WorldWideScience
1

In-house Preparation of Examination Papers using troff, tbl, and eqn.  

OpenAIRE

Starting in December 1982 the University of Nottingham decided to phototypeset almost all of its examination papers `in house' using the troff, tbl and eqn programs running under UNIX. This tutorial lecture highlights the features of the three programs with particular reference to their strengths and weaknesses in a production environment. The following issues are particularly addressed: Standards -- all three software packages require the embedding of commands and the invocation of pre-w...

Brailsford, David F.

1984-01-01

2

Definite improvement in left ventricular function at six years after the Takeuchi procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a six-year-old girl who underwent the Takeuchi procedure for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery at the age of 4 months. The left ventricular function was severely deteriorated before the initial operation and at 6 years after the procedure showed a remarkable improvement. Mitral regurgitation disappeared during the 6 years. The intrapulmonary tunnel was sufficiently patent to provide adequate blood flow for the anomalous coronary artery. This patient showed supravalvular stenosis due to shrinkage and thickening in the equine pericardium used for reconstruction of the pulmonary artery, and this stenosis was successfully released by autologous pericardial patch angioplasty. PMID:11144095

Isomatsu, Y; Imai, Y; Seo, K; Terada, M; Aoki, M; Shin'oka, T

2000-11-01

3

Late complications after Takeuchi repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: case series and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital heart lesion that if left untreated, results in high mortality. Surgical treatment options include reimplantation of the anomalous coronary ostia, use of extracardiac arterial blood supply, or the Takeuchi procedure. The Takeuchi procedure involves creation of an aortopulmonary window and an intrapulmonary tunnel that baffles the aorta to the ostium of the anomalous left coronary artery. The incidence of late complications following the Takeuchi repair is unknown. The goal of our study was to determine the long-term outcome after palliation of ALCAPA using the Takeuchi Procedure. A total of 9 patients with a history of ALCAPA palliated with the Takeuchi procedure were identified from our surgical database. Chart review was performed. The mean age at time of Takeuchi procedure was 49.6 months (range 5 weeks-14.6 years). There was one late death, of unknown cause. Of the remaining 8 patients, the mean length of follow-up after surgery was 15.9 years (13.5-19.7 years). All 8 survivors had some degree of main pulmonary artery stenosis in the area of the intrapulmonary baffle, with moderate stenosis in 2 and severe stenosis in 1. Three late survivors (38 %) had a baffle leak. Two patients (25 %) had decreased left ventricular systolic function and 3 (38 %) had developed at least moderate mitral valve regurgitation. Three of the 8 late survivors (38 %) required a reoperation for repair of mitral valve regurgitation, baffle leak, and main pulmonary artery (MPA) stenosis. Review of literature demonstrated similar complication rates and need for reoperation following the Takeuchi procedure. Compared with patients after direct reimplantation for ALCAPA at our institution, there was no significant difference in late survival or freedom from reoperation. The Takeuchi procedure is a method to establish a two-coronary repair for ALCAPA. Late complications are common, necessitating lifelong care in a center experienced with caring for adults with congenital heart disease. PMID:22438016

Ginde, Salil; Earing, Michael G; Bartz, Peter J; Cava, Joseph R; Tweddell, James S

2012-10-01

4

Existential participation in Reality and the Ontodialogical focus - exemplified with Heidegger's, Takeuchi's and Corbin's interpretation of existence and death  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper I will introduce some standard view on hermeneutics and interpretation. I will present a conceptual distinction between different ideals of truth, in relation if these ideals views on the importance of the "knower's" existential participation in Reality as a central aspect of knowledge the "knower" has. I will inspired by philosophical hermeneutics and Henry Corbin introduce a distinction between gnostic and agnostic ideals of knowledge, acknowledging that both forms of knowledge ideals can be found in different hermeneutical traditions in different faith-traditions in the world, and very often are interwoven in each other. I will then focus on the "gnostic" knowledge ideal by giving a short example of how this knowledge ideal can be applied in different ways in different forms of religious-philosophical ontologies. This implicates also different forms of interpretations of what it means to be human. I will try to illustrate this by presenting three different "gnostic" existential interpretations of death, namely Heidegger's idea of existence (or Dasein) as being-to-death, Tanabe/Takeuchi's Buddhist-inspired idea of existence as being neither-dead-nor-alive, and Henry Corbin's interpretation of existence as constructed by and relating to the other-side-of-death. In relation to Corbin I will further present his view of the word of Mundus Imaginalis as he find this idea developed in Ibn al'-Arabi, the corresponding idea of a geosophical phenomenology of the world-of-the-resurrection-body, as Corbin finds this theme elaborated in pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy and esoteric Islam. I will argue that these ideas areclosely connected to Corbin's attempt to create an interpretational strategy for the three monistic religions, and especially "esoteric Islam". Finally I will reflect on how these different approaches to death is connected, with different possible constructions of not only ontology but also inter-subjectivity (a theme I hopefully will expand on in another paper). I will then present a preliminary idea of ontodialogical difference and indicate how this idea might work in relation to inter-religious dialogue.

Garsdal, Jesper

2010-01-01

5

Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President  

Science.gov (United States)

Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President

Morita, Utako

6

Charged Particle in a Time-dependent Electric Field: A White Noise Functional Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The propagator for a charged particle in a time-dependent electric field is calculated following Hida and Streit's framework where the propagator is the T-transform of Feynman functional. However, we have to regard the potential V = -qE(?)x??((m/(?/2?)))?x following C. C. Bernido and M. V. Carpio-Bernido's prescription of time-dependent potentials. The result agrees with the limiting form of Eqn. (16) of N. Morgenstern Horing, H. L. Cui, and G. Fiorenza, when the magnetic field is switched off, and Eqn. (17) of [3] when the electric field is constant in time

7

Curriculum: Which Approach?  

Science.gov (United States)

Curriculum has two major approaches, technical and scientific approach and the nontechnical-nonscientific approach. Both are different and distinct. Schools need to distinguish which approach is suited for their students.

Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

2010-01-01

8

Nuclear knowledge preservation of Atucha type Reactor: Practical approaches and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The nuclear option is born in Argentina in 1950. Since then and after half century, the Argentine nuclear sector reaches a hierarchy and an important technological - scientific dimension in all the issues related to activities linked to the nuclear sector. The export of research reactors, the nuclear fuel production and the installation of nucleoelectrical power stations constitute one of the most outstanding achievements of this activity. The Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, of Siemens-KWU technology with 30 years of operation and Embalse (Candu type) with 20 years of operation, register an efficient and safe performance, within the worldwide standards. In addition, and with Siemens technology the Atucha II NPP is in construction with a 82% of work advance. At the moment Siemens, has transferred his place as designer of reactors LWR to the Framatom ANP Company and consequently Argentina will have to make all the efforts to assure the 'knowledge preservation' of the technology of this line of reactors, if it hopes that Atucha I extends its useful life and Atucha II is finalized. Likewise the aging of the personnel in the sector is worrisome being numerous the great number of people who are close to retire what it worsens if we think that there are a few young people able in this specialty by the lack of the entrance of candidates in compatible races This situation generated the necessity to implement a system of Knowledge Management to capture and to capitalizdge Management to capture and to capitalize the tacit and explicit knowledge, to spread it and to share by using techniques and tools adapted through the organization. Practical Approaches and Lessons Learned: A - Analysis of the strategy: The strategy was based on recognizing the critical knowledge by means of the use of a methodology that incorporates the technique of the map of the critical knowledge. That is to say, to recognize the patrimony of the knowledge around the reactor. The layout of the knowledge map of reactor together with the systematic analysis of criticalities generated the architecture of the taxonomies of reactor Atucha type behavior as also it allowed to carried out its own actions of the knowledge management from the diagnosis of the it where proposals and actions arise destined to reduce the criticality and to put into operation the different processes system. (Cycle of Nonaka and Takeuchi) B. - Technical of development and its disadvantages: Factors of analysis How to restore a new methodology that requires of the application of techniques for personal and group interviews. It is essential to consider this time at the time of project planning. The project demands much interaction with experts of different profiles and availability of their time because it involves to all the nuclear sector and the complete service life of the Reactor (project, design, operation, decommissioning, dismantling). Effects of the operation state of plant in the accomplishment of different activities from the project The infrastructure of the ITC of different generations that coexist can force to generate migrations of information and to develop new additional tools. The limited HHRR, financial resources, the administrative circuits, the different corporative cultures that coexist and the critical knowledge that keeps in mind of people close to get their retirement, require of an exhaustive previous analysis to determine their influence in the criticality of the system. (author)

9

RESEARCH APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990, which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. These world views are merged to form three approaches namely-quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. Quantitative approach includes positivism and post positivism world view, qualitative approach includes constructivism and transformative world view and mixed method approach corresponds to pragmatism. Beside these approaches two more approaches has been discussed namely-Logical, theoretical research used in the field of mathematics and computer science and Participatory action research used in the field of management, sociology and anthropology. Paper finally ends with criterion for choosing a research approach. In concluding remarks author stresses that all the approaches are complementary to each other rather than opposing each other. No concept or phenomena can be studied by single approach, a combination of these is necessary to uncover the truth.

Vijay Kumar Grover

2015-02-01

10

Evaluating six soft approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

Lene Sørensen

2008-09-01

11

Evaluating six soft approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

2006-01-01

12

Evaluating Six Soft Approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, andtheir usability in practice.

SØrensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

2008-01-01

13

Modular Approach for Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

14

The NLERAP Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

From the start, NLERAP has been based on two major premises: one is that a sociocultural and sociopolitical approach to learning is more effective than a traditional approach, particularly in the case of populations that have historically been marginalized through their education; and the second is that research is more meaningful and inclusive…

Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Irizarry, Jason

2012-01-01

15

Approaches to Truancy Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

16

Approaches To Quantum Gravity  

CERN Document Server

One of the main challenges in theoretical physics over the last five decades has been to reconcile quantum mechanics with general relativity into a theory of quantum gravity. However, such a theory has been proved to be hard to attain due to i) conceptual difficulties present in both the component theories (General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory); ii) lack of experimental evidence, since the regimes at which quantum gravity is expected to be applicable are far beyond the range of conceivable experiments. Despite these difficulties, various approaches for a theory of Quantum Gravity have been developed. In this thesis we focus on two such approaches: Loop Quantum Gravity and the Topos theoretic approach. The choice fell on these approaches because, although they both reject the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, their underpinning philosophical approach to formulating a quantum theory of gravity are radically different. In particular LQG is a rather conservative scheme, inheriting all the formali...

Flori, Cecilia

2009-01-01

17

Extended transsphenoidal approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have developed an extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for resection of tumors located in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region that are difficult to remove via the conventional transsphenoidal approach. Surgery was performed using this approach in 14 patients with large pituitary adenomas, three patients with craniopharyngiomas, and one patient with a meningioma of the tuberculum sellae. The submucosal dissection of the nasal septum used in the conventional transsphenoidal approach was extended to the superior lateral wall of the nasal cavity to expose the bony surface of the superior turbinate lying under the nasal mucosa. Submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy widened the area visualized through the conventional transsphenoidal approach both superiorly and laterally. This provided a safer and less invasive access to lesions in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region through the sphenoid sinus. Using this approach the authors encountered no postoperative complications, such as olfactory disturbance, cranial nerve palsy, or arterial injury. In this article the authors present the surgical methods used in this approach. PMID:11702890

Frank, G; Pasquini, E; Mazzatenta, D

2001-11-01

18

??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? Approaches (2009-2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This year, in May 2011, the journal Approaches: Music Therapy & Special Music Education successfully completes two years of publications. On the occasion of this anniversary, this article presents a review of Approaches’ work, publications and broader actions from 2009 onwards. This review attempts to outline the profile of the journal in Greece and abroad, as this has been formed during the first years of its life. In this context an analysis of Approaches’ publications is made, according to various indicators and criteria: publication categories, types of articles, scientific fields, publication languages, and authors’ countries of origin. Taking into consideration that Approaches is the first (and the only until now journal for music therapy and special music education in Greece, the outcomes emerging from this review and analysis are not limited to the journal. These outcomes offer useful indications for the broader situation and development of the respective fields in Greece.

??????? ??????

2011-01-01

19

Editor's Note: Approaching Adaptation  

Science.gov (United States)

As students approach adaptations lessons, keep in mind that according to research, most lower-elementary school students are still forming a basic understanding of how animals survive in their environments. For example, many students understand a simple f

Linda Froschauer

2010-01-01

20

The electronic approach VSCF  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

Hladky, Mark

21

Theoretical Approaches to Coping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

Sofia Zyga

2013-01-01

22

Personal Approaches to Career Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

1983-01-01

23

Local approach to fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models allowing the prediction of the failure of structures by crack propagation were first introduced in the 50's using linear fracture mechanics whose principles were first proposed by Griffith (1920). This approach was extended to non linear cases (plasticity and visco-plasticity) in the 70's based on the work of Rice (J or C* integrals); it has been largely adopted by the industry. However this so called global approach cannot deal with all practical cases and cannot explain all experimental observations as, for instance, the warm pre-stress effect (WPS). The local approach to fracture, which relies on a fine analysis of strains, stresses and damage of highly solicited regions (cracks, notches...) of structures is an alternative which allows to solve problems encountered while applying the global approach. It has been developed since the 80's in particular in France. Important research efforts are currently undertaken in this field in Europe (France, Germany), United States and Japan. This book presents several aspects of the local approach to fracture: damage mechanisms, experimental techniques, damage evolution law and failure criteria, modelling of damage, numerical simulation. This work is the result of a collective work carried out by the best french specialists (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ecole Centrale Paris, ENS Cachan, Universite de Louvain, INSA Lyon, ONERA, EDF). (authors)

Besson, J.; Bugat, St.; Berdin, C.; Desmorat, R.; Feyel, F.; Forest, S.; Lorentz, E.; Maire, E.; Pardoen, Th.; Pineau, A.; Tanguy, B

2004-07-01

24

Local approach to fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Models allowing the prediction of the failure of structures by crack propagation were first introduced in the 50's using linear fracture mechanics whose principles were first proposed by Griffith (1920). This approach was extended to non linear cases (plasticity and visco-plasticity) in the 70's based on the work of Rice (J or C* integrals); it has been largely adopted by the industry. However this so called global approach cannot deal with all practical cases and cannot explain all experimental observations as, for instance, the warm pre-stress effect (WPS). The local approach to fracture, which relies on a fine analysis of strains, stresses and damage of highly solicited regions (cracks, notches...) of structures is an alternative which allows to solve problems encountered while applying the global approach. It has been developed since the 80's in particular in France. Important research efforts are currently undertaken in this field in Europe (France, Germany), United States and Japan. This book presents several aspects of the local approach to fracture: damage mechanisms, experimental techniques, damage evolution law and failure criteria, modelling of damage, numerical simulation. This work is the result of a collective work carried out by the best french specialists (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ecole Centrale Paris, ENS Cachan, Universite de Louvain, INSA Lyon, ONERA, EDF). (authors)

25

File System Design Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the file system development design approaches are discussed. The selection of the file system design approach is done according to the needs of the developers what are the needed requirements and specifications for the new design. It allowed us to identify where our proposal fitted in with relation to current and past file system development. Our experience with file system development is limited so the research served to identify the different techniques that can be used. The variety of file systems encountered show what an active area of research file system development is. The file systems may be from one of the two fundamental categories. In one category, the file system is developed in user space and runs as a user process. Another file system may be developed in the kernel space and runs as a privileged process. Another one is the mixed approach in which we can take the advantages of both aforesaid approaches. Each development option has its own pros and cons. In this article, these design approaches are discussed.

Brijender Kahanwal

2014-02-01

26

Technical approach document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

27

Technical approach document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

1989-12-01

28

SYSTEMS APPROACH TO LEARNING.  

Science.gov (United States)

TO PERMIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AT SAN MATEO, FIVE INSTITUTIONS WITH SYSTEMS PROGRAMS ARE EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF TRIP NOTES. OAKLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE HAS BEEN COMPLETELY ORGANIZED AROUND THE VOLUNTARY WORK-STUDY LABORATORY APPROACH TO LEARNING. ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY, OKLAHOMA CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, HENRY FORD…

WIENS, JACOB H.

29

Comparing Information Access Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

Chalmers, Matthew

1999-01-01

30

Salt repository design approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

31

RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

Indraveer Singh

2010-05-01

32

Approaches to acceptable risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

Whipple, C.

1997-04-30

33

Adopting a Pluricentric Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues for a "D-A-CH" approach, which stands for Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH), in language classes from the introductory level on. I begin by tracing the emergence and development of distinct Standard Swiss and Austrian German varieties. I then discuss marketing efforts for Swiss and Austrian German, and…

van Kerckvoorde, Colette

2012-01-01

34

Islamic approach in counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah. PMID:23563898

Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

2014-02-01

35

Approaches to acceptable risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

36

Thermodynamics an engineering approach  

CERN Document Server

Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

Cengel, Yunus A

2014-01-01

37

Approaches to nuclear friction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review summarises the present knowledge of experimental information on friction effects in nuclear reactions and describes the theoretical approaches in detail. The experimental evidence for nuclear friction stems from reactions where large-scale collective motion is involved, that is fission, deep inelastic heavy-ion scattering and giant excitations. The various theories and models employed are based on the concept that friction, damping and viscosity in nuclei are due to an irreversible flow of energy (and/or linear or angular momentum) from collective to intrinsic motion. They cover the range from classical mechanics with frictional forces and its formal quantisations over viscous fluid dynamics to microscopic models of intrinsic excitations and statistical descriptions of collisions between nucleons or between nucleons with nuclear boundary. Other approaches are mentioned and a few unresolved questions are put forward at the end in order to stimulate further research in this new and interesting subject. 203 references. (author)

38

Communicational Approach to Copyright  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It may be questioned whether traditional concepts of individualistic droit d' auteur copyright theory apply to digital communication networks such as Internet. Due to mass of information it may be especially questioned whether it is rational to apply the concept of reproduction in an environment where no-one, not to mention individual authors, may rigorously evaluate where and when a copy of a certain piece of content is being produced. Consequently this article suggests an alternative approach to evaluate economic rights of authors in digital network environments. In doing so it theoretically compares economic rights of authors to basic research results from the field of communication studies. This approach is chosen as copyright is often connected to communication. The article offers an alternative, which should not narrow rights of authors but would provide more meaningful way to perceive copyright in digital networks.

Olli Vilanka

2013-12-01

39

Approach to reliability assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

40

Approaching Service Innovation Patterns  

OpenAIRE

The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard ...

Nagy, Andrea

2013-01-01

41

Disability: a welfarist approach  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species' functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist ter...

Savulescu, J.; Kahane, G.

2011-01-01

42

Approaching comparative company law  

OpenAIRE

This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

Donald, David C.

2008-01-01

43

Conceptual Approach To Architecture ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that architectural interpretation is experiencing from abuse use of architectural key terms. Notions like: criticism, history and theory; concepts like: beginning and approach; and labels like: style, school and movement were used indiscriminately in architectural interpretation.For instance, Banham (1966:10 indicated that he interpreted New Brutalism as a movement before the conditions of forming a movement were existed. Jencks writings are another example for the abuse use of the former notions, concepts and labels. In his two books: The Language Of Post-Modern Architecture and Late Modern Architecture, he described Post-Modern Architecture: first as a movement, second as a style, third as a school and fourth as an approach. Banham and Jencks were attempting to formulate verbal equivalent to the design of some architects before it was tested and proved to deserve a theoretical coverage, organized in an intellectual discipline as an approach, school or movement. This attempt perhaps, caused this abuse use of the former key terms in architectural interpretation. Commercial architectural press was another source for the abuse use of the previous architectural key terms. As a case in point, the magazine of Architectural Design (AD was a major source of the misinterpretation of those notions, concepts and labels, over the past four decades. It seems that no considerations were made to the specific definitions of those key terms, nor to the scope of their conceptual meaning, limits and context of their theme. Thus this paper endeavors to clear the abuse use of those notions, concepts and labels in architectural interpretation via defining them, refining their conceptual meanings. And exploring their themes, outlining their role, scope and place within architectural interpretation in order to employ them appropriately within architectural interpretation, as they constitute basic themes of the conceptual world of architecture. In so doing an attempt will be made to investigate the origin, structure, meaning and definitions of the said key terms as indicated in key literary, philosophical and architectural sources. Another attempt will be made to highlight the process and emphasize the conditions of forming and establishing architectural approaches, schools and movements via the concept beginning - as a moment in time and as a project underway - as interpreted in architectural sources. It is important to indicate that investigations in this paper are limited only to the notions: criticism, history and theory; concepts: beginning and approach; and labels: style, school and movement; though investigations will include concepts like precedence, generality and creativity, but within the previous architectural key terms.

Badi alAbed

2010-12-01

44

Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal peritonitis emergencies.

Agresta Ferdinando

2006-03-01

45

Repository program licensing approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being studied by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. DOE has the responsibility to determine the suitability of the site and to develop a license application (LA) for authorization to construct the potential repository. If the site is suitable, the license application would be submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The repository program licensing approach is focused on the timely acquisition of information needed in licensing and the resolution of potential licensing issues with the NRC staff. Licensing involves an iterative process requiring refinements as data are acquired, analyzed, and evaluated. The repository licensing approach presented in this paper ensures that the information is available when needed to facilitate the licensing process. Identifying the information needed to evaluate compliance with the performance objectives in 10 CFR 60, monitoring the acquisition of such information, and developing a successful license application are integral elements of DOE's repository program licensing approach. Activities to characterize the site are being systematically conducted as planned in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). In addition, DOE is implementing the issue resolution initiative, the license application annotated outline (LAAO) process, and interim licensability evaluations to update the early planning in the SCP and tupdate the early planning in the SCP and to focus site characterization, design, and performance assessment activities on the acquisition of information needed for a site suitability determination and licensing. Collectively, the issue resolution initiative, LAAO process, and interim licensability evaluations are key elements of a transition to the iterative process to answer the question: open-quotes When do we have enough data to support licensing?close quotes

46

Craniopharyngioma - Transnasal Endoscopic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumours arising from remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and occupy the sellar region. The patients may remain asymptomatic for long duration or present with headache or visual disturbances. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Traditionally these tumours have been removed by neurosurgeons through the cranial approach but the advent of nasal endoscopes has opened new avenues for ENT surgeons to treat such patients. We hereby present a case of craniopharyngioma who was successfully treated by Trans-nasal Hypophysectomy.

Sanjeev Bhagat,

2011-01-01

47

Approaching Service Innovation Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard service innovation as a standout type of innovation.

Andrea NAGY

2013-06-01

48

New approaches for immunosuppression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New approaches for experimental immunosuppression have been reviewed. These include the following: (1) cyclosporin A, a metabolite from fungus that suppresses multiplying but not resting T and B lymphocytes and can be used in pulsed manner with interspersed drug-free periods; (2) total lymphoid irradiation (transplantation tolerance in rats has been achieved by pretransplant radiation); (3) thoracic duct drainage, which is being revived following its demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases; (4) hyperbaric oxygen (HBOX). We have found that HBOX 2 1/2 ATA for five hours daily depresses cell-mediated immunity in mice and that this can be reversed by intravenous administration of autologous macrophages.

Eiseman, B.; Hansbrough, J.; Weil, R.

1980-01-01

49

Cognitive approaches to emotions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

2014-03-01

50

The collaboratory approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

51

The collaboratory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A open-quotes collaboratoryclose quotes has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students

52

Multipole approach to metamaterials  

CERN Document Server

We report on the linear and nonlinear optical response of metamaterials evoked by first and second order multipoles. The analytical ground on which our approach bases permits for new insights into the functionality of metamaterials. For the sake of clarity we focus here on a key geometry, namely the split-ring resonator, although the introduced formalism can be applied to arbitrary structures. We derive the equations that describe linear and nonlinear light propagation where special emphasis is put on second harmonic generation. This contribution basically aims at stretching versatile and existing concepts to describe light propagation in nonlinear media towards the realm of metamaterials.

Petschulat, Joerg; Chipouline, Arkadi; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Tuennermann, Andreas; Lederer, Falk; Pertsch, Thomas

2009-01-01

53

Approaches to Numerical Relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23. Self-gravitating thin disks around rotating black holes A. Lanza; 24. An ADI and causal reconnection Gabrielle D. Allen and Bernard F. Schutz; 25. Time-symmetric ADI and causal reconnection Miguel Alcubierre and Bernard F. Schutz; 26. The numerical study of topological defects E. P. S. Shellard; 27. Computations of bubble growth during the cosmological quark-hadron transition J. C. Miller and O. Pantano; 28. Initial data of axisymmetric gravitational waves with a cosmological constant Ken-Ichi Nakao, Kei-Ichi Maeda, Takashi Nakamura and Ken-Ichi Oohara.

d'Inverno, Ray

2005-07-01

54

Teaching Failure Analysis: Two Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Two instructional methodologies are described in this article: (1) a case study approach is advocated for the relevance and motivation it provides, and (2) a lecture and group study approach in which behavioral objectives must be met. (CP)

Smith, C. O.; Bourgault, R. F.

1976-01-01

55

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good ... to watch Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a ...

56

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. ... the approach are operating through an internervous and intramuscular anatomic interval. It’s not necessary to detach any ...

57

Avenue of approach generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting research on developing a dynamic planning capability within an Army corps level combat simulation. Central to this research is the development of a computer based ability to ''understand'' terrain and how it is used in military planning. Such a capability demands data structures that adequately represent terrain features used in the planning process. These features primarily relate to attributes of mobility and visibility. Mobility concepts are abstracted to networks of mobility corridors. Notions of visibility are, for the purposes of planning, incorporated into the definition of key terrain. Prior work at Los Alamos has produced algorithms to generate mobility corridors from digitized terrain data. Mobility corridors, by definition, are the building blocks for avenues of approach, and the latter are the context in which key terrain is defined. The purpose of this paper is to describe recent work in constructing avenues of approach, characterization of avenues using summary characteristics, and their role in military planning. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Powell, D.R.; Storm, G.

1988-01-01

58

Endoscopic approach to achalasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES. Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia.

Michaela Müller

2013-01-01

59

Approaches for Stereo Matching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

Takouhi Ozanian

1995-04-01

60

Proteomics - new analytical approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Recent developments in the sequencing of the human genome have indicated that the number of coding gene sequences may be as few as 30,000. It is clear, however, that the complexity of the human species is dependent on the much greater diversity of the corresponding protein complement. Estimates of the diversity (discrete protein species) of the human proteome range from 200,000 to 300,000 at the lower end to 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 at the high end. In addition, proteomics (the study of the protein complement to the genome) has been subdivided into two main approaches. Global proteomics refers to a high throughput examination of the full protein set present in a cell under a given environmental condition. Focused proteomics refers to a more detailed study of a restricted set of proteins that are related to a specified biochemical pathway or subcellular structure. While many of the advances in proteomics will be based on the sequencing of the human genome, de novo characterization of protein microheterogeneity (glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation as well as the incorporation of lipid components) will be required in disease studies. To characterize these modifications it is necessary to digest the protein mixture with an enzyme to produce the corresponding mixture of peptides. In a process analogous to sequencing of the genome, shot-gun sequencing of the proteome is based on the characterization of the key fragments produced by such a digest. Thus, a gments produced by such a digest. Thus, a glycopeptide and hence a specific glycosylation motif will be identified by a unique mass and then a diagnostic MS/MS spectrum. Mass spectrometry will be the preferred detector in these applications because of the unparalleled information content provided by one or more dimensions of mass measurement. In addition, highly efficient separation processes are an absolute requirement for advanced proteomic studies. For example, a combination of the orthogonal approaches, HPLC and HPCE, can be very powerful for high resolution peptide mapping (hydrophobicity and ionic charge). This presentation will describe the development of new instrumentation based on the combination of capillary-based separation systems, including reversed phase and ion exchange HPLC integrated with on-line mass spectrometry. This approach can be used for stand-alone shot-gun sequencing or integrated with 2D-gel proteomic studies. Examples will include global studies such as the yeast proteome and focused studies on selected protein extracts such as secreted and nuclear proteins from mammalian cells

61

Laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern laparoscopic surgery is widely used throughout the world as it offers greater advantages than open procedures. The laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy has evolved over the last 20 years. Hysterectomies are performed abdominally, vaginally, laparoscopically or, more recently, with robotic assistance. Indications for a total laparoscopic hysterectomy are similar to those for total abdominal hysterectomy, and most commonly include uterine leiomyomata, pelvic organ prolapse, and abnormal uterine bleeding. When hysterectomy is going to be performed, the surgeon should decide which method is safer and more cost-effective. This paper aims to make a review of the indications, techniques and advantages of laparoscopic hysterectomy as well as the criteria to be used for appropriate patient selection.

