Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amin, Mohammed A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: maaismail@yahoo.com; Khaled, K.F. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxi, Cairo (Egypt); Fadl-Allah, Sahar A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)
2010-01-15
The protection influence of glycine (Gly) and a one of its derivatives, namely 2-(bis(2-aminoethyl)amino) acetic acid, designated here as GlyD; where GlyD stands for 'glycine derivative', against cold rolled steel (CRS) corrosion was studied in aerated stagnant 1.0 M HCl solutions at 25 deg. C. Measurements were conducted under various experimental conditions using Tafel polarization, linear polarization and impedance techniques. These studies have shown that Gly and GlyD are very good 'green', mixed-type inhibitors. GlyD is more effective than Gly itself in inhibiting the acid corrosion of CRS. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method of analysis are also presented here for monitoring corrosion. Corrosion rates obtained from both EFM and ICP-AES methods are comparable with those recorded using Tafel extrapolation method, confirming validation of corrosion rates measured by the latter. Adsorption via H-bond is discussed here, based on the presence of oxide film on the electrode surface as well as the number of NH linkages in the inhibitor molecule. Quantum chemical method was also employed to explore the relationship between the inhibitor molecular properties and its protection efficiency. The density function theory (DFT) is used to study the structural properties of Gly and GlyD in aqueous phase in an attempt to understand their inhibition mechanism. The protection efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The protection influence of glycine (Gly) and a one of its derivatives, namely 2-(bis(2-aminoethyl)amino) acetic acid, designated here as GlyD; where GlyD stands for 'glycine derivative', against cold rolled steel (CRS) corrosion was studied in aerated stagnant 1.0 M HCl solutions at 25 deg. C. Measurements were conducted under various experimental conditions using Tafel polarization, linear polarization and impedance techniques. These studies have shown that Gly and GlyD are very good 'green', mixed-type inhibitors. GlyD is more effective than Gly itself in inhibiting the acid corrosion of CRS. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method of analysis are also presented here for monitoring corrosion. Corrosion rates obtained from both EFM and ICP-AES methods are comparable with those recorded using Tafel extrapolation method, confirming validation of corrosion rates measured by the latter. Adsorption via H-bond is discussed here, based on the presence of oxide film on the electrode surface as well as the number of NH linkages in the inhibitor molecule. Quantum chemical method was also employed to explore the relationship between the inhibitor molecular properties and its protection efficiency. The density function theory (DFT) is used to study the structural properties of Gly and GlyD in aqueous phase in an attempt to understand their inhibition mechanism. The protection efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The inhibition effect of glycine (Gly) towards the corrosion of low alloy steel ASTM A213 grade T22 boiler steel was studied in aerated stagnant 0.50 M HCl solutions in the temperature range 20-60 deg. C using potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel polarization and linear polarization) and impedance techniques, complemented with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), a non-destructive corrosion measurement technique that can directly give values of corrosion current without prior knowledge of Tafel constants, is also presented here. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel extrapolation method are compared with corrosion rates obtained by electrochemical, namely EFM technique, and chemical (i.e., non-electrochemical) method for steel in HCl. The chemical method of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved determination of the dissolved cation, using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) method of analysis. Corrosion rates (in mm y-1) obtained from the electrochemical (Tafel extrapolation and EFM) and the chemical method, ICP, are in a good agreement. Polarization studies have shown that Gly is a good 'green', mixed-type inhibitor with cathodic predominance. The inhibition process was attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film on the metal surface that protects the metal against corrosive agents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) examinations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of such an adsorbed film. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in Gly concentration, while it decreases with solution temperature. Temkin isotherm is successfully applied to describe the adsorption process. Thermodynamic functions for the adsorption process were determined.
Extrapolation methods theory and practice
Brezinski, C
1991-01-01
This volume is a self-contained, exhaustive exposition of the extrapolation methods theory, and of the various algorithms and procedures for accelerating the convergence of scalar and vector sequences. Many subroutines (written in FORTRAN 77) with instructions for their use are provided on a floppy disk in order to demonstrate to those working with sequences the advantages of the use of extrapolation methods. Many numerical examples showing the effectiveness of the procedures and a consequent chapter on applications are also provided - including some never before published results and applicat
An extrapolation method for shell model calculations
Mizusaki, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi
2002-01-01
We propose a new shell model method, combining the Lanczos digonalization and extrapolation method. This method can give accurate shell model energy from a series of shell model calculations with various truncation spaces, in a well-controlled manner. Its feasibility is demonstrated by taking the fp shell calculations.
Prajitno, Djoko Hadi
2015-09-01
The Effects of scan rate on the Tafel polarization curve that is obtained to determine corrosion rate are conducted. The tafel polarization curves are obtained at different scan rates for Stainless Steel 304 in nanofluids contain 0.01 gpl nano particle ZrO2. The corrosion stainless steel in nanofluid contains adm+0.01 gpl ZrO2 nanoparticles at different scan rate was performed by Tafel polarization. The results show that according corrosion potential examination of the stainless steel in nanofluid media 0.01gpl ZrO2 nanoparticle was actively corroded. The value of cathodic Tafel slope stainless steel in nanofluid at different scan rate relatively unchanged after polarization testing. Mean while the value of anodic Tafel slope stainless steel in nanofluid increase at different scan rate. The results of Tafel polarization technique show that corrosion rate of stainless steel in nanofluid increase with increasing scan rate. X ray diffraction examination of stainless steel after Tafel polarization depict that ? Fe phase is major phase in the surface of alloy.
The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation
Wu, Z.
2013-01-01
Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wave-field extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media, because of its dispersion and artifact free, as well as highly accurate, solutions of the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number of inverse FFT required per time extrapolation step, and thus, a lower rank admits faster extrapolations. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its low rank representation.Thus,we obtain more accurate wave-fields using lower rank representation, and thus cheaper extrapolations. The optimization operation to define the low rank representation depends only on the velocity model, and this is done only once, and valid for a full reverse time migration (many shots) or one iteration of full waveform inversion. Applications on the BP model yielded superior results than those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, the solutions were free of the shear wave artifacts, and does not require that eta>0.
π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods
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A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π+p interactions at an incident momentum of the π+ of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π+p→π+pπ0 and π+p→π+π+n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/2) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section
An efficient method to evaluate energy variances for extrapolation methods
Puddu, G.
2012-01-01
The energy variance extrapolation method consists in relating the approximate energies in many-body calculations to the corresponding energy variances and inferring eigenvalues by extrapolating to zero variance. The method needs a fast evaluation of the energy variances. For many-body methods that expand the nuclear wave functions in terms of deformed Slater determinants, the best available method for the evaluation of energy variances scales with the sixth power of the numb...
Extrapolation Method for System Reliability Assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qin, Jianjun; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Faber, Michael Havbro
2012-01-01
The present paper presents a new scheme for probability integral solution for system reliability analysis, which takes basis in the approaches by Naess et al. (2009) and Bucher (2009). The idea is to evaluate the probability integral by extrapolation, based on a sequence of MC approximations of integrals with scaled domains. The performance of this class of approximation depends on the approach applied for the scaling and the functional form utilized for the extrapolation. A scheme for this task...
An efficient method to evaluate energy variances for extrapolation methods
Puddu, G
2012-01-01
The energy variance extrapolation method consists in relating the approximate energies in many-body calculations to the corresponding energy variances and inferring eigenvalues by extrapolating to zero variance. The method needs a fast evaluation of the energy variances. For many-body methods that expand the nuclear wave functions in terms of deformed Slater determinants, the best available method for the evaluation of energy variances scales with the sixth power of the number of single-particle states. We propose a new method which depends on the number of single-particle orbits and the number of particles rather than the number of single-particle states. We discuss as an example the case of ${}^4He$ using the chiral N3LO interaction in a basis consisting up to 184 single-particle states.
Multiparameter extrapolation and deflation methods for solving equation systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Hughes Hallett
1984-12-01
Full Text Available Most models in economics and the applied sciences are solved by first order iterative techniques, usually those based on the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. This paper examines the convergence of multiparameter extrapolations (accelerations of first order iterations, as an improved approximation to the Newton method for solving arbitrary nonlinear equation systems. It generalises my earlier results on single parameter extrapolations. Richardson's generalised method and the deflation method for detecting successive solutions in nonlinear equation systems are also presented as multiparameter extrapolations of first order iterations. New convergence results are obtained for those methods.
Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Srensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick
2011-01-01
In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a wind-turbine blade. For a Gaussian process, an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical ...
Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Srensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick
2011-01-01
In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a windturbine blade. For a Gaussian process, an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical s...
Analysis of accuracy of activity measurement for extrapolation coincidence methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grounds have been presented as well as an order of actions in application of the methods of extrapolation of activity values depending on efficiency of counting in the case of absolute measurements of radioactivity concentration by the coincidence methods and application of the metrological labels technick. Influence has been shown of geometry of distribution of measurement points on the accuracy of determination of the value to be extrapolated. Results have been given of investigations of influ ence if straggling of counting efficiency on the results of extrapolation and on the value of the random error taking into account inclination of extrapolation curve. Methodology has been present ed of determination of statistical weight of points which had been used for plotting of the extrapolation curve. Dependence has bee n deducted of the random error in measurement of emitter's activity and activity of a label in a summary radiation source. This depe ndence permits to finde optimum conditions for measuring of the emi tter's activity in different systems of metrological label-emitter
Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, M.; Ruede, U. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz-Zwickau (Germany)
1994-12-31
The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.
Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Srensen, John Dalsgaard
2010-01-01
In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process an approx...
Acceleration of nodal diffusion code by Chebychev polynomial extrapolation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents Chebychev acceleration of outer iterations of a nodal diffusion code of high accuracy. Extrapolation parameters, unique for all moments are calculated using the node integrated distribution of fission source. Sample calculations are presented indicating the efficiency of method. (author)
Novel extrapolation method in the Monte Carlo shell model
Shimizu, Noritaka; Utsuno, Yutaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Taka; Abe, Takashi; Honma, Michio
2010-01-01
We propose an extrapolation method utilizing energy variance in the Monte Carlo shell model in order to estimate the energy eigenvalue and observables accurately. We derive a formula for the energy variance with deformed Slater determinants, which enables us to calculate the energy variance efficiently. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for the full $pf$-shell calculation of $^{56}$Ni, and the applicability of the method to a system beyond current limit of exact ...
A new extrapolation method for weak approximation schemes with applications
Oshima, Kojiro; Veluscek, Dejan
2009-01-01
We review Fujiwara's scheme, a sixth order weak approximation scheme for the numerical approximation of SDEs, and embed it into a general method to construct weak approximation schemes of order $ 2m $ for $ m \\in \\mathbf{N} $. Those schemes cannot be seen as cubature schemes, but rather as universal ways how to extrapolate from a lower order weak approximation scheme, namely the Ninomiya-Victoir scheme, for higher orders.
Novel Extrapolation Method in the Monte Carlo Shell Model
Shimizu, Noritaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu; Abe, Takashi; Honma, Michio
2010-01-01
We propose an extrapolation method utilizing energy variance in the Monte Carlo shell model in order to estimate the energy eigenvalue and observables accurately. We derive a formula for the energy variance with deformed Slater determinants, which enables us to calculate the energy variance efficiently. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for the full $pf$-shell calculation of $^{56}$Ni, and the applicability of the method to a system beyond current limit of exact diagonalization is shown for the $pf$+$g_{9/2}$-shell calculation of $^{64}$Ge.
The solution of coupled Schroedinger equations using an extrapolation method
Goorvitch, D.; Galant, D. C.
1992-01-01
In this paper, extrapolation to the limit in a finite-difference method is applied to solve a system of coupled Schroedinger equations. This combination results in a method that only requires knowledge of the potential energy functions for the system. This numerical procedure has several distinct advantages over the more conventional methods. Namely, initial guesses for the term values are not needed; assumptions need be made about the behavior of the wavefunctions, such as the slope or magnitude in the nonclassical region; and the algorithm is easy to implement, has a firm mathematical foundation, and provides error estimates. Moreover, the method is less sensitive to round-off error than other methods since a small number of mesh points is used and it can be implemented on small computers. A comparison of the method with another numerical method shows results agreeing within 1 part in 10 exp 4.
Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Srensen, John Dalsgaard
2010-01-01
In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima and the peak over threshold method with two different threshold values. The comparisons show that the goodness of fit for the local distribution has a significant influence on the results, but the peak over threshold method with a threshold value on the mean plus 1.4 standard deviations generally gives the best results. By considering Gaussian processes for twelve mean wind speeds the fitting before aggregation and aggregation before fitting approaches are studied. The results show that the fitting before aggregation approach gives the best results.
Comparison of methods for extrapolating breaking creep results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Among all the methods of extrapolation, the following have been selected: - parametric methods (Larson-Miller, Dorn, Manson-Haferd); - digital and parametric method (minimum commitment); - digital method (finite differences); - descriptive method (Givar). The Larson-Miller, Dorn and Manson-Haferd methods are commonly used for analyzing the breaking creep results of materials for which the master curves can be described simply. The other methods have been developed in order to analyze the breaking creep results of materials where the structural changes over time modify the creep behaviour. In each case the assessment of the parameters is achieved by the least squares method. These methods were compared with each other on two steels, namely: Z6 CND 17-12 (316) and Z4 CND 35-20 (800 alloy). The various analyses performed show that (a) the predictions made as from the different methods are in good agreement between each other when there is a sufficient number of experimental values and (b) the predictions of the breaking times in the case of the 800 alloy differ from one method to the next. This result is due to the limited sampling data and to the complex behaviour of this alloy, the properties of which change with ageing
The extrapolated successive overrelaxation (ESOR method for consistently ordered matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. J. Evans
1984-06-01
Full Text Available This paper develops the theory of the Extrapolated Successive Overrelaxation (ESOR method as introduced by Sisler in [1], [2], [3] for the numerical solution of large sparse linear systems of the form Au=b, when A is a consistently ordered 2-cyclic matrix with non-vanishing diagonal elements and the Jacobi iteration matrix B possesses only real eigenvalues. The region of convergence for the ESOR method is described and the optimum values of the involved parameters are also determined. It is shown that if the minimum of the moduli of the eigenvalues of B, Î¼Â¯ does not vanish, then ESOR attains faster rate of convergence than SOR when 1âÎ¼Â¯2<(1âÎ¼Â¯212, where Î¼Â¯ denotes the spectral radius of B.
The absolute determination of activity by the efficiency extrapolation method
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As agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for the maintenance of the Australian standard of activity. The standard comprises activity measurement procedures involving the operation of 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment. The coincidence method requires the application of correction factors which depend on detection efficiency, such as arise for complex decay schemes and internal conversion. These corrections approach unity as the detection efficiency in the β-channel approaches 100 per cent. By performing activity determinations for a range of β detection efficiencies, an 'efficiency extrapolation' analysis can be applied which eliminates the need to determine the absolute detection efficiency for each channel
An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt
Waheed, Umair bin
2015-03-23
Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.
