly by a thermodynamic system, allows to find immediately and explicitly an integrating factor by means of elementary tools of differential geometry. The foliation of the thermodynamic manifold is associated in a natural way with an extensive potential, which is then identified with the metrical entropy S. Both S and the absolute temperature T are derived quantities in this framework. The entropy S corresponds to the fundamental relation in the entropy representation according to Gibbs' approach to thermodynamics, thus an explicit connection between Caratheodory's approach and Gibbs' approach to thermodynamics is obtained. The relation with statistical mechanical formalism is also pointed out.

2010-01-01

398

A Dialectical Approach to Positive Organizational Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last decade, an academic movement emerged towards the study of positive phenomena in management and organization studies. Since then, two different scientific research streams have emerged in line with this positive approach to management: 1) positiv...

Miguel Pereira Lopes

399

Qualitative approaches in occupational therapy research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Development of research in occupational therapy requires a continuous critical discussion concerning methodological approaches. In this paper the authors wish to contribute to such a discussion by introducing the formal data-structure analysis approach (FDSA) as a method for understanding people's experiences. METHODS AND RESULTS: A review of selected publications from occupational therapy journals between 2003 and 2005 illustrated that qualitative articles within occupational therapy publications were mainly descriptive in nature. This finding raises questions about how to develop new knowledge that contributes to occupational therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper the authors suggest that it is possible to apply the FDSA approach not only when describing and categorizing qualitative phenomena, but also when aiming to reach an in-depth understanding of issues related to human meaning-making; for example, how we understand engagement in occupations or living with a disability. Examples of the application of the FDSA approach are included and discussed.

Borell L; Nygård L; Asaba E; Gustavsson A; Hemmingsson H

2012-11-01

400

A novel approach to managing hemolyzed specimens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemolyzed specimens continue to cost the laboratory time and money. However, the core laboratory at Georgia Regents Health System, Inc. has instituted a novel approach to managing this problem. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the laboratory's new approach had a significant impact on the turn-around time (TAT) and cost of processing hemolyzed and non-hemolyzed specimens in the laboratory. The investigators queried the laboratory information systems for hemolyzed and non-hemolyzed specimens categorized as routine or STAT from the core laboratory and calculated statistical differences between the groups with respect to TAT and cost.The investigators found a statistically significant difference in the time it takes to process STAT hemolyzed specimens versus non-hemolyzed specimens with the new approach. Because of the new approach, hemolyzed specimens were actually processed as fast as, or faster than non-hemolyzed specimens in the core laboratory.

Pretlow L; Johnson S; Russell B; Evans B

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Optimal taxation policy maximum-entropy approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object of this paper is firstly to present entropic measure of income inequality and secondly to develop maximum entropy approaches for the optimal reduction of income inequality through taxation. .

Jana P.; Mazumder S.K.; Das N.C.

2003-01-01

402

A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

Capron, Alexander Morgan

1988-01-01

403

A New Email Retrieval Ranking Approach  

CERN Document Server

Email Retrieval task has recently taken much attention to help the user retrieve the email(s) related to the submitted query. Up to our knowledge, existing email retrieval ranking approaches sort the retrieved emails based on some heuristic rules, which are either search clues or some predefined user criteria rooted in email fields. Unfortunately, the user usually does not know the effective rule that acquires best ranking related to his query. This paper presents a new email retrieval ranking approach to tackle this problem. It ranks the retrieved emails based on a scoring function that depends on crucial email fields, namely subject, content, and sender. The paper also proposes an architecture to allow every user in a network/group of users to be able, if permissible, to know the most important network senders who are interested in his submitted query words. The experimental evaluation on Enron corpus prove that our approach outperforms known email retrieval ranking approaches.

AbdelRahman, Samir; Bahgat, Reem; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2504

2010-01-01

404

A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

2012-01-01

405

On a new approach to convolution constructions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we establish some new approach to constructing convolution for general Mellin type transforms. This method is based on the theory of double Hellin-Barnes integrals. Some properties of convolutions and several examples are given.

S. B. Yakubovich; Shyam L. Kalla

406

Chronic encopresis: a system based psychodynamic approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A successful method used in treating a series of five cases of chronic encopresis is reported. The method is a system based approach, taking into account the typically underlying hostile mother-child psychodynamics accompanying encopresis.