Hakan Nazik

2013-04-01

62

Bioengineering a conceptual approach  

CERN Document Server

This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

Pavlovic, Mirjana

2015-01-01

63

Slurry pipeline design approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-12-19

64

Approach to team skills training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US commercial nuclear power industry has recognized the importance of team skills in control room operation. The desire to combine training of team interaction skills, like communications, with technical knowledge of reactor operations requires a unique approach to training. An NRC-sponsored study identified a five-phase approach to team skills training designed to be consistent with the systems approach to training currently endorsed by the NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. This paper describes an approach to team skills training with emphasis on the nuclear power plant control room crew. An approach to team skills training

65

A different approach to logic  

OpenAIRE

The paper is about an approach to logic that differs from the standard first-order logic and other known approaches. It should be a new approach the author has created proposing to obtain a general and unifying approach to logic and a faithful model of human mathematical deductive process. We list the most relevant features of the system. In first-order logic there exist two different concepts of term and formula, in place of these two concepts in our approach we have just o...

Avon, Mauro

2011-01-01

66

Investigational approaches for mesothelioma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the etiology, epidemiology, natural history, and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000-2011) using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA), Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands), Cochrane Library (Great Britain), National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA), HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment - INAHTA), NIH database (USA), International Pleural Mesothelioma Program - WHOLIS (WHO Database), with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugs. Currently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients. PMID:22666659

Surmont, Veerle F; van Thiel, Eric R E; Vermaelen, Karim; van Meerbeeck, Jan P

2011-01-01

67

Approaching attometer laser vibrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz [Research and Development, Polytec GmbH, Polytec Platz 1-7, 76337 Waldbronn (Germany)

2014-05-27

68

Approaching attometer laser vibrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz

2014-05-01

69

Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

Monika Agarwal

2013-02-01

70

Hysterectomy – Which Approach?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hysterectomy operation is frequently performed on women. In the era of minimal invasive surgery, the route of hysterectomy depends upon numerous clinical variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate & suggest the appropriate approach for hysterectomy. A total of 250 patients were included in the presents study; they were divided, into three categories: Category I included 50 patients of Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP for Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH, Category II included 40 patients who underwent Non Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy (NDVH, Category III included 160 patients who had Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH. Operative time, hemorrhage, wound infection, post- operative analgesia, febrile morbidity, hospital stay and recovery were recorded for each patient. Indications for hysterectomy were POP, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB and fibroid uterus. The study period showed a gradual increase in number of NDVH. Perioperative blood loss, post operative pain score, hospital stay; cost was less in patients with VH/NDVH. Uncomplicated, fast and cost effective technique for removal of uterus remains VH & NDVH. Non Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy is gaining increased acceptability among patients being minimally invasive with no visible scar.

V. Mahasani,

2014-01-01

71

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

2012-06-01

72

Voyager Approaches Final Frontier  

Science.gov (United States)

An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.

2003-01-01

73

COMPRENDO : Focus and approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates).

Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Albanis, T.

2006-01-01

74

New approaches to COPD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No currently available treatments reduce the progression or suppress the inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, with a better understanding of the inflammatory and destructive process, several targets have been identified, and new treatments are now in clinical development. Several specific therapies are directed against the influx of inflammatory cells into the airways and lung parenchyma that occurs in COPD, including adhesion molecule and chemokine-directed therapy, as well as therapies to inhibit tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Broad spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs are also in development, and include inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-gamma. More specific approaches include antioxidants, inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and leukotriene B4 receptor antagonists. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calcium-activated chloride channel inhibitors have the potential to inhibit mucus hypersecretion. Other therapies are targeted at the structural changes of COPD. Therapy to inhibit fibrosis is being developed against transforming growth factor-beta1 and protease activated receptor-2. There is also a search for serine proteinase and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors to prevent lung destruction and the development of emphysema, as well as drugs such as retinoids that may even reverse this process. There is the need for validated biomarkers and monitoring techniques in early clinical studies with new therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

P. J. Barnes

2005-09-01

75

Diagnostic approach of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease that causes serious health problems, resulting in morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly, but even at younger age. It concerns all the developed countries including Greece and raises causes socio-economic consequences.The aim of present study was to review the existing literature regarding the contemporaneous methods in diagnosis of osteoporosis.The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relation between diagnosis and osteoporosis.Results: The majority of research studies showed that the most important risk factor for osteoporosis is the increased loss of bone mass, as age is progressing, which in women, usually starts during menopause. This, fact in conjuction with the longer life expectancy of women, explains the growing prevalence of osteoporosis in women compared to men. Other relevant studies have shown that this metabolic disease is related to high risk for bone fractures. The prevention of osteoporosis requires optimization of leading bone density during childhood and adolescence, early detection of increased bone loss in postmenopausal critical period and education of patients being at high risk.Conclusions: The number of candidate osteoporotic patients is high, as well as the final number of individuals who will suffer from the consequences of the disease. The assessment and prevention of osteoporosis requires overall approach of the disease and highlights the need of training the population, factors that, significantly contribute to the control of the disease.

Evangelos Giavasopoulos

2010-04-01

76

Bronchoscopic approach to COPD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent condition that has frequent morbidity and mortality, with associated costs of US $ 2.5 billion annually and nearly 14,000 deaths each year. In the most advanced stages it causes debilitating breathlessness which is not improved despite maximal medical therapy including smoking cessation, bronchodilators, steroids and supplemental oxygen. Limitations of medical therapy led to the development of several surgical techniques to improve quality of life. However, surgical techniques still carry substantial morbidity even if the mortality is low at centers with larger experience; hence investigators are vigorously pursuing research into innovative, alternative methods for achieving lung volume reduction (LVR), in recent years. Endoscopic techniques for LVR are proposed, based on two main approaches, either closing of anatomical airway passages into destroyed lobe/segment of the lung to affect a collapse and reduction in volume or opening extra-anatomical airway passages, aimed at improving expiratory collateral flow from hyper-inflated areas bypassing the flow limited segments of the emphysematous airways. This article reviews the available endoscopic devises and the evidence supporting their use in the treatment of COPD. PMID:18415811

Sahi, Hina; Karnak, Demet; Meli, Yvonne M; Machuzak, Michael; Gildea, Thomas R; Mehta, Atul C

2008-04-01

77

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas

2012-01-01

78

Aquatic environmental remediation approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant's nuclear accident contaminated a significant portion of Fukushima Prefecture, and environmental remediation activities have been performed. To reduce the human exposure to the radiation induced by the nuclear contamination, one can reduce the radiation level in the environment, and/or eliminate radionuclide pathways to humans. This paper presents some case studies that are relevant to the Fukushima case. These examples include the Chernobyl nuclear accident's environmental and remediation assessments, U.S. Hanford environmental remediation activities, and the pesticide remediation assessment for the James River Estuary, Virginia, U.S.A. 1-D TODAM, 2-D FETRA and 3-D FLESCOT codes have been applied to the surface waters. TODAM code is currently being applied to the Ukedo and Takase rivers in Fukushima to predict cesium-137 migration in these rivers. A lesson learned from these experiences is that to achieve the effective clean-up, remediation decision makers must include knowledgeable scientists and competent engineers, so that environmental remediation activities are based on a scientifically-valid approach for a given contaminated location. Local participation to the remediation decision making is critically important. (author)

79

Classical approach in quantum physics  

OpenAIRE

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the...

Solov Ev, Evgeni A.

2010-01-01

80

New approaches to knowledge acquisition  

CERN Document Server

It is well recognized that knowledge acquisition is the critical bottleneck of knowledge engineering. This book presents three major approaches of current research in this field, namely the psychological approach, the artificial intelligence approach and the software engineering approach. Special attention is paid to the most recent advances in knowledge acquisition research, especially those made by Chinese computer scientists. A special chapter is devoted to its applications in other fields, e.g. language analysis, software engineering, computer-aided instruction, etc., which were done in Ch

Lu, R-Q

1994-01-01

81

Radiolab - three different approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lønstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists: Don Ihde, whose notion of ‘voice’ is understood in a more general sense as the voices of all things, and Lawrence Ferrara, who methodologically operates within tree levels of investigation: 1 the syntax, 2 the semantic and 3 the ontology level. Accordingly, this analysis is conducted, as if the sound object was performed by a vocal ensemble oscillating ‘between a musical and a speech act’. Torben Sangild’s paper focuses on the concrete function of the sound object as a radio signature. This prompts a generic analysis and a semantic model of radio signatures in general, eclectically employing formal, indexical, gestural, discursive and contextual levels of meaning. The analysis of the Radiolab signature focuses on the overall gesture of tension and release as well as the semantic elements in a constellation with the content and style of the radio programme. After the three individual contributions, a brief summary and conclusion will follow, answering any questions that may arise in the process.

Ola Stockfelt

2012-04-01

82

Approaches to database development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It could be very helpful to use the data previously accumulated by other NPPs in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) modernization. This data can be helpful in doing a more realistic assessment of the task, in understanding the advantages and disadvantages from the planned modernization. Possible difficulties arising from the modernization can be detected and timely eliminated by undertaking the necessary precautions (early elaboration of the needed preventive measures). The database (DB) of modernization projects could be also helpful for finding similar tasks that were implemented with the best benefits for the utility, to decide on the modernization approach and to select well experienced suppliers. That is why a regular collection and international exchange of such data would be beneficial for many utilities. Significance of such DB usage for the managers could be very high, provided the content of the DB is adequate and sufficiently comprehensive. It is expected that it would be difficult to get data for this database with appropriate quality and the level of details. The IAEA responsible officer will have to determine if the potential users want to develop and populate such a database. There are many published documents, reports and papers describing good practices and lessons learned from NPP I and C modernization activities that could provide information for the DB. The database is suggested as a supporting tool for the modernization project teaing tool for the modernization project teams and the utilities. The DB structure has to support the users and be oriented on data processing optimization (including the data input and presentation). It should be as simple and transparent for the users as possible within the frame of the task to be solved

83

Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden  

Science.gov (United States)

Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin

2013-01-01

84

Material Modelling - Composite Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is part of a research project on "Control of Early Age Cracking" - which, in turn, is part of the major research programme, "High Performance Concrete - The Contractor's Technology (HETEK)", coordinated by the Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1997.A composite-rheological model of concrete is presented by which consistent predictions of creep, relaxation, and internal stresses can be made from known concrete composition, age at loading, and climatic conditions. No other existing "creep prediction method" offers these possibilities in one approach.The model is successfully justified comparing predicted results with experimental data obtained in the HETEK-project on creep, relaxation, and shrinkage of very young concretes cured at a temperature of T = 20^o C and a relative humidity of RH = 100%. The model is also justified comparing predicted creep, shrinkage, and internal stresses caused by drying shrinkage with experimental results reported in the literature on the mechanical behavior of mature concretes. It is then concluded that the model presented applied in general with respect to age at loading.From a stress analysis point of view the most important finding in this report is that cement paste and concrete behave practically as linear-viscoelastic materials from an age of approximately 10 hours. This is a significant age extension relative to earlier studies in the literature where linear-viscoelastic behavior is only demonstrated from ages of a few days. Thus, linear-viscoelastic analysis methods are justified from the age of approximately 10 hours.The rheological properties of plain cement paste are determined. These properties are the principal material properties needed in any stress analysis of concrete. Shrinkage (autogeneous or drying) of mortar and concrete and associated internal stress states are examples of analysis made in this report. In this context is discussed that concrete strength is not an invariable material property. It is a property the potentials of which is highly and negatively influenced by any damage caused by stress concentrations such as introduced by eigenstrain/stress actions like shrinkage, temperature, and alkali-aggregate reactions.Based on the overall positive results reported it is suggested that creep functions needed in Finite Element Analysis (FEM-analysis) of structures can be established from computer-simulated experiments based on the model presented - calibrated by only a few real experiments.

Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

1997-01-01

85

[Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit. PMID:20347457

Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

2010-01-01

86

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” ... Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR table ...

87

Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

88

Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

89

Approaches for learning Prolog programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding Prolog programming is a challenge for many beginners, and many instructors and researchers have proposed and adopted varied teaching approaches to help learners to understand Prolog easily. However, it is not known whether any of the teaching approaches currently in use is appropriate from a learner's perspective. This paper reports the results of an investigation into which approaches are suitable for Prolog novices and why they are appropriate.We first categorise the teaching approaches which are currently in use in mainstream Prolog introductory textbooks, and highlight how they have been used over the past 25 years. We then discuss the appropriateness of each approach, by addressing their advantages and disadvantages based on interviews with learners. Using this information, a larger picture of the suitability of these teaching approaches is drawn, and finally we suggest what factors may influence it and discuss possible improvements. The findings of this study suggest that an approach based on emphasising the declarative features of the language is the most appropriate, as a component of a blended learning strategy.

Shanshan Yang

2007-10-01

90

Piecewise linear approach: a new approach in automatic target recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interests. High Range Resolution (HRR) radar mode provides a promising approach which relies on processing high-resolution 'range profiles' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable and cost effective approach for HRR-ATR, a model-based approach is investigated in this paper. A subset of the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) data set was used to study robustness and sensitivity issues related to 1D model-based ATR development and performance. The model is built based on the statistic analysis of the training data and the dependence of the HRR signature on the azimuth is considered. The dependence is approximated by a linear regression algorithm to construct the templates of targets, which gives this approach the name of piecewise linear approach (PWL). Compared with the 1D model-based ATR approach developed by the Wright Laboratory, results are presented demonstrating an increase of about 10% in the correct identification probability of known targets when declaration probability Pdec is above 85% while maintaining a low time-cost.

Zeng, YuJing; Starzyk, Janusz A.

2000-08-01

91

Vanpooling: the three major approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

Sears, P.M.

1979-08-01

92

Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not.

Agger, Gunhild

2010-01-01

93

A Novel Approach to Braneworld  

OpenAIRE

Evaluating Kaluza-Klein (KK) corrections is indispensable to test the braneworld scenario. In this report, we propose a novel symmetry approach to an effective 4-dimensional action with KK corrections for the Randall-Sundrum two-brane system.

Soda, Jiro; Kanno, Sugumi

2003-01-01

94

Theoretical approaches to elections defining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

Natalya V. Lebedeva

2011-01-01

95

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR table supine. My name ... less invasive without being small incision surgery. Obese patients can be easier due to less distribution of ...

96

Headaches and Complementary Health Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

... some medications, including the anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medication warfarin (Coumadin). More information on coenzyme Q10 Feverfew The ... headache: an overview of approaches and evidence . Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2010;77(Suppl 3):S72- ...

97

Paying for Complementary Health Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

... the costs of some complementary health approaches. The flexible spending arrangement is a benefit offered by some ... Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities More » Health Topics ...

98

Distributed Databases: The Adaptable Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed data bases in statewide and multi-institutional systems are discussed. It is suggested that traditional approaches to data processing and current data base software are inappropriate for a distributed data base system. (BH)

Braniff, Thomas A.

1978-01-01

99

Necrotizing fasciitis: an alternative approach  

OpenAIRE

Three cases of necrotizing fasciitis are presented. The initial management of necrotizing fasciitis remains undisputed. However, following a limited success with a conventional treatment policy, a more radical approach with immediate skin grafting following debridement is suggested.

Percival, R.; Hargreaves, A. W.

1982-01-01

100

Innovative approaches in drug development.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the white paper on Innovative Approaches in Drug Development developed by the Biotechnology Industry Organization's (BIO) Clinical Trial Designs Workgroup. As recognized by the Food and Drug Administration's Critical Path Opportunities Report, the need to develop and apply innovative approaches to create new trial designs and clinical development programs is rapidly on the rise. Such novel approaches hold tremendous potential in the ability to refine mechanisms lying at the fundamental core of product safety and efficacy. The paper addresses the opportunities, challenges in pre-clinical and clinical trial design innovations; emphasizes the importance of safety database; and makes recommendations for carrying out the innovative approaches. The views expressed here in are solely those of the authors and do not reflect the official views of the Biotechnology Industry Organization. PMID:17885865

Chang, Mark; Kenley, Susan; Bull, Jonca; Chiu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Wenjin; Wakeford, Charles; McCarthy, Katherine

2007-01-01

101

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... have tuned into this webcast, you have an interest in this procedure. I have used this approach ... in this country, but which is enjoying renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that ...

102

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to tonight’s webcast. ... by Biomet Orthopedics. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health.

103

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ... metal more frequently because I feel that the advantage to the patient of that large head is ...

104

Prepotential approach to quasinormal modes  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we demonstrate how the recently reported exactly and quasi-exactly solvable models admitting quasinormal modes can be constructed and classified very simply and directly by the newly proposed prepotential approach. These new models were previously obtained within the Lie-algebraic approach. Unlike the Lie-algebraic approach, the prepotential approach does not require any knowledge of the underlying symmetry of the system. It treats both quasi-exact and exact solvabilities on the same footing, and gives the potential as well as the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues simultaneously. We also present three new models with quasinormal modes: a new exactly solvable Morse-like model, and two new quasi-exactly solvable models of the Scarf II and generalized P\\"oschl-Teller types.

Ho, Choon-Lin

2010-01-01

105

Approach to scientific portal development  

OpenAIRE

in this paper the approach to designing the functional knowledge internet-portal is shown, as well as problems of qualitative knowledge representation on portal are solved and integration of computational tasks and informational recourses of portal are given.

Globa, Larysa; Novogrudska, Rina

2012-01-01

106

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of Dr. Eric Dewitt, from Belgium, who helped me learn this surgical approach. This is a previously ... confirm my incision placement. Go ahead and give me a spot. I think that’s a nice option, ...

107

Posterior approach to the shoulder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe a modified posterior approach to the shoulder and to present their clinical application in 12 cadaver specimens and a prospective series of 11 patients with glenoid fractures from 1994 to 2003. In the proposed approach Deltoid is reflected superiorly without detachment, approaching the interval between Infraspinatus and Teres Minor muscles exposing the glenoid. Witch this technique the Axilar bundle was 26,5 mm to the posterior glenoid rim. The patients had low surgical times (54 min), low bleeding (77 cc), and no nerve complications. All had good and excellent results in the UCLA score in the first 30 postoperative days. We consider this approach safe, it allows an excellent exposure of the glenoid fractures, and facilitates the functional recovery to the patients

108

Simplified Approach to Inspection Planning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details is presented. The basic idea behind the approach is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their stress intensity factors and their design fatigue life to service life ratio, i.e. the fatigue design factor (FDF) and SN curve. When the reserve strength ratio (RSR) and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known it is possible to make a generic description of fatigue sensitive structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables which depend on relative cost of inspections, repairs and failures. Due to the simplicity of the format of the developed inspection plans the proposed approach has a high potential in code making for the design and maintenance of steel structures. The validity of the proposed approach is illustrated through a study regarding inspection planning of offshore structures.

Bloch, Allan; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2000-01-01

109

Perineal Approaches to Rectal Prolapse  

OpenAIRE

The management of full-thickness rectal prolapse involves surgical intervention in the majority of cases. Many procedures have been described. Perineal procedures are generally reserved for patients with multiple comorbid conditions or those considered too elderly or frail to withstand an abdominal surgical approach. They also play an important role in the management of rectal mucosal prolapse. The techniques, advantages, and complications of perineal approaches to rectal prolapse in use toda...

Madsen, Mari A.

2008-01-01

110

Bounding approaches to system identification  

CERN Document Server

In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

1996-01-01

111

Approaches to Learning in Statistics  

OpenAIRE

In the last decade, Australian higher education institutions have become a destination for many international students, mainly from South East Asia. If their educational culture is quite different to the Australian educational culture, then their approaches to learning might be different to that of local students. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the approaches to learning of students in statistics units and relate these to background variables such as country of origin, gender ...

Ayse Bilgin; Sue Crowe

2009-01-01

112

The Database State Machine Approach  

OpenAIRE

Database replication protocols have historically been built on top of distributed database systems, and have consequently been designed and implemented using distributed transactional mechanisms, such as atomic commitment. We present the Database State Machine approach, a new way to deal with database replication in a cluster of servers. This approach relies on a powerful atomic broadcast primitive to propagate transactions between database servers, and alleviates the need for atomic comm...

Pedone, Fernando; Guerraoui, Rachid; Schiper, Andre

2003-01-01

113

Anteromedial Approach to the Orbit  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluated the surgical results of the anteromedial approach for treatment of orbital lesions in 16 patients. Pre- and postoperatively, all patients underwent a complete physical examination focusing on the head and neck area including a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical approach was limited to a medial orbitotomy in five patients; the remaining 11 patients underwent a medial orbitotomy combined with an external...

Deda, Haluk; Ugur, Hasan C?aglar; Yorulmaz, Irfan; Kucuk, Babur

2001-01-01

114

New approaches to immunotoxicity testing.  

OpenAIRE

New approaches to immunotoxicity testing are reviewed and discussed. A method of activating T-cells in vivo is presented which circumvents artifacts dur to viability effects encountered with in vitro mitogen assays. The use of adoptive transfer approaches to combine the advantages of in vitro manipulation with in vivo function assays is discussed relative to natural killer cells. The need for an in vitro metabolic activation step coupled to other in vitro immunologic assays is discussed.

Archer, D. L.

1982-01-01

115

Translating simulation approaches for immunology  

OpenAIRE

This thesis presents a novel set of guidelines to convert between simulation modelling approaches, namely, Ordinary differential Equations (ODEs), System Dynamics (SD) and Agent-based Modelling and Simulation (ABMS). In our literature review we identify a gap in establishing translation techniques between these approaches. We therefore focus our research in developing these techniques and assessing the impact of these conversions in the simulation outcomes. In particular, our interest lies i...

Figueredo, Grazziela P.

2012-01-01

116

Strategy making : the approach matters  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE – More than ever, businesses need to get their strategy right. Part of achieving this is the approach to strategy making that is chosen. The purpose of this paper is to describe how strategy making happens on the continuum of deliberate practice versus emerging strategy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – Through in-depth interviews with “strategy informants” (CEO’s) in businesses and questionnaires to respondents (managers) in the same organizations, statistical techniques ...

Pretorius, Marius; Maritz, Rachel

2011-01-01

117

New Geometrical Approach to Superstrings  

OpenAIRE

We present a new geometrical approach to superstrings based on the geometrical theory of integration on supermanifolds. This approach provides an effective way to calculate multi-loop superstring amplitudes for arbitrary backgrounds. It makes possible to calculate amplitudes for the physical states defined as BRST cohomology classes using arbitrary representatives. Since the new formalism does not rely on the presence of primary representatives for the physical states it is ...

Belopolsky, Alexander

1997-01-01

118

An approach to chaotic synchronization  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the chaotic oscillator synchronization. A new approach to the synchronization of chaotic oscillators has been proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of different time scales in the time series generated by the coupled chaotic oscillators. It has been shown that complete synchronization, phase synchronization, lag synchronization and generalized synchronization are the particular cases of the synchronized behavior called as "time-scale synchron...

Hramov, Alexander E.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.

2005-01-01

119

Information Extraction using Incremental Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is playing vital role in text extraction as now a day’s large amount of data available in scientific research, biomedical literature and web data. Data retrieval using existing approaches use sequential approach to process the data. It suitable for one time processing whereas using this approach performance will prunes. whenever the new data is added to the existing information we need to reprocess the entire data to perform extraction and it consumes large amount of time as same the initial time of processing .If at all there is any frequent modification in the existing data, it will require large amount of time to reprocess .This scenario will be repeats same even new extraction of goal is required for the same existing data. There is a high demand in the information extraction but available method such as UIMA and GATE performs IE by file based approach will not use any relational database in the extraction process. Key challenge of data extraction for incremental data, we need to identify which part of the data is getting affected by the change of any component or goal .To achieve this large corpus data will be stored using special type of data storage and optimized queries for data retrieval. It requires more storage compare to existing approach but now a days storage size not a key requirement. New approach also introduces automated query generation based on available input data for efficient performance. This method will reduce ninety percent of processing time whenever there is any modification of data comparatively to existing approach.

T.Ramesh Chary

2014-04-01

120

A Reverse Approach to Superconductivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the normal operator approach, our reverse approach starts from the state vector in the Hilbert space. In this work, we give a concise introduction to our recent work in this aspect. By postulating a superconducting state (SCS to be a generalized coherent state (GCS constructed by pure group theory, we show that some important properties such as the Cooper pairs of the SCS naturally appear in this new framework without resorting to the microscopic origin. This latter characteristic renders this theory a more universal feature in comparison with other theories developed by the operator approach. The studies on the residue of the pair-wise constraint due to the collapse of the GCS lead to a “flat/steep” band model for searching new superconductors.

Shuiquan Deng

2013-06-01

121

Systems Science Approach to Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

122

Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

123

City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach  

CERN Document Server

Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

2015-01-01

124

33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation...Atlantic East Coast § 167.202 In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach....

2010-07-01

125

Approaches to Teaching Early Reading: Whole Language or Phonic Approach?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The impacts of the great debate on early reading instruc­tion, which was started in the late 1960 and early 1970s, remain until today. In our education system, curriculum change also brings about the change of teaching ideology. For teachers, the result sometimes is more threatening than encouraging because they cannot anticipate the quick and inevitable change. They become disempowered and deprived, and that innovation is often difficult to implement. This study aimed to explore the orientation of student teachers and expe­rienced teachers towards reading instruction, namely phonic, skills, and whole language approach. This involved 30 primary student teachers of an Institute of Education in London and 30 experienced teachers teaching at Year 1 and 2 London inner city primary schools. Each of the respondents was sent a questionnaire, and asked to answer an open ended question concerning the best approach of teaching reading. The results revealed that in general there was no difference in teaching reading orientation between student teachers and experienced teachers. Both of them tend to believe that there was no single best method. The competing approaches are seen as comple­mentary. Any approach chosen should take into account child devel­opment, the nature of reading and environmental support. The impli­cations of these findings for teacher empowerment are discussed.

Didi Sukyadi

1998-01-01

126

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

127

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program

128

Real analysis a constructive approach  

CERN Document Server

A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

Bridger, Mark

2012-01-01

129

Writing approaches of nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 20years, research has focused on the writing processes of college students, however, despite recent support for writing as a tool of reflection in nursing education, little is known about how it is that nursing students go about writing papers and assignments as part of their professional education. In order to determine the writing processes of nursing students, the Inventory of Processes in College Composition, a self-response questionnaire, was administered to 169 nursing students. Results support the independence of the writing approaches that nursing students use and similarity to the writing approaches of a general college student population. PMID:22112918

Lavelle, Ellen; Ball, Susan C; Maliszewski, Genevieve

2013-01-01

130

Elementary calculus an infinitesimal approach  

CERN Document Server

This first-year calculus book is centered around the use of infinitesimals, an approach largely neglected until recently for reasons of mathematical rigor. It exposes students to the intuition that originally led to the calculus, simplifying their grasp of the central concepts of derivatives and integrals. The author also teaches the traditional approach, giving students the benefits of both methods.Chapters 1 through 4 employ infinitesimals to quickly develop the basic concepts of derivatives, continuity, and integrals. Chapter 5 introduces the traditional limit concept, using approximation p

Keisler, H Jerome

2013-01-01

131

Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.  

OpenAIRE

We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer ...

Koshelev, M.; Lohrenz, T.; Vannucci, M.; Montague, P. R.