Definition of static magnetic characteristics of ferromagnetic specimens with extrapolation methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of definition of static magnetic characteristics of ferromagnetic specimens on the basis of extrapolation treatment of the totality of dynamic characteristics recorded in low-frequency (1-25 Hz) magnetic fields is considered. The application of the extrapolation methods ensures a considerable increase in the productivity of control of the studied specimen magnetic properties
Tao, Lu
1995-01-01
The splitting extrapolation method is a newly developed technique for solving multidimensional mathematical problems. It overcomes the difficulties arising from Richardson's extrapolation when applied to these problems and obtains higher accuracy solutions with lower cost and a high degree of parallelism. The method is particularly suitable for solving large scale scientific and engineering problems.This book presents applications of the method to multidimensional integration, integral equations and partial differential equations. It also gives an introduction to combination methods which are
Ismail, Amira; Gorgey, Annie
2015-10-01
Extrapolation involves taking a certain linear combination of the numerical solutions of a base method applied with different stepsizes to obtain greater accuracy. This linear combination is done so as to eliminate the leading error term. The technique of extrapolation in accelerating convergence has been successfully in numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. In this study, symmetric Runge-Kutta methods for solving linear and nonlinear stiff problem are considered. Symmetric methods admit asymptotic error expansion in even powers of the stepsize and are therefore of special interest because successive extrapolations can increase the order by two at time. Although extrapolation can give greater accuracy, due to the stepsize chosen, the numerical approximations are often destroy due to the accumulated round off errors. Therefore, it is important to control the rounding errors especially when applying extrapolation. One way to minimize round off errors is by applying compensated summation. In this paper, the numerical results are given for the symmetric Runge-Kutta methods Implicit Midpoint and Implicit Trapezoidal Rule applied with and without compensated summation. The result shows that symmetric methods with higher level extrapolation using compensated summation gives much smaller errors. On the other hand, symmetric methods without compensated summation when applied with extrapolation, the errors are affected badly by rounding errors.
How useful are corpus-based methods for extrapolating psycholinguistic variables?
Mandera, Pawe?; Keuleers, Emmanuel; Brysbaert, Marc
2015-01-01
Subjective ratings for age of acquisition, concreteness, affective valence, and many other variables are an important element of psycholinguistic research. However, even for well-studied languages, ratings usually cover just a small part of the vocabulary. A possible solution involves using corpora to build a semantic similarity space and to apply machine learning techniques to extrapolate existing ratings to previously unrated words. We conduct a systematic comparison of two extrapolation techniques: k-nearest neighbours, and random forest, in combination with semantic spaces built using latent semantic analysis, topic model, a hyperspace analogue to language (HAL)-like model, and a skip-gram model. A variant of the k-nearest neighbours method used with skip-gram word vectors gives the most accurate predictions but the random forest method has an advantage of being able to easily incorporate additional predictors. We evaluate the usefulness of the methods by exploring how much of the human performance in a lexical decision task can be explained by extrapolated ratings for age of acquisition and how precisely we can assign words to discrete categories based on extrapolated ratings. We find that at least some of the extrapolation methods may introduce artefacts to the data and produce results that could lead to different conclusions that would be reached based on the human ratings. From a practical point of view, the usefulness of ratings extrapolated with the described methods may be limited. PMID:25695623
Mueller, David S.
2013-04-01
Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity profiles from the entire cross section and multiple transects to determine a mean profile for the measurement. The use of an exponent derived from normalized data from the entire cross section is shown to be valid for application of the power velocity distribution law in the computation of the unmeasured discharge in a cross section. Selected statistics are combined with empirically derived criteria to automatically select the appropriate extrapolation methods. A graphical user interface (GUI) provides the user tools to visually evaluate the automatically selected extrapolation methods and manually change them, as necessary. The sensitivity of the total discharge to available extrapolation methods is presented in the GUI. Use of extrap by field hydrographers has demonstrated that extrap is a more accurate and efficient method of determining the appropriate extrapolation methods compared with tools currently (2012) provided in the ADCP manufacturers' software.
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Technique of critical current density measurement (Jc) of HTc bulk ceramic superconductor has been performed by using linear extrapolation with four-point probes method. The measurement of critical current density HTc bulk ceramic superconductor usually causes damage in contact resistance. In order to decrease this damage factor, we introduce extrapolation method. The extrapolating data show that the critical current density Jc for YBCO (123) and BSCCO (2212) at 77 K are 10,85(6) Amp.cm-2 and 14,46(6) Amp.cm-2, respectively. This technique is easier, simpler, and the use of the current flow is low, so it will not damage the contact resistance of the sample. We expect that the method can give a better solution for bulk superconductor application. Key words. : superconductor, critical temperature, and critical current density
The optimized expansion based low-rank method for wavefield extrapolation
Wu, Zedong
2014-03-01
Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wavefield extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media because it tends to be dispersion and artifact free as well as highly accurate when solving the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain extrapolation operator efficiently. To solve this problem, we evaluated an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with a low-rank variable separation representation. The rank defines the number of inverse Fourier transforms for each time extrapolation step, and thus, the lower the rank, the faster the extrapolation. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its explicit low-rank representation. As a result, we obtain lower rank representations compared with the standard low-rank method within reasonable accuracy and thus cheaper extrapolations. Additional bounds set on the range of propagated wavenumbers to adhere to the physical wave limits yield unconditionally stable extrapolations regardless of the time step. An application on the BP model provided superior results compared to those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, because we used the pure P-wave dispersion relation, we obtained solutions that were free of the shear wave artifacts, and the algorithm does not require that n > 0. In addition, the required rank for the optimization approach to obtain high accuracy in anisotropic media was lower than that obtained by the decomposition approach, and thus, it was more efficient. A reverse time migration result for the BP tilted transverse isotropy model using this method as a wave propagator demonstrated the ability of the algorithm.
2014-01-01
Background The indocyanine green dilution method is one of the methods available to estimate plasma volume, although some researchers have questioned the accuracy of this method. Methods We developed a new, physiologically based mathematical model of indocyanine green kinetics that more accurately represents indocyanine green kinetics during the first few minutes postinjection than what is assumed when using the traditional mono-exponential back-extrapolation method. The mathematical model is used to develop an optimal back-extrapolation method for estimating plasma volume based on simulated indocyanine green kinetics obtained from the physiological model. Results Results from a clinical study using the indocyanine green dilution method in 36 subjects with type 2 diabetes indicate that the estimated plasma volumes are considerably lower when using the traditional back-extrapolation method than when using the proposed back-extrapolation method (mean (standard deviation) plasma volume?=?26.8 (5.4) mL/kg for the traditional method vs 35.1 (7.0) mL/kg for the proposed method). The results obtained using the proposed method are more consistent with previously reported plasma volume values. Conclusions Based on the more physiological representation of indocyanine green kinetics and greater consistency with previously reported plasma volume values, the new back-extrapolation method is proposed for use when estimating plasma volume using the indocyanine green dilution method. PMID:25052018
Senjean, Bruno; Alam, Md Mehboob; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel
2015-01-01
The combination of a recently proposed linear interpolation method (LIM) [Senjean et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 012518 (2015)], which enables the calculation of weight-independent excitation energies in range-separated ensemble density-functional approximations, with the extrapolation scheme of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)] is presented in this work. It is shown that LIM excitation energies vary quadratically with the inverse of the range-separation parameter mu when the latter is large. As a result, the extrapolation scheme, which is usually applied to long-range interacting energies, can be adapted straightforwardly to LIM. This extrapolated LIM (ELIM) has been tested on a small test set consisting of He, Be, H2 and HeH+. Relatively accurate results have been obtained for the first singlet excitation energies with the typical mu=0.4 value. The improvement of LIM after extrapolation is remarkable, in particular for the doubly-excited 2^1Sigma+g state in the stretched H2 molecule. Three-state ensemble ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The parametric methods of Larsen-Miller, Sherby-Dorn, Menson-Sakkop, Konrad-and Korchinsky-Klauss are compared in terms of their advisability to be applied to description and extrapolation of long-term strength characteristics for alloy 21 on the base of refractory metals. It is shown that the most adequate description of longterm strength for the studied materials may be obtained by the Menson-Sakkop and Sherby-Dorn methods
Dynamics of Variable Valve Trains and Extrapolation Methods for Time-Stepping Schemes
Huber, Robert
2013-01-01
Set-valued force laws and time-stepping integration schemes are used in the context of multi-body simulation for efficient and physically based modelling of technical systems with friction and impacts saving computational time. In the first part of this thesis, step size adjustment and extrapolation methods are used to improve time-stepping schemes with regard to integration order and time discretisation. Furthermore, parallel computing techniques are used within this approach to reduce compu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The energy of a temporary anion can be computed by adding a stabilizing potential to the molecular Hamiltonian, increasing the stabilization until the temporary state is turned into a bound state, and then further increasing the stabilization until enough bound state energies have been collected so that these can be extrapolated back to vanishing stabilization. The lifetime can be obtained from the same data, but only if the extrapolation is done through analytic continuation of the momentum as a function of the square root of a shifted stabilizing parameter. This method is known as analytic continuation of the coupling constant, and it requiresat least in principlethat the bound-state input data are computed with a short-range stabilizing potential. In the context of molecules and ab initio packages, long-range Coulomb stabilizing potentials are, however, far more convenient and have been used in the past with some success, although the error introduced by the long-rang nature of the stabilizing potential remains unknown. Here, we introduce a soft-Voronoi box potential that can serve as a short-range stabilizing potential. The difference between a Coulomb and the new stabilization is analyzed in detail for a one-dimensional model system as well as for the 2?u resonance of CO2?, and in both cases, the extrapolation results are compared to independently computed resonance parameters, from complex scaling for the model, and from complex absorbing potential calculations for CO2?. It is important to emphasize that for both the model and for CO2?, all three sets of results have, respectively, been obtained with the same electronic structure method and basis set so that the theoretical description of the continuum can be directly compared. The new soft-Voronoi-box-based extrapolation is then used to study the influence of the size of diffuse and the valence basis sets on the computed resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)
Evaluation of functioning of an extrapolation chamber using Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Braff-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents a simulation for evaluating the functioning of an extrapolation chamber type 23392 of PTW, using the MCNPX Monte Carlo method. In the simulation, the fluence in the air collector cavity of the chamber was obtained. The influence of the materials that compose the camera on its response against beta radiation beam was also analysed. A comparison of the contribution of primary and secondary radiation was performed. The energy deposition in the air collector cavity for different depths was calculated. The component with the higher energy deposition is the Polymethyl methacrylate block. The energy deposition in the air collector cavity for chamber depth 2500 ?m is greater with a value of 9.708E-07 MeV. The fluence in the air collector cavity decreases with depth. It's value is 1.758E-04 1/cm2 for chamber depth 500 ?m. The values reported are for individual electron and photon histories. The graphics of simulated parameters are presented in the paper. (Author)
Counter-extrapolation method for conjugate interfaces in computational heat and mass transfer.
Le, Guigao; Oulaid, Othmane; Zhang, Junfeng
2015-03-01
In this paper a conjugate interface method is developed by performing extrapolations along the normal direction. Compared to other existing conjugate models, our method has several technical advantages, including the simple and straightforward algorithm, accurate representation of the interface geometry, applicability to any interface-lattice relative orientation, and availability of the normal gradient. The model is validated by simulating the steady and unsteady convection-diffusion system with a flat interface and the steady diffusion system with a circular interface, and good agreement is observed when comparing the lattice Boltzmann results with respective analytical solutions. A more general system with unsteady convection-diffusion process and a curved interface, i.e., the cooling process of a hot cylinder in a cold flow, is also simulated as an example to illustrate the practical usefulness of our model, and the effects of the cylinder heat capacity and thermal diffusivity on the cooling process are examined. Results show that the cylinder with a larger heat capacity can release more heat energy into the fluid and the cylinder temperature cools down slower, while the enhanced heat conduction inside the cylinder can facilitate the cooling process of the system. Although these findings appear obvious from physical principles, the confirming results demonstrates the application potential of our method in more complex systems. In addition, the basic idea and algorithm of the counter-extrapolation procedure presented here can be readily extended to other lattice Boltzmann models and even other computational technologies for heat and mass transfer systems. PMID:25871245
Sun, Shuyu
2013-06-01
This paper introduces an efficient technique to generate new molecular simulation Markov chains for different temperature and density conditions, which allow for rapid extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages at a range of temperatures and densities different from the original conditions where a single simulation is conducted. Obtained information from the original simulation are reweighted and even reconstructed in order to extrapolate our knowledge to the new conditions. Our technique allows not only the extrapolation to a new temperature or density, but also the double extrapolation to both new temperature and density. The method was implemented for Lennard-Jones fluid with structureless particles in single-gas phase region. Extrapolation behaviors as functions of extrapolation ranges were studied. Limits of extrapolation ranges showed a remarkable capability especially along isochors where only reweighting is required. Various factors that could affect the limits of extrapolation ranges were investigated and compared. In particular, these limits were shown to be sensitive to the number of particles used and starting point where the simulation was originally conducted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommerfeld, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Sommerfeld@selu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, SLU 10878, Hammond, Louisiana 70402 (United States); Ehara, Masahiro, E-mail: ehara@ims.ac.jp [Research Center for Computational Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodai-ji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)
2015-01-21
The energy of a temporary anion can be computed by adding a stabilizing potential to the molecular Hamiltonian, increasing the stabilization until the temporary state is turned into a bound state, and then further increasing the stabilization until enough bound state energies have been collected so that these can be extrapolated back to vanishing stabilization. The lifetime can be obtained from the same data, but only if the extrapolation is done through analytic continuation of the momentum as a function of the square root of a shifted stabilizing parameter. This method is known as analytic continuation of the coupling constant, and it requiresat least in principlethat the bound-state input data are computed with a short-range stabilizing potential. In the context of molecules and ab initio packages, long-range Coulomb stabilizing potentials are, however, far more convenient and have been used in the past with some success, although the error introduced by the long-rang nature of the stabilizing potential remains unknown. Here, we introduce a soft-Voronoi box potential that can serve as a short-range stabilizing potential. The difference between a Coulomb and the new stabilization is analyzed in detail for a one-dimensional model system as well as for the {sup 2}?{sub u} resonance of CO{sub 2}{sup ?}, and in both cases, the extrapolation results are compared to independently computed resonance parameters, from complex scaling for the model, and from complex absorbing potential calculations for CO{sub 2}{sup ?}. It is important to emphasize that for both the model and for CO{sub 2}{sup ?}, all three sets of results have, respectively, been obtained with the same electronic structure method and basis set so that the theoretical description of the continuum can be directly compared. The new soft-Voronoi-box-based extrapolation is then used to study the influence of the size of diffuse and the valence basis sets on the computed resonance parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on down-link band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders. (authors)
Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.
2015-03-01
The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.
A two-grid method with Richardson extrapolation for a semilinear convection-diffusion problem
Tikhovskaya, S. V.; Zadorin, A. I.
2015-10-01
A boundary value problem for a second-order semilinear singularly perturbed ordinary differential equation is considered. We use Newton and Picard iterations for a linearization. To solve the problem at each iteration we apply the difference scheme with the property of uniform with respect to the singular perturbation parameter convergence. A modified Samarskii and central difference schemes on Shishkin mesh are considered. It is known that these schemes are almost second order accuracy uniformly with respect to the singular perturbation parameter. To decrease the required number of arithmetical operations for resolving the difference scheme, a two-grid method is proposed. To increase the accuracy of difference scheme, we investigate the possibility to apply Richardson extrapolation using known solutions of the difference scheme on both meshes. The comparison of modified Samarskii and central difference schemes is carried out. The results of some numerical experiments are discussed.