Amsterdam B

1979-01-01

407

Modular Approach to Physics: Vector Components  

Science.gov (United States)

This simulation based tutorial is meant to help students understand vector components. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-03

408

Structured synthesis of MEMS using evolutionary approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we discuss the hierarchy that is involved in a typical MEMS design and how evolutionary approaches can be used to automate the hierarchical synthesis process for MEMS. The paper first introduces the flow of a structured MEMS design process and emphasizes that system-level lumped-parameter model synthesis is the first step of the MEMS synthesis process. At the system level, an approach combining bond graphs and genetic programming can lead to satisfactory design candidates as system-level models that meet the predefined behavioral specifications for designers to trade off. Then at the physical layout synthesis level, the selection of geometric parameters for component devices and other design variables is formulated as a constrained optimization problem and addressed using a constrained genetic algorithm approach. A multiple-resonator microsystem design is used to illustrate the integrated design automation idea using these evolutionary approaches.

Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan

2008-01-01

409

A New Email Retrieval Ranking Approach  

CERN Document Server

Email Retrieval task has recently taken much attention to help the user retrieve the email(s) related to the submitted query. Up to our knowledge, existing email retrieval ranking approaches sort the retrieved emails based on some heuristic rules, which are either search clues or some predefined user criteria rooted in email fields. Unfortunately, the user usually does not know the effective rule that acquires best ranking related to his query. This paper presents a new email retrieval ranking approach to tackle this problem. It ranks the retrieved emails based on a scoring function that depends on crucial email fields, namely subject, content, and sender. The paper also proposes an architecture to allow every user in a network/group of users to be able, if permissible, to know the most important network senders who are interested in his submitted query words. The experimental evaluation on Enron corpus prove that our approach outperforms known email retrieval ranking approaches

AbdelRahman, Samir; Bahgat, Reem; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2504

2010-01-01

410

Iterative approach for scattering from singular potentials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An iterative approach is introduced to obtain the scattering length for singular potentials. In particular, an inverse fourth power and potentials having logarithmic singularities have been considered to illustrate the validity and accuracy of the method.

Iyer, R.C.; Sharma, L.K. (Government Engineering Coll., Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Applied Physics)

1981-05-01

411

Alternative transoral approach for intranasal tooth extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intranasal ectopic eruption is an uncommon condition. Even if an intranasal tooth can be completely asymptomatic, sometimes a variety of nasal signs and symptoms may be associated, ranging from mild nasal congestion to recurrent epistaxis and purulent rhinorrhea. As a consequence, surgical removal is often required. Endoscopic extraction of the intranasal tooth has been reported to present several advantages with respect to traditional surgical approaches and thus recommended as routine treatment in such cases. However, when a tooth is impacted next to the nasal floor, an alternative approach could be needed. We suggest an alternative transoral approach to perform extraction of intranasal teeth, aimed at avoiding excessive bone removal to reach the nasal floor area and preventing the complications related to traditional intraoral buccal or palatal approach. It could represent a reliable alternative to traditional removal in the Oral Surgery Department.

Sammartino G; Trosino O; Perillo L; Cioffi A; Marenzi G; Mortellaro C

2011-09-01

412

Alternative transoral approach for intranasal tooth extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intranasal ectopic eruption is an uncommon condition. Even if an intranasal tooth can be completely asymptomatic, sometimes a variety of nasal signs and symptoms may be associated, ranging from mild nasal congestion to recurrent epistaxis and purulent rhinorrhea. As a consequence, surgical removal is often required. Endoscopic extraction of the intranasal tooth has been reported to present several advantages with respect to traditional surgical approaches and thus recommended as routine treatment in such cases. However, when a tooth is impacted next to the nasal floor, an alternative approach could be needed. We suggest an alternative transoral approach to perform extraction of intranasal teeth, aimed at avoiding excessive bone removal to reach the nasal floor area and preventing the complications related to traditional intraoral buccal or palatal approach. It could represent a reliable alternative to traditional removal in the Oral Surgery Department. PMID:21959476

Sammartino, Gilberto; Trosino, Oreste; Perillo, Letizia; Cioffi, Andrea; Marenzi, Gaetano; Mortellaro, Carmen

2011-09-01

413

A new approach to LIBOR modeling  

CERN Multimedia

We provide a general and flexible approach to LIBOR modeling based on the class of affine factor processes. Our approach respects the basic economic requirement that LIBOR rates are non-negative, and the basic requirement from mathematical finance that LIBOR rates are analytically tractable martingales with respect to their own forward measure. Additionally, and most importantly, our approach also leads to analytically tractable expressions of multi-LIBOR payoffs. This approach unifies therefore the advantages of well-known forward price models with those of classical LIBOR rate models. Several examples are added and prototypical volatility smiles are shown. We believe that the CIR-process based LIBOR model might be of particular interest for applications, since closed form valuation formulas for caps and swaptions are derived.