2010-01-01

132

International Approaches to Clinical Costing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business School’s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data, and provide opportunities for all healthsystems to learn and potentially improve their own approaches. The HFMA hopes to build on this initial baselining exercise to understand more about how key issues are being tackled in some of the health systems that have made the most progress with costing.

Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja

2013-01-01

133

Coaching Humanistically: An Alternative Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four goals for a humanistic approach to athletics are: (1) elevating perception of students' physical abilities to improve self-esteem; (2) encouraging self-actualization; (3) contributing to self-understanding; and (4) improving interpersonal relationships. Implications of these objectives for team management, competition, and the attitudes of…

Danziger, Raymond Curtis

1982-01-01

134

Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

135

Dark Matter: A Multidisciplinary Approach  

OpenAIRE

We review the current status of accelerator, direct and indirect Dark Matter (DM) searches, focusing on the complementarity of different techniques and on the prospects for discovery. After taking a census of present and upcoming DM-related experiments, we review the motivations to go beyond an "accelerator-only" approach, and highlight the benefits of multidisciplinarity in the quest for DM.

Bertone, Gianfranco

2007-01-01

136

Martingale approach to real options  

Science.gov (United States)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options.

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail

2001-02-01

137

Innovative approach to staff management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reveals the essence of reproduction approach to the management staff that meets the requirements of an information type of production. A classification of the functions of personnel management, depending on the role of man in the workplace is given. Topical aspects of implementing the functions of personnel management in Russian enterprises are considered.

Rodionova Elena Viktorovna

2011-12-01

138

A Complexity Approach for Steganalysis  

CERN Document Server

In this proposal for the Journ\\`ees Codes et St\\'eganographie 2012, we define a new rigorous approach for steganalysis based on the complexity theory. It is similar to the definitions of security that can be found for hash functions, PRNG, and so on. We propose here a notion of \\emph{secure hiding} and we give a first secure hiding scheme.

Bahi, Jacques M; Heam, Pierre-Cyrille

2011-01-01

139

A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

2014-05-01

140

Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

2013-01-01

141

Oncoplastic Approaches to Breast Conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic teams in determining which approach is most suitable for their patient's tumor size, tumor location, body habitus, and desired cosmetic outcome we present a review of several oncoplastic surgical approaches. For resections located anywhere in the breast, the radial ellipse segmentectomy incision and circumareolar approach for segmental resection are discussed. For resections in the upper or central breast, crescent mastopexy, the batwing incision, the hemi batwing incision, donut mastopexy, B-flap resection, and the central quadrantectomy are reviewed. For lesions of the lower breast, the triangle incision, infra mammary incision, and reduction mastopexy are discussed. Surgeons who are interested in adding oncoplastic breast conserving therapies to their skill sets are encouraged to implement these surgical techniques where applicable and to seek out breast fellowships or enhanced training when appropriate

142

Teaching Creation: A Modular Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article describes a modular approach to teaching Genesis 1-3 that values depth over breadth even in an introductory class. The module allows students to learn about the text and its original context by orienting discussion around contemporary issues of practical concern. Specifically, the creation-evolution debates provide an…

Bosworth, David A.

2007-01-01

143

Guitar Class: A Multifaceted Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests that the bias linking guitars to popular culture has needlessly limited approaches to teaching guitar. Examines how each of five current programs develops different music skills. Advocates a comprehensive, multifaceted program capable of emphasizing student skills in melody, harmony, perception, creativity, and performance over six years…

Bartel, Lee R.

1990-01-01

144

Designing for Uncertainty: Three Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher education wishes to get long life and good returns on its investment in learning spaces. Doing this has become difficult because rapid changes in information technology have created fundamental uncertainties about the future in which capital investments must deliver value. Three approaches to designing for this uncertainty are described…

Bennett, Scott

2007-01-01

145

Probabilistic approach to reptation theory.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Cardiff : Cardiff University, 2009. s. 1-1. [Annual European Rheology Conference /5./. 15.04.2009-17.04.2009, Cardiff] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA103/09/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : tube model * reptation theory * probabilistic approach Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

Kharlamov, Alexander; Švr?inová, Petra; Filip, Petr

146

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Microplasty™ June 16, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, live from Mount Caramel New Albany Surgical Hospital in ... replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and ...

147

Statistical approach to Dst prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using an unbiased statistical approach we construct a phenomenological model of solar wind - magnetosphere interaction. This model allows measuring relative geoeffectiveness of different physical parameters, uncovering some empirical dependencies, accurately predicting the geomagnetic activity up to 3 hours ahead, and estimating the geomagnetic activity up to 9 hours ahead.

148

Thoracoscopy: a collaborative surgical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perioperative nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and pharmacists are meeting the challenge of decreasing thoracic surgical patients' length of hospital stay with thoracoscopy. This innovative alternative to traditional thoracotomy procedures has been achieved through an attentive team approach using the fundamental perioperative skills of assessment, positioning, safety, and sharing of knowledge. PMID:7647761

Brand, A F

1995-07-01

149

Coordinate Geometric Approach to Spherometer  

CERN Document Server

The spherometer used for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces is explicitly based on a geometric relation unique to circles and spheres. We present an alternate approach using coordinate geometry, which reproduces the well-known result for the spherometer and also leads to a scheme to study aspherical surfaces. We shall also briefly describe some of the modified spherometers.

Khan, Sameen Ahmed

2013-01-01

150

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

151

Institutional Planning: A Systems Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This four-chapter report explores the possible contributions of a systems approach to institutional planning. After introductory comments, Chapter I reviews the management theory of Henry Fayol, which emphasizes management tasks, such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling, which are "universal" regardless of the level…

Adamson, Willie D.

152

Alternative Approaches to Educational Accountability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The speaker outlines some approaches to educational accountability (among them model testing, relating test scores, differentiated staffing, program auditing, instructional accountability, management by objectives, and performance-based education) and suggests what needs to be done in the future in regard to accountability. (IRT)

Redfern, George B.

153

Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation  

Science.gov (United States)

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

Ferrari, Loris

2011-01-01

154

Superbrane actions and geometrical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review a generic structure of conventional (Nambu-Goto and Dirac-Born Infeld-like) worldvolume actions for the superbranes and show how it is connected through a generalized action construction with a double supersymmetric geometrical approach to the description of super-p-brane dynamics as embedding world supersurfaces into target superspaces. (author). 28 refs

155

Congestion Management Approach Using TCSC  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, deregulation of the electric industry in the world aims at creating competitive markets to trade electricity. For deregulated transmission networks, one of the major consequences of the nondiscriminatory open-access requirement is a substantial increase of power transfers. Congestion management of deregulated transmission networks is very important to accomplish always nondiscriminative network access. In this paper, the authors propose a congestion management approach by using Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) in order to maximize transmission margin and minimize transmission loss without changing contracted power under constraints such as thermal, voltage, and stability limits. In the proposed approach, power flow through transmission lines can be flexibly controlled without changing contracted power by determining firing angle of TCSC. In order to check the validity of the proposed congestion management approach, numerical results are shown for 6 bus system model. Simulation results show effectiveness of the proposed congestion management approach by using TCSC, when congestion occurs at a transmission line in the system model.

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Yonezawa, Hironori

156

Bibliography of Several Approaches to Rhetorical Criticism.  

Science.gov (United States)

An illustrative rather than an exhaustive bibliography on approaches to rhetorical criticism, this update of an earlier publication lists more than 150 selections. The bibliography is divided into sections on: (1) discussions of the Burkean approach; (2) applications of the Burkean approach; (3) discussions of the fantasy theme approach; (4)…

Benoit, William L.; Moeder, Michael D.

157

Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

Monaghan, John

2007-01-01

158

Towards a Taxonomy of Dynamic Reconfiguration Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic reconfiguration is essential part of software evolution. Several approaches to support dynamic reconfiguration have been proposed in the literature. These approaches are different in various criteria. The goal of this work is to make a comparative study between various dynamic reconfiguration approaches by exploring the features of these approaches and to classify them with respect to these features.

Mohammad Charaf Eddin

2013-09-01

159

Pilot Task Demand Load During RNAV Approaches:  

OpenAIRE

The question that started this research was: “Why is approach A more difficult to fly for a pilot than approach B?”. To find an answer to this question, pilots flew a large variety of Area Navigation (RNAV) approaches during several flight simulator and real flight experiments. The results of these experiments were analyzed and resulted in seven guidelines for the design of approaches. The guidelines all relate to the shape of the approach trajectory and the corresponding altitude and air...

Heiligers, M. M.

2011-01-01

160

Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.

1997-12-01

161

Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

162

Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

Ferreira, Antoine

2013-01-01

163

BRST Approach to Hamiltonian Systems  

CERN Document Server

BRST formulation of cohomological Hamiltonian mechanics is presented. In the path integral approach, we use the BRST gauge fixing procedure for the partition function with trivial underlying Lagrangian to fix symplectic diffeomorphism invariance. Resulting Lagrangian is BRST and anti-BRST exact and the Liouvillian of classical mechanics is reproduced in the ghost-free sector. The theory can be thought of as a topological phase of Hamiltonian mechanics and is considered as one-dimensional cohomological field theory with the target space a symplectic manifold. Twisted (anti-)BRST symmetry is related to global N=2 supersymmetry, which is identified with an exterior algebra. Landau-Ginzburg formulation of the associated $d=1$, N=2 model is presented and Slavnov identity is analyzed. We study deformations and perturbations of the theory. Physical states of the theory and correlation functions of the BRST invariant observables are studied. This approach provides a powerful tool to investigate the properties of Hami...

Aringazin, A K; Kudusov, A S

1998-01-01

164

"Probabilistic" approach to Richardson equations  

CERN Document Server

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of "energy" of interacting free charges on the plane. We suggest to consider "probabilities" of the system of charges to occupy certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of "probability" has similarities with the square of Laughlin wave function. Next, we introduce a "partition function", from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined within underextensive terms. As a first application of this approach, we consider a model with the constant density of states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval, where potential acts. In this case, the "partition function" is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, whi...

Pogosov, W V

2011-01-01

165

Virtualization Approaches in Cloud Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the growing age of cloud computing demands in almost all the sectors like TV channel to online shopping to educational institution etc., the cloud infrastructure cost goes very high. Therefore, the concept of virtualization needs to be understand and implement in the cloud computing syterms, which enables the user as well as the owners for the better and robust management and usage of the cloud. In this paper the virtualization approach in the cloud computing environment are well presented with the concept of the cloud service models. The virtualization process and implementation with their advantages are documented and the different types of virtualizations are presented with some survey on the Indian data centre and the virtualization architecture. This approach needs to be evaluated in different cloud platforms for finding the cost effectiveness in the cloud infrastructure development.

K C Gouda

2014-06-01

166

Supersymmetric approach to excited states.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present here a supersymmetric (SUSY) approach for determining excitation energies within the context of a quantum Monte Carlo scheme. By using the fact that SUSY quantum mechanics gives rises to a series of isospectral Hamiltonians, we show that Monte Carlo ground-state calculations in the SUSY partners can be used to reconstruct accurately both the spectrum and states of an arbitrary Schrodinger equation. Since the ground state of each partner potential is nodeless, we avoid any "node" problem typically associated with the Monte Carlo technique. Although we provide an example of using this approach to determine the tunneling states in a double-well potential, the method is applicable to any 1D potential problem. We conclude by discussing the extension to higher dimensions. PMID:19919079

Bittner, Eric R; Maddox, Jeremy B; Kouri, Donald J

2009-12-31

167

Snow metamorphism: a fractal approach  

CERN Document Server

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapour and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameter. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution o...

Carbone, Anna; Frigo, Barbara; Turk, Christian; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036103

2010-01-01

168

Approaches for neural tissue regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is currently no treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. While spinal cord injury has no treatment either, nerve injuries are being treated with autologous grafts, a procedure that in turn translates into a loss of function in the donor area. The development of therapies for these pathologies has become urgent as population keeps on ageing. A promising direction of investigation is the use of regenerative techniques to re-grow healthy and functional tissue in the injured area. In this review article, various approaches currently investigated to promote neural regeneration are covered. Those include approaches based on (and many times combining) stem cell therapy, scaffolds made of hydrogel, electrospun fibers and conductive materials as well as the use of soluble or non-diffusible growth factors. PMID:24092527

Binan, Loïc; Ajji, Abdellah; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Jolicoeur, Mario

2014-02-01

169

Bayesian approach to rough set  

CERN Document Server

This paper proposes an approach to training rough set models using Bayesian framework trained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The prior probabilities are constructed from the prior knowledge that good rough set models have fewer rules. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is conducted through sampling in the rough set granule space and Metropolis algorithm is used as an acceptance criteria. The proposed method is tested to estimate the risk of HIV given demographic data. The results obtained shows that the proposed approach is able to achieve an average accuracy of 58% with the accuracy varying up to 66%. In addition the Bayesian rough set give the probabilities of the estimated HIV status as well as the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

Marwala, Tshilidzi

2007-01-01

170

Advanced Vibrations A Modern Approach  

CERN Document Server

Advanced Vibrations: A Modern Approach is presented at a theoretical-practical level and explains mechanical vibrations concepts in detail, concentrating on their practical use. Related theorems and formal proofs are provided, as are real-life applications. Students, researchers and practicing engineers alike will appreciate the user-friendly presentation of a wealth of topics including but not limited to practical optimization for designing vibration isolators, and transient, harmonic and random excitations. This book also: Contains unique material based on statement-proof-examples Derives equations of motion using Newton-Euler and Lagrange methods Presents optimization of vibrating systems not normally covered in standard vibration books Advanced Vibrations: A Modern Approach is an ideal book for designers, practitioner engineers, and students of engineering.

Jazar, Reza N

2013-01-01

171

Abdominal Approaches for Rectal Prolapse  

OpenAIRE

The management of full-thickness rectal prolapse involves surgical intervention in the majority of cases. Many procedures have been described employing both perineal and abdominal approaches. Abdominal procedures result in more durable repair of the prolapse; however, the procedures require general anesthesia and are reserved for younger healthier patients. Laparoscopy has been utilized in the treatment of rectal prolapse since its introduction for colorectal procedures; recent studies have f...

Safar, Bashar; Vernava, Anthony M.

2008-01-01

172

Contractarian approaches to intergenerational justice  

OpenAIRE

In modern political philosophy social contract theory is the most prominent approach to individual rights and fair institutions. According to social contract theory the system of rights in a society ought to be justified by reconstructing its basic features as a contract between the mutually unconcerned members of society. This paper explores whether social contract theory can successfully be applied to justify rights of future generations. Three competing views are analysed: R...

Weikard, Hans-peter

1997-01-01

173

Inspections - a cost effective approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a cost effective approach for inspections of Computerized Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Systems (CNMCAS). Highlighted is the capability to conduct an inspection program via portable telephone terminals from off-site locations. The program can be applied to various materials management functions including materials control, quality assurance, and materials accounting. The system is designed to facilitate inspections by both external and internal groups

174

Energetic approach for ductile tearing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a Ji tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter Gfr is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters Ji and Gfr, intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

175

Computational approaches to energy materials  

CERN Document Server

The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

2013-01-01

176

Conformal approach to cylindrical DLA  

OpenAIRE

We extend the conformal mapping approach elaborated for the radial Diffusion Limited Aggregation model (DLA) to the cylindrical geometry. We introduce in particular a complex function which allows to grow a cylindrical cluster using as intermediate step a radial aggregate. The grown aggregate exhibits the same self-affine features of the original cylindrical DLA. The specific choice of the transformation allows us to study the relationship between the radial and the cylindri...

Taloni, Alessandro; Caglioti, Emanuele; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

2006-01-01

177

Some approaches to macron acceleration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter reviews several recent proposals and attempts to achieve hypervelocities with macroscopic particles. Suggests that the use of macron acceleration to achieve the goal of CTR is promising and merits greatly increased attention and support. Discusses electrostatic acceleration, magnetostatic acceleration, gas guns, laser ablation acceleration, the rail gun, and new approaches. Points out that problems with acceleration techniques range from questions of heating of the projectile to questions regarding fundamental strengths of materials

178

Unconventional approaches to mortality estimation  

OpenAIRE

Most developing countries do not have complete registration of deaths on which to base mortality estimates. Four broad categories of unconventional methods have been developed to provide mortality estimates in such settings. The first consists of approaches for evaluation adjustment of incompletely recorded deaths by comparison with recorded age distributions. The second consists of alternative data collection methodologies collecting information about deaths by age. The third consists ...

Yoonjoung Choi; Ian Timaeus; Kenneth Hill

2005-01-01

179

ECG Signal Analysis: Different Approaches  

OpenAIRE

In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several challenges in solving biomedical problems and making Digital Signal Processing as an essential and effective pedagogical approach to solve a problem of detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. The detection of QRS complex has many clinical applications as it marks the beginning of the left ventricular contraction. A lot of possible heart malfunctions such as cardiac arrhythmias, tr...

Thulasi Prasad, S.; Varadarajan, S.

2014-01-01

180

An approach for ontology modularization  

OpenAIRE

Ontology modularization could help overcome the problem of defining a fragment of an existing ontology to be reused, in order to enable ontology developers to include only those concepts and relations that are relevant for the application they are modeling an ontology for. This paper presents a concrete tool that incorporates an approach to ontology modularization that inherits some of the main principles from object-oriented softwareengineering, which are encapsulation and information hiding...

Bezerra, Camila; Freitas, Frederico; Euzenat, Je?ro?me; Zimmermann, Antoine

2009-01-01

181

Industrial Beamline Technologies And Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes industrial charged particle beamline technologies and design approaches. Beamlines accommodate myriad constraints in the radioisotope production, electron beam processing, and ion implantation market segments, and some very strange yet interesting solutions result. In this paper, a detailed look at a particular injection beamline solution gives some sense of the complexity of research and development required, and the sophistication of the beamline solutions that are utilized. A brief review of beamline applications in each industrial segment follows.

Dehnel, M. P.

2011-06-01

182

A Theoretical Approach to Telicity  

OpenAIRE

Starting from the generally admitted idea that telicity is an important concept in the study of aspect, this paper intends to offer a theoretical approach to the telic/atelic and bounded/unbounded distinctions, which have had a long tradition in the linguistic literature. I highlighted the necessity of distinguishing between telicity, viewed as a pragmatic or semantic parameter, and boundedness, considered to be a lexico-grammatical parameter which may depend on the verb and on the semantic p...

Linguistics, Stylistics And Translation Studies A. Theoretical Approach To Telicity Claudia Leah

2010-01-01

183

Energy mastery: context, stakes, approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Any energy use has both an environmental and an economical impact. The environmental stakes linked with the energy use impose to adapt the policies and practices towards a more rational use of energy sources and towards the improvement of energy systems efficiency. This document deals with the national and international context, the economical, energetic and environmental stakes and with the political and technical approaches of energy mastery. It is illustrated with the mastery of power demand. (J.S.)

184

Imbalanced Data Learning Approaches Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work deals with a well-known problem inmachine learning, that classes have generallyskewed prior probabilities distribution. This situation of imbalanced data is a handicap when tryingtoidentify the minority classes , usually more interesting one In real world applications. This paper isanattempt to list the different approachs proposed inscientific research to deal with the imbalanced datalearning, as well a comparison between various applications cases performed on this subject.

Mohamed Bekkar

2013-07-01

185

The supervisory approach: a critique  

OpenAIRE

Rules suffer from two serious defects. The world is complex, and so the creation and application of rules is difficult; and it changes, so that rules become obsolete. In recent years, the conventional wisdom on financial regulation has shifted away from reliance on rules and back towards a ‘supervisory approach’, in which regulators rely more on banks’ own estimates of risk, and focus more on banks’ risk management systems and controls than on their compliance with crude rules. The Ba...

Ward, Jonathan

2002-01-01

186

Estonian Approaches to Culture Theory  

OpenAIRE

The fourth volume in the Approaches to Culture Theory series is a contemporary Estonian anthology in culture theory. Most of the authors are members of the research groups of the Centre of Excellence in Cultural Theory: archaeology, cultural communication studies, contemporary cultural studies, ethnology, folkloristics, religious studies, landscape studies, and semiotics. These scholars have revised their recent work to highlight current topics in culture theory in Estonia and use theoretical...

Lang, Valter; Kull, Kalevi

2014-01-01

187

Oncoplastic Approaches to Breast Conservation  

OpenAIRE

When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic t...

Holmes, Dennis R.; Schooler, Wesley; Smith, Robina

2011-01-01

188

Corporate Governance: An Institutionalist Approach  

OpenAIRE

Even though our understanding of corporate governance has evolved from a rigid model of “command and control” toward a more flexible model of incentive mechanisms, numerous and major shortcomings continue to plague efforts to resolve the conflicts of interest inherent in the managerial approach to corporate control. In this stimulating book the work of ten outstanding scholars in the field converges, along different avenues of research and analysis, toward a vital critique of two assumpti...

Cobbaut, Robert; Lenoble, Jacques

2003-01-01

189

A Martingale approach to metastability  

OpenAIRE

We presented in \\cite{bl2,bl7} an approach to derive the metastable behavior of continuous-time Markov chains. We assumed in these articles that the Markov chains visit points in the time scale in which it jumps among the metastable sets. We replace this condition here by assumtpions on the mixing times and on the relaxation times of the chains reflected at the boundary of the metastable sets.

Beltra?n, J.; Landim, C.

2013-01-01

190

An approach to stereotaxic radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple approach to stereotaxic radiography, including a new method for determination of target coordinates, is described. The proposed technique may be used in combination with conventional equipment for roentgen examinations available in X-ray departments and operating rooms; the only additional outfit needed is a coordinate frame that can be attached to the patient's head. Determination of the coordinates is easily made graphically, or from a simple equation using a pocket calculator or a mini-computer. (auth.)

191

Quasilinearization approach to quantum mechanics  

OpenAIRE

The quasilinearization method (QLM) of solving nonlinear differential equations is applied to the quantum mechanics by casting the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in the nonlinear Riccati form. The method, whose mathematical basis in physics was discussed recently by one of the present authors (VBM), approaches the solution of a nonlinear differential equation by approximating the nonlinear terms by a sequence of the linear ones, and is not based on the existence of some kind of a ...

Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V. B.

2001-01-01

192

Diagrammatic approach to quantum search  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a simple diagrammatic approach for estimating how a randomly walking quantum particle searches on a graph in continuous time, which involves sketching small weighted graphs with self-loops and considering degenerate perturbation theory's effects on them. Using this method, we give the first example of degenerate perturbation theory solving search on a graph whose evolution occurs in a subspace whose dimension grows with N.

Wong, Thomas G.

2015-03-01

193

Stock Mechanics: a classical approach  

OpenAIRE

New theoretical approaches about forecasting stock markets are proposed. A mathematization of the stock market in terms of arithmetical relations is given, where some simple (non-differential, non-fractal) expressions are also suggested as general stock price formuli in closed forms which are able to generate a variety of possible price movements in time. A kind of mechanics is submitted to cover the price movements in terms of classical concepts. Where utilizing stock mecha...

Tuncay, Caglar

2005-01-01

194

Humanoid Introspection: A Practical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe an approach to robot introspection based on self observation and communication. Self observation is what the robot should do in order to build, represent and understand its internal state. It is necessary to translate the state representation in order to build a suitable input to an ontology that supplies the meaning of the internal state. The ontology supports the linguistic level that is used to communicate information about the robot state to the human user.

Ignazio Infantino

2013-05-01

195

Clinical approach to young hypertension.  

OpenAIRE

Hypertension affects approximately 30% of the population worldwide. It is a serious disease, expensive to treat, and can lead to long-term morbidity and mortality. Young hypertension, defined as hypertension occurring in patients aged 40 or younger, is now seen more frequently. A correct and holistic approach in the evaluation of patients with suspected young hypertension is essential, as the underlying cause is demonstrable in more than half of the cases. Among these causes include primary a...

Sukor, Norlela

2013-01-01

196

A Flexible Table Parsing Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english Relational data is often encoded in tables. Tables are easy to read by humans, but difficult to interpret automatically. In cases where table layout cues are not obtainable (missing HTML tags) or where columns are distorted (by copying from a spreadsheet to text) previous table extraction approaches [...] run into problems. This paper introduces a novel table parsing approach. Our approach is based on a set of simple assumptions: (a) every table can be split up in data cells and headers, and (b) every table can be parsed beginning from a data cell utilizing the overall table structure. The table parsing is defined as "table flattening" in this paper. That is, the parsing starts with a data cell and pulls out all token (i.e., headers and sub-headers) associated with a respective data cell. We propose a parsing technique that uses two simple parsing heuristics: table headers are to the left of and above a data cell. We experimented with trader emails that contained instrument information with bid-ask prices as data cells. We developed a clustering and classifying method for finding prices reliably in the data set we used. This method is transferable to other data cell types and can be applied to other table content.

Frank, Schilder; Ravi, Kondadadi; Yana, Kadiyska.

2012-06-01

197

Interval approach to braneworld gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z2 orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z2 projection. We introduce a family of 'straight gauges', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge-fixing, we show that a general AdS5/AdS4 setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical 'brane-bending' modes

198

An abstract approach to music.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-04-19

199

Technical approach to groundwater restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

200

Novel therapeutic approaches for haemophilia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major therapy for haemophilia is plasma derived or recombinant clotting factors which are evolving steadily to increase potency, stability and half-life. Research in the area of haemophilia therapeutics, however, is not restricted only to modifications in the recombinant products, but alternate therapeutic strategies are being developed which are in different phases of experimental and clinical trials. This chapter reviews the diverse molecular innovations which are being developed for alternate therapeutic approaches in haemophilia. The data is mainly extracted from the literature and the Conference abstracts. Some of the novel therapeutic approaches include inhibition of anticoagulant pathway factors (activated protein C, antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor) by monoclonal antibodies, peptide inhibitors, DNA or RNA aptamers, use of variant coagulation factors (factor Xa, factor Va) which are more resistant to inactivation or enzymatically more active and antibody-mediated therapy including a humanized anti-factor IXa/X bispecific antibody mimicking factor VIII. Other approaches include nonsense mutation suppression, induction of prothrombotic microparticles by P-selectin-immunoglobulin chimeras, suppression of fibrinolytic potential either by antifibrinolytics or by the use of mutant molecules of fibrinolytic inhibitors. Few products are proposed as 'stand alone' treatment for haemophilia, while a few can be used as adjuvant therapies to recombinant factors with an aim to reduce the amount of factor intake. All efforts are underway to produce an alternate, novel drug for haemophilia which will have an increased half-life, subcutaneously injectable, non-immunogenic and effective both in the presence and absence of inhibitors. PMID:25521966

Shetty, S; Ghosh, K

2015-03-01

201

New approaches in economic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The level of detail of economic models has until recently been limited by the availability of computational capability. At present, the constraint is the systematic compilation of detailed and comprehensive economic and technical data and the ability to manipulate them. The effective use of enhanced data processing capabilities will have to proceed hand in hand with a concerted effort to develop the economic database and with the shift from analytic approaches based on aggregative data to those that can take advantage of detailed information. PMID:17746871

Leontief, W; Duchin, F; Szyld, D B

1985-04-26

202

Smile detection : A simple Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions analysis is applicable in various vision systems, new interfaces for television and other entertainment systems, diagnosis and monitoring of deceases, speech processing, modern smart digital cameras and perceptual man-machine interfaces etc. Smile is human’s expression for happiness. Detection of smile by a machine is helpful to establish human machine interaction in many situations. Many researchers worked on facial expression recognition, but there is not much research about smile detection. In this paper we proposed a simple image-based approach to identify the smile.