Safouhi, Hassan; Bouferguene, Ahmed
Multi-center two-electron Coulomb integrals over Slater-type functions are required for any accurate molecular electronic structure calculations. These integrals, which are numerous, are to be evaluated rapidly and accurately. Slater-type functions are expressed in terms of the so-called B functions, which are best suited to apply the Fourier transform method. The Fourier transform method allowed analytic expressions for these integrals to be developed. Unfortunately, the analytic expressions obtained turned out to be extremely difficult to evaluate accurately due to the presence of highly oscillatory spherical Bessel integrals. In this work, we used techniques based on nonlinear transformation and extrapolation methods for improving convergence of these oscillatory spherical Bessel integrals. These techniques, which led to highly efficient and rapid algorithms for the numerical evaluation of three- and four-center two-electron Coulomb and exchange integrals, are now shown to be applicable to the two-center two-electron Coulomb integrals. The numerical results obtained for the molecular integrals under consideration illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm described in the present work compared with algorithms using the epsilon (?) algorithm of Wynn and Levin's u transform.
Ketcheson, David I.
2014-04-11
In practical computation with Runge--Kutta methods, the stage equations are not satisfied exactly, due to roundoff errors, algebraic solver errors, and so forth. We show by example that propagation of such errors within a single step can have catastrophic effects for otherwise practical and well-known methods. We perform a general analysis of internal error propagation, emphasizing that it depends significantly on how the method is implemented. We show that for a fixed method, essentially any set of internal stability polynomials can be obtained by modifying the implementation details. We provide bounds on the internal error amplification constants for some classes of methods with many stages, including strong stability preserving methods and extrapolation methods. These results are used to prove error bounds in the presence of roundoff or other internal errors.
Xie, Feng; Li, Xuesong; Dai, Yihua; Jiang, Wengang; He, Xiaobing; Yu, Gongshuo; Ni, Jianzhong
2015-03-01
Noble gas (41)Ar was measured with a 4??-4?? coincidence system, in which gamma- and beta-rays were respectively detected with a well-type NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator (PS) detector. The activity of (41)Ar was determined from an efficiency extrapolation method, in which the beta detector efficiency was varied by electronic discrimination using the software developed under Visual basic. In addition, high resolution gamma spectroscopy with HPGe detector was also used for activity determination of (41)Ar, and the result was satisfactory in agreement with that obtain by the efficiency extrapolation method. This work demonstrated that the activity of (41)Ar can be accurately measured by efficiency extrapolation method. PMID:25527895
Justin Steven Prentice
2011-01-01
Stepwise local error control using local extrapolation in Runge-Kutta methods is well-known. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm, designated RK$rv$Q$z,$ that is capable of controlling local and global errors in a stepwise manner. The algorithm utilizes three Runge-Kutta methods, of orders $r,v$ and $z$, with $r
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Results of applying the method of two-measure adaptive extrapolation (modification of Hershberg-Papoulis algorithm) to achieve superresolution of defect images, reconstructed according to multifrequency acoustic digital holograms are considered. Increase of transversal and longitudinal resolutions by the factor of 4 and 2 respectively is obtained in experiments on processing images of point and volume defects. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Mueller, David S.
2013-01-01
Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current pro?ler (ADCP) stream?ow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity
Comparison of precipitation nowcasting by extrapolation and statistical-advection methods.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sokol, Zbyn?k; Kitzmiller, D.; Peice, Petr; Mejsnar, Jan
2013-01-01
Ro?. 123, 1 April (2013), s. 17-30. ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA Mk ME09033 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * Statistical models * Regression * Quantitative precipitation forecast * Extrapolation forecast Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809512003390
First principles Tafel kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111)
Fang, Ya-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan
2015-01-01
Electrocatalytic methanol oxidation is of fundamental importance in electrochemistry and also a key reaction in direct methanol fuel cell. To resolve the kinetics at the atomic level, this work investigates the potential-dependent reaction kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111) using the first principles periodic continuum solvation model based on modified-Poisson-Boltzmann equation (CM-MPB), focusing on the initial dehydrogenation elementary steps. A theoretical model to predict Tafel kinetics (current vs potential) is established by considering that the rate-determining step of methanol oxidation (to CO) is the first Csbnd H bond breaking (CH3OH(aq) ? CH2OH* + H*) according to the computed free energy profile. The first Csbnd H bond breaking reaction needs to overcome a large entropy loss during methanol approaching to the surface and replacing the adsorbed water molecules. While no apparent charge transfer is involved in this elementary step, the charge transfer coefficient of the reaction is calculated to be 0.36, an unconventional value for charge transfer reactions, and the Tafel slope is deduced to be 166 mV. The results show that the metal/adsorbate interaction and the solvation environment play important roles on influencing the Tafel kinetics. The knowledge learned from the potential-dependent kinetics of methanol oxidation can be applied in general for understanding the electrocatalytic reactions of organic molecules at the solid-liquid interface.
Linear extrapolation distance for a black cylindrical control rod with the pulsed neutron method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this experiment was to measure the linear extrapolation distance for a central black cylindrical control rod in a cylindrical water moderator. The radius for both the control rod and the moderator was varied. The pulsed neutron technique was used and the decay constant was measured for both a homogeneous and a heterogeneous system. From the difference in the decay constants the extrapolation distance could be calculated. The conclusion is that within experimental error it is safe to use the approximate formula given by Pellaud or the more exact one given by Kavenoky. We can also conclude that linear anisotropic scattering is accounted for in a correct way in the approximate formula given by Pellaud and Prinja and Williams
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mejsnar, Jan; Sokol, Zbyn?k; Peice, Petr
Toulouse : Mto France, 2012. [ERAD 2012 - European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology /7./. Toulouse (FR), 24.06.2012-29.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA Mk ME09033 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation nowcasting * Lagrangien extrapolation * uncertainty in precipitation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.meteo.fr/cic/meetings/2012/ERAD/extended_abs/NOW_250_ext_abs.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A program to investigate the possibility of track extrapolation and interpolation for drift chambers with the Principal Components Analysis and polynoms was written for SAPHIR. The results for the most significant configurations at SAPHIR were pointed out. It was shown that the Principal Components Analysis is a good basis to write a fast track reconstruction program for a drift chamber using a global track model in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. A data input/output package was written, too. (orig.)
Extrapolation of Stationary Random Fields
Spodarev, Evgeny; Shmileva, Elena; Roth, Stefan
2013-01-01
We introduce basic statistical methods for the extrapolation of stationary random fields. For square integrable fields, we set out basics of the kriging extrapolation techniques. For (non--Gaussian) stable fields, which are known to be heavy tailed, we describe further extrapolation methods and discuss their properties. Two of them can be seen as direct generalizations of kriging.
Comparison of extrapolation methods for creep rupture stresses of 12Cr and 18Cr10NiTi steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As a part of a Soviet-Swedish research programme the creep rupture properties of two heat resisting steels namely a 12% Cr steel and an 18% Cr12% Ni titanium stabilized steel have been studied. One heat from each country of both steels were creep tested. The strength of the 12% Cr steels was similar to earlier reported strength values, the Soviet steel being some-what stronger due to a higher tungsten content. The strength of the Swedish 18/12 Ti steel agreed with earlier results, while the properties of the Soviet steel were inferior to those reported from earlier Soviet creep testings. Three extrapolation methods were compared on creep rupture data collected in both countries. Isothermal extrapolation and an algebraic method of Soviet origin gave in many cases rather similar results, while the parameter method recommended by ISO resulted in higher rupture strength values at longer times. (author)
Ketcheson, David I.
2014-06-13
We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The activity concentration of 125I was determined by X-(X-?) coincidence counting method and efficiency extrapolation curve. The measurement system consists of 2 thin NaI(T1) scintillation detectors which are horizontally movable on a track. The efficiency curve is obtained by symmetricaly changing the distance between the source and the detectors and the activity is determined by applying a linear efficiency extrapolation curve. All sum-coincidence events are included between 10 and 100 KeV window counting and the main source of uncertainty is coming from poor counting statistic around zero efficiency. The consistence of results with other methods shows that this technique can be applied to photon cascade emitters and are not discriminating by the detectors. It has been also determined the 35,5 KeV gamma-ray emission probability of 125I by using a Gamma-X type high purity germanium detector. (author)
Xie, Hehu
2006-01-01
In this paper, we derive an asymptotic error expansion for the eigenvalue approximations by the lowest order Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element method for the general second order elliptic eigenvalue problems. Extrapolation based on such an expansion is applied to improve the accuracy of the eigenvalue approximations. Furthermore, we also prove the superclose property between the finite element projection with the finite element approximation of the eigenvalue problems by mixed finite elemen...
Waheed, Umair bin
2014-08-01
The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.
Jiang, Chaowei
2013-01-01
Numerical reconstruction/extrapolation of coronal nonlinear force-free magnetic field (NLFFF) usually takes the photospheric vector magnetogram as input at the bottom boundary. Magnetic field observed at the photosphere, however, contains force which is in conflict with the fundamental assumption of the force-free model and measurement noise which is unfavorable for practical computation. Preprocessing of the raw magnetogram has been proposed by Wiegelmann, Inhester, and Sakurai (2006) to remove the force and noise for providing better input for NLFFF modeling. In this paper we develop a new code of magnetogram preprocessing which is consistent with our extrapolation method CESE-MHD-NLFFF (Jiang, Feng, and Xiang, 2012; Jiang and Feng, 2012). Basing on a magnetic-splitting rule that a magnetic field can be split into a potential field part and a non-potential part, we split the magnetogram and deal with the two parts separately. Preprocessing of the magnetogram's potential part is based on a numerical potentia...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inside Activity 3 ''Materials'' of WGCS, the member states UK and FRG have developed a work regarding extrapolation methods for creep data. This work has been done by comparising extrapolation methods in use in their countries by applying them to creep rupture strength data on AISI 316 SS obtained in UK and FRG. This work has been issued on April 1978 and the Community has dealed it to all Activity 3 Members. Italy, in the figure of NIRA S.p.A., has received, from the European Community a contract to extend the work to Italian and French data, using extrapolation methods currently in use in Italy. The work should deal with the following points: - Collect of Italian experimental data; - Chemical analysis on Italian Specimen; - Comparison among Italian experimental data with French, FRG and UK data; - Description of extrapolation methods in use in Italy; - Application of these extrapolation methods to Italian, French, British and Germany data; - Extensions of a Final Report
Comparison of Coronal Extrapolation Methods for Cycle 24 Using HMI Data
Arden, William M; Sun, Xudong; Zhao, Xuepu
2016-01-01
Two extrapolation models of the solar coronal magnetic field are compared using magnetogram data from the SDO/HMI instrument. The two models, a horizontal current-current sheet-source surface (HCCSSS) model and a potential field-source surface (PFSS) model differ in their treatment of coronal currents. Each model has its own critical variable, respectively the radius of a cusp surface and a source surface, and it is found that adjusting these heights over the period studied allows better fit between the models and the solar open flux at 1 AU as calculated from the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The HCCSSS model provides the better fit for the overall period from 2010 November to 2015 May as well as for two subsets of the period - the minimum/rising part of the solar cycle, and the recently-identified peak in the IMF from mid-2014 to mid-2015 just after solar maximum. It is found that a HCCSSS cusp surface height of 1.7 Rsun provides the best fit to the IMF for the overall period, while 1.7 & 1.9 Rsu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from a method of series analysis, usually adopted in statistical mechanics, and from some results of potential theory, an approximation procedure for the calculation of the high-energy two-body elastic-scattering amplitude is proposed. The input is the perturbative expansion of the relevant S-matrix element in powers of a renormalized coupling constant. The method reproduces the lower perturbative terms and gives an extrapolation of the higher ones, which is appropriate in the high-energy region. In the framework of the phi4 model, the total cross-section, the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the elastic two-body scattering amplitude and the elastic differential cross-section are calculated. The results show some general features of the two-body high-energy hadronic collisions. (author)
Ducasse, Q; Mathieu, L; Marini, P; Morillon, B; Aiche, M; Tsekhanovich, I
2015-01-01
The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 700, 59 (2013)] we developed the Extrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the 238U(d,p)239U and 238U(3He,d)239Np reactions. We have performed Hauser-Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of 239Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Model error is one of the key factors restricting the accuracy of numerical weather prediction (NWP). Considering the continuous evolution of the atmosphere, the observed data (ignoring the measurement error) can be viewed as a series of solutions of an accurate model governing the actual atmosphere. Model error is represented as an unknown term in the accurate model, thus NWP can be considered as an inverse problem to uncover the unknown error term. The inverse problem models can absorb long periods of observed data to generate model error correction procedures. They thus resolve the deficiency and faultiness of the NWP schemes employing only the initial-time data. In this study we construct two inverse problem models to estimate and extrapolate the time-varying and spatial-varying model errors in both the historical and forecast periods by using recent observations and analogue phenomena of the atmosphere. Numerical experiment on Burgers' equation has illustrated the substantial forecast improvement using inverse problem algorithms. The proposed inverse problem methods of suppressing NWP errors will be useful in future high accuracy applications of NWP. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Robbe, Joost Roger
2015-01-01
This article investigates the relationship between Dirc van Delfts Tafel vanden kersten ghelove (1404) and earlier traditional medieval literature on death and dying. Two chapters in the Tafel contain a treatise on death: Somerstuc XXXVIII and XLVIII. Their sources include not only Anselm of Canterburys Admonitio morientis (c. 1100) and Henry Susos Horologium aeternae sapientiae (1331-34), but also the popular 14th-century Verses of Saint Bernard. The article demonstrates that the treatises a...
Shinagawa, Tatsuya
2015-09-08
Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ ≈ 0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corrosion is one of the major problems in petroleum mining and processing industry. The pipelines used to transport crude oil from reservoir to the processing installation were made from carbon steel that is susceptible towards corrosion. One of the best methods to prevent corrosion that occurred at the inner parts of carbon steel pipelines is to use organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the potent organic corrosion inhibitors is amino acids derivatives. In this study, dipeptide compound namely benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and benzoylalanylglycine have been synthesized. The structure elucidation of the products was performed by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The determination of corrosion inhibition activity utilized the Tafel method. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of glycine methyl ester, benzoyl alanine, dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine were 63.34 %, 35.86 %, 68.40 % and 27.72 %, respectively. These results showed that the formation of dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester, derived from carboxylic protected glycine and amine protected alanine, increased the corrosion inhibition activity due to the loss of acidity center in the structure of glycine and L-alanine that would induce the corrosive environment towards carbon steel. (author)
A. Zlotnik; Zlotnik, I.
2014-01-01
We consider the Cauchy problem for the 1D generalized Schr\\"odinger equation on the whole axis. To solve it, any order finite element in space and the Crank-Nicolson in time method with the discrete transparent boundary conditions (TBCs) has recently been constructed. Now we engage the Richardson extrapolation to improve significantly the accuracy in time step. To study its properties, we give results of numerical experiments and enlarged practical error analysis for three t...
Alves, Valria A.; Paquim, Ana M. Chiorcea; Cavaleiro, Albano; Christopher M. A. Brett
2005-01-01
The influence of chemical composition and heat treatment on a low-carbon steel, chromium steel and high speed steel has been examined by polarisation curves and electrochemical parameters deduced from the Tafel plots. The electrochemical corrosion resistance, which is small between the as-received steels become greater after heat treatment, following the order: carbon steel
Impedance and Tafel-plot techniques of indium in acidic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of indium in various concentrations of hydrochloric and sulphuric acids have been studied using impedance and Tafel-plot measurements over cathodic and anodic regions. Numerical values of polarisation resistances, double layer capacitances, corrosion potentials and corrosion currents are calculated, compared and discussed. (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Infrared extrapolations for atomic nuclei
Furnstahl, R J; Papenbrock, T; Wendt, K A
2014-01-01
Harmonic oscillator model-space truncations introduce systematic errors to the calculation of binding energies and other observables. We identify the relevant infrared scaling variable and give values for this nucleus-dependent quantity. We consider isotopes of oxygen computed with the coupled-cluster method from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order and show that the infrared component of the error is sufficiently understood to permit controlled extrapolations. By employing oscillator spaces with relatively large frequencies, well above the energy minimum, the ultraviolet corrections can be suppressed while infrared extrapolations over tens of MeVs are accurate for ground-state energies. However, robust uncertainty quantification for extrapolated quantities that fully accounts for systematic errors is not yet developed.