Keller-Ressel, Martin; Teichmann, Josef

2009-01-01

414

Meson wave function from holographic approaches  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches

Vega, Alfredo; Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E

2010-01-01

415

Anterior Approach to Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Anterior Approach to Total Hip Replacement You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and ...

416

Iterative approach for scattering from singular potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An iterative approach is introduced to obtain the scattering length for singular potentials. In particular, an inverse fourth power and potentials having logarithmic singularities have been considered to illustrate the validity and accuracy of the method. (author)

1981-01-01

417

The Team Approach to Pain Relief  

Science.gov (United States)

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

418

Elderly migration: household versus individual approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"This paper employs a household approach to elderly migration analyses and compares it with the traditional individual approach. The first part of the paper develops some concepts about household mobility and relates them to individual mobility. It then compares the two mobility measurements in a case study using the Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the 1990 [U.S.] Census. The results show that the mean household size for the elderly moving together tends to be smaller than that for elderly stayers. It also demonstrates the utility of the household approach on profiling elderly movers' living arrangement choices. The second part of the paper calibrates a set of discrete choice models based on the household and individual approaches."

Lin G

1997-01-01

419

French safety approach regarding equipment qualification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The qualification of the equipment, used in France on nuclear reactors and reactor components, is discussed. The approach on safety involves the qualification of mechanical and electrical components, under operating and under seismic conditions. The princ...

J. Jalouneix G. Deletre J. Y. Henry L. Rousseau

1989-01-01

420

[Transnasal endoscopic approaches to the cranial base].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent advances in surgical endoscopy have made it possible to reach nearly the whole cranial base through a transnasal approach. These 'expanded approaches' lead to the frontal sinuses, the cribriform plate and planum sphenoidale, the suprasellar space, the clivus, odontoid and atlas. By pointing the endoscope laterally, the surgeon can explore structures in the coronal plane such as the cavernous sinuses, the pyramid and Meckel cave, the sphenopalatine and subtemporal fossae, and even the middle fossa and the orbit. The authors of this contribution use most of these approaches in their endoscopic skull base surgery. The purpose of this contribution is to review the hitherto established endoscopic approaches to the skull base and to illustrate them with photographs obtained during self-performed procedures and/or cadaver studies.

Lyso? T; Sie?kiewicz A; Rutkowski R; Kochanowicz J; Turek G; Rogowski M; Mariak Z

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Post Marketing Surveillance: Passive and Active Approaches ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version1. Post-Marketing Surveillance: Passive and Active Approaches and Use of Electronic Databases Karen Midthun, MD, Deputy Director Center for ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents

422

A Transpersonal Feminist Approach to Family Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary description of A Transpersonal Feminist Approach to Family Systems (ATFAFS) as taught at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology (ITP) between 1995 and 2002. In this approach, students studied the principles of Murray Bowen’s family systems theory with attention to feminist revisions of the theory while simultaneously investigating their own multigenerational family histories. Additionally, students kept a journal, recordedand worked with their dreams, and worked with a chosen creative expressive modality. They may also have worked with other transpersonal modalities. Student narratives, informed byorganic inquiry, illustrate aspects of the approach. The paper concludes with a detailed look at students’ perceived benefits and drawbacks of the approach.

Irene Sheiner Lazarus

2010-01-01

423

Biosensor Design: Combinatorial and Rational Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

This ASSERT proposal supports graduate assistants working on projects related to the parent grant, Molecular Approaches to Optical Biosensors, which proposes to optimize a carbonic anhydrase-based fluorescence biosensor for detecting metals. Our current g...

C. A. Fierke

1998-01-01

424

Amazing variational approach to chemical reactions  

CERN Multimedia

In this letter we analyse an amazing variational approach to chemical reactions. Our results clearly show that the variational expressions are unsuitable for the analysis of empirical data obtained from chemical reactions.

Fernández, Francisco M

2009-01-01

425

A Unifying Approach to Recursive and  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In type theory based logical frameworks, recursive and corecursivedefinitions are subject to syntactic restrictions that ensure theirtermination and productivity. These restrictions however greately decreasethe expressive power of the language. In this work we proposea general approach for systematically defining fixed points for a broadclass of well given recursive definition. This approach unifies the onesbased on well-founded order to the ones based on complete metrics andcontractive functions, thus allowing for mixed recursive/corecursive definitions.