Praveen N

2013-06-01

203

Cognitive reasoning a formal approach  

CERN Document Server

Dealing with uncertainty, moving from ignorance to knowledge, is the focus of cognitive processes. Understanding these processes and modelling, designing, and building artificial cognitive systems have long been challenging research problems. This book describes the theory and methodology of a new, scientifically well-founded general approach, and its realization in the form of intelligent systems applicable in disciplines ranging from social sciences, such as cognitive science and sociology, through natural sciences, such as life sciences and chemistry, to applied sciences, such as medicine,

Anshakov, Oleg M

2010-01-01

204

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies

205

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

1994-05-01

206

Novel Approaches for Glycodrug Discovery  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter will give you an overview of recent approaches for drug development, focusing on the function and roles of carbohydrates. Section 2 will outline the biochemical functions of polysaccharide (neutral polysaccharide, chitin and chitosan, glycosaminoglycan, and synthetic polysaccharides) and glycopolymers and the perspectives of their medicinal/medical use. Section 3 will outline recent biopharmaceutical research and development, utilizing the functions of carbohydrates. Section 4 will outline drug discovery and development of new medicines targeting carbohydrates. In addition, recent advances in carbohydrate synthesis technology, needed for development of new medicines, will also be described.

Kondo, Hirosato

207

Computer Networks A Systems Approach  

CERN Document Server

This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

Peterson, Larry L

2011-01-01

208

European Whiteness? : A Critical Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U.S. gender, race, and whiteness studies.

Blaagaard, Bolette

2008-01-01

209

Heterotic compactification, an algorithmic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We approach string phenomenology from the perspective of computational algebraic geometry, by providing new and efficient techniques for proving stability and calculating particle spectra in heterotic compactifications. This is done in the context of complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds in a single projective space where we classify positive monad bundles. Using a combination of analytic methods and computer algebra we prove stability for all such bundles and compute the complete particle spectrum, including gauge singlets. In particular, we find that the number of anti-generations vanishes for all our bundles and that the spectrum is manifestly moduli-dependent

210

Nonlinear evolution equations kinetic approach  

CERN Document Server

The book is devoted to the questions of the long-time behavior of solutions for evolution equations, connected with kinetic models in statistical physics. There is a wide variety of problems where such models are used to obtain reasonable physical as well as numerical results (Fluid Mechanics, Gas Dynamics, Plasma Physics, Nuclear Physics, Turbulence Theory etc.). The classical examples provide the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. Investigation of the long-time behavior of the solutions for the Boltzmann equation gives an approach to the nonlinear fluid dynamic equations. From the viewpoint of dy

Maslova, Nina

1993-01-01

211

Energy storage a new approach  

CERN Document Server

Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale.  This revolutionary book describes   technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years, but presents new material that could transform the energy industry.  Regardless where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources- energy storage is something that the industry MUST learn and practice.  With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in China

Zito, Ralph

2010-01-01

212

'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere. PMID:24620487

Call, Roger

2014-02-01

213

Operational gaming an international approach  

CERN Document Server

Operational Gaming: An International Approach focuses on various research on this method of systems analysis. The text points out the value of this method in decision making, planning, and in the implementation of policies. The book presents a survey that highlights the connection of experimental gaming, game theory, and operational gaming. The value of gaming as a balancing method in assessing multifaceted computer models, most notably about their assumptions on human behavior, is noted. The book also offers an overview of gaming in other countries, such as Bulgaria, Soviet Union, and Japan,

Ståhl, Ingolf

1983-01-01

214

Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive advantage and the factors impacting competitive advantage. The integrated model of competitive advantage is proposed in the paper.Article in Lithuanian

Edita Ragelskaja

2011-07-01

215

Combined Approach for Image Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many image segmentation techniques have been developed over the past two decades for segmenting the images, which help for object recognition, occlusion boundary estimation within motion or stereo systems, image compression, image editing. In this, there is a combined approach for segmenting the image. By using histogram equalization to the input image, from which it gives contrast enhancement output image .After that by applying median filtering ,which will remove noise from contrast output image . At last I applied fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm to denoising output image, which give segmented output image. In this way it produce better segmented image with less computation time.

Shradha Dakhare

2014-05-01

216

33 CFR 167.203 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern approach. 167.203 Section 167.203 Navigation...Atlantic East Coast § 167.203 In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern...

2010-07-01

217

49 CFR 236.760 - Locking, approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, approach. 236.760 Section 236.760 Transportation Other...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.760 Locking, approach. Electric locking effective while a train is...

2010-10-01

218

Support for Quitting: Choose Your Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

... not to display inline frames. Home > Choose your approach This section will be most useful for people ... to quit without some support. Several proven treatment approaches are available. One size doesn't fit all, ...

219

Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

Bonometti, Joseph A.

2006-01-01

220

Common approach of risks analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although, following the resolutions of the High German Court, the protection level of the human beings is an objective which can change in time, it is obvious that it is an important point when there is a risk for the population. This is true more particularly for the industrial plants whose possible accidents could affect the population. The accidents risk analysis indicates that there is no conceptual difference between the risks of a nuclear power plant and those of the other industrial plants as chemical plants, the gas distribution system and the hydraulic dams. A legislation analysis induced by the Seveso Directive for the industrial risks give some important indications which should always be followed. This work analyses more particularly the legislative situation in different European countries and identifies some of the most important characteristics. Indeed, for most of the countries, the situation is different and it is a later difficulties source for nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen this reasoning, this paper presents some preliminary results of an analysis of a nuclear power plant following the approach of other industrial plants. In conclusion, it will be necessary to analyse again the risks assessment approach for nuclear power plants because the real protection level of human beings in a country is determined by the less regulated of the dangerous industrial plants existing at the surroundings. (O.M.).)

221

Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using non-equilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

Frossard, T.; Kartavtsev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Garny, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hohenegger, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, LPPC, BSP (Switzerland); Mitrouskas, D. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

2012-11-15

222

Information Hiding: A Generic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Privacy and security over communication channels are of primary concerns. Due to their complexity and diversity, there is a need for continuous improvements of the adopted solutions. In this study, we consider two of the adopted ones, namely, steganogrphy and cryptography and propose a new information hiding system. Approach: The proposed system was based on a generic approach that incorporates text-based steganography and cryptography methods in a way that permits their combined or stand alone adoption. Thus, achieving message encryption incorporated with its concealing inside another unsuspicious one. Furthermore, two steganography methods (the inter-word spaces method and syntactic methods had been combined with a hybrid text-encoding in a form of binary representation of terns rewriting systems. Results: An information hiding system had been implemented. The system offered encrypting and hiding dynamic and static text within a cover-text. The conducted experiments using static texts had shown a non-noticeable increase (0.02% in the size of their respective stego-texts. For the dynamic texts, cover- texts with a size proportional to the length of the secret messages were needed. Conclusion: A generic model for information hiding with a respective implementation framework had been used as an effective tool to develop a hybrid and scalable steganography system that combined good features from the existing ones.

Riad jabri

2009-01-01

223

Proposed approach to uncertainty analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of methods are described that deal with the uncertainties inherent in the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Utilizing these methods, an approach to uncertainty analysis for the SCEPTER (Systematic Comprehensive Evaluation of Performance and Total Effectiveness of Repositories) Program is proposed. The approach recognizes two fundamental types of uncertainty: (1) uncertainty in the adequacy of performance assessment models; and (2) data uncertainties. The first type of uncertainty will be addressed through model verification and validation. The second type will be accounted for by using either a simulation sampling method, or first order-second moment stochastic methods. Among the former methods are Monte Carlo simulation, and Latin hypercube sampling. Among the latter methods are adjoint sensitivity and other first order numerical methods. The selection of an appropriate method depends on the data available and the application. A list of input and output variables, and a suggested level of sophistication for the uncertainty analysis, of each SCEPTER sub-system model is given. The relationship of performance assessment and uncertainty analysis between process, sub-system and system models is described

224

Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

225

‘Probabilistic’ approach to Richardson equations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of the ‘energy’ of classical free charges on the plane. We suggest considering the ‘probabilities’ of the system of charges occupying certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of ‘probability’ has similarities with the square of the Laughlin wavefunction. Next, we introduce the ‘partition function’, from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined. The ‘partition function’ is given by a multidimensional integral, which is similar to the Selberg integrals appearing in conformal field theory and random-matrix models. As a first application of this approach, we consider a system with the constant density of energy states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval where potential acts. In this case, the ‘partition function’ is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields a quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, which is shown to be described by a single expression all over from the dilute to the dense regime of pairs. It also provides additional insight into the physics of Cooper-paired states. (paper)

226

‘Probabilistic’ approach to Richardson equations  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of the ‘energy’ of classical free charges on the plane. We suggest considering the ‘probabilities’ of the system of charges occupying certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of ‘probability’ has similarities with the square of the Laughlin wavefunction. Next, we introduce the ‘partition function’, from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined. The ‘partition function’ is given by a multidimensional integral, which is similar to the Selberg integrals appearing in conformal field theory and random-matrix models. As a first application of this approach, we consider a system with the constant density of energy states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval where potential acts. In this case, the ‘partition function’ is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields a quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, which is shown to be described by a single expression all over from the dilute to the dense regime of pairs. It also provides additional insight into the physics of Cooper-paired states.

Pogosov, W. V.

2012-02-01

227

'Probabilistic' approach to Richardson equations.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of the 'energy' of classical free charges on the plane. We suggest considering the 'probabilities' of the system of charges occupying certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of 'probability' has similarities with the square of the Laughlin wavefunction. Next, we introduce the 'partition function', from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined. The 'partition function' is given by a multidimensional integral, which is similar to the Selberg integrals appearing in conformal field theory and random-matrix models. As a first application of this approach, we consider a system with the constant density of energy states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval where potential acts. In this case, the 'partition function' is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields a quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, which is shown to be described by a single expression all over from the dilute to the dense regime of pairs. It also provides additional insight into the physics of Cooper-paired states. PMID:22301673

Pogosov, W V

2012-02-22

228

Bionanoparticles, a green nanochemistry approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: In the past decade, considerable attention has been paid for the development of novel strategies for the synthesis of different kind of nano-objects. Most of the current strategies are usually working by the use physical or chemical principles to develop a myriad of nano-objects with mul [...] tiple applications. Main fields of nanotechnology applications range from catalysis, micro- and nano-electronics (semiconductors, single electrons transistors), non-linear optic devices, photo-electrochemistry to biomedicine, diagnostics, foods and environment, chemical analysis and others. Results: Two main avenues for nanoparticles synthesis: cell-free extract and cell cultivation have been reported. The state of art of both biotechnological approaches for different type nanoparticles are reviewed in this work. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a revolutionary field just at its onset, the trend in the next decades being its integration with the green chemistry approach. Several strategies involving exhaustive strain selection, cultivation modes, recombinant gene expression, metabolic engineering, protein re-design and re-engineering, and predictive modeling will allow to create nanobioreactors, a new nanobiotechnology arena with a high potential impact in many fields.

Ana, Cauerhff; Guillermo R, Castro.

2013-05-15

229

Diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solitary thyroid nodules present as localized tumefactions of the thyroid gland readily detectable clinically. They are frequent (2-5% of the general population) and due to a variety of causes, each requiring a specific treatment; hence the need for a systematized diagnostic approach. On scintigraphic grounds, on can distinguish between ''warm'' or ''extinctive'' nodules (10% and 20% of the cases respectively), which are a priori benign, and ''cold'' nodules (70%), which in 1 out of 10 cases correspond to a differentiated epithelioma with excellent post-operative prognosis. Three methodological data call for comments: the images supplied by technetium may differ from those supplied by radioactive iodine, which remains the reference radioisotope; there is no clinical criterion of malignancy, but fluid-containing nodules are almost invariably benign; needle cytology is the best means of selecting nodules for surgery and histology which is the only reliable diagnostic examination. We therefore propose, albeit with due caution, a diagnostic approach based on the sequence scintigraphy-needle exploration and cytology and aimed at limiting surgery to purely therapeutic purposes

230

Semiclassical approaches to mesoscopic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review semiclassical methods of determining both average trends and quantum shell effects in the properties of finite fermion systems. I. Extended Thomas-Fermi model (ETF): the average, self-consistent mean field can be determined by density variational calculations using the semiclassical gradient-expanded ETF density functional for the kinetic energy. From this, average ground-state properties such as binding energies, densities, separation energies, etc. can be derived. II. Periodic orbit theory (POT): quantum oscillations in a mean-field system can be obtained from the semiclassical trace formula that expresses the quantum-mechanical density of states in terms of the periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system. Only the shortest periodic orbits with highest degeneracy are important for the coarse-grained level density, i.e., for the gross shell effects. Particular uniform approximations are required to treat systems with mixed classical dynamics due to the effects of symmetry breaking and orbit bifurcations. Ill. Local-current approximation (LCA): the collective dynamics of the fermions can be described in linear-response theory, approximating the particle-hole excitation operators semi-classically by local current distributions. The method is suitable in combination with both the ETF density variational approach or with the Kohn-Sham density functional approach for the ground state, and allows one to describe optic response properties such as static polarizabilities and plasmon resonances. Applications of all methods to metal clusters and various mesoscopic nano-structures are given. (author)

Brack, M. [Regensburg Univ., Institut for Theoretical Physics (Germany)

2001-07-01

231

An approach to risk assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A strategy for delineating risk factors from use of neurotoxic chemicals was applied to the Danish working environment. An analysis using this strategy disclosed the need for internationally adopted criteria for neurotoxicity, and consequently a working group was established by the Nordic Council of Ministers with the task to propose criteria for neurotoxicity. Functional effects on the nervous system, such as reduction in memory and learning ability, decrease in attention, and alteration of behavior due to toxic chemicals in the environment is now being acknowledged as an important public health problem. This change in concern from obvious effects of high dose exposure to the more subtle effects of environmental exposure to neurotoxicants was incorporated in the criteria. The new criteria for evaluating neurotoxicity data has subsequently been used on 79 common industrial chemicals. The results indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc.

Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.

1998-01-01

232

Approaching Bose-Einstein condensation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial role of the bosonic ground level. If so, a correct treatment of the problem, including the ground level population N{sub 0} by construction, leads to BEC in a straightforward way. For a density of states of the form G({epsilon}){approx}{epsilon}{sup {gamma}}, the chemical potential {mu} is explicitly calculated as a function of the temperature T and of the number N of bosons, for various significant values of the positive exponent {gamma}. In the thermodynamic limit, in which the boson number N diverges and BEC is a sharp process, the chemical potential {mu} is a singular function of T at the critical temperature T{sub B}, determined by an appropriate critical exponent. The condensate population N{sub 0} is studied analytically and numerically as a function of the temperature, for various values of N and for different {gamma}. This provides an accurate description of the way BEC approaches the character of a sharp phase transition. Some aspects of the real experiments on BEC, involving a finite number of bosons, are also illustrated.

Ferrari, Loris, E-mail: loris.ferrari@unibo.it [Department of Physics of the University, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy)

2011-11-15

233

Network Approach and Stakeholder Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent economic crises show that enterprises cannot be managed focusing only on economic values instead managers should acknowledge their own enterprises' responsibilities toward the society as a whole. Stakeholder Management Theory can help managers accomplishing this very same daunting task. This theory demands managers to reckon the reciprocal influences linking other social actors to the enterprise activities and to understand the relative effects. While most of the works in this theory has been geared towards defining, identifying and managing each single dyadic relationship some other scholar have highlighted the need to focus on the stakeholder network to correctly assess each stakeholder's role and to fully grasp the long term effects enterprise's action will have. In this paper after a review of the main topics in stakeholder management theory, we classify the various approach to Stakeholder Management Theory to identify relevant theoretical contributions and to highlight how the theoretical gap can be crossed using the tools of Social Network Analysis and embracing the network approach to stakeholder management.

Mauro Sciarelli

2013-04-01

234

Trajectory and smooth attractors for Cahn–Hilliard equations with inertial term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is devoted to a modification of the classical Cahn–Hilliard equation proposed by some physicists. This modification is obtained by adding the second time derivative of the order parameter multiplied by an inertial coefficient ? > 0, which is usually small in comparison with the other physical constants. The main feature of this equation is the fact that even a globally bounded nonlinearity is 'supercritical' in the case of two and three space dimensions. Thus, the standard methods used for studying semilinear hyperbolic equations are not very effective in the present case. Nevertheless, we have recently proven the global existence and dissipativity of strong solutions in the 2D case (with a cubic controlled growth nonlinearity) and for the 3D case with small ? and arbitrary growth rate of the nonlinearity (see (Grasselli et al 2009 J. Evol. Eqns 9 371–404, Grasselli et al 2009 Commun. Partial Diff. Eqns 34 137–70)). The present contribution studies the long-time behaviour of rather weak (energy) solutions of that equation and it is a natural complement of the results of our previous papers (Grasselli et al 2009 J. Evol. Eqns 9 371–404, Grasselli et al 2009 Commun. Partial Diff. Eqns 34 137–70). In particular, we prove here that the attractors for energy and strong solutions coincide for both the cases mentioned above. Thus, the energy solutions are asymptotically smooth. In addition, we show that the non-smooth part of any energy solution decays exponentially in time and deduce that the (smooth) exponential attractor for the strong solutions constructed previously is simultaneously the exponential attractor for the energy solutions as well. It is worth noting that the uniqueness of energy solutions in the 3D case is not known yet, so we have to use the so-called trajectory approach which does not require uniqueness. Finally, we apply the obtained exponential regularization of the energy solutions for verifying the dissipativity of solutions of the 2D modified Cahn–Hilliard equation in the intermediate phase space of weak solutions (in between energy and strong solutions) without any restriction on ?

235

A Novel Approach for Identifying Intruder based on Multiple Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper reviews of research to identify the intrusion and intruder, most computers authenticate user ID and password before users can login these systems. However, danger soon comes if the two items are known to hackers. In this paper, we propose a system that finds who intrude and how they intrude in to the system. The information about the intruder and their saved information in the data warehouse to the other location without knowing to the intruder and in this duration server will find the information about the intruder. In future when intruder again enter in the network then caught and show the information about him and last time you enter in this network. For this technique I can reduce the network attack. And find more type of Network intrusion Detecting System with using data mining Approach. Our experimental results show that the recognition accuracy of students of computer science department is up to 99%.

Amit Kumar Sharma

2010-12-01

236

Subcranial Approach in Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery  

OpenAIRE

We report our experience with the subcranial approach, developed at the Plastic Surgery Unit of Hospital “Ricardo Gutiérrez,” for the treatment of injuries in the frontoethmoidal orbital region in pediatric patients. The subcranial approach was described by Raveh et al for the treatment of fractures in the frontoethmoidal area. The subcranial approach was used later for surgery of tumors and deformities of the frontoethmoidal region. We have used this approach in nine cases of nontraumat...

Ciechomski, Jorge; Aufgang, Ruben; Villanueva, Lucrecia; Demarchi, Victoria

2010-01-01

237

Speech Recognition Using Stochastic Approach: A Review  

OpenAIRE

In today’s world, Speech Recognition is very important and popular. Automatic Speech Recognition System consists of three phases: Preprocessing, Feature Extraction and Recognition. Speech recognition is the process of converting spoken words into text. In case of speech recognition the research followers are mainly using three different approaches namely Acoustic phonetic approach, Pattern recognition approach and Artificial intelligence approach. The main goal of this paper is to discuss t...

RANU DIXIT; NAVDEEP KAUR,

2013-01-01

238

Surgical Approaches to the Hypoglossal Canal  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To describe and illustrate three distinct surgical approaches that permit exposure and resection of extradural, intradural, and transdural lesions involving the hypoglossal canal. Study design: Case series. Setting: University medical center. Patients: Four patients with lesions of the hypoglossal canal were reviewed to illustrate our philosophy when selecting a surgical approach to the hypoglossal canal. Interventions: Three separate surgical approaches were used to approach lesio...

Calzada, Gabriel; Isaacson, Brandon; Yoshor, Daniel; Oghalai, John S.

2007-01-01

239

Twisted Homotopy: A Group Theoretic Approach  

OpenAIRE

After summarising the physical approach leading to twisted homotopy and after developing the cohomological approach further with respect to our previous work we propose a third alternative approach to twisted homotopy based on group theoretic considerations. In this approach the fundamental group $\\Pi (m) $ isomorphic to Z which describes homotopic loops on the punctured plane$ R^2/(0) $ is enhanced in a special way to the continuous SO(2) group . This is performed by lettin...

Mekhfi, M.

1996-01-01

240

Towards a corporate approach for energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corporate approach is a well-known an much discussed subject. At present the corporate approach is not a legal possibility in the Netherlands. A study has been carried out to investigate the consequences of a corporate approach on the energy efficiency in departments of Philips Nederland

241

Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2  

CERN Document Server

Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

Jazar, Reza N

2013-01-01

242

The Large Context Problem (LCP) Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This article traces the development of a contextual approach to the teaching of science (physics) subsequently called the Large Context Problem (LCP) approach. This approach is based on the general observation that learning could be well motivated by a context with one unifying central idea capable of capturing the imagination of the students. The…

Stinner, Arthur

2006-01-01

243

Edith Kaplan and the Boston Process Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The history including some of the intellectual origins of the Boston Process Approach and some misconceptions about the Boston Process Approach are reviewed. The influence of Gestalt psychology and Edith Kaplan's principal collaborators regarding the development of the Boston Process Approach is discussed. PMID:23984756

Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Ashendorf, Lee; Bauer, Russell M; Bowers, Dawn

2013-01-01

244

Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel

2003-01-01

245

10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy...SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of...

2010-01-01

246

49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

2010-10-01

247

Statistical Physics Approaches to Seismicity  

CERN Document Server

This entry in the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer present a summary of some of the concepts and calculational tools that have been developed in attempts to apply statistical physics approaches to seismology. We summarize the leading theoretical physical models of the space-time organization of earthquakes. We present a general discussion and several examples of the new metrics proposed by statistical physicists, underlining their strengths and weaknesses. The entry concludes by briefly outlining future directions. The presentation is organized as follows. I Glossary II Definition and Importance of the Subject III Introduction IV Concepts and Calculational Tools IV.1 Renormalization, Scaling and the Role of Small Earthquakes in Models of Triggered Seismicity IV.2 Universality IV.3 Intermittent Periodicity and Chaos IV.4 Turbulence IV.5 Self-Organized Criticality V Competing mechanisms and models V.1 Roots of complexity in seismicity: dynamics or heterogeneity? V.2 Critical earthquakes ...

Sornette, D

2008-01-01

248

Synthetic approaches to multifunctional indenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synthesis of multifunctional indenes with at least two different functional groups has not yet been extensively explored. Among the plausible synthetic routes to 3,5-disubstituted indenes bearing two different functional groups, such as the [3-(aminoethylinden-5-yl]amines, a reasonable pathway involves the (5-nitro-3-indenylacetamides as key intermediates. Although several multistep synthetic approaches can be applied to obtain these advanced intermediates, we describe herein their preparation by an aldol-type reaction between 5-nitroindan-1-ones and the lithium salt of N,N-disubstituted acetamides, followed immediately by dehydration with acid. This classical condensation process, which is neither simple nor trivial despite its apparent directness, permits an efficient entry to a variety of indene-based molecular modules, which could be adapted to a range of functionalized indanones.

Neus Mesquida

2011-12-01

249

Legal approaches to injury prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injury prevention can be achieved, but it will require a fundamental reexamination of our approach to injury causation. We must learn to examine the manufacturing and marketing practices of companies that produce the products associated with children's injuries, for these are the real culprits in our national childhood injury plague. Most importantly, we must learn to demand from industry that it take injury prevention seriously. If it refuses to do so it must face the consequences before the American system of justice. Legal advocacy can be a valuable tool in this effort. The legal system provides the means to pierce the corporate veil of secrecy and to learn how and why products are made of hazardous design. Under the light of public scrutiny, culprit companies can be made to pay the price for producing hazardous products. Only in this manner will industry be given the incentive to increase product safety. PMID:3975090

Swartz, E M

1985-02-01

250

A programming approach to computability  

CERN Document Server

Computability theory is at the heart of theoretical computer science. Yet, ironically, many of its basic results were discovered by mathematical logicians prior to the development of the first stored-program computer. As a result, many texts on computability theory strike today's computer science students as far removed from their concerns. To remedy this, we base our approach to computability on the language of while-programs, a lean subset of PASCAL, and postpone consideration of such classic models as Turing machines, string-rewriting systems, and p. -recursive functions till the final chapter. Moreover, we balance the presentation of un solvability results such as the unsolvability of the Halting Problem with a presentation of the positive results of modern programming methodology, including the use of proof rules, and the denotational semantics of programs. Computer science seeks to provide a scientific basis for the study of information processing, the solution of problems by algorithms, and the design ...

Kfoury, A J; Arbib, Michael A

1982-01-01

251

The thermodynamic approach to market  

CERN Document Server

The first (Russian) edition of the book was among the first monographs on econophysics. The book gives an explanation of several intriguing phenomena, providing new insights and answers to some deeply vexing questions. Why the economic "shock therapy" implemented in Eastern Europe was doomed to a failure whereas the approach adopted by China and Vietnam should inevitably lead to economic growth (damped, perhaps, by corruption and inconsistencies)? Why some restrictions imposed on markets are dangerous? Politicians (and laymen) usually believe that the more restrictions you impose on the society, the easier it is to govern. The reality seems to be more subtle. Some restrictions are necessary for the markets to function. However, restrictions on salary, for example, seem to always result in unemployment, as a simple "spin" model shows. Evidently, optimizing freedom is an equilibrium problem, and none of the extrema is devoid of danger. Why should crooked dealings be prevented? What is a reasonable rate of taxat...

Sergeev, Victor

2008-01-01

252

Conformal approach to cylindrical DLA  

CERN Document Server

We extend the conformal mapping approach elaborated for the radial Diffusion Limited Aggregation model (DLA) to the cylindrical geometry. We introduce in particular a complex function which allows to grow a cylindrical cluster using as intermediate step a radial aggregate. The grown aggregate exhibits the same self-affine features of the original cylindrical DLA. The specific choice of the transformation allows us to study the relationship between the radial and the cylindrical geometry. In particular the cylindrical aggregate can be seen as a radial aggregate with particles of size increasing with the radius. On the other hand the radial aggregate can be seen as a cylindrical aggregate with particles of size decreasing with the height. This framework, which shifts the point of view from the geometry to the size of the particles, can open the way to more quantitative studies on the relationship between radial and cylindrical DLA.

Taloni, A; Loreto, V; Pietronero, L; Taloni, Alessandro; Caglioti, Emanuele; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

2006-01-01

253

SIMD approach to IDA* search  

Science.gov (United States)

Heuristic search is a fundamental component of artificial intelligence applications. Because search routines are frequently a computational bottleneck, numerous methods have been explored to increase the efficiency of search. While sequential search methods use exponential amounts of storage and yield exponential run times, parallel algorithms designed for MIMD machines significantly reduce the time spent in search. In this paper, we present a massively- parallel SIMD approach to search named MIDA* search. The components of MIDA* include a very fast distribution algorithm which biases the search to one side of the tree, and an incrementally-deepening depth-first search of all the processors in parallel. We show the results of applying MIDA* to instances of the fifteen puzzle problem. Results reveal an efficiency of 76% and a speedup of 8553% and 492% over serial and 16- processor MIMD algorithms, respectively.

Lyons, Gary; Cook, Dianne J.

1992-03-01

254

[Pathogenetic approaches to treating constipations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Constipation affects 15-25% of people. Its mechanisms are various. There are constipations due to intestinal dyskinesia (functional constipation, irritated bowel syndrome), slow transit (colonic inertia), and muscular apparatus discoordination ensuring defecation (dyssynergic defecation). The treatment of different types of constipation uses prokinetics (type 4 serotonin receptor agonists, chlorine channels activators and guanylate cyclase C channel activators) or spasmolytics, among which pinaverium bromide (dicetel) has demonstrated its high efficacy. Biofeedback therapy or surgical techniques may be used. There is a need to prescribe laxatives in any type of constipation. A pathogenetic approach to treating constipation is most efficient. The paper characterizes stimulant, osmotic, volume, and emollient laxatives and agents stimulating the urge to defecate. It also gives the data of meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of different drug groups. Particular emphasis is laid of the effect of lactulose and its first preparation--duphalac. PMID:25306754

Luzina, E V

2014-01-01

255

Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches  

CERN Document Server

Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

2011-01-01

256

Elliptic curves a computational approach  

CERN Document Server

The basics of the theory of elliptic curves should be known to everybody, be he (or she) a mathematician or a computer scientist. Especially everybody concerned with cryptography should know the elements of this theory. The purpose of the present textbook is to give an elementary introduction to elliptic curves. Since this branch of number theory is particularly accessible to computer-assisted calculations, the authors make use of it by approaching the theory under a computational point of view. Specifically, the computer-algebra package SIMATH can be applied on several occasions. However, the book can be read also by those not interested in any computations. Of course, the theory of elliptic curves is very comprehensive and becomes correspondingly sophisticated. That is why the authors made a choice of the topics treated. Topics covered include the determination of torsion groups, computations regarding the Mordell-Weil group, height calculations, S-integral points. The contents is kept as elementary as poss...