Extrapolation of stable random fields
Karcher, Wolfgang; Spodarev, Evgeny
2011-01-01
In this paper, we discuss three extrapolation methods for alpha-stable random fields with 1
Finite lattice extrapolation algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two algorithms for sequence extrapolation, due to von den Broeck and Schwartz and Bulirsch and Stoer are reviewed and critically compared. Applications to three states and six states quantum chains and to the (2+1)D Ising model show that the algorithm of Bulirsch and Stoer is superior, in particular if only very few finite lattice data are available. (orig.)
Terk, Erik, 1952-
2009-01-01
Eestis korraldatud uuringu "Eesti loomemajanduse potentsiaal ja arenguks vajalikud riikud toetusmeetmed" tulemustest lhtudes ptakse leida optimaalseid suhteid loovinimeste toetusmeetmete ja iseorganiseerumise vahel. Vestlusringis Eesti Tuleviku-uuringute Instituudi direktor Erik Terk ja teadurid Silja Lassur ja Klliki Tafel-Viia
Carlos M. Morales-Bautista; Randy H. Adams; Francisco Guzmn-Osorio; Deysi Marn-Garca
2012-01-01
When crude petroleum is spilled onto soil, the oils properties have a large influence on the toxicity to soil organisms, the biodegradability of the oil, and potential for long term fertility problems in the soil. Furthermore, these properties of environmental concern are related to the crudes density, commonly measured as API gravity. Currently, methods do not exist to determine the API of crude oil in contaminated soil. In this study a novel method is presented for the determination of A...
Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2014-07-03
Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.
Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,
2013-02-01
A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.
Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Ptitsyn, V I
2001-01-01
The multipolar content of the dipoles and quadrupoles is known to limit the stability of the beam dynamics in super-conducting machines like RHIC and even more in LHC. The low-beta quadrupoles are thus equipped with correcting coils up to the dodecapole order. The correction is planned to rely on magnetic measurements. We show that a relatively simple method allows an accurate measurement of the multipolar field aberrations using the beam. The principle is to displace the beam in the non-linear fields by local closed orbit bumps and to measure the variation of sensitive beam observable. The resolution and robustness of the method are found appropriate. Experimentation at RHIC showed clearly the presence of normal and skew sextupolar field components in addition to a skew quadrupolar component in the interaction regions. Higher-order components up to decapole order appear as well.
Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suter, G.W. II
1996-09-01
One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The report resumes the calculation basia given by Walter Gloyer in his different papers and adds certain improvements acquired by long experience in thermal calculation engineering. The following points, necessary for the calculations, are examined in detail: verification of the thermal balances; calculation of the average temperature difference between the vapour and liquid, taking into account the efficiency of the exchanger; pressure loss of the phase stream; calculation of the various thermal resistances; calculation of the exchange surface. The basis of calculation being thus defined, a numerical application of the cooler calculation for hydrocarbon vapour + liquid mixtures with partial condensation is treated and enables the general use of this method to be considered for transfer problems in two-phase streams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grard Meunier
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Regarding standards, it is well established that common mode currents are the main source of far field emitted by variable frequency drive (VFD-cable-motor associations. These currents are generated by the combination of floating potentials with stray capacitances between these floating potential tracks and the mechanical parts connected to the earth (the heatsink or cables are usual examples. Nowadays, due to frequency and power increases, the systematic compliance to EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility becomes increasingly difficult and costly for industrials. As a consequence, there is a well-identified need to investigate practical and low cost solutions to reduce the radiated fields of VFD-cable-motor associations. A well-adapted solution is the shielding of wound components well known as the major source of near magnetic field. However, this solution is not convenient, it is expensive and may not be efficient regarding far field reduction. Optimizing the components placement could be a better and cheaper solution. As a consequence, dedicated tools have to be developed to efficiently investigate not easy comprehendible phenomena and finally to control EMC disturbances using component placement, layout geometry, shielding design if needed. However, none of the modeling methods usually used in industry complies with large frequency range and far field models including magnetic materials, multilayer PCBs, and shielding. The contribution of this paper is to show that alternatives regarding modeling solutions exist and can be used to get in-deep analysis of such complex structures. It is shown in this paper that near field investigations can give information on far field behavior. It is illustrated by an investigation of near field interactions and shielding influence using a FE-PEEC hybrid method. The test case combining a common mode filter with the floating potentials tracks of an inverter is based on an industrial and commercialized VFD. The near field interactions between the common mode inductance and the tracks with floating potentials are revealed. Then, the influence of the common mode inductance shielding is analyzed.
One-step lowrank wave extrapolation
Sindi, Ghada Atif
2014-01-01
Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Robbe, Joost Roger
2015-01-01
This article investigates the relationship between Dirc van Delfts Tafel vanden kersten ghelove (1404) and earlier traditional medieval literature on death and dying. Two chapters in the Tafel contain a treatise on death: Somerstuc XXXVIII and XLVIII. Their sources include not only Anselm of Canterburys Admonitio morientis (c. 1100) and Henry Susos Horologium aeternae sapientiae (1331-34), but also the popular 14th-century Verses of Saint Bernard. The article demonstrates that the treatises are much more than simple compilations. Within the context of the sacrament of the sick in the first treatise, Dirc van Delft presents a veritable ars moriendi which provides practical guidance for the dying and those attending them. The treatise culminates in a vivid drama in which the soul, being subject to three temptations of the devil, can benefit from the protection of its guardian angel as well as the Verses of Saint Bernard. In the second treatise, inspired by Henry Suso, Dirc van Delft addresses the danger of asudden and unprepared death, concluding with an original ars vivendi for a life of moral perfection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, the use of unconventional reference materials to determine experimentally the Cliff-Lorimer factor for EDS quantitative analysis with a TEM is checked by means of an alternative experimental procedure. The k-factor is determined by the extrapolation method based on pure elements, by measuring the normalized X-ray intensities emitted by thin films of pure gold and pure silver of different thickness, accurately measured by X-ray reflectivity. The goal of this work is to confirm the value of the k-factor previously obtained by the use of unconventional reference materials consisting of a bi-layer of pure gold on pure silver. The current result is in accordance with the previous one when considering their error bars, however, their relative difference is about 13 %, probably due to some uncertainties in mass thickness measurements. The mass thickness measurement of the layers of pure elements needs to be performed by different methods in order to reduce its uncertainty.
Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Srensen, John Dalsgaard
2008-01-01
In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold meth...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron radiation protection is an important research area because of the strong radiation biological effect of neutron field. The radiation dose of neutron is closely related to the neutron energy, and the connected relationship is a complex function of energy. For the low-level neutron radiation field (e.g. the AmBe source), the commonly used commercial neutron dosimeter cannot always reflect the low-level dose rate, which is restricted by its own sensitivity limit and measuring range. In this paper, the intensity distribution of neutron field caused by a curie level AmBe neutron source was investigated by measuring the count rates obtained through a 3He proportional counter at different locations around the source. The results indicate that the count rates outside of the source room are negligible compared with the count rates measured in the source room. In the source room, 3He proportional counter and neutron dosimeter were used to measure the count rates and dose rates respectively at different distances to the source. The results indicate that both the count rates and dose rates decrease exponentially with the increasing distance, and the dose rates measured by a commercial dosimeter are in good agreement with the results calculated by the Geant4 simulation within the inherent errors recommended by ICRP and IEC. Further studies presented in this paper indicate that the low-level neutron dose equivalent rates in the source room increase exponentially with the increasing low-energy neutron count rates when the source is lifted from the shield with different radiation intensities. Based on this relationship as well as the count rates measured at larger distance to the source, the dose rates can be calculated approximately by the extrapolation method. This principle can be used to estimate the low level neutron dose values in the source room which cannot be measured directly by a commercial dosimeter. - Highlights: The scope of the affected area for a curie-level AmBe neutron source was measured. The low-level neutron dose-equivalent rates around the source increase exponentially with the increasing count rates when the source is in different shielding state. This principle can be used to estimate the low level neutron dose values in the source room which cannot be measured directly by a commercial dosimeter
A single-phase model for liquid-feed DMFCs with non-Tafel kinetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Spain)
2007-09-27
An isothermal single-phase 3D/1D model for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is presented. Three-dimensional (3D) mass, momentum and species transport in the anode channels and gas diffusion layer is modeled using a commercial, finite-volume based, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software complemented with user supplied subroutines. The 3D model is locally coupled to a one-dimensional (1D) model accounting for the electrochemical reactions in both the anode and the cathode, which provides a physically sound boundary condition for the velocity and methanol concentration fields at the anode gas diffusion layer/catalyst interface. The 1D model - comprising the membrane-electrode assembly, cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode channel - assumes non-Tafel kinetics to describe the complex kinetics of the multi-step methanol oxidation reaction at the anode, and accounts for the mixed potential associated with methanol crossover, induced both by diffusion and electro-osmotic drag. Polarization curves computed for various methanol feed concentrations, temperatures, and methanol feed velocities show good agreement with recent experimental results. The spatial distribution of methanol in the anode channels, together with the distributions of current density, methanol crossover and fuel utilization at the anode catalyst layer, are also presented for different opperating conditions. (author)
Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain
Ma, Xuxin
2013-02-01
Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain. 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect technique to extract neutron-induced cross-sections of short-lived nuclei. In the last years several experiments have been performed to investigate whether this technique can be applied to infer radiative-capture cross-sections. A major difficulty in this type of measurements is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. The pulse-height weighting technique (PHWT) has been previously used to determine this quantity in surrogate experiments. In this work, we present a new method to determine the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the vicinity of the neutron-separation energy that is much simpler than the PHWT. We also investigate the possibility to apply this new technique in standard experiments using neutron beams.
Uncertainties of Euclidean Time Extrapolation in Lattice Effective Field Theory
Lhde, Timo A; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meiner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam
2014-01-01
Extrapolations in Euclidean time form a central part of Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT) calculations using the Projection Monte Carlo method, as the sign problem in many cases prevents simulations at large Euclidean time. We review the next-to-next-to-leading order NLEFT results for the alpha nuclei up to $^{28}$Si, with emphasis on the Euclidean time extrapolations, their expected accuracy and potential pitfalls. We also discuss possible avenues for improving the reliability of Euclidean time extrapolations in NLEFT.
Chiral extrapolation and physical insights
Young, R.D.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia); Leinweber, D. B.; Thomas, A.W.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Australia)
2003-01-01
It has recently been established that finite-range regularisation in chiral effective field theory enables the accurate extrapolation of modern lattice QCD results to the chiral regime. We review some of the highlights of extrapolations of quenched lattice QCD results, including spectroscopy and magnetic moments. The $\\Delta$ resonance displays peculiar chiral features in the quenched theory which can be exploited to demonstrate the presence of significant chiral corrections.
Extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constantinescu, E. M.; Sandu, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.
2010-01-01
This paper constructs extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping methods that allow one to efficiently solve problems with both stiff and nonstiff components. The proposed methods are based on Euler steps and can provide very high order discretizations of ODEs, index-1 DAEs, and PDEs in the method-of-lines framework. Implicit-explicit schemes based on extrapolation are simple to construct, easy to implement, and straightforward to parallelize. This work establishes the existence of perturbed asymptotic expansions of global errors, explains the convergence orders of these methods, and studies their linear stability properties. Numerical results with stiff ODE, DAE, and PDE test problems confirm the theoretical findings and illustrate the potential of these methods to solve multiphysics multiscale problems.
Efficient and stable extrapolation of prestack wavefields
Wu, Zedong
2013-09-22
The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields in time, nevertheless, is a big challenge because the radicand can be negative, thus reduce to a complex phase velocity, which will make the rank of the mixed domain matrix very high. Using the vertical offset between the sources and receivers, we introduce a method for deriving the DSR formulation, which gives us the opportunity to derive approximations for the mixed domain operator. The method extrapolates prestack wavefields by combining all data into one wave extrapolation procedure, allowing both upgoing and downgoing wavefields since the extrapolation is done in time, and doesn’t have the v(z) assumption in the offset axis of the media. Thus, the imaging condition is imposed by taking the zero-time and zero-offset slice from the multi-dimensional prestack wavefield. Unlike reverse time migration (RTM), no crosscorrelation is needed and we also have access to the subsurface offset information, which is important for migration velocity analysis. Numerical examples show the capability of this approach in dealing with complex velocity models and can provide a better quality image compared to RTM more efficiently.
Statistical modeling and extrapolation of carcinogenesis data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathematical models of carcinogenesis are reviewed, including pharmacokinetic models for metabolic activation of carcinogenic substances. Maximum likelihood procedures for fitting these models to epidemiological data are discussed, including situations where the time to tumor occurrence is unobservable. The plausibility of different possible shapes of the dose response curve at low doses is examined, and a robust method for linear extrapolation to low doses is proposed and applied to epidemiological data on radiation carcinogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juengst, H.G.
1991-04-01
A program to investigate the possibility of track extrapolation and interpolation for drift chambers with the Principal Components Analysis and polynoms was written for SAPHIR. The results for the most significant configurations at SAPHIR were pointed out. It was shown that the Principal Components Analysis is a good basis to write a fast track reconstruction program for a drift chamber using a global track model in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. A data input/output package was written, too. (orig.). [Deutsch] Mit Fertigstellung dieser Arbeit wurde fuer SAPHIR die Anbindung einzelner Detektorkomponenten mit minimal erforderlichem Rechenaufwand bei der Datenauswertung geschaffen. Es wruden Studien fuer die wichtigsten Anbindungen untersucht und die erreichbaren Fehler dargestellt. Dabei wurden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Principal Components Analysis (PCA) und der Polynome an konkreten und fuer SAPHIR wichtigen Fragestellungen aufgezeigt. Ausserdem wurde gezeigt, dass die PCA und Polynome die Grundlage fuer eine Spurrekonstruktion mit einem globalen Spurmodell sein kann, wobei wichtig ist, dass dies trotz eines inhomogenen Magnetfeldes mit wenig Rechenbedarf verwirklicht werden kann. Nebenbei entstand das Paket ZFAST mit Routinen zur maschinenunabhaengigen Speicherung von Datenstrukturen. Dieses Paket laesst sich sehr leicht an verschiedenste Rechner anpassen. Interessant ist ZFAST wegen seiner Implementierung der Maschinenunabhaengigkeit. ZFAST wird mit dem seit langer Zeit existierenden Speicherverwaltungsprogramm ZBOOK zu einer Einheit, ohne dass Programme fuer ZFAST angepasst werden muessen. (orig.).
Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation
Fomel, Sergey
2012-04-30
We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Chiral extrapolations for nucleon magnetic moments
Hall, J M M; Young, R D
2012-01-01
Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) simulations have made significant progress in the calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors in the chiral regime in recent years. With simulation results achieving pion masses of order ~180 MeV, there is an apparent challenge as to how the physical regime is approached. By using contemporary methods in chiral effective field theory, both the quark-mass and finite-volume dependence of the isovector nucleon magnetic moment are carefully examined. The extrapolation to the physical point yields a result that is compatible with experiment, albeit with a combined statistical and systematic uncertainty of 10%. The extrapolation shows a strong finite-volume dependence; lattice sizes of L > 5 fm must be used to simulate results within 2% of the infinite-volume result for the magnetic moment at the physical pion mass.
Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-02-27
Solving the wave equation using finite-difference approximations allows for fast extrapolation of the wavefield for modelling, imaging and inversion in complex media. It, however, suffers from dispersion and stability-related limitations that might hamper its efficient or proper application to high frequencies. Spectral-based time extrapolation methods tend to mitigate these problems, but at an additional cost to the extrapolation. I investigate the prospective of using a residual formulation of the spectral approach, along with utilizing Shanks transform-based expansions, that adheres to the residual requirements, to improve accuracy and reduce the cost. Utilizing the fact that spectral methods excel (time steps are allowed to be large) in homogeneous and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms required in every step of the spectral-based implementation. The approach here fixes that by improving the accuracy of each, potentially longer, time step.
Efficient depth extrapolation of waves in elastic isotropic media
Maharramov, Musa
2012-01-01
We propose a computationally efficient technique for extrapolating seismic waves in an arbitrary isotropic elastic medium. The method is based on factorizing the full elastic wave equation into a product of pseudo-differential operators. The method extrapolates displacement fields, hence can be used for modeling both pressure and shear waves. The proposed method can achieve a significant reduction in the cost of elastic modeling compared to the currently prevalent time- and ...
UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations
Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetire, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morn Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N
2012-01-01
UFOs ( Unidentified Falling Objects) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.
Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses
Knudsen, B. M.; Andersen, S B; Christiansen, B; Larsen, N.; Rex, M.; Harris, N R P; Naujokat, B.
2004-01-01
Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour may cool the stratosphere further and increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated from the highly significant trends 1958-2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result is that Arctic ozone...
Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation
Ibanez-Jacome, W.
2014-07-18
Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nichols, John W.; Schultz, Irv R.; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N..
2006-06-10
Mammalian researchers have developed a stepwise approach to predict in vivo hepatic clearance from measurements of in vitro hepatic metabolism. The resulting clearance estimates have been used to screen drug candidates, identify potential drug-drug interactions, investigate idiosyncratic drug responses, and support toxicology risk assessments. In this report we review these methods, discuss their potential application to studies with fish, and describe how extrapolated values could be incorporated into well-known compartmental kinetic models. Empirical equations that relate extrapolation factors to chemical log Kow are given to facilitate the incorporation of metabolism data into bioconcentration and bioaccumulation models. Because they explicitly incorporate the concept of clearance, compartmental clearance volume models are particularly well suited for incorporating hepatic clearance estimates. The manner in which these clearance values are incorporated into a given model depends, however, on the measurement frame of reference. Procedures for the incorporation of in vitro metabolism data into physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models are also described. Unlike most compartmental models, PBTK models are developed to describe the effects of metabolism in the tissue where it occurs. In addition, PBTK models are well suited to modeling metabolism in more than one tissue.
Uncertainties of Euclidean time extrapolation in lattice effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Extrapolations in Euclidean time form a central part of nuclear lattice effective field theory (NLEFT) calculations using the projection Monte Carlo method, as the sign problem in many cases prevents simulations at large Euclidean time. We review the next-to-next-to-leading order NLEFT results for the alpha nuclei up to 28Si, with emphasis on the Euclidean time extrapolations, their expected accuracy and potential pitfalls. We also discuss possible avenues for improving the reliability of Euclidean time extrapolations in NLEFT. (paper)
Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid
Fang, Gang
2014-05-01
2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.
Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.
2013-01-01
We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei with same parity. The mass relations are first tested and shown to either be rather accurately obeyed or revealing signatures of quickly varying structures. Extrapolations are initially made for a nucleus ...
Schroedinger's radial equation - Solution by extrapolation
Goorvitch, D.; Galant, D. C.
1992-01-01
A high-accuracy numerical method for the solution of a 1D Schroedinger equation that is suitable for a diatomic molecule, obtained by combining a finite-difference method with iterative extrapolation to the limit, is presently shown to have several advantages over more conventional methods. Initial guesses for the term values are obviated, and implementation of the algorithm is straightforward. The method is both less sensitive to round-off error, and faster than conventional methods for equivalent accuracy. These advantages are illustrated through the solution of Schroedinger's equation for a Morse potential function suited for HCl and a numerically derived Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential function for the X 1Sigma(+) state of CO.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Study of the reaction ?-p ? ?-?0 p at 2.77 GeV/c carried out in the CERN 2 meter large liquid hydrogen bubble chamber at the proton synchrotron, shows that 70 per cent of this reaction goes through ?-p ? ?-p channel. The high statistics allow us to specify the mass and the width of the ?- resonance. In other hand, if the ?- production parameters are independent of the ?- width, it is not the same case for the decay parameters. In the second part, the Chew-Low extrapolation method allows us to determine the ?-?0 elastic cross section to the pole, and the phase shifts of the P waves in the isospin 1 state and S waves in the isospin 2 state. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Sun, Xudong; Liu, Yang, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: xudongs@stanford.edu, E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2014-04-10
We developed a coronal nonlinear force-free field (COR-NLFFF) forward-fitting code that fits an approximate nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) solution to the observed geometry of automatically traced coronal loops. In contrast to photospheric NLFFF codes, which calculate a magnetic field solution from the constraints of the transverse photospheric field, this new code uses coronal constraints instead, and this way provides important information on systematic errors of each magnetic field calculation method, as well as on the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. In this study we applied the COR-NLFFF code to NOAA Active Region 11158, during the time interval of 2011 February 12-17, which includes an X2.2 GOES-class flare plus 35 M- and C-class flares. We calculated the free magnetic energy with a 6 minute cadence over 5 days. We find good agreement between the two types of codes for the total nonpotential E{sub N} and potential energy E{sub P} but find up to a factor of 4 discrepancy in the free energy E {sub free} = E{sub N} E{sub P} and up to a factor of 10 discrepancy in the decrease of the free energy ?E {sub free} during flares. The coronal NLFFF code exhibits a larger time variability and yields a decrease of free energy during the flare that is sufficient to satisfy the flare energy budget, while the photospheric NLFFF code shows much less time variability and an order of magnitude less free-energy decrease during flares. The discrepancy may partly be due to the preprocessing of photospheric vector data but more likely is due to the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. We conclude that the coronal field cannot be correctly calculated on the basis of photospheric data alone and requires additional information on coronal loop geometries.
Edwards, Arthur
1998-01-01
Als toepassingsgericht en multidisciplinaire wetenschap behoeft de bestuurskunde een eigen methodologie, naast de algemene sociaalwetenschappelijke methodologie voor het doen van empirisch onderzoek. Deze eigen bestuurskundige methodologie zou kunnen uitgaan van een argumentatieve benadering, gericht op versterking van de kwaliteit van de praktijkredeneringen die aan bestuurlijk handelen ten grondslag liggen. In dit artikel wordt aangegeven hoe de door Brasz ontwikkelde praxeologische methode...
Fuzzy Model Comparison to Extrapolate Rainfall Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Tzimopoulos
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This research presents two fuzzy rule-based models for extrapolating the missing rainfall data records of a station, utilizing as a reference the values from another meteorological station located in an adjacent area. The first one is constructed based on the least squares algorithm and the second one using ANFIS method. Three stations were used in this research, all located in Northern Greece. The values of Thessaloniki station were used as fuzzy premises and the values of Sindos and Kria Vrisi were used as fuzzy responses. The model performance was measured by testing several types and numbers of membership functions. Both models are compared with the classical method of linear regression. The comparison between the classical and fuzzy logic method, shows that the second one performs better in recovering the missing rainfall values. It was also found that a fuzzy rule based system, trained with the least squares algorithm, with two fully overlapping fuzzy numbers, is identical to the linear regression method.
Chiral extrapolation beyond the power-counting regime
Hall, J M M; Leinweber, D B; Liu, K F; Mathur, N; Young, R D; Zhang, J B
2011-01-01
Chiral effective field theory can provide valuable insight into the chiral physics of hadrons when used in conjunction with non-perturbative schemes such as lattice QCD. In this discourse, the attention is focused on extrapolating the mass of the rho meson to the physical pion mass in quenched QCD (QQCD). With the absence of a known experimental value, this serves to demonstrate the ability of the extrapolation scheme to make predictions without prior bias. By using extended effective field theory developed previously, an extrapolation is performed using quenched lattice QCD data that extends outside the chiral power-counting regime (PCR). The method involves an analysis of the renormalization flow curves of the low energy coefficients in a finite-range regularized effective field theory. The analysis identifies an optimal regulator, which is embedded in the lattice QCD data themselves. This optimal regulator is the regulator value at which the renormalization of the low energy coefficients is approximately i...
Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations
Hove, D; Riisager, K
2014-01-01
We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighbouring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei with same parity. The mass relations are first tested and shown to either be rather accurately obeyed or revealing signatures of quickly varying structures. Extrapolations are initially made for a nucleus by applying each of these relations. Very reliable estimates are then produced either by an average or by choosing the extrapolation where the smoothest structures enter. Corresponding mass relations for $Q_{\\alpha}$ values are used to study the general structure of super-heavy elements. A minor neutron shell at $N = 152$ is seen, but no sign of other shell structures are apparent in the super-heavy region. Accuracies are typically substantially better than $0.5$~MeV.
Extrapolation Technique Pitfalls in Asymmetry Measurements at Colliders
Colletti, Katrina; Toback, David; Wilson, Jonathan S
2015-01-01
Asymmetry measurements are common in collider experiments and can sensitively probe particle properties. Typically, data can only be measured in a finite region covered by the detector, so an extrapolation from the visible asymmetry to the inclusive asymmetry is necessary. Often a constant multiplicative factor is more than adequate for the extrapolation and this factor can be readily determined using simulation methods. However, there is a potential, avoidable pitfall involved in the determination of this factor when the asymmetry in the simulated data sample is small. We find that to obtain a reliable estimate of the extrapolation factor, the number of simulated events required rises as the inverse square of the simulated asymmetry; this can mean that an unexpectedly large sample size is required when determining its value.
Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.
2013-01-01
We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei with...
Extrapolation procedures in Mott electron polarimetry
Gay, T. J.; Khakoo, M. A.; Brand, J. A.; Furst, J. E.; Wijayaratna, W. M. K. P.; Meyer, W. V.; Dunning, F. B.
1992-01-01
In standard Mott electron polarimetry using thin gold film targets, extrapolation procedures must be used to reduce the experimentally measured asymmetries A to the values they would have for scattering from single atoms. These extrapolations involve the dependent of A on either the gold film thickness or the maximum detected electron energy loss in the target. A concentric cylindrical-electrode Mott polarimeter, has been used to study and compare these two types of extrapolations over the electron energy range 20-100 keV. The potential systematic errors which can result from such procedures are analyzed in detail, particularly with regard to the use of various fitting functions in thickness extrapolations, and the failure of perfect energy-loss discrimination to yield accurate polarizations when thick foils are used.
Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models
The National Research Councils (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...
Extrapolative prediction using physically-based QSAR.
Cleves, Ann E; Jain, Ajay N
2016-02-01
Surflex-QMOD integrates chemical structure and activity data to produce physically-realistic models for binding affinity prediction . Here, we apply QMOD to a 3D-QSAR benchmark dataset and show broad applicability to a diverse set of targets. Testing new ligands within the QMOD model employs automated flexible molecular alignment, with the model itself defining the optimal pose for each ligand. QMOD performance was compared to that of four approaches that depended on manual alignments (CoMFA, two variations of CoMSIA, and CMF). QMOD showed comparable performance to the other methods on a challenging, but structurally limited, test set. The QMOD models were also applied to test a large and structurally diverse dataset of ligands from ChEMBL, nearly all of which were synthesized years after those used for model construction. Extrapolation across diverse chemical structures was possible because the method addresses the ligand pose problem and provides structural and geometric means to quantitatively identify ligands within a model's applicability domain. Predictions for such ligands for the four tested targets were highly statistically significant based on rank correlation. Those molecules predicted to be highly active ([Formula: see text]) had a mean experimental [Formula: see text] of 7.5, with potent and structurally novel ligands being identified by QMOD for each target. PMID:26860112
Infrared extrapolations of quadrupole moments and transitions
Odell, D; Platter, L
2015-01-01
We study the convergence of bound-state quadrupole moments in finite harmonic oscillator spaces. We derive an expression for the infrared extrapolation for the quadrupole moment of a nucleus and benchmark our results using different model interactions for the deuteron. We find good agreement between the analytically derived and numerically obtained convergence behavior. We also derive an extrapolation formula for electric quadrupole transitions and find good agreement with the numerical calculation of a simple system.
Frequency extrapolation by nonconvex compressive sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomographic imaging modalities sample subjects with a discrete, finite set of measurements, while the underlying object function is continuous. Because of this, inversion of the imaging model, even under ideal conditions, necessarily entails approximation. The error incurred by this approximation can be important when there is rapid variation in the object function or when the objects of interest are small. In this work, we investigate this issue with the Fourier transform (FT), which can be taken as the imaging model for magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) or some forms of wave imaging. Compressive sensing has been successful for inverting this data model when only a sparse set of samples are available. We apply the compressive sensing principle to a somewhat related problem of frequency extrapolation, where the object function is represented by a super-resolution grid with many more pixels than FT measurements. The image on the super-resolution grid is obtained through nonconvex minimization. The method fully utilizes the available FT samples, while controlling aliasing and ringing. The algorithm is demonstrated with continuous FT samples of the Shepp-Logan phantom with additional small, high-contrast objects.
Frequency extrapolation by nonconvex compressive sensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sidky, Emil Y [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Pan, Xiaochaun [UNIV OF CHICAGO
2010-12-03
Tomographic imaging modalities sample subjects with a discrete, finite set of measurements, while the underlying object function is continuous. Because of this, inversion of the imaging model, even under ideal conditions, necessarily entails approximation. The error incurred by this approximation can be important when there is rapid variation in the object function or when the objects of interest are small. In this work, we investigate this issue with the Fourier transform (FT), which can be taken as the imaging model for magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) or some forms of wave imaging. Compressive sensing has been successful for inverting this data model when only a sparse set of samples are available. We apply the compressive sensing principle to a somewhat related problem of frequency extrapolation, where the object function is represented by a super-resolution grid with many more pixels than FT measurements. The image on the super-resolution grid is obtained through nonconvex minimization. The method fully utilizes the available FT samples, while controlling aliasing and ringing. The algorithm is demonstrated with continuous FT samples of the Shepp-Logan phantom with additional small, high-contrast objects.
Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-04-30
Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
A dimensional extrapolation technique for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel methodology for extrapolation of the performance of ITER class machines is introduced. This procedure utilizes the ITER ELMy H mode database by means of a similarity approach where every discharge is extrapolated to a machine satisfying the ITER performance requirements through the use of the tokamak system code developed during the course of the ITER design evolution. This approach attempts, amongst other things, to overcome the difficulty associated with the simultaneous choice of non-dimensional parameters which, in particular when close to their respective limits, may have some significant mutual interactions affecting energy confinement time. The methodology is also applied to the ITER Physics Basis scalings to develop a non-statistical approach where fusion power is extrapolated at constant beta and confinement is assumed to follow a gyroBohm form. In both cases, out of more than a thousand discharges in the ELMy H mode database, less than half turn out to extrapolate to a Q = 10 machine whose major radius is smaller than 8 m. However, a significant number of discharges do extrapolate to a Q 10 machine with R < 6.2 m. This strengthens confidence in the present choice of ITER parameters. In addition, from this analysis, it has been possible to identify a set of high performance 'ITER relevant' discharges from a number of machines, which could be used as starting points for investigation of further improvements in confinement. (author)
Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain
Ma, Xuxin
2012-01-01
Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.