Pietro Di Gianantonio; Marino Miculan

426

t he Cluster Approach in northern Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.

Jessica Huber; Nina M Birkeland

2007-01-01

427

Surgical approaches for rib fracture fixation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Operative management of thoracic injuries is an increasingly accepted technique, with multiple reports of improved patient outcomes as compared with nonoperative treatment. Despite the evolving support of rib fracture fixation, descriptions of surgical approaches and tactics remain limited. We present this information to allow surgeons to begin or improve treatment of these injuries. In addition, we present the initial treatment results of a series of 21 patients treated with the approaches described within. PMID:23287754

Taylor, Benjamin C; French, Bruce G; Fowler, T Ty

2013-07-01

428

A Narrative Approach to Business Growth  

CERN Multimedia

Mona Ericson conceptualizes business growth using a participatory narrative approach, adopting story-like representations of entrepreneurship activity. This approach emphasizes the use of description, conceptualization, knowledge sharing and interpretation. It connects the subject and the researcher allowing the latter to better understand the actual practice of growing a business. The book aims to open up previously marginalized perspectives in research on growth through this incorporation of storytelling - one of the most fundamental features of human life. Thus, the concepts of business gro

Ericson, Mona

2010-01-01

429

Analysis and Evaluation of Organizational Change Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational change is the trend for the further development and which been explained is the enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Prescriptive approach and emergent approach are two main types of models for organizational change. The ‘Seven S Framework’ from Peters and his colleague to show the interrelationships between different aspects of corporate strategy. Mintzberg developed his rational concept of an organisation as composed of five segments and uses his model flexibly to develop five different configurations of structure

Yuan Liu

2009-01-01

430

Group Rekeying Approach for Group Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To enhance the performance of the key management in group communication, we present an improved rekeying approach based on the LKH and OFT schemes in this study. The RSA crypto scheme is used to rekey the keys and the performance of the approach is better than LKH and OFT. The proposed rekeying scheme is top-down and meets forward and backward security.

Chunbo Ma; Jun Ao

2008-01-01

431

FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO APPLIED LANGUAGE TEACHING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the teaching of applied language in Department of Applied Foreign Languages (AFL) in terms of functional approach. More than just the description of a teaching method, so dynamic and often varying from one teacher to another, the present contribution is interested, in particular, in a successful implementation of the above mentioned approach in the process of knowledge acquisition in specialized language, needed for training and employability of foreign language technicians.

Aly Sambou

2012-01-01

432

A Fast Approach to Creative Telescoping  

CERN Multimedia

In this note we reinvestigate the task of computing creative telescoping relations in differential-difference operator algebras. Our approach is based on an ansatz that explicitly includes the denominators of the delta parts. We contribute several ideas of how to make an implementation of this approach reasonably fast and provide such an implementation. A selection of examples shows that it can be superior to existing methods by a large factor.

Koutschan, Christoph

2010-01-01

433

Second-law analysis: approaches and implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison is presented of the main approaches to second-law analysis (SLA) reported in the literature. Five SLAs are considered: exergy, physical-exergy, exergy-consumption, negentropy and entropy analyses. The application of the SLAs is illustrated through an example. In addition, several significant implications of SLA are examined in the fields of environmental impact and economics. The presentation herein of the approaches to and implications of SLA is expected to enhance understanding of SLA and improve its usefulness. (Author)

Rosen, M.A. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada)

1999-07-01

434

The petrosal approach: indications, technique, and results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgical access to the clivus and petrous apex remains a formidable challenge. Intradural tumours at the clivus and petroclival area are superbly exposed via the petrosal approach described here. To date, we have operated on 33 patients having benign tumours using this approach. Total removal was achieved in all patients except 3 with meningiomas. There was no mortality, morbidity included 1 patient with hemiparesis and several with cranial nerve deficits.

al-Mefty O; Ayoubi S; Smith RR

1991-01-01

435

Surgical approaches for rib fracture fixation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Operative management of thoracic injuries is an increasingly accepted technique, with multiple reports of improved patient outcomes as compared with nonoperative treatment. Despite the evolving support of rib fracture fixation, descriptions of surgical approaches and tactics remain limited. We present this information to allow surgeons to begin or improve treatment of these injuries. In addition, we present the initial treatment results of a series of 21 patients treated with the approaches described within.