Schmitt, Susanne; Pethö, Attila

2003-01-01

257

An Experimental Approach to Starshades  

Science.gov (United States)

A starshade is an external occulter that flies tens of thousands of kilometers in front of a space telescope, along the line-of-sight to a star. A starshade blocks starlight before it enters the telescope, mitigating diffraction, and making Earth-like planets observable. The starshade testbed at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) is capable of testing the performance of sub-scale starshades in mission-similar configurations. Thus far at NGAS, starshades have suppressed a simulated star to the 10-7 contrast level or better across a broad white light bandpass. The goal of the testbed has been deep starlight suppression, but it is also important to understand starshade sensitivity to shape deformations. The purpose of this poster is to summarize our approach and initial results of assessing the impact of starshade shape flaws on performance using the testbed. We are working toward a convergence of experimental results and theoretical predictions.

Samuele, Rocco; Varshneya, R.; Glassman, T.; Johnson, A. M. F.; Shipley, A.

2010-01-01

258

Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant “additivity” properties: (i existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i and (ii are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the Markov order. The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally “most random” distributions.

Alexander N. Gorban

2010-05-01

259

An infrared approach to Reggeization  

CERN Document Server

We present a new approach to Reggeization of gauge amplitudes based on the universal properties of their infrared singularities. Using the "dipole formula", a compact ansatz for all infrared singularities of massless amplitudes, we study Reggeization of singular contributions to high-energy amplitudes for arbitrary color representations, and any logarithmic accuracy. We derive leading-logarithmic Reggeization for general cross-channel color exchanges, and we show that Reggeization breaks down for the imaginary part of the amplitude at next-to-leading logarithms and for the real part at next-to-next-to-leading logarithms. Our formalism applies to multiparticle amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics, and constrains possible corrections to the dipole formula starting at three loops.

Del Duca, Vittorio; Gardi, Einan; Magnea, Lorenzo; White, Chris D

2011-01-01

260

Approaches for Keyword Query Routing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing number of datasets published on the Web as linked data brings both opportunities for high data availability of data. As the data increases challenges for querying also increases. It is very difficult to search linked data using structured languages. Hence, we use Keyword Query searching for linked data. In this paper, we propose different approaches for keyword query routing through which the efficiency of keyword search can be improved greatly. By routing the keywords to the relevant data sources the processing cost of keyword search queries can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we contrast and compare four models – Keyword level, Element level, Set level and query expansion using semantic and linguistic analysis. These models are used for keyword query routing in keyword search.

Mrs. Suwarna Gothane

2014-10-01

261

Repository sealing design approach, 1979  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents an initial but comprehensive and logical design approach for sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels to and near a geologic nuclear waste repository. Four basic alternative design goals have been considered varying from returning the repository formation to its original permeability to providing seals which control potential radioactivity release to an acceptable level with a margin of safety, the latter being recommended. To limit the consequences to acceptable limits, a seal is placed either as a barrier against fluid flow into the reposistory or as a barrier against the radionuclide migration out of the repository. The latter function can be achieved by a combination of multiple seal components with either low permeability or high radionuclide adsorption capacity. Four distinct design periods have been identified: zero to 300 years, 300 to 1000 years, 1000 to 100,000 years, and beyond 100,000 years. Considerations regarding seal environment, seal material, seal geometry and conceptual designs have been presented

262

Hybrid Approach to Reinforcement Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a general framework in which an autonomous agent tries to learn an optimal policy of actions from direct interaction with the surrounding environment (RL). However, one difficulty for the application of RL control is its slow convergence, especially in environments with continuous state space. In this paper, a modified structure of RL is proposed to speed up reinforcement learning control. In this approach, supervision technique is combined with the standard Q-learning, a model-free algorithm of reinforcement learning. The a priori information is provided to the RL by an optimal LQ-controller, used to indicate preferred actions at intermittent times. It is shown that the convergence speed of the supervised RL agent is greatly improved compared to the conventional Q-Learning algorithm. Simulation work and results on the cart-pole balancing problem are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Boulebtateche, Brahim; Fezari, Mourad; Boughazi, Mohamed

2008-06-01

263

Congregational analysis revisited: empirical approaches  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The research problem of concern here is: What criteria should be used when congregations are analysed? Congregations as faith communities are defined variously. Discerning the local congregation as a defined and as an empirical subject plays a major role in answering the research question. The theol [...] ogical points of departure are that any measure of a local congregation has to deal with issues like faithfulness to the gospel and the missional identity and integrity of the congregation as a contextual faith community. The hypothesis is that, when theologically informed and motivated, congregations can and should be analysed in the process of continuing reformation. This article describes a number of approaches to and outcomes of empirical research related to congregational analysis. Follow-up research to be submitted for publication will deal with the missional identity, the ministerial role-fulfilment of the congregation, and a proposal to analyse these in a way that is theologically faithful and contextually relevant.

Malan, Nel.

264

Rheological approaches to food systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Foods, consumer products and cosmetics belong to a wide range of colloidal and non-colloidal materials. Often, they are composite materials comprising several classes of fluid and solid constituents, including biopolymer gels, particulate suspensions, emulsions and foams. Length scales relevant for such materials may be anywhere between those associated with the molecular conformation of the ingredients up to long-scale dimensions of processing flows. The corresponding time scales may be in the sub-millisecond regime during aggregation of the ingredients or up to years during the shelf life of the final product. Rheological research of food material focuses on both the interaction between its ingredients, which might exhibit a complex rheological response function themselves and the influence of processing on the food structure and its properties. This brief overview summarizes suitable food rheology approaches and is grouped by the degree of abstraction of length scales and interactions. To cite this article: P. Fischer et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

Fischer, Peter; Pollard, Michael; Erni, Philipp; Marti, Irene; Padar, Stefan

2009-11-01

265

Managerial Leadership - A Theoretical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper endeavors to offer an overview of the major theories on leadership and the way in which it influences the management of contemporary organizations. Numerous scholars highlight that there are numerous overlaps between the concepts of management and leadership. This is the reason why the first section of the paper focuses on providing an extensive overview of the literature regarding the meaning of the two aforementioned concepts. The second section addresses more in depth the concept of leadership and managerial leadership and focuses on the ideal profile of the leader. The last section of the paper critically discusses various types of leadership and more specifically modern approaches to the concept and practices of leadership.

Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

2007-06-01

266

Diffraction operators in paraxial approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Añez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

2014-07-01

267

Autobot Evolution: A Futuristic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SCABOR is an approach for the 3-D lane detection and autonomous driving. Its main attribute is to diagnose the metrology of roads. It has a wide significance in determining the basic structure, the presence of humps and dips and gives a clear and cache information of the way .Our view on this paper is to apply SCABOR along with the application of the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM in autonomous driving system for safe and fast driving. Here the SCABOR technology’s currentapplication is outlined and its use has been extended to traffic system. We have suggested a unique method for flexible driving. We also suggest ways in which SCABOR technology can be enhanced forfuture applications. Among the significant advantages, these techniques perform well even in high risk zones and congested areas with up to 100% accuracy where many other techniques fail.

N.Hariharan#

2011-06-01

268

Inverse approach to design magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An inverse approach is always better to design an optimised magnet, where the field profile is known, rather than tuning the geometry of the magnet till the desired profile is achieved. We have developed an optimizer based on standard multi dimensional Newton-Raphson technique. The optimum geometry of a magnet is obtained by a combination of analytical and numerical methods. This code is versatile and can be used to design various magnets used in different applications. Here we present two different cases to show the efficiency of the code. First, we present the design of a solenoid magnet for a.c. susceptibility set up. Second, we describe the design of two pairs of Helmholtz coils for ion beam deflection. (author)

269

Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

Fatemeh Rahiminejad

2010-07-01

270

Speech Recognition Using Stochastic Approach: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s world, Speech Recognition is very important and popular. Automatic Speech Recognition System consists of three phases: Preprocessing, Feature Extraction and Recognition. Speech recognition is the process of converting spoken words into text. In case of speech recognition the research followers are mainly using three different approaches namely Acoustic phonetic approach, Pattern recognition approach and Artificial intelligence approach. The main goal of this paper is to discuss the various techniques of speech recognition and study Hidden Markov Model of stochastic approach to develop voice based, user friendly interface software system.

RANU DIXIT

2013-02-01

271

Spinal trauma. An imaging approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the auths, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

272

Spinal trauma. An imaging approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Imhof, H. [University and General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics

2006-07-01

273

Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia. PMID:24219006

Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

2014-05-01

274

Transradial approach for coronary interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of coronary interventions performed through the radial artery. METHODS: We studied 103 patients with ages from 38 to 86 years (57±8.7, 90 (87% males, and: radial pulse with a good amplitude, presence of ulnar pulse, a good collateral flow through the palmar arch assessed with the Allen's test. RESULTS: The vascular approach was obtained in 97 (94% patients, 88 (91% treated electively and 9 (9% during acute myocardial infarction, for primary angioplasty; 56 (64% unstable angina; 22 (25% stable angina; 10 (11% were asymptomatic, 6 referred for recanalization of chronic occlusion and 4 silent ischemia in the first week after acute myocardial infarction. We approached 107 arteries: anterior descending artery, 49 (46%; right coronary artery, 27 (25%; circumflex artery, 25 (23%; diagonal artery, 6 (6%; and 2 saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 129 lesions: 80 (62% B2 type; 23 (18% B1 type; 17 (13% C type; and 9 (7%. A type. There were 70 stents , and 59 balloon angioplasties performed. Thirty-two (33% patients used GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The mean duration of the elective procedure was 42.3±12.8 min. Success, correct stent deployment and residual lesion <20%, was reached in 100% of the lesions treated with stent implantation; arterial dilation with residual lesion <50% was obtained in 96% of the lesions treated with transluminal coronary angioplasty (TCA. Complications, were: 1 (1.0% non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction; 2 (2% hematomas in the forearm; and 2 losses of radial pulse. CONCLUSION: Radial artery aproach is practical and safe for percutaneous coronary interventions there was a low incidence of complications.

Brito José Carlos

2001-01-01

275

Nonlinear approach in nuclear dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is focused on the various approaches that use the concept of nonlinear dispersive waves (solitons) in nonrelativistic nuclear physics. The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is shown that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The both instabilities may compensate each other and lead to stable solutions (solitons). A static scission configuration in cold ternary fission is considered in the framework of mean field approach. We suggest to use the inverse mean field method to solve single-particle Schroedinger equation, instead of constrained selfconsistent Hartree-Fock equations. It is shown, that it is possible to simulate one-dimensional three-center system in the approximation of reflectless single-particle potentials. The soliton-like solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries equation are using to describe collective excitations of nuclei observed in inelastic alpha-particle and proton scattering. The analogy between fragmentation into parts of nuclei and buckyballs has led us to the idea of light nuclei as quasi-crystals. We establish that the quasi-crystalline structure can be formed when the distance between the alpha-particles is comparable with the length of the De Broglia parable with the length of the De Broglia wave of the alpha-particle. Applying this model to the scattering of alpha-particles we obtain that the form factor of the clusterized nucleus can be factorized into the formfactor of the cluster and the density of clusters in the nucleus. It gives possibility to study the distribution of clusters in nuclei and to resolve what kind of distribution we are dealing with: a surface or volume one

276

Semiclassical approaches to mesoscopic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review semiclassical methods of determining both average trends and quantum shell effects in the properties of finite fermion systems. I. Extended Thomas-Fermi model (ETF): the average, self-consistent mean field can be determined by density variational calculations using the semiclassical gradient-expanded ETF density functional for the kinetic energy. From this, average ground-state properties such as binding energies, densities, separation energies, etc. can be derived. II. Periodic orbit theory (POT): quantum oscillations in a mean-field system can be obtained from the semiclassical trace formula that expresses the quantum-mechanical density of states in terms of the periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system. Only the shortest periodic orbits with highest degeneracy are important for the coarse-grained level density, i.e., for the gross shell effects. Particular uniform approximations are required to treat systems with mixed classical dynamics due to the effects of symmetry breaking and orbit bifurcations. Ill. Local-current approximation (LCA): the collective dynamics of the fermions can be described in linear-response theory, approximating the particle-hole excitation operators semi-classically by local current distributions. The method is suitable in combination with both the ETF density variational approach or with the Kohn-Sham density functional approach for the ground state, and allows one to describe optic response properties such as static optic response properties such as static polarizabilities and plasmon resonances. Applications of all methods to metal clusters and various mesoscopic nano-structures are given. (author)

277

Nuclear security standard: Argentina approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentina has a comprehensive regulatory system designed to assure the security and safety of radioactive sources, which has been in place for more than fifty years. In 1989 the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission created the 'Council of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations' (CAPFMIN). This Council published in 1992 a Physical Protection Standard based on a deep and careful analysis of INFCIRC 225/Rev.2 including topics like 'sabotage scenario'. Since then, the world's scenario has changed, and some concepts like 'design basis threat', 'detection, delay and response', 'performance approach and prescriptive approach', have been applied to the design of physical protection systems in facilities other than nuclear installations. In Argentina, radioactive sources are widely used in medical and industrial applications with more than 1,600 facilities controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in spanish ARN). During 2005, measures like 'access control', 'timely detection of intruder', 'background checks', and 'security plan', were required by ARN for implementation in facilities with radioactive sources. To 'close the cycle' the next step is to produce a regulatory standard based on the operational experience acquired during 2005. ARN has developed a set of criteria for including them in a new standard on security of radioactive materials. Besides, a specific Regulatory Guide is being prepared toific Regulatory Guide is being prepared to help licensees of facilities in design a security system and to fulfill the 'Design of Security System Questionnaire'. The present paper describes the proposed Standard on Security of Radioactive Sources and the draft of the Nuclear Security Regulatory Guidance, based on our regulatory experience and the latest international recommendations. (author)

278

Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating whether task-based approaches bear any superiority to that of more traditional ones evident in presentation-practice- and production phase .to fulfill the purpose of the study, the participants within the age range of 11-19, took part in the study. Following a pretest, treatment, and a posttest, the obtained data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to examine the effects of the variables. The results of the analysis showed that participants in the PPP group did significantly better in the grammar recognition of the posttest than that of the task group. However, their counterparts in the task group gained better scores in the writing section of the test .this research study provided evidence in support of task proponents' claim in the merit of task-based activity in raising learners' implicit knowledge claiming to play the primary role in spontaneous speech.Keywords: Task-based language teaching, PPP model, focus on form, focus on meaning

Zahra Talebi

2015-07-01

279

Two approaches to physics tutoring  

Science.gov (United States)

One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

Solomaniuck, Tania

280

An intelligent approach to nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnolo

Demming, Anna

2013-11-01

281

Reactor protection system, diverse approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Defence in depth design criteria, applied to nuclear instrumentation, in particular to reactor protection systems (RPS), includes redundancy, diversity and fail-safe behaviour. Typical two out of three, majority-voting systems meet redundancy criteria. A careful analysis of signal levels and polarity and the use of several techniques such as lives zeros, bias toward safe state, etc. guarantee same degree of fail-safe behaviour. Diversity criteria, in general, is met by the whole system using more than one method to protect the integrity of reactor (i.e. rod drop plus boron injection), but it is not met by a single instrumentation chain. Moreover, the increased information needs of supervision systems encourage the use of digital instrumentation in RPS; if the digital instrumentation has software based implementation, the diversity requirement could be mandatory for the instrumentation of each system. In this work three possible configuration of the First Reactor Protection System (rod drop) are analysed, the first is the traditional hardware approach, the second is a software based system, and the third is a proposed mix system. For all configurations, a redundant system two out of four (2004) is assumed. Availability and reliability points of view are taken into account. For the unreliability/unavailability analysis global values are assumed (order of magnitude). For hardware a value H lower than 10-3 is assumed and for software an S value is assumed. The first possiare an S value is assumed. The first possible configuration is a hardwired architecture. By means of unreliability tree and using the gates formulas the value for unreliability UR = H is calculated. In similar way is possible compute total unavailability UA = H. The use of non-redundant final actuation logic lead to this result. The second possible configuration is a software based architecture. In this case field bus and serial bus are used, the unreliability and the unavailability computed is UR = UA 5 S + H. Finally, the proposed configuration, a software based with programmable hardware backup architecture is analysed. In this case the unreliability computed is UR = 15 H2 and the unavailability is UA S + 6 H With this approach reliability lies on hardware and availability/functionality lies on software. In addition, the proposed architecture makes practical the use of redundant Rod Voting and Actuation Logic (one by rod) and pushes the reliability to H2. Implementing the hardware backup by programmable logic we gain in flexibility, in order to fit the system in different facilities. But a new question is arisen; is programmable logic real hardware? To address this matter, a CPLD based system was developed and now it is under test in the experimental reactor RA1

282

Approach to chronic daily headache.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic daily headaches (CDH) is a descriptive term used for patients who experience headaches on at least 15 days or more out of the month; for at least 3 months, irrespective of the underlying headache etiology. It is a syndrome that affects many people, usually with an underlying primary headache disorder, leading to a reduction in quality of life. The two most common underlying primary headaches are migraines and tension-type headaches. The prevalence is about 4%, and research is emerging on risk factors and comorbidities. The first step when approaching a patient with chronic daily headaches is to rule out secondary causes. Once that is done, the goal is to effectively reduce the days of headache through preventive treatment as well as complementary therapies. This also often involves limiting the use of abortive therapy to avoid medication-overuse headaches (MOH). The pathophysiology, although not fully understood, is thought to be related to central sensitization along with "neurogenic inflammation." Chronic daily headaches can be difficult to treat and at times require a tertiary specialized center. PMID:25637288

Sheikh, Huma U

2015-03-01

283

Repository Closure and Sealing Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

284

Approaching invasive species in Madagascar  

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Full Text Available While a number of plants, animals, and insects in Madagascar have been called ’invasive’, the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both negative and positive effects on landscapes, on native biodiversity, and on livelihoods. Examples include the prickly pear (raketa, the silver wattle (mimosa, and, recently, the Asian common toad (radaka boka. Building on a conceptual approach to ’invasive species’, this paper emphasizes the importance of inclusive and deliberative site- and population - specific management of invasive species. It analyses three separate concepts commonly used in definitions of invasion: the origin, behaviour, and effects of particular species. It places these concepts in their broader social and ecological context, with particular attention to local perspectives on invasive species. We illustrate these concepts with Malagasy examples and data. The examples demonstrate that while invasions can have dramatic consequences, there can be multiple, often competing, interests as well as site - specific biophysical, environmental, and cultural considerations that need to be taken into account when designing policy and management interventions. We conclude with a number of lessons learned.

Christian A. Kull

2014-12-01

285

Fulfillment Request Management (The approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the term FRM (Fulfillment Request Management. According to the FRM in a BSS / OSS environment we can use a unified approach to implement a SOA in order to integrate BSS with OSS and handle 1. Orders 2. Events 3. Processes. So in a way that systems like ESB, Order Management, and Business Process Management can be implemented under a unified architecture and a unified implementation. We assume that all the above mentioned are 'requests' and according to the system we want to implement, the request can be an event, an order, a process etc. So instead of having N systems we have 1 system that covers all the above (ESB, Order Management, BPM etc With the FRM we can have certain advantages such as: 1. adaptation 2. Interoperability. 3. Re-usability 4. Fast implementation 5. Easy reporting. In this paper we present a set of the main principles in order to build an FRM System.

Stylianos Gkoutzioupas

2014-02-01

286

New approaches to building plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are here today with a group of representatives from a good number of the companies capable of building nuclear power plants to hold a roundtable discussion on a subject of importance, namely New approaches to building plants. I would mention that despite the hard times suffered by our industry, a significant number of Main Suppliers have stayed in business, along with an important associated industry in the fields of equipment goods, engineering and construction. In fact, not only has it been possible to maintain the high level of technology and experience achieved, but also to update and improve it. While navigating this sea of troubles our companies have continued to provide and efficient support to nuclear power plants in operation, develop solutions to upgrade them, build the few new power plants demanded by the market and create advanced designs for new programmes. It has not been easy, but the results are there for everyone to see. Our industry is prepared to tackle new projects based on the lessons learned from the construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants worldwide, and the efforts of firms and authorities around the world to prepare for the launching of future generations of power plants. The conclusion is that we can count on an industry that is alive, healthy and has a large potential for growth, and which is convinced that there is a need for nuclear energy and that the conditions for its future revival are swiftly improvingits future revival are swiftly improving

287

Therapeutic approach to epileptic encephalopathies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) are electroclinical entities with a peculiar course of disease; seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform abnormalities, ictal and interictal, contribute to progressive disturbance of cerebral functions. Frequently EEs are drug resistant, and consequences may be catastrophic. The main goal of treatment is to stop the peculiar course of epilepsy, operating on three parameters: seizure control, reduction of EEG abnormalities, and developmental outcome. For a correct therapeutic approach it is mandatory to have an as accurate as possible syndromic and etiologic diagnosis. Given the poor efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the use of specific drugs for EEs, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids or stiripentol is suggested. In some cases the choice of treatment is strictly related to the etiology: vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis, ketogenic diet in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, and pyridoxine in pyridoxine deficiency. Some AEDs combinations, such as sodium valproate with lamotrigine, have also provided interesting results, for example, in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, although controlled studies are lacking. Finally, early surgery can be an option in children with focal structural abnormalities responsible for EEs preferably before irreversible damage on developmental outcome. Multispecialist support is recommended in EE. Management should be global from the onset, integrating not only seizure control but also all issues related to comorbidities, particularly neuropsychological and psychiatric. PMID:24571117

Vigevano, Federico; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Plouin, Perrine; Specchio, Nicola

2013-11-01

288

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

Shruti Gupta

2013-06-01

289

Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

Graham, M. J.

2009-09-01

290

The Wonder Approach to learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children's learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children's sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

L'Ecuyer, Catherine

2014-01-01

291

Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

292

Protein solubilization: a novel approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formulation development presents significant challenges with respect to protein therapeutics. One component of these challenges is to attain high protein solubility (>50mg/ml for immunoglobulins) with minimal aggregation. Protein-protein interactions contribute to aggregation and the integral sum of these interactions can be quantified by a thermodynamic parameter known as the osmotic second virial coefficient (B-value). The method presented here utilizes high-throughput measurement of B-values to identify the influence of additives on protein-protein interactions. The experiment design uses three tiers of screens to arrive at final solution conditions that improve protein solubility. The first screen identifies individual additives that reduce protein interactions. A second set of B-values are then measured for different combinations of these additives via an incomplete factorial screen. Results from the incomplete factorial screen are used to train an artificial neural network (ANN). The "trained" ANN enables predictions of B-values for more than 4000 formulations that include additive combinations not previously experimentally measured. Validation steps are incorporated throughout the screening process to ensure that (1) the protein's thermal and aggregation stability characteristics are not reduced and (2) the artificial neural network predictive model is accurate. The ability of this approach to reduce aggregation and increase solubility is demonstrated using an IgG protein supplied by Minerva Biotechnologies, Inc. PMID:25270058

Johnson, David H; Wilson, W William; DeLucas, Lawrence J

2014-11-15

293

Angioedema: Diagnosis and treatment approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angioedema (AE is defined as sudden, localized and transient swelling of the skin and/or mucous membranes. This swelling condition is a result of interstitial edema from vasoactive mediators increasing the permeability of postcapillary venules of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. When localized to the skin, it presents as asymmetric, nonpitting, nondependent, and occasionally painful edema. However, mucosal attacks, such as laryngeal edema and bowel involvement can produce severe discomfort and life-threatening symptoms. There are several forms including those involving dysfunction or depletion of the C1-inhibitor gene (classical hereditary AE types and acquired AE, allergic AE, drug-induced AE (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced AE, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced AE, idiopathic and a recently described form, HAE type 3. These various forms of AE have overlapping symptoms, but some unique clinical and historical features as well as presence of accompanying urticaria can aid in the differential diagnosis. The key to successful management is to rule out conditions that masquerade as AE, detection and avoidance of triggers, early recognition of attacks, and aggressive airway management when warranted. In this article, common and rare forms as well as clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment approaches for AE are reviewed.

Ali Tahsin Güne?

2013-03-01

294

Australia: Approaching an energy crossroads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers energy policy in Australia in the context of its considerable energy resources, climate change and a recent change in government. It examines the possible paths that future energy use and policy in Australia could take, including published projections based largely on a 'business as usual' approach and projections based on a dramatic shift towards more efficient use of energy and renewable energy technologies. It also considers the various factors affecting future policy direction, including energy security, the advocacy in Australia for establishing nuclear electricity generation and other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle, responses to climate change, and carbon sequestration. It concludes that while the Australian Government is currently reluctant to move away from a dependence on coal, and unlikely to adopt nuclear energy generation, a low-emissions future without waiting for the deployment of carbon capture and storage and without resorting to nuclear power is within reach. However, in the face of strong pressure from interest groups associated with energy intensive industry, making the necessary innovations will require further growth of community concern about climate change, and the development of greater understanding of the feasibility of employing low carbon-emissions options.

295

Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 22} Hz), Photonic Energy (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 9} eV) and Wavelengths (10{sup -2} to 10{sup -15} m)). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

Tavitian, B. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

2009-07-01

296

Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (106 to 1022 Hz), Photonic Energy (10-4 to 109 eV) and Wavelengths (10-2 to 10-15 m). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

297

Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

Nasibeh Faghih

2013-01-01

298

Quasilinearization approach to quantum mechanics  

CERN Document Server

The quasilinearization method (QLM) of solving nonlinear differential equations is applied to the quantum mechanics by casting the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in the nonlinear Riccati form. The method, whose mathematical basis in physics was discussed recently by one of the present authors (VBM), approaches the solution of a nonlinear differential equation by approximating the nonlinear terms by a sequence of the linear ones, and is not based on the existence of some kind of a small parameter. It is shown that the quasilinearization method gives excellent results when applied to computation of ground and excited bound state energies and wave functions for a variety of the potentials in quantum mechanics most of which are not treatable with the help of the perturbation theory or the 1/N expansion scheme. The convergence of the QLM expansion of both energies and wave functions for all states is very fast and already the first few iterations yield extremely precise results. The precison of the wave function is typi...

Krivec, R

2003-01-01

299

Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

Misra Usha

2008-01-01

300

Dosimetric approaches: pregnancy and lactation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern to the evaluation of radiation dose since radiation protection point of view: a)- The females overall body size and organ sizes are generally smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics), the effective doses could be 25 per cent higher than a man; b)- Female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry; female gonads doses could be up to 10 or 30 higher than male gonads (usually 3 order); c)- Risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; d)- During the pregnancy due to placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation exposure from the urinary bladder the embryo/fetus could receive doses that must be avoid; e)- In the case of nursing infant is of special concern in such an analysis to determine the interruption period to avoid doses in the nursing infant. The dosimetric approaches to take account to assess internal doses in the pregnant woman and during the breast feeding are discussed. (author)

301

The wonder approach to learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder, no end or meaning (no beauty and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment, the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole.