On the basis-set extrapolation
Chandra, Suresh
2015-01-01
A possible solution for the problem of memory-size and computer-time, is the extrapolation of basis-set$^1$. This extrapolation has two exponents $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$, corresponding to the HF (reference energy) and the energy of correlations (EC), respectively. For a given system, the exponents are taken as constant$^2$, and potential energy surfaces (PES) are generated. We have found that the values of $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are not constant, but vary from position to position in the system. How to deal with such situation and get very accurate PES, is discussed.
A new clinical extrapolation chamber dosimeter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new clinical extrapolation chamber dosimeter has been developed for electron beams and X-rays from medical linac. It consists of a new type extrapolation chamber, a water phantom and an intelligent portable instrument. The chamber is fitted a thin entrance window and has a collecting electrode make of polystyrene 20 mm in diameter. The electrode spacing can be varied by stepping motor drive achieving high precision of electrode setting/ The variable gap is as small as 0.20 mm to 6 mm. The dosimeter can automatically finish the measuring process, and has error self-test and dose self-recording function. The total uncertainty is 2.7%
Cosmogony as an extrapolation of magnetospheric research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theory of the origin and evolution of the Solar System (Alfven and Arrhenius, 1975: 1976) which considered electromagnetic forces and plasma effects is revised in the light of new information supplied by space research. In situ measurements in the magnetospheres and solar wind have changed our views of basic properties of cosmic plasmas. These results can be extrapolated both outwards in space, to interstellar clouds, backwards in time, to the formation of the solar system. The first extrapolation leads to a revision of some cloud properties which are essential for the early phases in the formation of stars and solar nebule. The latter extrapolation makes possible to approach the cosmogonic processes by extrapolation of (rather) well-known magnetospheric phenomena. Pioneer-Voyager observations of the Saturnian rings indicate that essential parts of their structure are fossils from cosmogonic times. By using detailed information from these space missions, it seems possible to reconstruct certain events 4-5 billion years ago with an accuracy of a few percent. This will cause a change in our views of the evolution of the solar system.(author)
Survival extrapolation using the poly-Weibull model.
Demiris, Nikolaos; Lunn, David; Sharples, Linda D
2015-04-01
Recent studies of (cost-) effectiveness in cardiothoracic transplantation have required estimation of mean survival over the lifetime of the recipients. In order to calculate mean survival, the complete survivor curve is required but is often not fully observed, so that survival extrapolation is necessary. After transplantation, the hazard function is bathtub-shaped, reflecting latent competing risks which operate additively in overlapping time periods. The poly-Weibull distribution is a flexible parametric model that may be used to extrapolate survival and has a natural competing risks interpretation. In addition, treatment effects and subgroups can be modelled separately for each component of risk. We describe the model and develop inference procedures using freely available software. The methods are applied to two problems from cardiothoracic transplantation. PMID:21937472
Extrapolated HPGe efficiency estimates based on a single calibration measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamma spectroscopists often must analyze samples with geometries for which their detectors are not calibrated. The effort to experimentally recalibrate a detector for a new geometry can be quite time consuming, causing delay in reporting useful results. Such concerns have motivated development of a method for extrapolating HPGe efficiency estimates from an existing single measured efficiency. Overall, the method provides useful preliminary results for analyses that do not require exceptional accuracy, while reliably bracketing the credible range. The estimated efficiency element-of for a uniform sample in a geometry with volume V is extrapolated from the measured element-of 0 of the base sample of volume V0. Assuming all samples are centered atop the detector for maximum efficiency, element-of decreases monotonically as V increases about V0, and vice versa. Extrapolation of high and low efficiency estimates element-of h and element-of L provides an average estimate of element-of = 1/2 [element-of h + element-of L] 1/2 [element-of h - element-of L] (general) where an uncertainty D element-of = 1/2 (element-of h - element-of L] brackets limits for a maximum possible error. The element-of h and element-of L both diverge from element-of 0 as V deviates from V0, causing D element-of to increase accordingly. The above concepts guided development of both conservative and refined estimates for element-of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: 90Sr/90Y; Ophthalmic applicators 90Sr/90Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
180000 pictures taken in the 2 m CERN hydrogen bubble chamber with an incident beam of 2.77 GeV/e were examined. High statistics obtained in the whole angular production range allowed to study the d?/dt differential cross section behaviour, the mass and width of the ? meson, and the multipole parameters of this resonance. Nevertheless, the aim of this experiment was the application of the CHEW - LOW extrapolation method. Different types of extrapolation procedures were compared. Phase shift analysis of the elastic ?? scattering between 500 and 1100 MeV, performed with conformal mappings, allowed to determine the values of the S0, S2, P1, D0, D2 waves. Forward dispersion relations were used to obtain scattering length values of the S2 and P1 phase shifts. (author)
Visek, W. J.
1988-01-01
The Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO) of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) is conducting this symposium under contract with the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has requested information on the strengths and weaknesses of current interspecies extrapolation methods using metabolic and pharmacokinetic data, identity of data for these methods, bases for choice of extrapolation method and...
Chiral extrapolations for nucleon electric charge radii
Hall, J M M; Young, R D
2013-01-01
Lattice simulations for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon yield insights into the internal structure of hadrons. The logarithmic divergence of the charge radius in the chiral limit poses an interesting challenge in achieving reliable predictions from finite-volume lattice simulations. Recent results near the physical pion mass are examined in order to confront the issue of how the chiral regime is approached. The electric charge radius of the nucleon presents a forum for achieving consistent finite-volume corrections. Newly-developed techniques within the framework of chiral effective field theory are used to achieve a robust extrapolation of the electric charge radius to the physical pion mass, and to infinite volume. The chiral extrapolations exhibit considerable finite-volume dependence; lattice box sizes of L > 7 fm are required in order to achieve a direct lattice simulation result within 2% of the infinite-volume value at the physical point. Predictions of the volume-dependence are provide...
Local Map Extrapolation in Dynamic Environments
Drouilly, Romain; Papadakis, Panagiotis; Rives, Patrick; Morisset, Benoit
2014-01-01
We present a generative approach to perform robot mapping that is based on an intelligent integration of static and dynamic entity classes within an environment, in order to extrap-olate map information at various resolutions. Our framework differentiates from the conventional standpoint where different mapping levels are overlaid on one another, by fusing information from different mapping levels that allows us to infer new information within partially mapped environments. Towards this goal,...
A simple extrapolation of thermodynamic perturbation theory to infinite order
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard
2015-09-01
Recent analyses of the third and fourth order perturbation contributions to the equations of state for square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains show trends that persist across orders and molecular models. In particular, the ratio between orders (e.g., A3/A2, where Ai is the ith order perturbation contribution) exhibits a peak when plotted with respect to density. The trend resembles a Gaussian curve with the peak near the critical density. This observation can form the basis for a simple recursion and extrapolation from the highest available order to infinite order. The resulting extrapolation is analytic and therefore cannot fully characterize the critical region, but it remarkably improves accuracy, especially for the binodal curve. Whereas a second order theory is typically accurate for the binodal at temperatures within 90% of the critical temperature, the extrapolated result is accurate to within 99% of the critical temperature. In addition to square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains, we demonstrate how the method can be applied semi-empirically to the Perturbed Chain - Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT).
Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation
Ibanez Jacome, Wilson
2013-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid
2011-01-01
The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out-of-plane bending moment and the tower mudline bending moment of a pitch-controlled wind turbine. In general, the results show that the method based on average conditional exceedance rates predicts the extrapolated characteristic response loads at the individual mean wind speeds well and results in more consistent estimates than the methods based on peak extrapolation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The corrosion inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, known as TRITON-X-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on iron in 1.0 M HCl solution were studied. Measurements were conducted in 1.0 M HCl solutions without and with various concentrations of the three selected surfactants using chemical (ICP-AES method of analysis of dissolved cations) and electrochemical (Tafel polarisation and EFM) techniques at 25 deg. C. These measurements were complemented with SEM and EDX examinations of the electrode surface. Polarisation data showed that the non-ionic surfactants used in this study acted as mixed-type inhibitors with cathodic predominance. The protection efficiency increased with increase in surfactant concentration. Maximum protection efficiency of the surfactant was observed at concentrations around its CMC. From their molecular structure, these surfactants may adsorb on the metal surface through two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atoms of the hydrophilic head group.
On extrapolation blowups in the scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fiorenza Alberto
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Yano's extrapolation theorem dated back to 1951 establishes boundedness properties of a subadditive operator acting continuously in for close to and/or taking into as and/or with norms blowing up at speed and/or , . Here we give answers in terms of Zygmund, Lorentz-Zygmund and small Lebesgue spaces to what happens if as . The study has been motivated by current investigations of convolution maximal functions in stochastic analysis, where the problem occurs for . We also touch the problem of comparison of results in various scales of spaces.
Chiral and Continuum Extrapolation of Partially-Quenched Hadron Masses
Allton, C R; Leinweber, D B; Thomas, A W; Young, R D
2005-01-01
Using the finite-range regularisation (FRR) of chiral effective field theory, the chiral extrapolation formula for the vector meson mass is derived for the case of partially-quenched QCD. We re-analyse the dynamical fermion QCD data for the vector meson mass from the CP-PACS collaboration. A global fit, including finite lattice spacing effects, of all 16 of their ensembles is performed. We study the FRR method together with a naive polynomial approach and find excellent agreement ~1% with the experimental value of M_rho from the former approach. These results are extended to the case of the nucleon mass.
Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper examines the events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences to further understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The first section deals with a report of the events that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just after the 1945 bombings with respect to the physical conditions of the affected areas, the immediate effects on humans, the psychological response of the victims, and the nature of outside assistance. Because there can be no experimental data to validate the effects on cities and their populations of detonations from current weapons, the data from the actual explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide a point of departure. The second section examines possible extrapolations from and comparisons with the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. A comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from the conventional bombings of cities during World War II, the consequences of major earthquakes, the historical effects of the Black Plague and widespread famines, and other extreme natural events. The potential effects of detonating a modern 1 MT warhead on the city of Hiroshima as it exists today are simulated. This is extended to the local effects on a targeted city from a global nuclear war, and attention is directed to problems of estimating the societal effects from such a war
Ardekani, Mohammad Ali; Nafisi, Vahid Reza; Farhani, Foad
2012-01-01
Hot-wire spirometer is a kind of constant temperature anemometer (CTA). The working principle of CTA, used for the measurement of fluid velocity and flow turbulence, is based on convective heat transfer from a hot-wire sensor to a fluid being measured. The calibration curve of a CTA is nonlinear and cannot be easily extrapolated beyond its calibration range. Therefore, a method for extrapolation of CTA calibration curve will be of great practical application. In this paper, a novel approach b...
Antonio, Patrcia L; Oliveira, Mrcia L; Caldas, Linda V E
2014-02-01
(90)Sr+(90)Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. (90)Sr+(90)Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. PMID:24362457
Extrapolation procedure for low-temperature series for the square lattice spin-1 Ising model
I Jensen; A. J. Guttmann(Department of Mathematics, The University of Melbourne Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia)
1996-01-01
The finite-lattice method of series expansions has been combined with a new extrapolation procedure to extend the low-temperature series for the specific heat, spontaneous magnetisation and susceptibility of the spin-1 Ising model on the square lattice. The extended series were derived by directly calculating the series to order 99 (in the variable $u=\\exp[-J/k_B T])$ and using the new extrapolation procedure to calculate an additional 13--14 terms.
Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q95 . The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)
Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q95. The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)
Scintillation counting: an extrapolation into the future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Progress in scintillation counting is intimately related to advances in a variety of other disciplines such as photochemistry, photophysics, and instrumentation. And while there is steady progress in the understanding of luminescent phenomena, there is a virtual explosion in the application of semiconductor technology to detectors, counting systems, and data processing. The exponential growth of this technology has had, and will continue to have, a profound effect on the art of scintillation spectroscopy. This paper will review key events in technology that have had an impact on the development of scintillation science (solid and liquid) and will attempt to extrapolate future directions based on existing and projected capability in associated fields. Along the way there have been occasional pitfalls and several false starts; these too will be discussed as a reminder that if you want the future to be different than the past, study the past
The extrapolation of creep rupture data by PD6605 - An independent case study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65 Fisher Avenue, Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)
2011-04-15
The worked example presented in BSI document PD6605-1:1998, to illustrate the selection, validation and extrapolation of a creep rupture model using statistical analysis, was independently examined. Alternative rupture models were formulated and analysed by the same statistical methods, and were shown to represent the test data more accurately than the original model. Median rupture lives extrapolated from the original and alternative models were found to diverge widely under some conditions of practical interest. The tests prescribed in PD6605 and employed to validate the original model were applied to the better of the alternative models. But the tests were unable to discriminate between the two, demonstrating that these tests fail to ensure reliability in extrapolation. The difficulties of determining when a model is sufficiently reliable for use in extrapolation are discussed and some proposals are made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
90Sr+90Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. - Highlights: 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators were calibrated using a mini-extrapolation chamber. An extrapolation curve was obtained for each applicator during its calibration. The results were compared with those provided by the calibration certificates. All results of the dermatological applicators presented lower differences than 5%
Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models
Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.
2015-03-01
Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.
Calculating excitation energies by extrapolation along adiabatic connections
Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas
2015-01-01
In this paper, an alternative method to range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory and perturbation theory is proposed to improve the estimation of the energies of a physical system from the energies of a partially interacting system. Starting from the analysis of the Taylor expansion of the energies of the partially interacting system around the physical system, we use an extrapolation scheme to improve the estimation of the energies of the physical system at an intermediate point of the range-separated or linear adiabatic connection where either the electron--electron interaction is scaled or only the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction is included. The extrapolation scheme is first applied to the range-separated energies of the helium and beryllium atoms and of the hydrogen molecule at its equilibrium and stretched geometries. It improves significantly the convergence rate of the energies toward their exact limit with respect to the range-separation parameter. The range...
Extrapolating W -associated jet-production ratios at the LHC
Bern, Z.; Dixon, L. J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Hche, S.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D. A.; Matre, D.
2015-07-01
Electroweak vector-boson production, accompanied by multiple jets, is an important background to searches for physics beyond the standard model. A precise and quantitative understanding of this process is helpful in constraining deviations from known physics. We study four key ratios in W +n -jet production at the LHC. We compute the ratio of cross sections for W +n - to W +(n -1 )-jet production as a function of the minimum jet transverse momentum. We also study the ratio differentially, as a function of the W -boson transverse momentum; as a function of the scalar sum of the jet transverse energy, HTjets; and as a function of certain jet transverse momenta. We show how to use such ratios to extrapolate differential cross sections to W +6 -jet production at next-to-leading order, and we cross-check the method against a direct calculation at leading order. We predict the differential distribution in HTjets for W +6 jets at next-to-leading order using such an extrapolation. We use the BlackHat software library together with SHERPA to perform the computations.
Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation
Lhde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Lee, Dean; Meiner, Ulf-G.; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Rupak, Gautam
2015-07-01
Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the "symmetry-sign extrapolation" method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the 12C, 6He and 6Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter.
Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the 12C, 6He and 6Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)
Quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of tissues toxicity.
Hamon, Jrmy; Renner, Maria; Jamei, Masoud; Lukas, Arno; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Bois, Frdric Y
2015-12-25
Predicting repeated-dosing in vivo drug toxicity from in vitro testing and omics data gathering requires significant support in bioinformatics, mathematical modeling and statistics. We present here the major aspects of the work devoted within the framework of the European integrated Predict-IV to pharmacokinetic modeling of in vitro experiments, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, mechanistic models of toxicity for the kidney and brain, large scale dose-response analyses methods and biomarker discovery tools. All of those methods have been applied to various extent to the drug datasets developed by the project's partners. Our approach is rather generic and could be adapted to other drugs or drug candidates. It marks a successful integration of the work of the different teams toward a common goal of predictive quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. PMID:25678044
Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laehde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany); Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Rupak, Gautam [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State, MS (United States)
2015-07-15
Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the {sup 12}C, {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)
Ultraviolet extrapolations in finite oscillator bases
König, S; Furnstahl, R J; More, S N; Papenbrock, T
2014-01-01
The use of finite harmonic oscillator spaces in many-body calculations introduces both infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) errors. The IR effects are well approximated by imposing a hard-wall boundary condition at a properly identified radius L_eff. We show that duality of the oscillator implies that the UV effects are equally well described by imposing a sharp momentum cutoff at a momentum Lambda_eff complementary to L_eff. By considering two-body systems with separable potentials, we show that the UV energy corrections depend on details of the potential, in contrast to the IR energy corrections, which depend only on the S-matrix. An adaptation of the separable treatment to more general interactions is developed and applied to model potentials as well as to the deuteron with realistic potentials. The previous success with a simple phenomenological form for the UV error is also explained. Possibilities for controlled extrapolations for A > 2 based on scaling arguments are discussed.
Hard hadronic collisions - extrapolation of standard effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study hard hadronic collisions for the proton-proton (pp) and the proton-antiproton (panti p) option in the CERN LEP tunnel. Based on our current knowledge of hard collisions at the present CERN panti p Collider, and with the help of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), we extrapolate to the next generation of hadron colliders with a centre-of-mass energy Esub(cm) = 10-20 TeV. We estimate various signatures, trigger rates, event topologies, and associated distributions for a variety of old and new physical processes, involving prompt photons, leptons, jets, Wsup(+-) and Z bosons in the final state. We also calculate the maximum fermion and boson masses accessible at the LEP Hadron Collider. The standard QCD and electroweak processes studied here, being the main body of standard hard collisions, quantify the challenge of extracting new physics with hadron colliders. We hope that our estimates will provide a useful profile of the final states, and that our experimental physics colleagues will find this of use in the design of their detectors. (orig.)
Hard hadronic collisions: extrapolation of standard effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study hard hadronic collisions for the proton-proton (pp) and the proton-antiproton (p anti p) option in the CERN LEP tunnel. Based on our current knowledge of hard collisions at the present CERN p anti p Collider, and with the help of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), we extrapolate to the next generation of hadron colliders with a centre-of-mass energy E/sub cm/ = 10 to 20 TeV. We estimate various signatures, trigger rates, event topologies, and associated distributions for a variety of old and new physical processes, involving prompt photons, leptons, jets, W+- and Z bosons in the final state. We also calculate the maximum fermion and boson masses accessible at the LEP Hadron Collider. The standard QCD and electroweak processes studied here, being the main body of standard hard collisions, quantify the challenge of extracting new physics with hadron colliders. We hope that our estimates will provide a useful profile of the final states, and that our experimental physics colleagues will find this of use in the design of their detectors. 84 references
Nuclear Lattice Simulations using Symmetry-Sign Extrapolation
Lhde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Meiner, Ulf-G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Rupak, Gautam
2015-01-01
Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. We now introduce the technique of "symmetry-sign extrapolation" which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to control the sign oscillations without introducing unknown systematic errors. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the $^{12}$C, $^6$He and $^6$Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter.
Ardekani, Mohammad Ali; Nafisi, Vahid Reza; Farhani, Foad
2012-10-01
Hot-wire spirometer is a kind of constant temperature anemometer (CTA). The working principle of CTA, used for the measurement of fluid velocity and flow turbulence, is based on convective heat transfer from a hot-wire sensor to a fluid being measured. The calibration curve of a CTA is nonlinear and cannot be easily extrapolated beyond its calibration range. Therefore, a method for extrapolation of CTA calibration curve will be of great practical application. In this paper, a novel approach based on the conventional neural network and self-organizing map (SOM) method has been proposed to extrapolate CTA calibration curve for measurement of velocity in the range 0.7-30 m/seconds. Results show that, using this approach for the extrapolation of the CTA calibration curve beyond its upper limit, the standard deviation is about -0.5%, which is acceptable in most cases. Moreover, this approach for the extrapolation of the CTA calibration curve below its lower limit produces standard deviation of about 4.5%, which is acceptable in spirometry applications. Finally, the standard deviation on the whole measurement range (0.7-30 m/s) is about 1.5%. PMID:23724368
Downward extrapolation of multi-component seismic data
Haime, Gregory Carlo
An evaluation of the problems involved in elastic seismic migration is presented. Elastic wave field extrapolated operators are presented that are applicable to a general three dimensional elastic and anisotropic medium. Although the elastic operators derived are stand alone elements and can be used in any migration scheme, they are developed to take part in the stepwise elastic inversion scheme proposed by Berkhout and Wapenaar. The advantages of multicomponent seismic acquisition are discussed. The necessity of multicomponent data in elastic processing is demonstrated by an example, and a global description of all modules in the stepwise elastic inversion scheme is given. Elastic P and S extrapolation operators are derived starting from the full elastic Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral. An analysis of the contribution of the different elastic terms in the extrapolation process is presented. It is made clear that there are many different ways to generate extrapolation operators for a so called macro model. (Such a macro model represents a global description of the subsurface in terms of velocities and densities and must be estimated before the actual extrapolation step can be performed.) A quantitative error analysis of the extrapolation operators proposed is performed. The influence of macro model errors on the amplitudes of the extrapolated P and S wave fields is examined. The use of the elastic P and S extrapolation operators in redatuming and migration schemes is considered.
Dose rates from a C-14 source using extrapolation chamber and MC calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extrapolation chamber technique and the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation technique based on the EGS4 system have been studied for application for determination of dose rates in a low-energy ? radiation field e.g., that from a 14C source. The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for determination of dose rates in ? radiation fields. Applying a number of correction factors and the stopping power ratio, tissue to air, the measured dose rate in an air volume surrounded by tissue equivalent material is converted into dose to tissue. Various details of the extrapolation chamber measurement method and evaluation procedure have been studied and further developed, and a complete procedure for the experimental determination of dose rates from a14C source is presented. A number of correction factors and other parameters used in the evaluation procedure for the measured data have been obtained by MC calculations. The whole extrapolation chamber measurement procedure was simulated using the MC method. The measured dose rates showed an increasing deviation from the MC calculated dose rates as the absorber thickness increased. This indicates that the EGS4 code may have some limitations for transport of very low-energy electrons. i.e., electrons with estimated energies less than 10 - 20 keV. MC calculations of dose to tissue were performed using two models: a cylindrical tissue phantom and a computer model of the extrapolation chamber. The dose to tissue in the extrapolation chamber model showed an additional buildup dose compared to the dose in the tissue model. (au) 10 tabs., 11 ills., 18 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A scheme based on treating uniform singlet-pair and triplet-pair interactions is suggested to extrapolate electron correlation energy of ammonia, calculated at two basis-set levels of ab initio theory in the infinite one-electron basis-set limit. The dual-level method is tested on the extrapolation of the full correlation in coupled-cluster singles and doubles and in the case also a noniterative perturbative correction for connected triple energies for the C3v and D3h structures of ammonia, with correlation-consistent basis sets of the type cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5,6) and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5). For testing and comparison purposes, the energies reported by Klopper [J. Comput. Chem. 22 1306 (2001)] have been taken. From a corresponding extrapolation of CCSD(T)/AVXZ energies for X = 4, 5, we obtain total inversion barriers of 1833.87 cm?1/1832.33 cm?1 for the two/three-parameter extrapolation rules, which are in good agreement with other theoretical extrapolation and empirical values in the literature. (atomic and molecular physics)
A physically based methodology to extrapolate performance maps of radial turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ? Physical based methodology to extrapolate radial turbine efficiency measured data. ? Equation relating efficiency versus blade to speed ratio (?) have been developed. ? Developed efficiency equation takes into account turbine mass flow parameter. ? Efficiency versus ? at constant pressure ratio is discussed, also at constant speed. ? The methodology has been validated with a broad range of experimental results. - Abstract: This paper details a physically based methodology to perform an extrapolation of the radial turbine performance maps, both mass flow characteristics and the efficiency curve. This method takes into account a narrow range of experimental data, which is usually the data available when such turbines are part of a turbocharger. Therefore, the extrapolation methodology is especially useful when data from third parties are being used or when the compressor of a turbocharger is used as the turbine brake in a gas stand. The nozzle equation is used to develop an interpolation and extrapolation of the mass flow rate trough the turbine. Then, specific information is extracted from this extrapolation and is fed into a total-to-static efficiency equation to carry out an extension of the efficiency curve. This equation is developed using the definition of the total-to-static efficiency, velocity triangles and thermodynamic and fluid fundamental equations. This procedure has been applied to five radial turbines of different sizes and types. Results are compared against experimental information available in the literature or provided by the turbine manufacturers and a good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimentally estimated data.
Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...
Calculation of the extrapolation length in shifting control elements within the control channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
On the basis of a one-group model a method is presented for calculating the extrapolation length at the surface of a cylindrical control channel when the axis of the control organ is shifted against the axis of the control channel. In comparison to the central position a correction of the extrapolation length is obtained in first-order approximation, which depends on the angle at the circumference of the control channel and is proportional to the deflection of the control organ. (author)
Spatial extrapolation of the vine water status at the whole denomination scale
Baralon, K.; Payan, J.C.; Salancon, E.; Tisseyre, B.
2011-01-01
The objective of this work is to test an approach to extrapolate the vine water status over a whole denomination. The method has already been tested at the field level, but it has never been validated on a larger spatial scale. The extrapolation model is based on an empirical approach that relies on the collaboration of a reference measurement and a model of the plant water status spatial variability. Experiments were carried out over the 946 ha of the denomination of Tavel (Gard, France). Th...
Revealing individual differences in strategy selection through visual motion extrapolation.
Fulvio, Jacqueline M; Maloney, Laurence T; Schrater, Paul R
2015-12-01
Humans are constantly challenged to make use of internal models to fill in missing sensory information. We measured human performance in a simple motion extrapolation task where no feedback was provided in order to elucidate the models of object motion incorporated into observers' extrapolation strategies. There was no "right" model for extrapolation in this task. Observers consistently adopted one of two models, linear or quadratic, but different observers chose different models. We further demonstrate that differences in motion sensitivity impact the choice of internal models for many observers. These results demonstrate that internal models and individual differences in those models can be elicited by unconstrained, predictive-based psychophysical tasks. PMID:25654543
Extrapolation and phase correction of non-uniformly broadened signals
Rodts, Stphane; Bytchenkoff, Dimitri
2013-08-01
The initial part of FID-signals cannot always be acquired experimentally. This is particularly true for signals characterised by strong inhomogeneous broadening, such as those in porous materials, e.g. cements, soils and rocks, those measured by portable NMR-apparatus, or EPR-signals. Here we report on a numerical method we designed to extrapolate those initial missing parts, i.e. to retrieve their amplitude and phase. Should the entire signal be available from an experiment, the algorithm can still be used as an automatic phase-corrector and a low-pass filter. The method is based on the use of cardinal series, applies to any oversampled signals and requires no prior knowledge of the system under study. We show that the method can also be used to restore entire one-dimensional MRI-data sets from those in which less than half of the k-space was sampled, thus not only potentially allowing to speed up data acquisition - when extended to two or three dimensions, but also to circumvent phase-distortions usually encountered when exploring the k-space near its origin.
Latychevskaia, Tatiana
2015-01-01
In coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) the resolution with which the reconstructed object can be obtained is limited by the numerical aperture of the experimental setup. We present here a theoretical and numerical study for achieving super-resolution by post-extrapolation of coherent diffraction images, such as diffraction patterns or holograms. We proof that a diffraction pattern can unambiguously be extrapolated from just a fraction of the entire pattern and that the ratio of the extrapolated signal to the originally available signal, is linearly proportional to the oversampling ratio. While there could be in principle other methods to achieve extrapolation, we devote our discussion to employing phase retrieval methods and demonstrate their limits. We present two numerical studies; namely the extrapolation of diffraction patterns of non-binary and that of phase objects together with a discussion of the optimal extrapolation procedure.
Limitations of force-free magnetic field extrapolations: Revisiting basic assumptions
Peter, H.; Warnecke, J.; Chitta, L. P.; Cameron, R. H.
2015-12-01
Context. Force-free extrapolations are widely used to study the magnetic field in the solar corona based on surface measurements. Aims: The extrapolations assume that the ratio of internal energy of the plasma to magnetic energy, the plasma β, is negligible. Despite the widespread use of this assumption observations, models, and theoretical considerations show that β is of the order of a few percent to more than 10%, and thus not small. We investigate what consequences this has for the reliability of extrapolation results. Methods: We use basic concepts starting with force and energy balance to infer relations between plasma β and free magnetic energy to study the direction of currents in the corona with respect to the magnetic field, and to estimate the errors in the free magnetic energy by neglecting effects of the plasma (β ≪ 1). A comparison with a 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) model supports our basic considerations. Results: If plasma β is of the order of the relative free energy (the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the total magnetic energy) then the pressure gradient can balance the Lorentz force. This is the case in solar corona, and therefore the currents are not properly described. In particular, the error in terms of magnetic energy by neglecting the plasma is of the order of the free magnetic energy, so that the latter cannot be reliably determined by an extrapolation. Conclusions: While a force-free extrapolation might capture the magnetic structure and connectivity of the coronal magnetic field, the derived currents and free magnetic energy are not reliable. Thus quantitative results of extrapolations on the location and amount of heating in the corona (through current dissipation) and on the energy storage of the magnetic field (e.g. for eruptive events) are limited.
Chiral Extrapolation: An Analogy with Effective Field Theory
Dunne, Gerald V.; Anthony W. Thomas; Wright, Stewart V.
2001-01-01
We draw an analogy between the chiral extrapolation of lattice QCD calculations from large to small quark masses and the interpolation between the large mass (weak field) and small mass (strong field) limits of the Euler--Heisenberg QED effective action. In the latter case, where the exact answer is known, a simple extrapolation of a form analogous to those proposed for the QCD applications is shown to be surprisingly accurate over the entire parameter range.
Bayesian estimation of medium properties in wavefield downward extrapolation problems
Pitas, I.; Venetsanopoulos, A.N.
2010-01-01
When acoustic waves are used for nondestructive imaging of the interior of objects such as the Earth the human body, etc., the wavefield measurements recorded on the surface of the object are extrapolated according to the wave equation to give an image of the object. The extrapolation propagates backward the noise present in the measurements, so that the quality of the final image is degraded, unless statistical restoration techniques are used. Another source of degradation of the image is th...