Taylor BC; French BG; Fowler TT

2013-07-01

436

A new Arnoldi approach for polynomial eigenproblems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we introduce a new generalization of the method of Arnoldi for matrix polynomials. The new approach is compared with the approach of rewriting the polynomial problem into a linear eigenproblem and applying the standard method of Arnoldi to the linearised problem. The algorithm that can be applied directly to the polynomial eigenproblem turns out to be more efficient, both in storage and in computation.

Raeven, F.A.

1996-12-31

437

From Lotka to the entropy generation approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The entropy approach to the evolution of open systems is analyzed, using Lotka's principle as a starting point. A Lagrangian is sought after to develop an analytical method for the evaluation of the stationary states of open irreversible systems. The stationary conditions for open systems are first obtained on the basis of the entropy generation and its maximum principle, suggesting them as a link between the classical engineering thermodynamics approach and the more mathematical Lotka point of view.

Lucia, Umberto; Sciubba, Enrico

2013-09-01

438

Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discussed through an analysis of main standing points of theory about substitutes for leadership.

Moji? Dušan

2002-01-01

439

Hydrostatic drive of the ferry approach bank  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The operating problems of the ferry approach ramp have been presented inthe paper. The incorrect idea of approach bank drive system and abnormal operator acting, have been both the reasons of break-down and damage of a ferry terminal. The evaluation of the run of events and finding the reasons of the failure, have been possible thanks to the analysis of drives and control systems.

Jerzy TOMCZYK; Andrzej KOSUCKI

2007-01-01

440

Systems approaches to human autoimmune diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systemic autoimmune diseases result from interactions between genes and environmental triggers that lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Systems biology approaches enable the global characterization of complex systems at the DNA, RNA and protein levels. Recent technological breakthroughs such as deep sequencing or high-throughput proteomics are revealing novel inflammatory pathways involved in autoimmunity. Herein, we review recent developments, challenges and promising avenues in the use of systems approaches to understand human systemic autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases.

Banchereau R; Cepika AM; Pascual V

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
441

Cloud computing methods and practical approaches  

CERN Multimedia

This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

Mahmood, Zaigham

2013-01-01

442

Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

2013-04-01

443

Improved Statistical Speech Segmentation Using Connectionist Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Speech segmentation is an important part for speech recognition, synthesizing and coding. Statistical based approach detects segmentation points via computing spectral distortion of the signal without prior knowledge of the acoustic information proved to be able to give good match, less omission but lot of insertion. These insertion points dropped segmentation accuracy. Approach: This study proposed a fusion method between statistical and connectionist approaches namely the divergence algorithm and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) with adaptive learning for segmentation of Malay connected digit with the aim to improve statistical approach via detection of insertion points. The neural network was optimized via trial and error in finding suitable parameters and speech time normalization methods. The best neural network classifier was then fusion with divergence algorithm to make segmentation. Results: The results of the experiments showed that the best neural network classifier used learning rate of value 1.0 and momentum rate of value 0.9 with data normalization based on zero-padded. The segmentation using fusion of statistical and connectionist was able to reduce insertion points up to 10.4% while maintaining match points above 99% and omission point below 0.7% within time tolerance of 0.09 second. Conclusion: The result of segmentation using the proposed fusion method indicated potential use of connectionist approach in improving continuous segmentation by statistical approach.

M. S. Salam; Dzulkifli Mohamad; S. H. Salleh

2009-01-01

444

Regulatory approaches to reproductive genetic testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report analyses the ethical and legal aspects of reproductive genetic testing in 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, India, Israel, Japan, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK). The legal status of reproductive genetic testing in the countries under analysis is difficult to generalize due to the different regulatory systems adopted. These approaches are a reflection of the legal traditions and cultural and socio-religious beliefs which inform and shape public policy on assisted reproductive technologies and genetic testing. We divide approaches into two groups: public ordering (legislative, top-down approach) and private ordering (non-legislative, bottom-up approach). Even limiting our analysis to a number of countries that span the range from restrictive to pragmatic approaches, there is remarkable symmetry in both the (i) substantive requirements (i.e. gravity, health indications generally) and (ii) procedural safeguards (i.e. informed consent, counselling, confidentiality, civil status, oversight and accreditation) surrounding reproductive genetic testing. Indeed, irrespective of whether a country adopts a prohibitive or a permissive approach through legislation or self-regulation or a mix of both, the ultimate decision is--and should continue to be--a medical one. Nowhere is this more evident than in the substantive requirements.

Knoppers BM; Isasi RM

2004-12-01