Catherine L'Ecuyer

2014-10-01

302

Intelligent Approaches for Vectorizing Image Outlines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two computing approaches, based on linear and conic splines, are proposed here in reviewed and extended for vectorizing image outlines. Both of the approaches have various phases including extracting outlines of images, detecting corner points from the detected outlines, and curve fitting. Interpolation splines are the bases of the two approached. Linear spline approach is straight forward as it does not have a degree of freedom.in terms of some shape controller in its description. However, the idea of the soft computing approach, namely simulated annealing, has been utilized for conic splines. This idea has been incorporated to optimize the shape parameters in the description of the generalized conic spline. Both of the linear and conic approaches ultimately produce optimal results for the approximate vectorization of the digital contours obtained from the generic shapes.

2013-01-01

303

Approach Merotopies and Associated Near Sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces associated near sets of a collection of sets. The proposed approach introduces a means of defining as well as describing an ?-approach merotopy in terms of the members of associated sets of collections that are sufficiently near. A characterization for continuous functions is established using associated near sets. This article also introduces p-containment considered in the context of near sets. An application of the proposed approach is given in terms of digital image classification.

James Peters

2013-04-01

304

Interdisciplinary approach to palatally impacted canine  

OpenAIRE

Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. The article highlights the salient features and various surgical and orthodontic considerations to approach cases with impacted canines. It is exemplified with a case in which a palatally impacted canine and a highly placed canine in the buccal vestibule have been surgically intervened and orthodontica...

Goel, Ashish; Loomba, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Sharma, Naresh

2010-01-01

305

Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict  

OpenAIRE

Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2–6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substr...

Bach, Dominik r; Guitart-masip, Marc; Packard, Pau a; Miro?, Ju?lia; Falip, Merce?; Fuentemilla, Llui?s; Dolan, Raymond j

2014-01-01

306

THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY  

OpenAIRE

The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the cri...

MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE; BOGDAN GEORGESCU

2012-01-01

307

Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

Lambovska Maya

2011-09-01

308

A HYBRID APPROACH FOR RURAL FEEDER DESIGN  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, a population based approach for conductor size selection in rural radial distribution system is presented. The proposed hybrid approach implies a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach in combination with mutant property of differential evolution (DE) for conductor size selection in radial distribution system. The conductor size for each feeder segment is selected such that the total cost of capital investment and capitalized cost of energy losses is minimized while constra...

DAMANJEET KAUR

2012-01-01

309

Complementary integrative approach for treating pruritus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat pruritus for both patients and medical providers. CAM includes natural products, mind-body medicine, and manipulative and body-based practices. In this overview, we summarize current evidence, possible mechanisms and clinical approaches for treating pruritus with CAM techniques. We focus on pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis, herpes zoster, chronic urticaria, burns, and postoperative contexts where the evidence for CAM approaches is promising. PMID:23551371

Pfab, F; Schalock, P C; Napadow, V; Athanasiadis, G I; Yosipovitch, G; Ring, J

2013-01-01

310

Information Retrieval Using a Middleware Approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores the use of a mediator/wrapper approach to enable the search of an existing library management system using different information retrieval protocols. It proposes an architecture for a software component that will act as an intermediary between the library system and search services. It provides an overview of different approaches to add Z39.50 and Search/Retrieval via URL (SRU) functionality using a middleware approach that is implemented on the BISIS library management sy...

Boberic? Krstic?ev, Danijela Faculty Of Sciences

2013-01-01

311

Information Security Awareness: An Innovation Approach  

OpenAIRE

Scholars and security practitioners seem to converge in the understanding that Information Security is in great part a problem about people; hence the need for a more holistic approach in order to understand human behaviour in the Information Security field which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Recent events such as the “Interdisciplinary Workshop on Security and Human Behaviour” hosted in Boston, Massachusetts in June 2008, are considering this approach and they have conveyed a m...

Corona, Carlos Orozco

2010-01-01

312

Methodological Approaches in Developmental Neuroimaging Studies  

OpenAIRE

Pediatric neuroimaging is increasingly providing insights into the neural basis of cognitive development. Indeed, we have now arrived at a stage where we can begin to identify optimal methodological and statistical approaches to the acquisition and analysis of developmental imaging data. In this article, we describe a number of these approaches and how their selection impacts the ability to examine and interpret developmental effects. We describe preferred approaches to task selection, defini...

Luna, Beatriz; Velanova, Katerina; Geier, Charles F.

2010-01-01

313

Belene nuclear power plant contracting approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historically, three main types of project execution and contractual approaches have been applied to energy and industrial projects, including nuclear projects. These approaches are grouped into three broad categories: 1) Turnkey Approach; 2) Split Package (Island) Approach; and 3)Multiple Package Approach. Based on a preliminary screening done by an ongoing feasibility study work for NPP Belene (NEK contract to Parsons E and C), the recommended approach is going to follow that general trend i.e., with some variation between the Split Package and the Turnkey approach. Before deciding on an execution approach or at least before issuing bid specifications for the nuclear power plant, it is prudent, even for a country with existing nuclear power program (like Bulgaria), to re-check/verify capabilities of the interested bidders to handle contracts of this size and nature. During the last decades, nuclear energy went through a substantial restructuring and most of the capabilities (human and financial) that existed before are not any more available. This re-checking should mainly cover the experience of the bidders as regards the design, construction and operation of the stations where they were involved, but also include items such as local experience, capability to bring favorable financing, liability coverage, general background, potential and organizational structures. The advantages and disadvantages for the Owner of the three contracting approaches can be briefly summarized as follows: Turnkey Approach - main advantages: all responsibilities rest in a Contractor or Consortium. Main disadvantages - limited project control by Owner and restricted local participation. For Split Package Contract Approach main advantage are more favorable financing conditions and increased local participation. Main disadvantage is the increased interface problems. For Multiple package Contract Approach main advantages are the opportunity to tailor the plant and maximum increase of local participation. Main disadvantages are maximum responsibility to the Owner due to interfaces and compatibility of systems and technologies. (author)

314

Posterior approach to ventrally located spinal meningiomas  

OpenAIRE

For the resection of anteriorly located meningiomas, various approaches have been used. Posterior approach is less invasive and demanding; however, it has been associated with increased risk of spinal cord injury. We evaluated ten consecutive patients that underwent surgery for spinal meningiomas. All patients were preoperative assessed by neurological examination, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All tumors were ventrally located and removed via a posterior approach. Trans...

Voulgaris, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A.; Mihos, Evaggelos; Karagiorgiadis, Dimitrios; Zigouris, Andreas; Fotakopoulos, George; Drosos, Dimitrios; Pahaturidis, Dimitrios

2010-01-01

315

English Reading Base on Social Constructivist Approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper explains the constructivist approach to reading teaching and shows how a dialogic approach to reading empowers readers to position themselves as participants in making meaning together with the text and its authors, rather than remaining as mute outsiders to the reading process. This shift in constructing reader -roles means that our students need to take a strategic approach to their reading, and will need careful scaffolding to help them develop effective, independent reading str...

Qian Huang

2009-01-01

316

A Likelihood Ratio Approach for Probabilistic Inequalities  

OpenAIRE

We propose a new approach for deriving probabilistic inequalities based on bounding likelihood ratios. We demonstrate that this approach is more general and powerful than the classical method frequently used for deriving concentration inequalities such as Chernoff bounds. We discover that the proposed approach is inherently related to statistical concepts such as monotone likelihood ratio, maximum likelihood, and the method of moments for parameter estimation. A connection b...

Chen, Xinjia

2013-01-01

317

Language Teaching and Task Based Approach  

OpenAIRE

During recent years, some notions about tasks have been considered as the major part of analysis in different teaching approaches and teachers are being more interested in the use of task-based approach both in foreign and in second language teaching. The word 'task' refers to some special activities that are carried out in the classroom. These activities are performed by putting an emphasis on meaning. In this approach Grammatical Competence and communicative competence are extremely emphasi...

Sayed Mahdi Rozati

2014-01-01

318

A psychological approach to the study skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many researches about the formation of professional skills for pedagogical students during training process, and they have given certain results. These researches often approach this problem follow two ways.First, it is the way which approaches to technique aspects and manipulation of the action during the process of human activities. Second, it is the way which approaches to capacity of human actions. We would like to approach toward skills which are the ability to perform an action of human being.

Fang K. L.

2012-12-01

319

Hopf bifurcation analysis a frequency domain approach  

CERN Document Server

This book is devoted to the frequency domain approach, for both regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcation analyses. Besides showing that the time and frequency domain approaches are in fact equivalent, the fact that many significant results and computational formulas obtained in the studies of regular and degenerate Hopf bifurcations from the time domain approach can be translated and reformulated into the corresponding frequency domain setting, and be reconfirmed and rediscovered by using the frequency domain methods, is also explained. The description of how the frequency domain approach can b

Moiola, Jorge L

1996-01-01

320

Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

Dale, Michael

2010-09-15

321

A Unified Approach to Modeling and Programming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

SIMULA was a language for modeling and programming and provided a unied approach to modeling and programming in contrast to methodologies based on structured analysis and design. The current development seems to be going in the direction of separation of modeling and programming. The goal of this paper is to go back to the future and get inspiration from SIMULA and propose a unied approach. In addition to reintroducing the contributions of SIMULA and the Scandinavian approach to object-oriented programming, we do this by discussing a number of issues in modeling and programming and argue3 why we consider a unied approach to be an advantage.

Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; MØller-Pedersen, Birger

2010-01-01

322

Personalized medicine approaches in epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epilepsy affects 50 million persons worldwide, a third of whom continue to experience debilitating seizures despite optimum anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment. Twelve-month remission from seizures is less likely in female patients, individuals aged 11-36 years and those with neurological insults and shorter time between first seizure and starting treatment. It has been found that the presence of multiple seizures prior to diagnosis is a risk factor for pharmacoresistance and is correlated with epilepsy type as well as intrinsic severity. The key role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of resistant epilepsy is becoming clear. Our work in this area suggests that high-mobility group box 1 isoforms may be candidate biomarkers for treatment stratification and novel drug targets in epilepsy. Furthermore, transporter polymorphisms contributing to the intrinsic severity of epilepsy are providing robust neurobiological evidence on an emerging theory of drug resistance, which may also provide new insights into disease stratification. Some of the rare genetic epilepsies enable treatment stratification through testing for the causal mutation, for example SCN1A mutations in patients with Dravet's syndrome. Up to 50% of patients develop adverse reactions to AEDs which in turn affects tolerability and compliance. Immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to AED therapy, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, are the most serious adverse reactions and have been associated with polymorphisms in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Pharmacogenetic screening for HLA-B*15:02 in Asian populations can prevent carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome. We have identified HLA-A*31:01 as a potential risk marker for all phenotypes of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity with applicability in European and other populations. In this review, we explore the currently available key stratification approaches to address the therapeutic challenges in epilepsy. PMID:25338670

Walker, L E; Mirza, N; Yip, V L M; Marson, A G; Pirmohamed, M

2015-02-01

323

Approaches to mitochondrial gene therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since their discovery during the end of the 80's the number of diseases found to be associated with defects in the mitochondrial genome has grown significantly. Organs affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) include in decreasing order of vulnerability the brain, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and liver. Hence neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases represent the two largest groups of mtDNA diseases. Despite major advances in understanding mtDNA defects at the genetic and biochemical level, there is however no satisfactory treatment available to the vast majority of patients. This is largely due to the fact that most of these patients have respiratory chain defects, i.e. defects that involve the final common pathway of oxidative metabolism, making it impossible to bypass the defect by administering alternative metabolic carriers of energy. Conventional biochemical treatment having reached an impasse, the exploration of gene therapeutic approaches for patients with mtDNA defects is warranted. For now mitochondrial gene therapy appears to be only theoretical and speculative. Any possibility for gene replacement is dependent on the development of an efficient mitochondrial transfection vector. In this review we describe the current state of the development of mitochondria-specific DNA delivery systems. We summarize our own efforts in exploring the properties of dequalinium and other similar cationic bolaamphiphiles with delocalized charge centers, for the design of a vector suited for the transport of DNA to mitochondria in living cells. Further, we outline some unique hurdles that need to be overcome if the development of such delivery systems is to progress. PMID:15384945

D'Souza, Gerard G M; Weissig, Volkmar

2004-09-01

324

Dual approaches for defects condensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. Due to the fact that the QCD running coupling constant becomes larger as we go into the low energy (or large distance) limit of the theory, a perturbative treatment of its infrared (IR) region is impossible. In particular, a formal mathematical demonstration of color confinement and a complete physical understanding of the exact mechanism that confines quarks and gluons are two missing points in our current knowledge of the IR-QCD. It was known that due to the Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields in a electric condensate that usual superconductors should confine magnetic monopoles. That point led to the conjecture that the QCD vacuum could be a condensate of chromomagnetic monopoles, a dual superconductor (DSC). Such a chromomagnetic condensate should be responsible for the dual Meissner effect which is expected to lead to the confinement of color charges immersed in this medium. In dual superconductor models of color confinement, magnetic monopoles appear as topological defects in points of the space where the abelian projection becomes singular. Also, condensation of other kinds of defects such as vortices in superfluids and line-like defects in solids are responsible for a great variety of phase transitions, which once more proves the relevance of the subject. In the present work we review two methods that allow us to approach the condensation of defects: the Kleinert Mechanism (KM) and the Julia-Toulouse Mechanism (JTM). We show that in the luse Mechanism (JTM). We show that in the limit where the vortex gauge field goes to zero, which we identify as the signature of the condensation of defects in the dual picture, these are two equivalent dual prescriptions for obtaining an effective theory for a phase where defects are condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where defects are diluted. (author)

325

Unified approach for incompressible flows  

Science.gov (United States)

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1995-01-01

326

An Indexical Approach to Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper uses Peirce’s notion of the index and Arendt’s conception of action and reification to cast light on a phenomenological consideration of architecture. The relation that Arendt establishes within a larger historical context between the contemporary reification of art and the socio-political role of action sets up a framework in which the need for a phenomenological approach to architecture is reasserted. In the past two hundred years, from the first age of historicism, marked by nineteenth-century historical relativism, to our second age of historicism, characterised by the recognition of relative historicity, there always were architects who sought the essence of architecture at a fundamentally human and experiential level. It is significant that in a period that wavered between eclectic relativism and rigid objectivism, a situation still felt today, the experience of architecture was consistently considered as an essential means to architecture. How does phenomenology operate beyond the categories of the objective and the relative, between the visible and the tangible? ?The paper explores ways in which architecture can physically question the user – is it a trace from the past, an imprint of its time, an index requiring movement for comprehension? Making space for the interpenetration of personal and shared times, the translation of the index in architecture does not dictate meaning or reduce it to an endless play between signifier and signified: it throws the question back to the level of the embodied encounter. Steering clear of a consideration of autonomous constructions, architecture is dynamically considered within a triadic relation that equally involves the architecture itself, the world in which it takes shape, and the people that experience it.

Anne Bordeleau

2014-07-01

327

Physical approach to complex systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but turned out to be very useful also in physics - like, for example, fractal geometry. Further methods discussed borrow from the formalism of complex networks, from the theory of critical phenomena and from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Each of these methods is helpful in analyses of specific aspects of complexity and all of them are mutually complementary.

Kwapie?, Jaros?aw; Dro?d?, Stanis?aw

2012-06-01

328

[Is a genetic approach to insomnia possible?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic approach of the sleep-wake cycle allowed the identification of several genes involved in the paradoxical sleep regulation and in narcolepsy. Concerning insomnia, a genetic study is more complex. Insomnia is indeed a wakefulness disorder defined by non quantitative biological parameters. The genetic approach of insomnia needs a more precise definition. PMID:11924039

Valatx, J L

2001-11-01

329

Narrative approach in psychological support of families  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are discussed opportunities of the narrative approach in psychological support of families. Advantages of the narrative approach are brevity, high efficiency and possibility to transfer responsibility for changes to families. In article such psychological technicians as a deconstruction, externalization, writing of alternative story are considered.

Preobrazhenskaya A. O.

2012-03-01

330

An Ecological Approach to Learning Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

New approaches to emergent learner-directed learning design can be strengthened with a theoretical framework that considers learning as a dynamic process. We propose an approach that models a learning process using a set of spatial concepts: learning space, position of a learner, niche, perspective, step, path, direction of a step and step…

Normak, Peeter; Pata, Kai; Kaipainen, Mauri

2012-01-01

331

A Professional Approach to PR Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

After reviewing some of the problems involved in a traditional approach to teaching, this paper introduces a teaching system based on a patterned approach to the public relations writing process. The system format which is presented involves an analysis of persuasive communication components, programmed questioning of traditional premises, and…

Nager, Norman R.

332

Changing Approaches to Teaching: A Relational Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the conceptions of teaching and learning of a group of 24 lecturers in first-year college physics and chemistry in Australia, and how those conceptions related to their approaches to teaching. Strong relations were found between conceptions of teaching and approaches to teaching, though relations between conceptions of teaching and…

Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

1996-01-01

333

Optimization approach within an interventional radiology department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present an approach aimed at optimizing working conditions and radioprotection for the different actors in interventional radiology. This approach comprises a monitoring of personnel dosimetry, a workstation analysis with risk assessment, and the taking into account of patient dosimetry. For each of these aspects, the authors discuss procedures and available devices (dosemeters and other detection or dose measurement equipment)

334

Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise

2009-01-01

335

Mutual information via thermodynamics: three different approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three different approaches for deriving mutual information via thermodynamics are presented. All approaches require the extension of the traditional physical framework and the modification of the second law of thermodynamics. A realization of a physical system with an effective temperature-dependent Hamiltonian is discussed and followed by a suggestion of a physical information–heat engine

336

A Novel Approach to Teaching Teamwork  

Science.gov (United States)

Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are "practically" based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during the…

Drake, Robert; Goldsmith, Geraldine; Strachan, Rebecca

2006-01-01

337

Applying Dynamic Evaluation Approach in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the current study was to implement a newly proposed evaluation method (Dimitropoulos, 1999), that is, the dynamic evaluation approach in the field of education. The dynamic approach was applied in order to evaluate the Olympic Education Program in Greece. The results of the present field study were encouraging. Dynamic evaluation…

Grammatikopoulos, V.; Koustelios, A.; Tsigilis, N.; Theodorakis, Y.

2004-01-01

338

A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

339

Approaches to Study of Distance Education Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares the approaches to study of external students to those of a matching sample of internal students and discusses the relevance of current learning theories to studies of mature external students. The usefulness of the "Approaches of Studying" inventory for describing study habits of external students is also examined. (MBR)

Harper, G.; Kember, D.

1986-01-01

340

An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

MacNab, Brent R.

2012-01-01

341

A completely covariant approach to transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

342

Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

Zou, You-Long; Hu, Fa-Long; Zhou, Can-Can; Li, Chao-Liu; Dunn, Keh-Jim

2013-12-01

343

Effects of Teacher Training in Disciplinary Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of four approaches to teacher preparation in classroom discipline, including Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training, Adlerian-based approaches, Glasser's Reality Therapy, and Canter's Assertive Discipline, are reviewed in this document. These systems have been widely used for inservice teacher education for a decade or more, and each has…

Emmer, Edmund T.

344

The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.

2008-01-01

345

A New Approach for Analytic Amplitude Calculations  

OpenAIRE

We present a method for symbolic calculation of Feynman amplitudes for processes involving both massless and massive fermions. With this approach fermion strings in a specific amplitude can be easily evaluated and expressed as basic Lorentz scalars. The new approach renders the symbolic calculation of some complicated physical processes more feasible and easier, especially with the assistance of algebra manipulating codes for computer.

Qiao, Cong-feng

2003-01-01

346

Coordinated approach to nuclear power plant design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An approach to the design of a nuclear power plant that coordinates operations, safety, and security requirements is presented. A number of steps in the approach are identified. Construction features, equipment, and procedural elements that must be considered in a coordinated, standardized design are identified. An example of a design concept that meets some of these requirments is described

347

Coordinated approach to nuclear power plant design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An approach to the design of a nuclear power plant that coordinates operations, safety, and security requirements is presented. A number of steps in the approach are identified. Construction features, equipment, and procedural elements that must be considered in a coordinated, standardized design are identified. An example of a design concept that meets some of these requirments is described.

Olascoaga, M.T.; Winblad, A.E.

1984-01-01

348

Parametrizing the mixing matrix : A unified approach  

OpenAIRE

A unified approach to parametrization of the mixing matrix for $N$ generations is developed. This approach not only has a clear geometrical underpinning but also has the advantage of being economical and recursive and leads in a natural way to the known phenomenologically useful parametrizations of the mixing matrix.

Chaturvedi, S.; Mukunda, N.

2000-01-01

349

Computational Approaches for Predicting Biomedical Research Collaborations  

OpenAIRE

Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict researc...

Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hong

2014-01-01

350

The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

2004-01-01

351

A Potts Neuron Approach to Communication Routing  

CERN Document Server

A feedback neural network approach to communication routing problems is developed with emphasis on Multiple Shortest Path problems, with several requests for transmissions between distinct start- and endnodes. The basic ingredients are a set of Potts neurons for each request, with interactions designed to minimize path lengths and to prevent overloading of network arcs. The topological nature of the problem is conveniently handled using a propagator matrix approach. Although the constraints are global, the algorithmic steps are based entirely on local information, facilitating distributed implementations. In the polynomially solvable single-request case the approach reduces to a fuzzy version of the Bellman-Ford algorithm. The approach is evaluated for synthetic problems of varying sizes and load levels, by comparing with exact solutions from a branch-and-bound method. With very few exceptions, the Potts approach gives legal solutions of very high quality. The computational demand scales merely as the product...

Häkkinen, J; Peterson, C; Söderberg, B

1998-01-01

352

Energy management - The delayed flap approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

Bull, J. S.

1976-01-01

353

An integrated approach to customer value: A comprehensive-practical approach  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents a comprehensive and practical approach to studying value from the customer point of view i.e. customer value (CV). It builds on three approaches to CV: the benefit-sacrifice, the means-end and the experiential. The developed integrated approach presents a more complete view on CV and its components than current approaches, offering a more meaningful guidance for marketing management activities.

Klanac, Natas?a Golik

2013-01-01

354

Comparison between Traditional Approach and Object-Oriented Approach in Software Engineering Development  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the comparison between Traditional approaches and Object-Oriented approach. Traditional approach has a lot of models that deal with different types of projects such as waterfall, spiral, iterative and v-shaped, but all of them and other lack flexibility to deal with other kinds of projects like Object-Oriented. Object-oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) is an object modeling language and methodology. The approach of using object - oriented techniques for designing a syst...

Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar; Govardhan, Dr A.

2011-01-01

355

Hybrid biasing approaches for global variance reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new variant of Monte Carlo—deterministic (DT) hybrid variance reduction approach based on Gaussian process theory is presented for accelerating convergence of Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS) approach implemented in the SCALE package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The new approach, denoted the Gaussian process approach, treats the responses of interest as normally distributed random processes. The Gaussian process approach improves the selection of the weight windows of simulated particles by identifying a subspace that captures the dominant sources of statistical response variations. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach utilizes particle importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive weight window biasing. In contrast to the FW-CADIS approach, the Gaussian process approach identifies the response correlations (via a covariance matrix) and employs them to reduce the computational overhead required for global variance reduction (GVR) purpose. The effective rank of the covariance matrix identifies the minimum number of uncorrelated pseudo responses, which are employed to bias simulated particles. Numerical experiments, serving as a proof of principle, are presented to compare the Gaussian process and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation of the estimated responses. - Highlights: ? Hybrid Monte Carlo s. - Highlights: ? Hybrid Monte Carlo Deterministic Method based on Gaussian Process Model is introduced. ? Method employs deterministic model to calculate responses correlations. ? Method employs correlations to bias Monte Carlo transport. ? Method compared to FW-CADIS methodology in SCALE code. ? An order of magnitude speed up is achieved for a PWR core model.

356

Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

"Understanding the Montessori Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Montessori Approach and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early childhood and and its…

Isaacs, Barbara

2012-01-01

357

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

358

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Pacific West Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western...

2010-07-01

359

Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

"Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Forest School Approach in Denmark and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early…

Williams-Siegfredsen, Jane

2011-01-01

360

Probabilistic approach to earthquake prediction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evaluation of any earthquake forecast hypothesis requires the application of rigorous statistical methods. It implies a univocal definition of the model characterising the concerned anomaly or precursor, so as it can be objectively recognised in any circumstance and by any observer.A valid forecast hypothesis is expected to maximise successes and minimise false alarms. The probability gain associated to a precursor is also a popular way to estimate the quality of the predictions based on such precursor. Some scientists make use of a statistical approach based on the computation of the likelihood of an observed realisation of seismic events, and on the comparison of the likelihood obtained under different hypotheses. This method can be extended to algorithms that allow the computation of the density distribution of the conditional probability of earthquake occurrence in space, time and magnitude. Whatever method is chosen for building up a new hypothesis, the final assessment of its validity should be carried out by a test on a new and independent set of observations. The implementation of this test could, however, be problematic for seismicity characterised by long-term recurrence intervals. Even using the historical record, that may span time windows extremely variable between a few centuries to a few millennia, we have a low probability to catch more than one or two events on the same fault. Extending the record of earthquakes of the past back in time up to several millennia, paleoseismology represents a great opportunity to study how earthquakes recur through time and thus provide innovative contributions to time-dependent seismic hazard assessment. Sets of paleoseimologically dated earthquakes have been established for some faults in the Mediterranean area: the Irpinia fault in Southern Italy, the Fucino fault in Central Italy, the El Asnam fault in Algeria and the Skinos fault in Central Greece. By using the age of the paleoearthquakes with their associated uncertainty we have computed, through a Montecarlo procedure, the probability that the observed inter-event times come from a uniform random distribution (null hypothesis. This probability is estimated approximately equal to 8.4% for the Irpinia fault, 0.5% for the Fucino fault, 49% for the El Asnam fault and 42% for the Skinos fault. So, the null Poisson hypothesis can be rejected with a confidence level of 99.5% for the Fucino fault, but it can be rejected only with a confidence level between 90% and 95% for the Irpinia fault, while it cannot be rejected for the other two cases. As discussed in the last section of this paper, whatever the scientific value of any prediction hypothesis, it should be considered effective only after evaluation of the balance between the costs and benefits introduced by its practical implementation.

G. D'Addezio

2002-06-01

361

Various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology, including the disciplinary, the problem-oriented and combined approaches. In the disciplinary approach, parasitology is taught in the classical manner as a coherent subject, covering parasite morphology, biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, pathology, immunology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapy, control, and prevention. Problem-oriented teaching approaches the subjects starting from diseases in animal species or from organ systems or other objectives (e.g. food safety); it also tackles training of skills for problem solving and self-learning. Combined approaches include elements of the disciplinary approach and those of other methods. A combined approach of teaching veterinary parasitology, including basic disciplinary teaching of at least 70-90 h, and additional problem-oriented education, was recently proposed in a resolution by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP News Lett. 5 (1) 3-4]. In 1999, a new curriculum has been established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Berne, originally planned as a combination of organ-focused and problem-based approach. This model was soon identified to cause problems in teaching some disciplines, including infectious diseases. Conversely, the short-term experiences with this combined approach also confirmed some advantages of problem-oriented teaching in other, mainly clinical domains. Nevertheless, closer interdisciplinary contact and collaboration--especially in elective teaching--was enforced between paraclinical and clinical teaching by reforming the curriculum. However, it turned out that large student numbers in relation to the resources of manpower, rooms and finances limited the workability of the curriculum. Therefore, further and probably continuous improvement of the curriculum is necessary. PMID:12354454

Gottstein, B; Eckert, J

2002-10-01

362

A Critical Approach for Building Teacher Knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper advocates a Popperian approach for empowering teachers to build knowledge when faced with uncertainty or obstacles.  It begins with a discussion of the need for schools to use a critical approach for knowledge development and sharing of knowledge.  Next, I discuss Popper’s three core concepts of critical rationalism to illustrate its relevance in teacher knowledge development, followed by a description of how journal keeping can be situated in Popper’s Three Worlds. The paper concludes with a discussion of how Popper’s approach can be effective in promoting and sustaining teacher knowledge growth.

Stephanie Chitpin

2010-04-01

363

Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories  

Science.gov (United States)

A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

2009-01-01

364

Cognitive-behavioral approaches to children's problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected issues in theory, research, methodology, assessment, and outcome are briefly discussed in the context of cognitive-behavioral approaches to children's problems. Distinctions between rationalistic and developmental varieties of cognitive approaches are delineated. Different assumptions are explored regarding the function and nature of cognitive processes, the nature and mechanisms of psychological change, and the relationship between cognitive and emotional processes. It is concluded that the empirical status of cognitive-behavioral approaches to children's problems is equivocal. The theoretical status of traditional (rationalistic) cognitive treatments is also challenged, and developmental, process-oriented conceptualizations and research are endorsed as more adequate and promising perspectives in this area. PMID:4045014

Mahoney, M J; Nezworski, M T

1985-09-01

365

Evaluating Modelling Approaches for Medical Image Annotations  

CERN Document Server

Information system designers face many challenges w.r.t. selecting appropriate semantic technologies and deciding on a modelling approach for their system. However, there is no clear methodology yet to evaluate "semantically enriched" information systems. In this paper we present a case study on different modelling approaches for annotating medical images and introduce a conceptual framework that can be used to analyse the fitness of information systems and help designers to spot the strengths and weaknesses of various modelling approaches as well as managing trade-offs between modelling effort and their potential benefits.

Opitz, Jasmin; Sattler, Ulrike

2010-01-01

366

A statistical approach to plasma profile analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general statistical approach to the parameterisation and analysis of tokamak profiles is presented. The modelling of the profile dependence on both the radius and the plasma parameters is discussed, and pertinent, classical as well as robust, methods of estimation are reviewed. Special attention is given to statistical tests for discriminating between the various models, and to the construction of confidence intervals for the parameterised profiles and the associated global quantities. The statistical approach is shown to provide a rigorous approach to the empirical testing of plasma profile invariance. (orig.)

367

Approaches of Buried Object Detection Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the different art of buried object detection technology and algorithms. This detection of buried object finds application in many areas, importantly in the Landmine detection which is of growing concern due to the danger of buried landmines to people’s lives, economic growth and development. This paper describes and analyzes different technology available. The approaches discussed are Electrical Impedance Tomography, X-ray backscatter, Infrared Systems, Acoustics/seismic systems; Neutron based Method and finally Ground-Penetrating Radar with two commonly available approaches: Least squares and SVD approach. Finally, the paper concludes highlighting the need to improve the way this information is processed and compared.

Nagashree R N

2014-03-01

368

Statistical inference an integrated Bayesianlikelihood approach  

CERN Document Server

Filling a gap in current Bayesian theory, Statistical Inference: An Integrated Bayesian/Likelihood Approach presents a unified Bayesian treatment of parameter inference and model comparisons that can be used with simple diffuse prior specifications. This novel approach provides new solutions to difficult model comparison problems and offers direct Bayesian counterparts of frequentist t-tests and other standard statistical methods for hypothesis testing.After an overview of the competing theories of statistical inference, the book introduces the Bayes/likelihood approach used throughout. It pre

Aitkin, Murray

2010-01-01

369

A HYBRID APPROACH FOR RURAL FEEDER DESIGN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a population based approach for conductor size selection in rural radial distribution system is presented. The proposed hybrid approach implies a particle swarm optimization (PSO approach in combination with mutant property of differential evolution (DE for conductor size selection in radial distribution system. The conductor size for each feeder segment is selected such that the total cost of capital investment and capitalized cost of energy losses is minimized while constraints of voltage at each node and current carrying capacity of conductor is within the limits. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with the help of 32-node test system.

DAMANJEET KAUR

2012-08-01

370

Multiscale modeling in solid mechanics computational approaches  

CERN Document Server

This unique volume presents the state of the art in the field of multiscale modeling in solid mechanics, with particular emphasis on computational approaches. For the first time, contributions from both leading experts in the field and younger promising researchers are combined to give a comprehensive description of the recently proposed techniques and the engineering problems tackled using these techniques. The book begins with a detailed introduction to the theories on which different multiscale approaches are based, with regards to linear Homogenisation as well as various nonlinear approach

Galvanetto, Ugo

2009-01-01

371

Deferred correction approach on generic transport equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a two dimensional Steady Convection-Diffusion was solved, using Deferred correction approach, and results were compared with standard spatial discretization schemes. Numerical investigations were carried out based on the velocity and flow direction, for various diffusivity coefficients covering a range from diffusive to convective flows. The results show that the Deferred Ted Correction Approach gives more accurate and stable results in relation to UDS and CDs discretization of convective terms. Deferred Correction Approach caters for the wiggles for convective flows in case of central difference discretization of the equation and also caters for the dissipative error generated by the first order upwind discretization of convective fluxes. (author)

372

Cavity Approach to the Random Solid State  

CERN Document Server

The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin.

Mao, X; Mézard, M; Weigt, M; Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M.; Mezard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

2005-01-01

373

The Planets Approach to Migration Tools  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the Planets approach to migration tool development. The approach consists of enhancing existing migration tools rather than developing tools from scratch. This pragmatic approach is based on the Planets view of the current situation for migration tools and two claims. The first claim is that the market will cover the required tools for commonly used formats. The second claim is that in the long term less tools will be required due to growing use of archiving standard formats. The Planets view on the current situation, the scope of tool development and the claims stated are, however, open for discussion and re-evaluation.

Zierau, Eld

2008-01-01

374

Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

1991-09-12

375

Non-Blocking Approach in Concurrency Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Majority of the research in database management system on conventional techniques requires additional efforts for deadlock detection and elimination. A deadlock occurs when a transaction waits for locks held by another transaction, which in turn, is waiting (directly or indirectly for locks held by the first transaction. In this paper we have proposed a method for non blocking approach in concurrency control. The proposed approach is a distributed approach for construction of data access graphs at data sites, within a distributed static locking environment.

Minakshi Sangwan

2014-06-01

376

Design margin approach in LMFBR nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new approach recommended for the treatment of core disruptive accidents in LMFBR safety is outlined. In place of the traditional approach in which an extreme assumed core disruption would be treated as a design basis accident for the plant containment, an approach which emphasizes prevention of such events to a confirmable low probability coupled with a margin of protection for unknowns is outlined. In addition, it is shown that the margin of protection may be provided by designing for characterized damage loadings. Recommendations are also made for standardization of these margins through national code committee action. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor is used as an example of the application of such an approach. 15 references. (U.S.)

377

A new approach to LIBOR modeling  

CERN Document Server

We provide a general and flexible approach to LIBOR modeling based on the class of affine factor processes. Our approach respects the basic economic requirement that LIBOR rates are non-negative, and the basic requirement from mathematical finance that LIBOR rates are analytically tractable martingales with respect to their own forward measure. Additionally, and most importantly, our approach also leads to analytically tractable expressions of multi-LIBOR payoffs. This approach unifies therefore the advantages of well-known forward price models with those of classical LIBOR rate models. Several examples are added and prototypical volatility smiles are shown. We believe that the CIR-process based LIBOR model might be of particular interest for applications, since closed form valuation formulas for caps and swaptions are derived.

Keller-Ressel, Martin; Teichmann, Josef

2009-01-01

378

A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

Capron, Alexander Morgan

1988-01-01

379

Amazing variational approach to chemical reactions  

OpenAIRE

In this letter we analyse an amazing variational approach to chemical reactions. Our results clearly show that the variational expressions are unsuitable for the analysis of empirical data obtained from chemical reactions.

Ferna?ndez, Francisco M.

2009-01-01

380

The 'Whole Diet' Approach to Nutrition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Whole Diet' Approach to Nutrition HealthDay February 23, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Dietary Fats ... of Health Page last updated on 3 April 2015

381

Everyday Life Sensing by Living Lab Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective, agile and trusted eServcies Co-creation needs to align the formalized business procedures with the need for innovating business genuinely on the spot, or ad-hoc, namely understanding the real needs of users. An emerging innovation approach called "Living Lab" is such a 'in-vivo' and 'in-situ' approach, which emphasizes understanding users' needs in their real life contexts. Living Lab is a combination of user-centric and context-centric innovation paradigm. In this paper, we present a study of everyday lives of Chinese University students by mobile sensing based Living Lab approach. Finally, we discuss the implications of Living Lab approach and our future work. 

Tingan Tang

2014-06-01

382

Kaehler metrics: String vs field theoretical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use both a string and a field theoretical approach in order to determine respectively the Kaehler metrics of untwisted and twisted open strings attached to magnetized D9 branes in toroidal compactifications. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

383

The 'Whole Diet' Approach to Nutrition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Whole Diet' Approach to Nutrition HealthDay February 23, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Dietary Fats ... of Health Page last updated on 4 April 2015

384

Different approaches to TMD Evolution with scale  

CERN Document Server

Many apparently contradictory approaches to TMD factorization and its non-perturbative content exist. This talk evaluated the different methods and proposed tools for resolving the contradictions and experimentally adjudicating the results.

Collins, John

2014-01-01

385

Synergistic approach to forecasting sustainable production systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An approach to forecasting of sustainable development of production systems based on the integrated use of the provisions of scientific knowledge on the basis of dialectical and synergetic theories.

Olga Shygaeva

2014-04-01

386

A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Recent advances in developmental biology have yielded detailed models of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) involved in cell specification and other processes in embryonic differentiation. Such networks form the bedrock on which a systems biology approach to developme...

387

Downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Nighttime vehicle detection is an essential problem to be solved in the development of highway surveillance systems that provide information about the vehicle speed, traffic volume, and traffic jams, and so on. In this paper, a novel downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection is presented. In the proposed approach, a rough position of vehicle headlights is detected first. Then, a downhill simplex optimization approach is adopted to find the accurate location of vehicle headlights. For the optimization process, a novel cost function is designed and various headlights are evaluated for possible headlight positions on the detected vehicles, locating an optimal headlight position. Simulation results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed approach for headlights detection.

Kang, Ho-Joong; Kim, Ho-Kun; Oh, Il-Whan; Choi, Kyoung-Ho

2014-03-01

388

Kaehler Metrics: String vs Field Theoretical Approach  

CERN Document Server

We use both a string and a field theoretical approach in order to determine respectively the Kaehler metrics of untwisted and twisted open strings attached to magnetized D9 branes in toroidal compactifications.

Di Vecchia, P; Marotta, R; Pezzella, F

2009-01-01

389

Kaehler metrics: String vs field theoretical approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use both a string and a field theoretical approach in order to determine respectively the Kaehler metrics of untwisted and twisted open strings attached to magnetized D9 branes in toroidal compactifications. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Di Vecchia, P. [Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Liccardo, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte, Napoli (Italy); Marotta, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte, Napoli (Italy); Pezzella, F.

2009-05-15

390

A New Email Retrieval Ranking Approach  

CERN Document Server

Email Retrieval task has recently taken much attention to help the user retrieve the email(s) related to the submitted query. Up to our knowledge, existing email retrieval ranking approaches sort the retrieved emails based on some heuristic rules, which are either search clues or some predefined user criteria rooted in email fields. Unfortunately, the user usually does not know the effective rule that acquires best ranking related to his query. This paper presents a new email retrieval ranking approach to tackle this problem. It ranks the retrieved emails based on a scoring function that depends on crucial email fields, namely subject, content, and sender. The paper also proposes an architecture to allow every user in a network/group of users to be able, if permissible, to know the most important network senders who are interested in his submitted query words. The experimental evaluation on Enron corpus prove that our approach outperforms known email retrieval ranking approaches.

AbdelRahman, Samir; Bahgat, Reem; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2504

2010-01-01

391

The 'Whole Diet' Approach to Nutrition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Whole Diet' Approach to Nutrition HealthDay February 23, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Dietary Fats ... of Health Page last updated on 15 April 2015

392

A Bayesian approach to model uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Bayesian approach to model uncertainty is taken. For the case of a finite number of alternative models, the model uncertainty is equivalent to parameter uncertainty. A derivation based on Savage's partition problem is given

393

Stochastic resonance: A residence time approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Stochastic Resonance phenomenon is described as a synchronization process between periodic signals and the random response in bistable systems. The residence time approach as a useful tool in characterizing hidden periodicities is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

394

Lesser curvature approach in laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) has entailed ventrally retracting the stomach to afford adequate visualization. The retracted stomach commonly droops over the pancreas and obstructs the surgical field, thus forcing the assistant surgeon to repeatedly lift the stomach out of the way ventrally and cranially. We herein reported LDP using the "lesser curvature approach" in which the pancreas was approached cephalad to the lesser curvature of the stomach in underweight patients with a coincidental low hanging stomach. An excellent view of both the distal pancreas and the spleen could be afforded, enabling complete mobilization of these organs from the retroperitoneum and easy ligation of the splenic vessels, without needing to retract the stomach ventrally and cranially. The lesser curvature approach in LDP could be performed safely and efficiently as an alternative to the conventional greater curvature approach in underweight patients with a low hanging stomach. PMID:23579530

Suzuki, On; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Ambo, Yoshiyasu; Nakamura, Toru; Kishida, Akihiro; Kashimura, Nobuichi

2013-04-01

395

Technology--People--Environment, An Activities Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an activities approach to the Man-Made World that is organized as a series of mini-courses to enable disadvantaged and unmotivated students to achieve a degree of technological literacy. (GS)

Liao, T. T.; And Others

1975-01-01

396

The Team Approach to Pain Relief  

Science.gov (United States)

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

397

Triton photodisintegration in three-dimensional approach  

CERN Document Server

Two- and three- particles photodisintegration of the triton is investigated in a three-dimensional (3D) Faddeev approach. For this purpose the Jacobi momentum vectors for three particles system and spin-isospin quantum numbers of the individual nucleons are considered. Based on this picture the three-nucleon Faddeev integral equations with the two-nucleon interaction are formulated without employing the partial wave decomposition. The single nucleon current as well as $\\pi-$ and $\\rho-$ like exchange currents are used in an appropriate form to be employed in 3D approach. The exchange currents are derived from AV18 NN force. The two-body t-matrix, Deuteron and Triton wave functions are calculated in the 3D approach by using AV18 potential. Benchmarks are presented to compare the total cross section for the two- and three- particles photodisintegration in the range of $E_{\\gamma}<30 MeV$. The 3D Faddeev approach shows promising results.

Shalchi, M A; 10.1140/epja/i2012-12006-9

2012-01-01

398

Nanotechnology based approaches in cancer therapeutics  

Science.gov (United States)

The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review.

Kumer Biswas, Amit; Reazul Islam, Md; Sadek Choudhury, Zahid; Mostafa, Asif; Fahim Kadir, Mohammad

2014-12-01

399

Wine Tourism: A Serious Leisure Approach  

OpenAIRE

Today wine tourism is emerging as an important component of rural diversification in North Carolina. Using Stebbins’ (1992) model of serious leisure as a guideline, the purpose of this study is to explore how wine tourism may be viewed as a type of serious leisure and to suggest a conceptual approach to the study of wine consumers in order to develop effective wine marketing strategies for local wineries in North Carolina. In addition, this study suggests an approach that small North Ca...

Brown, Carroll A.; Ruth Smith, F.

2011-01-01

400

The Social Shaping Approach to Technology Foresight  

OpenAIRE

The social shaping of technology (SST) approach has been developed as a response and extension to the ideas of techno-economic rationality and linear conceptions of technology development and its consequences. The SST approach seems especially promising in areas of technology where visions are manifold, societal interests conflicting, and applications and markets are non-existing or still under construction. The emerging high technology areas and several areas of more sustainable development ...

Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Clausen, Christian

2009-01-01

401

Stochastic approaches to inflation model building  

OpenAIRE

While inflation gives an appealing explanation of observed cosmological data, there are a wide range of different inflation models, providing differing predictions for the initial perturbations. Typically models are motivated either by fundamental physics considerations or by simplicity. An alternative is to generate large numbers of models via a random generation process, such as the flow equations approach. The flow equations approach is known to predict a definite structu...

Ramirez, Erandy; Liddle, Andrew R.

2005-01-01

402

Ensemble Approaches to Facial Action Unit Classification  

OpenAIRE

Facial action unit (au) classification is an approach to face expression recognition that decouples the recognition of expression from individual actions. In this paper, upper face aus are classified using an ensemble of MLP (Multi-layer perceptron) base classifiers with feature ranking based on PCA components. This approach is compared experimentally with other popular feature-ranking methods applied to Gabor features. Experimental results on Cohn-Kanade database demonstrate that the MLP ens...

Windeatt, T.; Dias, K.

2008-01-01

403

Facial identification problem : a tracking based approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a method for face identification using a query by example approach. Our technique is suitable for use within Ambient Security Environments and is robust across variations in pose, expression and illuminations conditions. To account for these variations, we use a face template matching algorithm based on a 3D head model created from a single frontal face image. Thanks to our tracking-based approach our algorithm is able to extract simultaneously all parameters rela...

Anisetti, Marco; Bellandi, Valerio; Damiani, Ernesto

2005-01-01

404

A Fuzzy Approach to Prevent Headlight Glare  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a fuzzy rule based design approach to prevent the Headlight glare emitted by the oncoming vehicles on the Highways. This gradually reduces accidents on the Highways as the driver of the oncoming vehicle is put on a comfortable zone which might otherwise blind the oncoming driver’s visibility. In the conventional vehicles the illumination is adjusted manually by the driver. This fuzzy based approach has the fuzzy sensor and the controller embedded inside the windshield or...

Niraimathi. S; M. Arthanari,; Sivakumar, M.

2011-01-01

405

Models of galaxies - The modal approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general viability of the modal approach to the spiral structure in normal spirals and the barlike structure in certain barred spirals is discussed. The usefulness of the modal approach in the construction of models of such galaxies is examined, emphasizing the adoption of a model appropriate to observational data for both the spiral structure of a galaxy and its basic mass distribution. 44 refs

406

Parapharyngeal Space Tumors: The Infratemporal Fossa Approach  

OpenAIRE

Tumors of the parapharyngeal space, although mostly benign in their histopathology, present a challenge to the surgeon due to the limited access. Multiple approaches have been described in the literature for the extirpation of these tumors. The usual anatomic division of the parapharyngeal space into prestyloid and poststyloid spaces does not help the clinician determine which approach to use for a specific tumor. We have reviewed our 10-year experience at the University of Zurich. The usual ...

Shahinian, H.; Dornier, C.; Fisch, U.

1995-01-01

407

«FRIENDLY» COMPLAINING BEHAVIORS: TOWARD A RELATIONAL APPROACH  

OpenAIRE

The relational approach is often presented as a strategy to retain customers, but it may also be an appropriate approach to encourage customers to complain, as a review of literature shows. Using information contained in complaints and giving the right answers (distributive, procedural and interactional) to such complaints is essential. Relational marketing may also be used to induce customers (but not all of them) to complain about the attributes of certain products/services. This article fo...

Prim-allaz, Isabelle; Pras, Bernard

1999-01-01

408

An Approach to Persistent Scatterer Interferometry  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a new approach to Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data processing and analysis, which is implemented in the PSI chain of the Geomatics (PSIG) Division of CTTC. This approach includes three main processing blocks. In the first one, a set of correctly unwrapped and temporally ordered phases are derived, which are computed on Persistent Scatterers (PSs) that cover homogeneously the area of interest. The key element of this block is given by the so-called Cousin PS...

Núria Devanthéry; Michele Crosetto; Oriol Monserrat; María Cuevas-González; Bruno Crippa

2014-01-01

409

Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed.

McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

1998-01-01

410

Evaluating Modelling Approaches for Medical Image Annotations  

OpenAIRE

Information system designers face many challenges w.r.t. selecting appropriate semantic technologies and deciding on a modelling approach for their system. However, there is no clear methodology yet to evaluate "semantically enriched" information systems. In this paper we present a case study on different modelling approaches for annotating medical images and introduce a conceptual framework that can be used to analyse the fitness of information systems and help designers to...

Opitz, Jasmin; Parsia, Bijan; Sattler, Ulrike

2010-01-01

411

A new Arnoldi approach for polynomial eigenproblems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we introduce a new generalization of the method of Arnoldi for matrix polynomials. The new approach is compared with the approach of rewriting the polynomial problem into a linear eigenproblem and applying the standard method of Arnoldi to the linearised problem. The algorithm that can be applied directly to the polynomial eigenproblem turns out to be more efficient, both in storage and in computation.

Raeven, F.A.

1996-12-31

412

The Minimal Geometric Deformation Approach Extended  

CERN Document Server

The minimal geometric deformation approach was introduced in order to study the exterior space-time around spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, like stars or similar astrophysical objects as well, in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world framework. A consistent extension of this approach is developed here, which contains modifications of both the time component and the radial component of a spherically symmetric metric. A modified Schwarzschild geometry is obtained as an example of its simplest application.

Casadio, Roberto; da Rocha, Roldao

2015-01-01

413

A new approach for continual planning  

OpenAIRE

Devising intelligent robots or agents that interact with humans is a major challenge for artificial intelligence. In such contexts, agents must constantly adapt their decisions according to human activities and modify their goal. In this extended abstract, we present a novel continual planning approach, called Moving Goal Planning (MGP) to adapt plans to goal evolutions. This approach draws inspiration from Moving Target Search (MTS) algorithms. In order to limit the number of search iteratio...

Pellier, Damien; Fiorino, Humbert; Me?tivier, Marc

2013-01-01

414

Three Approaches to Probability Model Selection  

OpenAIRE

This paper compares three approaches to the problem of selecting among probability models to fit data (1) use of statistical criteria such as Akaike's information criterion and Schwarz's "Bayesian information criterion," (2) maximization of the posterior probability of the model, and (3) maximization of an ?effectiveness ratio? trading off accuracy and computational cost. The unifying characteristic of the approaches is that all can be viewed as maximizing a penalized likeli...

Poland, William B.; Shachter, Ross D.

2013-01-01

415

Isospin invariant Skyrme density functional approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abinitio and configuration interaction methods when applied to heavier systems with many active particles present insurmountable computational challenges as the configuration space explodes rapidly. In nuclear physics, the method of choice to study heavier systems is the mean-field approach based on effective forces. In the present work we have formulated the isospin invariant Skyrme energy density functional approach with the inclusion of all possible neutron-proton mixed densities in the cylindrical coordinate system

416

The Trotter procedure: a forgotten approach?  

OpenAIRE

Anatomically, the surgical management of tongue base lesions is a challenging prospect for any head and neck surgeon. William Trotter described a median labio-mandibular glossotomy for access to such lesions (Meis JM, Enzinger FM. Myolipoma of soft tissue. Am J Surg Pathol 1991;15:121–5). Not widely reported, this approach still remains an important tool in the armamentarium of head and neck surgeons. We outline the use of this approach to remove a myolipoma from the tongue base.

Scott, Neil; Sudderick, Robert; Bater, Michael

2014-01-01

417

A Tangibility Approach to Affective Interaction:  

OpenAIRE

People use their cognitive, perceptual-motor and affective skills to interact with electronic products. In normal language we could say that interacting with products requires not only knowing and doing, but also feeling. Lately, researchers on human-computer and human-product interaction realized that a one sided cognitive approach will not solve all the complexity of human product interaction. New approaches focus on the aspects of the perceptual motor skills or on the aff...

Wensveen, S. A. G.

2005-01-01

418

A Potts Neuron Approach to Communication Routing  

OpenAIRE

A feedback neural network approach to communication routing problems is developed with emphasis on Multiple Shortest Path problems, with several requests for transmissions between distinct start- and endnodes. The basic ingredients are a set of Potts neurons for each request, with interactions designed to minimize path lengths and to prevent overloading of network arcs. The topological nature of the problem is conveniently handled using a propagator matrix approach. Although...

Ha?kkinen, J.; Lagerholm, M.; Peterson, C.; So?derberg, B.

1997-01-01

419

Neurobiological Correlates of Coping through Emotional Approach  

OpenAIRE

This investigation considered possible health-related neurobiological processes associated with “emotional approach coping” (EAC), or intentional efforts to identify, process, and express emotions surrounding stressors. It was hypothesized that higher dispositional use of EAC strategies would be related to neural activity indicative of greater trait approach motivational orientation and to lower proinflammatory cytokine and cortisol responses to stress. To assess these relationships, 46 h...

Master, Sarah L.; Amodio, David M.; Stanton, Annette L.; Yee, Cindy M.; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Taylor, Shelley E.

2008-01-01

420

Developing nutrient profile models: a systematic approach.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: Nutrient profiling can be defined as the 'the science of categorising foods according to their nutritional composition'. The purpose of the present paper is to describe a systematic and logical approach to nutrient profiling. DESIGN: A seven-stage decision-making process is proposed and, as an illustration of how the approach might operate in practice, the development of a nutrient profiling model for the purpose of highlighting breakfast cereals that are 'high in fat, sugar or sal...

Scarborough, P.; Rayner, M.; Stockley, L.

2007-01-01

421

Dictyostelium discoideum: Molecular approaches to cell biology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central point of this book is to present Dictyostelium as a valuable eukaryotic organism for those interested in molecular studies that require a combined biochemical, structural, and genetic approach. The book is not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of all methods involving Dictyostelium, but instead is a selective set of chapters that demonstrates the utility of the organism for molecular approaches to interesting cell biological problems.

Spudich, J.A.

1987-01-01

422

Mycoinsecticides for aphid management: a biorational approach  

OpenAIRE

This study considered a novel approach to selecting isolates of Hyphomycete fungi as mycoinsecticides for biological control of aphids in arable crops in the UK. The approach was designed to select isolates which were compatible with both the biotic and abiotic environment. Aphis fabae was chosen as a representative target aphid for bioassays, based on results of preliminary experiments. Eighteen isolates of fungi were screened at a single concentration of 1x 10? conidia ml?¹ against...

Yeo, Helen

2000-01-01

423

On the Marginal Cost Approach in Maintenance  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we investigate the conditions under which the marginal cost approach of Refs. 1–3 holds. As observed in Ref. 4, the validity of the marginal cost approach gives rise to a useful framework of single-component maintenance optimization models, which covers almost all models used in practice. For the class of unimodal finite-valued marginal cost functions, we show that these optimization models are easy to solve.

Frenk, J. B. G.; Dekker, R.; Kleijn, M. J.

1997-01-01

424

Field theory a path integral approach  

CERN Document Server

Traditionally, field theory is taught through canonical quantization with a heavy emphasis on high energy physics. However, the techniques of field theory are applicable as well and are extensively used in various other areas of physics such as condensed matter, nuclear physics and statistical mechanics. The path integral approach brings out this feature most clearly. In this book, the path integral approach is developed in detail completely within the context of quantum mechanics. Subsequently, it is applied to various areas of physics.

Das, Ashok

1993-01-01

425

A geometric approach to tree shape statistics  

OpenAIRE

This article presents a new way to understand the descriptive ability of tree shape statistics. Where before tree shape statistics were chosen by their ability to distinguish between macroevolutionary models, the ``resolution'' presented in this paper quantifies the ability of a statistic to differentiate between similar and different trees. We term this a ``geometric'' approach to differentiate it from the model-based approach previously explored. A distinct advantage of th...

Matsen, Frederick A.

2005-01-01

426

Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)

427

A Model-driven Measurement Approach  

OpenAIRE

Companies using domain specific languages in a model-driven development process need to measure their models. However, developing and maintaining a measurement software for each domain specific mod- eling language is costly. Our contribution is a model-driven measurement approach. This measurement approach is model-driven from two view- points: 1) it measures models of a model-driven development process; 2) it uses models as unique and consistent metric specifications, w.r.t a metric specific...

Monperrus, Martin; Je?ze?quel, Jean-marc; Champeau, Joe?l; Hoeltzener, Brigitte

2008-01-01

428

Ultrafast Pulse Shaping Approaches to Quantum Computing  

OpenAIRE

Quantum computing exploits the quantum-mechanical nature of matter to exist in multiple possible states simultaneously. This new approach promises to revolutionize the present form of computing. As an approach to quantum computing, we discuss ultrafast laser pulse shaping, in particular, the acousto-optic modulator based Fourier-Transform pulse-shaper, which has the ability to modulate tunable high power ultrafast laser pulses. We show that optical pulse shaping is an attrac...

Goswami, Debabrata

2003-01-01

429

Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discussed through an analysis of main standing points of theory about substitutes for leadership.

Moji? Dušan

2002-01-01

430

Wellbeing over 50: A capabilities approach  

OpenAIRE

Drawing on the three key relations in the capabilities approach (Sen, 1985) to welfare economics and using panel data from the English Longitudinal Survey of Aging, this paper illustrates how the capabilities approach to welfare economics can be used to understand wellbeing in older age. Specifically, we estimate models of variables related to all three aspects of a person's wellbeing: functionings, happiness and capabilities. Results indicate that the production of activities depends signifi...

Anand, Paul; Thomas, Ranjeeta; Gray, Alastair

2012-01-01

431

The ART approach: clinical aspects reviewed  

OpenAIRE

The success of ART as a caries management approach is supported by more than 20 years of scientific evidence. ART follows the contemporary concepts of modern cariology and restorative dentistry. It challenges treatment concepts such as step-wise excavation and the need for complete removal of affected dentine. The ART approach so far has mainly used high-viscosity glass-ionomer as the sealant and restorative material. Cariostatic and remineralization properties have been ascribed to this mate...

Gustavo Fabián Molina; Ricardo Juan Cabral; Frencken, Jo E.

2009-01-01

432

Shortcuts to adiabaticity: Fast-forward approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The “fast-forward”approach by Masuda and Nakamura generates driving potentials to accelerate slow quantum adiabatic dynamics. First we present a streamlined version of the formalism that produces the main results in a few steps. Then we show the connection between this approach and inverse engineering based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants. We identify in this manner applications in which the engineered potential does not depend on the initial state. Finally we discuss more general applications exemplified by wave splitting processes.

Torrontegui, E.; Martínez-Garaot, S.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Muga, J. G.

2012-07-01

433

Shortcuts to adiabaticity: fast-forward approach  

CERN Document Server

The "fast-forward" approach by Masuda and Nakamura generates driving potentials to accelerate slow quantum adiabatic dynamics. First we present a streamlined version of the formalism that produces the main results in a few steps. Then we show the connection between this approach and inverse engineering based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants. We identify in this manner applications in which the engineered potential does not depend on the initial state. Finally we discuss more general applications exemplified by wave splitting processes.

Torrontegui, E; Ruschhaupt, A; Muga, J G

2012-01-01

434

Ecosystem-based approach to aquaculture management  

OpenAIRE

Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits which, when exceeded, can affect major system restructuring. Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible. Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three main objecti...

Patrick White; Maria Lourdes San Diego-McGlone

2008-01-01

435

Quantitative aspects of the dynamical impurity approach  

OpenAIRE

A calculation technique in the context of the self-energy functional approach (SFA) and its local form, the dynamical impurity approach (DIA), will be proposed. This technique allows for a precise calculation of the derivatives of the grand potential functional used in the search for a stationary point. To make a closer comparison of the DIA with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), and to demonstrate the proposed technique, we calculated paramagnetic U-T phase diagram ...

Pozgajcic, K.

2004-01-01

436

An Internet Approach for Engineering Student Exercises  

OpenAIRE

An approach for engineering student exercises using the Internet is described. In this approach, for a given exercise, each student receives the same problem, but with different data. The exercise content can be static or dynamic, and the dynamic form can be timeless or real-time. The implementation provides immediate feedback to the students, letting them know if their submitted answers are correct. Student results for each exercise are recorded in log files which are avail...

Perry, Richard

2012-01-01

437

A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a high throughput combinatorial approach to photonic metamaterial optimization. The new approach is based on parallel synthesis and subsequent optical characterization of large numbers of spatially addressable nanofabricated metamaterial samples (libraries) with quasi-continuous variation of design parameters under real manufacturing conditions. We illustrate this method for Fano-resonance plasmonic nanostructures, arriving at explicit recipes for high quality factors needed for switching and sensing applications

438

Success Factors for Requirement Patterns Approaches  

OpenAIRE

Research in requirement patterns has led to different approaches, fostering elicitation efficiency and requirements quality by reusing known solutions. However, such pattern-based approaches are not established within many companies, even though requirements are often reused in practice. In this paper, we present the results of five semi-structured interviews with experienced requirements analysts, in order to explore their opinions about requirement patterns, what they expe...

Hoffmann, A.; Janzen, A.; Hoffmann, H.; Jan Marco Leimeister

2013-01-01

439

A team building approach for competency development.  

OpenAIRE

An approach for multidisciplinary team building is proposed through three steps. We suppose that tasks and team members are characterized by a set of attributes (technical competencies). First, the calculation of distance measure between task and team member (profile matching) are proposed. Second, an array-based clustering algorithm is used as an effective means for providing an alternative solution in task and team-member clustering. The proposed approach generates a systematic formation of...

Hlaoittinun, Onanong; Bonjour, Eric; Dulmet, Maryvonne

2007-01-01

440

Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

2013-04-01

441

Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…

Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.

2008-01-01

442

A holistic approach to bit preservation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which is to keep bits intact and readable, is far more complex than first anticipated, even in this narrow definition. This paper takes a more holistic approach to bit preservation, and looks at how an optimal bit preservation strategy can be found, when requirements like confidentiality, availability and costs are taken into account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the various findings from previous research which have led to the holistic approach to bit preservation. This paper also includes an introduction to digital preservation with a focus on the role of bit preservation, which sets the scene for why bit preservation deserves attention in a holistic approach. Findings: The paper presents different means to find an optimal bit preservation strategy. This consists of a model to delimit bit preservation activities, and will briefly discuss how specific material can require different bit preservation strategies as well as pointing to how such strategies can be evaluated. Research limitations/implications The operational results described here are still missing work to be fully operational. However, the holistic approach is in itself an important result. Furthermore, in spite of the shortcomings, the results can assist in analysis and evaluation of bit preservation strategies. Originality/value This paper is an extract of the findings presented in the doctoral thesis “A holistic approach to bit preservation”. The findings are relevant for any organisation that is required to do bit preservation of its digital material.

Zierau, Eld

2012-01-01

443

Vegetative states--an integrative approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The integrative approach to vegetative state remains a challenge. In this article we have presented the evidence for conventional and alternative therapies that can be applied to this condition. Some are intended to support the patient and prevent complications; others enhance the ability of relatives to interact with their loved ones; while others are intended to shorten the vegetative state period. The approaches we reviewed were based on availability of data on MEDLINE and/or their potential to broaden our conceptual approach to vegetative state. Some approaches highlighted within the article including nutritional support, acupuncture, and homeopathy, seem to have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio. Yet, the complexity of vegetative state makes it challenging to recommend an integrative protocol. Rather we recommend an individualized approach, based on patient co-morbidities, caregiver and health professional preferences, and availability of therapists. Other approaches, including herbal medicine, mind-body therapies, intercessory prayer, energy medicine, and shamanism were not included due to the lack of available information and evidence. We acknowledge that a lack of evidence for efficacy is not equivalent to evidence for a lack of efficacy. Further research is critically needed to advance our treatment approach to this challenging state. Vegetative state is a condition that continues to humble the medical world. What we do not know eclipses that which we know. The critical question of what the vegetative state patient experiences continues to mystify us. Our philosophical stance insists that we treat the patient as one who is aware. Simultaneously we struggle with what, if anything, we can successfully do to "reawaken" the patient. PMID:15712763

Schiff, Elad; Kim, Yoon-Hang; Maizes, Victoria

2005-01-01

444

The Triptych approach revisited: A staged sectoral approach for climate mitigation  

OpenAIRE

How can an international agreement on climate change distribute responsibilities and emission reduction requirements between countries to be effective, technically feasible and is viewed as fair? This report further develops the Triptych approach as one possible answer to this question. The Triptych approach defines the criteria and rules for differentiating future commitments for all countries in a consistent and transparent manner. The advantage of the Triptych approach is ...

Elzen, M. G. J. Den; Ho?hne, N.; Lucas, Paul L.; Moltmann, S.; Kuramochi, T.

2008-01-01

445

On the Quantum Kinetic Approach and the Scattering Approach to Vacuum Pair Production  

CERN Document Server

For Schwinger pair production with background electric fields varying only in time, it is shown that the quantum kinetic approach, based on the quantum Vlasov equation, and the quantum mechanical scattering approach, are completely equivalent. This different perspective on the quantum kinetic approach suggests new approximation methods, which are tested in detail using a soluble pulse-like field configuration, and may give useful insight for generalization to more general electric fields, varying in more than 1 dimension.

Dumlu, Cesim K

2009-01-01

446

Posterior approach white-line advancement ptosis repair: the evolving posterior approach to ptosis surgery.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction We describe a surgical technique for ptosis correction in moderate to good levator function involving advancement of the levator aponeurosis via a transconjunctival posterior approach without resection of Muller’s muscle. We present our experience of and the results from this method and review the evolution of posterior approach ptosis surgery. Purpose To assess the efficacy and predictability of posterior approach white line advancement ptosis r...

Patel, Vikesh; Salam, Aysha; Malhotra, Raman

2010-01-01

447

Sustainable Development: Does the Capability Approach have Anything to Offer? : Outlining a Legitimate Freedom Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although the sustainability of development is one of the most important problems facing the world, it has received little attention from the capability approach. This article asks whether the capability approach has anything to offer the debate that has continued for over a quarter of a century. Answering positively, the article outlines a legitimate freedom approach as a fruitful way forward. The approach draws on Thomas Scanlon's contractualist ethics, suggesting ways to understand the limits to freedoms, the non-identity problem and environmental ethics.

Crabtree, Andrew

2013-01-01

448

Bayesian approach and application to operation safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management of industrial risks requires the development of statistical and probabilistic analyses which use all the available convenient information in order to compensate the insufficient experience feedback in a domain where accidents and incidents remain too scarce to perform a classical statistical frequency analysis. The Bayesian decision approach is well adapted to this problem because it integrates both the expertise and the experience feedback. The domain of knowledge is widen, the forecasting study becomes possible and the decisions-remedial actions are strengthen thanks to risk-cost-benefit optimization analyzes. This book presents the bases of the Bayesian approach and its concrete applications in various industrial domains. After a mathematical presentation of the industrial operation safety concepts and of the Bayesian approach principles, this book treats of some of the problems that can be solved thanks to this approach: softwares reliability, controls linked with the equipments warranty, dynamical updating of databases, expertise modeling and weighting, Bayesian optimization in the domains of maintenance, quality control, tests and design of new equipments. A synthesis of the mathematical formulae used in this approach is given in conclusion. (J.S.)

449

Transradial approach to lower extremity interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ravikiran Korabathina1, Sidharth S Yadav1, John T Coppola2, Cezar S Staniloae21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincents Catholic Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Cardiac and Vascular Institute, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Percutaneous interventions of the coronary and peripheral vessels have historically been performed using a femoral artery approach. There has been increasing recognition of postprocedural bleeding complications and its impact on short- and long-term mortality. Because of its now recognized safety, the transradial approach has recently emerged as a preferred method compared to the transfemoral approach. The limitations associated with the distance from the puncture site to the lesion location are being addressed as new tools are developed for the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In this review, we discuss the many facets of the transradial approach to lower extremity endovascular interventions, highlighting its safety and efficacy. Approaches to special populations including individuals with prior surgical bypass, Leriche’s syndrome, and those committed to chronic anticoagulation are also reviewed.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, endovascular interventions, transradial interventions, aorto-iliac angioplasty

Ravikiran Korabathina

2010-07-01

450

Surgical approach to parapharyngeal space tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Parapharyngeal space tumors are very rare comprising 0,5% of head and neck tumors. Tumors of this region are significant diagnostic problem due to scanty symptomatology as well as considerable surgical issue owing to inaccessibility. Patients and Methods: Retrospective twenty-year study of patients with parapharyngeal space tumors included 69 patients. Data were obtained from medical records, and were pointed to diagnostic procedures, surgical approach and pathohistological findings. Symptoms and clinical signs were also investigated. Results: Preoperative diagnostics is very important for precise tumor localization and relation to adjacent structures. Computerized tomography was the most common method used, and recently, magnetic resonance imaging and indication-based contrast angiography have been applied. All of 69 patients with parapharyngeal space tumors were treated surgically. The most often approach to this tumor was transcervical (62%, then transoral approach and combination transcervical transoral approach. Pathohistological examination verified that most of the tumors were benign (75% and origin of these tumors was most frequently salivary (42%. Conclusion: For making a decision on surgical approach, diagnostic methods, other than thorough examination, such as computerized tomography(CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MR, are necessary to be applied.

Dimitrijevi? Milovan V.

2011-01-01

451

Heat-kernel approach for scattering  

CERN Document Server

An approach for solving scattering problems, based on two quantum field theory methods, the heat kernel method and the scattering spectral method, is constructed. This approach has a special advantage: it is not only one single approach; it is indeed a set of approaches for solving scattering problems. Concretely, we build a bridge between a scattering problem and the heat kernel method, so that each method of calculating heat kernels can be converted into a method of solving a scattering problem. As applications, we construct two approaches for solving scattering problems based on two heat-kernel expansions: the Seeley-DeWitt expansion and the covariant perturbation theory. In order to apply the heat kernel method to scattering problems, we also calculate two off-diagonal heat-kernel expansions in the frames of the Seeley-DeWitt expansion and the covariant perturbation theory, respectively. Moreover, as an alternative application of the relation between heat kernels and partial-wave phase shifts presented in...

Li, Wen-Du

2015-01-01

452

Novel and Flexible Approach to Trust Negotiations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the progress of society today Current real applications require flexible approaches to trust negotiations, especially in light of the widespread use of mobile devices. Moreover the ubiquitous nature of online peer-to-peer systems, and the increasing number of moving objects involved in online transactions, negotiators must be allowed to switch roles to guarantee dependability, availability of resources and peers. Existing method mostly focused on the assurance of privacy and confidentiality with the goal of guaranteeing that no actual information about a negotiator’s properties is disclosed. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to trust negotiations that offers a general solution to those issues by developing major extensions to previous approaches by presenting a multi session dependable approach to trust negotiations. This proposed framework supports voluntary and unpredicted interruptions, enabling the negotiating parties to complete the negotiation despite temporary unavailability of resources. In our approach the protocols address issues related to validity, temporary loss of data, and extended unavailability negotiators. For increasing robustness and efficiency we showed how our negotiation protocol can withstand in most significant attacks.

G. Ramachandran

2013-10-01

453

Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented

454

Streamflow disaggregation: a nonlinear deterministic approach  

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Full Text Available This study introduces a nonlinear deterministic approach for streamflow disaggregation. According to this approach, the streamflow transformation process from one scale to another is treated as a nonlinear deterministic process, rather than a stochastic process as generally assumed. The approach follows two important steps: (1 reconstruction of the scalar (streamflow series in a multi-dimensional phase-space for representing the transformation dynamics; and (2 use of a local approximation (nearest neighbor method for disaggregation. The approach is employed for streamflow disaggregation in the Mississippi River basin, USA. Data of successively doubled resolutions between daily and 16 days (i.e. daily, 2-day, 4-day, 8-day, and 16-day are studied, and disaggregations are attempted only between successive resolutions (i.e. 2-day to daily, 4-day to 2-day, 8-day to 4-day, and 16-day to 8-day. Comparisons between the disaggregated values and the actual values reveal excellent agreements for all the cases studied, indicating the suitability of the approach for streamflow disaggregation. A further insight into the results reveals that the best results are, in general, achieved for low embedding dimensions (2 or 3 and small number of neighbors (less than 50, suggesting possible presence of nonlinear determinism in the underlying transformation process. A decrease in accuracy with increasing disaggregation scale is also observed, a possible implication of the existence of a scaling regime in streamflow.

B. Sivakumar

2004-01-01

455

Monitoring approaches for a toxic cyanobacterial bloom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanobacterial blooms, dominated by Microcystis sp. and associated microcystin variants, have been implicated in illnesses of humans and animals. Little is known regarding the formation of blooms and the presence of cyanotoxin variants in water bodies. Furthermore, the role played by ecological parameters, in regulating Microcystis blooms is complicate and diverse. Local authorities responsible for water management are often faced with the challenging task of dealing with cyanobacterial blooms. Therefore, the development of suitable monitoring approaches to characterize cyanobacterial blooms is an important goal. Currently, various biological, biochemical and physicochemical methods/approaches are being used to monitor cyanobacterial blooms and detect microcystins in freshwater bodies. Because these methods can vary as to the information they provide, no single approach seemed to be sufficient to accurately monitor blooms. For example, immunosensors are more suited for monitoring the presence of toxins in clear water bodies while molecular methods are more suited to detect potentially toxic strains. Thus, monitoring approaches should be tailored for specific water bodies using methods based on economic feasibility, speed, sensitivity and field applicability. This review critically evaluates monitoring approaches that are applicable to cyanobacterial blooms, especially those that focus on the presence of Microcystis, in freshwater bodies. Further, they were characterized and ranked according to their cost, speed, sensitivity and selectivity. Suggested improvements were offered as well as future research endeavors to accommodate anticipated environmental changes. PMID:23865979

Srivastava, Ankita; Singh, Shweta; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

2013-08-20

456

Active Approach to Osteoarthritis: Moving Beyond the Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

... Disorders > An Active Approach to Osteoarthritis An Active Approach to Osteoarthritis Page Content Moving beyond the pain ... R physician can provide a multi-faceted treatment approach to osteoarthritis that might include: Weight management. Excess ...

457

Neural Hypernetwork Approach for Pulmonary Embolism diagnosis  

CERN Document Server

This work introduces an integrative approach based on Q-analysis with machine learning. The new approach, called Neural Hypernetwork, has been applied to a case study of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. The objective of the application of neural hyper-network to pulmonary embolism (PE) is to improve diagnose for reducing the number of CT-angiography needed. Hypernetworks, based on topological simplicial complex, generalize the concept of two-relation to many-body relation. Furthermore, Hypernetworks provide a significant generalization of network theory, enabling the integration of relational structure, logic and analytic dynamics. Another important results is that Q-analysis stays close to the data, while other approaches manipulate data, projecting them into metric spaces or applying some filtering functions to highlight the intrinsic relations. A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches, frequently fatal. Our study uses data on 28 diagnostic features of 1,427...

Rucco, Matteo; Merelli, Emanuela; Johnson, Jeffrey H; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Nitti, Cinzia; Salvi, Aldo

2014-01-01

458

A neuroanatomical approach to exploring organizational performance  

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Full Text Available Insights gained from studying the human brain have begun to open up promising new areas of research in the behavioural and social sciences. Neuroscience-based principles have been incorporated into areas such as business management, economics and marketing, leading to the development of artificial neural networks, neuroeconomics, neuromarketing and, most recently, organizational cognitive neuroscience. Similarly, the brain has been used as a powerful metaphor for thinking about and analysing the nature of organizations. However, no existing approach to organizational analysis has taken advantage of contemporary neuroanatomical principles, thereby missing the opportunity to translate core neuroanatomical knowledge into other, non-related areas of research. In this essentially conceptual paper, we propose several ways in which neuroanatomical approaches could be used to enhance organizational theory, practice and research. We suggest that truly interdisciplinary and collaborative research between neuroanatomists and organizational analysts is likely to provide novel approaches to exploring and improving organizational performance.

Gillingwater, D.

2009-01-01

459

RST Approach for Efficient CARs Mining  

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Full Text Available In data mining, an association rule is a pattern that states the occurrence of two items (premises and consequences together with certain probability. A class association rule set (CARs is a subset of association rules with classes specified as their consequences. This paper focuses on class association rules mining based on the approach of Rough Set Theory (RST. In addition, this paper presents an algorithm for finest class rule set mining inspired from Apriori algorithm, where the support and confidence are computed based on the elementary set of lower approximation inspired from RST. The proposed approach has been shown very effective, where the rough set approach for class association discovery is much simpler than the classic association method

Thabet Slimani

2014-11-01

460

Physical approaches to DNA sequencing and detection  

CERN Document Server

With the continued improvement of sequencing technologies, the prospect of genome-based medicine is now at the forefront of scientific research. To realize this potential, however, we need a revolutionary sequencing method for the cost-effective and rapid interrogation of individual genomes. This capability is likely to be provided by a physical approach to probing DNA at the single nucleotide level. This is in sharp contrast to current techniques and instruments which probe, through chemical elongation, electrophoresis, and optical detection, length differences and terminating bases of strands of DNA. In this Colloquium we review several physical approaches to DNA detection that have the potential to deliver fast and low-cost sequencing. Center-fold to these approaches is the concept of nanochannels or nanopores which allow for the spatial confinement of DNA molecules. In addition to their possible impact in medicine and biology, the methods offer ideal test beds to study open scientific issues and challenge...

Zwolak, Michael

2007-01-01

461

Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

2014-07-01

462

A consistent approach to severe accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The approach adopted for severe accident management (SAM) at the Loviisa nuclear power plant (in Finland) is presented and discussed. The approach includes a number of significant hardware changes and procedures that allow lowering of the lower head thermal insulation and neutron shield assembly, opening of the ice condenser doors, and spraying (externally) of the steel shell of the containment. It is expected that with these changes we can assure in-vessel debris coolability and retention, gradual burning of the hydrogen with good access to the ice condenser, and long term stabilization of the containment pressure, even in the absence of the residual heat removal system. Methodological aspects of demonstrating these SAM objectives, and the status of work in support of related quantifications (of key phenomena), are included in sufficient detail to provide an integrated perspective of the approach taken. The detailed quantifications, separately on each task, will follow, as respective research and quantification programs come to completion. ((orig.))

463

Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence  

CERN Document Server

In this work, we analyse two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling canonically-normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

Boubekeur, Lotfi; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

2014-01-01

464

A hybrid approach for MILP partitioning problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Splitting a large system into smaller and more manageable units has become an important problem and a challenging task for some fields of research. The question of generating a good partitioning into smaller modules becomes a minimization problem for the number of parts being called by other parts. Two different and complementary approaches turned out to be promising to tackle the problem. First, we used a new approach, known as extreme partitioning, where hw/sw partitioning is based on profiling. Nevertheless, this one didn't guarantee hard timing constraints. To overcome this weakness, we coupled it with a MILP partitioning approach and used to reach this solution strategy, by efficient reformulations and a clever implementation. The advantage of the first one is to reduce particularly the time to market and the second one is to verify timing constraints by scheduling and to keep the cost down by clustering the nodes. We illustrate this method on two examples. The results are encouraging.

Boudour, R. Farfar; Kimour, D.; Mohamed, T.

2008-06-01

465

An imaging approach to musculoskeletal infections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imaging techniques can provide useful information and also guidance for diagnostic aspirations of joints and disk spaces. This paper provides a suggested approach to the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Isotope studies and magnetic resonance images will usually be positive before conventional radiographs. Tomography, In-111 white blood cell scans, and Ga-67 scans are useful in detecting activity in chronic or subacute cases. Since the diagnostic approach to evaluation of joint space disease depends upon the presence or absence of surgical appliances (joint replacements) isotope studies and arthrography are most accurate in this setting. Finally, computed tomography provides the most anatomic detail in study of disk space infection and also provides an excellent approach for aspiration

466

THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY  

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Full Text Available The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the crime, through the re-evaluation and reconsidering the factors with a crime risk and placing them in an equal position in the social environment. Another objective of this study is to emphasize the importance of the gender role concerning the expectations of the society from the feminine population’s side. The present study is focused on the contribution of placing the research of feminine crime research on a basis characterized by unprecedented generality, under total influencing conditions, with orientation towards gender problematic.

MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE

2012-05-01

467

A public health approach to musculoskeletal health.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ageing, physically inactive and increasingly obese population, coupled with finite health and social care resources, requires a shift from treating musculoskeletal disease when it arises to a preventive approach promoting lifelong musculoskeletal health. A public health approach to musculoskeletal health ensures that people are able to live not only long, but also well. Supporting self-management, addressing common misconceptions about the inevitability of musculoskeletal conditions, and offering brief interventions to support necessary lifestyle changes are basic public health functions that all health professionals can deliver. More specialist public health skills including needs assessment, data interpretation and service planning are also needed to deliver high quality services. These will require improvements in the data collected about musculoskeletal health nationally. A public health approach would benefit individuals through reduced pain and improved function due to musculoskeletal conditions, and wider society by minimising lost economic productivity and lowering health and social care costs. PMID:25481428

Clark, P M; Ellis, B M

2014-06-01

468

A POGIL approach to teaching engineering hydrology  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a case study of the author's experience using Problem Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in an engineering hydrology course. This course is part of an interdisciplinary Water Management program at Bachelor level in the Netherlands. The aims of this approach were to promote constructivism of knowledge, activate critical thinking and reduce math anxiety. POGIL was developed for chemistry education in the United States. To the authors knowledge this is the first application of this approach in Europe. A first trial was done in 2010-2011 and a second trial in 2011-2012 and 55 students participated. The problems that motivated the novel approach, general information on POGIL, its implementation in the course are discussed and the results so far are evaluated.

Rutten, M.

2012-12-01

469

New approaches to safe drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Up to half the population of some states in the United States drink water from small systems not regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. The quality of the drinking water from these systems is generally unknown and may be suspect. In many jurisdictions, private wells are the primary source of water. In some instances, construction of wells may have met regulatory requirements but may not have adequately prevented disease transmission. Anecdotal information, periodic water-borne outbreaks, and recent well surveys suggest that there are public health concerns associated with these and similar systems. This article provides an assessment of the need for governmental oversight (regulatory and non-regulatory) of drinking water supplies, describes how a "systems-based" approach might be used to evaluate water supply systems and to identify and prevent possible contamination, and presents case studies describing the systems-based approach as well as a comprehensive approach to environmental health that includes drinking water regulation. PMID:12508511

Barron, Gerald; Buchanan, Sharunda; Hase, Denise; Mainzer, Hugh; Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Sarisky, John

2002-01-01

470

A dynamic classification approach for nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing has a long tradition of classification, stretching back at least 150 years. The introduction of computers into health care towards the end of the 20(th) Century helped to focus efforts, culminating in the development of a range of standardized classifications. Many of these classifications are still in use today and, while content is periodically updated, the underlying classification structures remain relatively static. In this paper an approach to classification that is relatively new to nursing is presented; an approach that uses formal Web Ontology Language definitions for classes, and computer-based reasoning on those classes, to determine automatically classification structures that more flexibly meet the needs of users. A new proposed classification structure for the International Classification for Nursing Practice is derived under the new approach to provide a new view on the next release of the classification and to contribute to broader quality improvement processes. PMID:22195109

Hardiker, Nicholas R; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy M; Jansen, Kay R

2011-01-01

471

Methodological approaches based on business rules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize the rules and move them outside the application. This paper analyzes and evaluates three well-known business rules approaches. It also outlines some critical factors that have to be taken into account in the decision to introduce business rules facilities in a software system. Based on the concept of explicit manipulation of business rules in a software system, the need for a general approach based on business rules is discussed.

Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

2008-01-01

472

New Public Management Approach and Accountability  

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Full Text Available A new paradigm for public management, called “New Public Management”, has emerged since 1980s that is formed to confront the present problems. This model is originated from the fusion of economic theories and private sector management techniques. The most important particulars of this model are decreasing government size, the decentralization of management authority, the emphasis on efficiency, effectiveness and economy. This paper examines how New Public Management (NPM impacts on fulfilling different aspects of accountability in the public sector. In the Traditional Approach of Accountability, politicians and civil servants are liable to elected authorities but in this approach, they should be liable to people. Therefore, in NPM there is a shift of accountability from the political to the managerial sphere and from input and processes to output and outcomes. The results show under this approach, operational and managerial accountability fulfill political and financial aspects of accountability.