Application of Curve Fitting Extrapolation in Measuring Transient Surface Temperature
Xiaojian Hao; Lina Hao; Hanchang Zhou; Sanping Jiang; Yanfeng Li
2013-01-01
The engine inner wall surface temperature was measured by the plug blind-hole extrapolation, and multiple thermocouples were installed at different depths in the substrate. The engine wall extrapolation model of transient high temperature was established according to the basic principles of heat transfer. The transient temperatures were measured by thermocouples buried at different depths of the engine wall and fitting curve was got. The transient temperature field which was generated by the ...
Role of animal studies in low-dose extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Current data indicate that in the case of low-LET radiation linear, extrapolation from data obtained at high doses appears to overestimate the risk at low doses to a varying degree. In the case of high-LET radiation, extrapolation from data obtained at doses as low as 40 rad (0.4 Gy) is inappropriate and likely to result in an underestimate of the risk
Extrapolation of mean-field models to superheavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extrapolation of self-consistent nuclear mean-field models to the region of superheavy elements is discussed with emphasis on the extrapolating power of the models. The predictions of modern mean-field models are confronted with recent experimental data. It is shown that a final conclusion about the location of the expected island of spherical doubly-magic superheavy nuclei cannot be drawn on the basis of the available data. (orig.)
Iacovella, Christopher R.; Rogers, Reginald R.; Glotzer, Sharon C; Solomon, Michael J.
2010-01-01
A method for measuring the pair interaction potential between colloidal particles by extrapolation measurement of collective structure to infinite dilution is presented and explored using simulation and experiment. The method is particularly well suited to systems in which the colloid is fluorescent and refractive index matched with the solvent. The method involves characterizing the potential of mean force between colloidal particles in suspension by measurement of the radi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee HyunYoung
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.
Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-10-08
Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.
Chiral extrapolations for nucleon magnetic moments
Hall, J. M. M.; Leinweber, D. B.; Young, R.D.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia)
2012-01-01
Lattice QCD simulations have made significant progress in the calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors in the chiral regime in recent years. With simulation results achieving pion masses of order ~180 MeV, there is an apparent challenge as to how the physical regime is approached. By using contemporary methods in chiral effective field theory, both the quark-mass and finite-volume dependence of the isovector nucleon magnetic moment are carefully examined. The extr...
Extrapolation of lattice gauge theories to the continuum limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of extrapolating lattice gauge theories from the strong-coupling phase to the continuum critical point is studied for the Abelian (U(1)) and non-Abelian (SU(2)) theories in three (space--time) dimensions. A method is described for obtaining the asymptotic behavior, for large ?, of such thermodynamic quantities and correlation functions as the free energy and Wilson loop function. Certain general analyticity and positivity properties (in the complex ?-plane) are shown to lead, after appropriate analytic remappings, to a Stieltjes property of these functions. Rigorous theorems then guarantee uniform and monotone convergence of the Pade approximants, with exact pointwise upper and lower bounds. The first three Pade's are computed for both the free energy and the Wilson function. For the free energy, satisfactory agreement is with the asymptotic behavior computed by an explicit lattice calculation. The strong-coupling series for the Wilson function is found to be considerably more unstable in the lower order terms - correspondingly, convergence of the Pade's is found to be slower than in the free-energy case. It is suggested that higher-order calculations may allow a reasonably accurate determination of the string constant for the SU(2) theory. 14 references
Interspecies Gene Name ExtrapolationA New Approach
Petric, Roxana Cojocneanu; Braicu, Cornelia; Bassi, Cristian; Pop, Laura; Taranu, Ionelia; Dragos, Nicolae; Dumitrascu, Dan
2015-01-01
The use of animal models has facilitated numerous scientific developments, especially when employing omics technologies to study the effects of various environmental factors on humans. Our study presents a new bioinformatics pipeline suitable when the generated microarray data from animal models does not contain the necessary human gene name annotation. We conducted single color gene expression microarray on duodenum and spleen tissue obtained from pigs which have been exposed to zearalenone and Escherichia coli contamination, either alone or combined. By performing a combination of file format modifications and data alignments using various online tools as well as a command line environment, we performed the pig to human gene name extrapolation with an average yield of 58.34%, compared to 3.64% when applying more simple methods. In conclusion, while online data analysis portals on their own are of great importance in data management and assessment, our new pipeline provided a more effective approach for a situation which can be frequently encountered by researchers in the omics era. PMID:26407293
Full waveform inversion with extrapolated low frequency data
Li, Yunyue Elita
2016-01-01
The availability of low frequency data is an important factor in the success of full waveform inversion (FWI) in the acoustic regime. The low frequencies help determine the kinematically relevant, low-wavenumber components of the velocity model, which are in turn needed to avoid convergence of FWI to spurious local minima. However, acquiring data below 2 or 3 Hz from the field is a challenging and expensive task. In this paper we explore the possibility of synthesizing the low frequencies computationally from high-frequency data, and use the resulting prediction of the missing data to seed the frequency sweep of FWI. As a signal processing problem, bandwidth extension is a very nonlinear and delicate operation. It requires a high-level interpretation of bandlimited seismic records into individual events, each of which is extrapolable to a lower (or higher) frequency band from the non-dispersive nature of the wave propagation model. We propose to use the phase tracking method for the event separation task. The...
Extrapolating to the one-electron basis-set limit in electronic structure calculations
Varandas, A. J. C.
2007-06-01
A simple, yet reliable, scheme based on treating uniformly singlet-pair and triplet-pair interactions is suggested to extrapolate atomic and molecular electron correlation energies calculated at two basis-set levels of ab initio theory to the infinite one-electron basis-set limit. The novel dual-level method is first tested on extrapolating the full correlation in single-reference coupled-cluster singles and doubles energies for the closed-shell systems CH2(A11), H2O, HF, N2, CO, Ne, and F2 with correlation-consistent basis sets of the type cc-pVXZ (X =D,T,Q,5,6) reported by Klopper [Mol. Phys. 6, 481 (2001)] against his own benchmark calculations with large uncontracted basis sets obtained from explicit correlated singles and doubles coupled-cluster theory. Comparisons are also reported for the same data set but using both single-reference Mller-Plesset and coupled-cluster doubles methods. The results show a similar, often better, accordance with the target results than Klopper's extrapolations where singlet-pair and triplet-pair energies are extrapolated separately using the popular X-3 and X-5 dual-level laws, respectively. Applications to the extrapolation of the dynamical correlation in multireference configuration interaction calculations carried out anew for He, H2, HeH+, He2++, H3+(1A'1), H3+(1A'3), BH, CH, NH, OH, FH, B2, C2, N2, O2, F2, BO, CO, NO, BN, CN, SH, H2O, and NH3 with standard augmented correlation-consistent basis sets of the type aug-cc-pVXZ (X =D,T,Q,5,6) are also reported. Despite lacking accurate theoretical or experimental data for comparison in the case of most diatomic systems, the new method also shows in this case a good performance when judged from the results obtained with the traditional schemes which extrapolate using the two largest affordable basis sets. For the Hartree-Fock and complete-active space self-consistent field energies, a simple pragmatic extrapolation rule is examined whose results are shown to compare well with the ones obtained from the best reported schemes.
Statistical atlas based extrapolation of CT data
Chintalapani, Gouthami; Murphy, Ryan; Armiger, Robert S.; Lepisto, Jyri; Otake, Yoshito; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Taylor, Russell H.; Armand, Mehran
2010-02-01
We present a framework to estimate the missing anatomical details from a partial CT scan with the help of statistical shape models. The motivating application is periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), a technique for treating developmental hip dysplasia, an abnormal condition of the hip socket that, if untreated, may lead to osteoarthritis. The common goals of PAO are to reduce pain, joint subluxation and improve contact pressure distribution by increasing the coverage of the femoral head by the hip socket. While current diagnosis and planning is based on radiological measurements, because of significant structural variations in dysplastic hips, a computer-assisted geometrical and biomechanical planning based on CT data is desirable to help the surgeon achieve optimal joint realignments. Most of the patients undergoing PAO are young females, hence it is usually desirable to minimize the radiation dose by scanning only the joint portion of the hip anatomy. These partial scans, however, do not provide enough information for biomechanical analysis due to missing iliac region. A statistical shape model of full pelvis anatomy is constructed from a database of CT scans. The partial volume is first aligned with the statistical atlas using an iterative affine registration, followed by a deformable registration step and the missing information is inferred from the atlas. The atlas inferences are further enhanced by the use of X-ray images of the patient, which are very common in an osteotomy procedure. The proposed method is validated with a leave-one-out analysis method. Osteotomy cuts are simulated and the effect of atlas predicted models on the actual procedure is evaluated.
Vector extrapolation enhanced TSVD for linear discrete ill-posed problems
Jbilou, K.; Reichel, L.; Sadok, H.
2009-06-01
The truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is a popular solution method for small to moderately sized linear ill-posed problems. The truncation index can be thought of as a regularization parameter; its value affects the quality of the computed approximate solution. The choice of a suitable value of the truncation index generally is important, but can be difficult without auxiliary information about the problem being solved. This paper describes how vector extrapolation methods can be combined with TSVD, and illustrates that the determination of the proper value of the truncation index is less critical for the combined extrapolation-TSVD method than for TSVD alone. The numerical performance of the combined method suggests a new way to determine the truncation index.
Montiel, Ariadna(Departamento de Fsica, Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mxico, DF, 07000, Mexico); Lazkoz, Ruth(Departamento de Fsica Terica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del Pas Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, Bilbao, E-48080, Spain); Sendra, Irene; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; SALZANO, VINCENZO
2014-01-01
In this work we present a nonparametric approach, which works on minimal assumptions, to reconstruct the cosmic expansion of the Universe. We propose to combine a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing method and a simulation-extrapolation method. The first one (Loess) is a nonparametric approach that allows to obtain smoothed curves with no prior knowledge of the functional relationship between variables nor of the cosmological quantities. The second one (Simex) takes into ...
Variational procedure for nuclear shell-model calculations and energy-variance extrapolation
Shimizu, Noritaka; Utsuno, Yutaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Honma, Michio; Tsunoda, Yusuke; Otsuka, Takaharu
2012-01-01
We discuss a variational calculation for nuclear shell-model calculations and propose a new procedure for the energy-variance extrapolation (EVE) method using a sequence of the approximated wave functions obtained by the variational calculation. The wave functions are described as linear combinations of the parity, angular-momentum projected Slater determinants, the energy of which is minimized by the conjugate gradient method obeying the variational principle. The EVE gener...
Amir, Sahar Z.
2013-05-01
We introduce an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to extrapolate and interpolate normalized Canonical NVT ensemble averages like pressure and energy for Lennard-Jones (L-J) fluids. Preliminary results show promising applicability in oil and gas modeling, where accurate determination of thermodynamic properties in reservoirs is challenging. The thermodynamic interpolation and thermodynamic extrapolation schemes predict ensemble averages at different thermodynamic conditions from expensively simulated data points. The methods reweight and reconstruct previously generated database values of Markov chains at neighboring temperature and density conditions. To investigate the efficiency of these methods, two databases corresponding to different combinations of normalized density and temperature are generated. One contains 175 Markov chains with 10,000,000 MC cycles each and the other contains 3000 Markov chains with 61,000,000 MC cycles each. For such massive database creation, two algorithms to parallelize the computations have been investigated. The accuracy of the thermodynamic extrapolation scheme is investigated with respect to classical interpolation and extrapolation. Finally, thermodynamic interpolation benefiting from four neighboring Markov chains points is implemented and compared with previous schemes. The thermodynamic interpolation scheme using knowledge from the four neighboring points proves to be more accurate than the thermodynamic extrapolation from the closest point only, while both thermodynamic extrapolation and thermodynamic interpolation are more accurate than the classical interpolation and extrapolation. The investigated extrapolation scheme has great potential in oil and gas reservoir modeling.That is, such a scheme has the potential to speed up the MCMC thermodynamic computation to be comparable with conventional Equation of State approaches in efficiency. In particular, this makes it applicable to large-scale optimization of L-J model parameters for hydrocarbons and other important reservoir species. The efficiency of the thermodynamic dependent techniques is expected to make the Markov chains simulation an attractive alternative in compositional multiphase flow simulation.
Properties of infrared extrapolations in a harmonic oscillator basis
Coon, Sidney A
2014-01-01
We continue our studies of infrared (ir) and ultraviolet (uv) regulators of no-core shell model calculations. We extend our results that an extrapolation in the ir cutoff with the uv cutoff above the intrinsic uv scale of the interaction is quite successful, not only for the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian but also for expectation values of operators considered long range. The latter results are obtained with Hamiltonians transformed by the similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolution. On the other hand, a suggested extrapolation in the uv cutoff when the ir cutoff is below the intrinsic ir scale is neither robust nor reliable.
Variational procedure for nuclear shell-model calculations and energy-variance extrapolation
Shimizu, Noritaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Honma, Michio; Tsunoda, Yusuke; Otsuka, Takaharu
2012-01-01
We discuss a variational calculation for nuclear shell-model calculations and propose a new procedure for the energy-variance extrapolation (EVE) method using a sequence of the approximated wave functions obtained by the variational calculation. The wave functions are described as linear combinations of the parity, angular-momentum projected Slater determinants, the energy of which is minimized by the conjugate gradient method obeying the variational principle. The EVE generally works well using the wave functions, but we found some difficult cases where the EVE gives a poor estimation. We discuss the origin of the poor estimation concerning shape coexistence. We found that the appropriate reordering of the Slater determinants allows us to overcome this difficulty and to reduce the uncertainty of the extrapolation.
Extrapolation of Extreme Response for Wind Turbines based on FieldMeasurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Srensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
The characteristic loads on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. These parameters must be taken into account in the assessment of the characteristic load. The characteristic load is normally determined by statistical extrapolation of the simulated response during operation according to IEC 61400-1 2005. However, this method assumes that the individual 10 min. time series are ind...
HIV infection in older adults in sub-Saharan Africa: extrapolating prevalence from existing data
Joel Negin; Cumming, Robert G
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of cases and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among older adults in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We reviewed data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although in these surveys all female respondents are 50 years. To estimate the percentage of older adults (i.e. people > 50 years of age) who were positive for HIV (HIV+), we extrapolated from d...
Extrapolation of ZPR sodium void measurements to the power reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sodium-voiding measurements of ZPPR assemblies 2 and 5 are analyzed with ENDF/B Version IV data. Computations include directional diffusion coefficients to account for streaming effects resulting from the plate structure of the critical assembly. Bias factors for extrapolating critical assembly data to the CRBR design are derived from the results of this analysis
Visek, W J
1988-04-01
The Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO) of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) is conducting this symposium under contract with the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has requested information on the strengths and weaknesses of current interspecies extrapolation methods using metabolic and pharmacokinetic data, identity of data for these methods, bases for choice of extrapolation method and selection of data base, validity and uniformity of interspecies extrapolation from target organ data, and nature and completeness of supporting data. Definitions and basic concepts of dose scaling are addressed and questions regarding appropriate units of measurement (e.g., mg/kg body weight, mg/m3 respired air, mg/m2 surface area) are raised. The use of DNA damage as a marker or end point upon which to scale carcinogenic potency is considered. Genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis are emphasized because the roles of DNA adducts and DNA repair processes in initiation and promotion are much better defined than the mechanism for nongenotoxic carcinogenesis. The problems encountered in evaluating the human carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene are reviewed. The broad objectives of the symposium are discussed and the development of a structured format for the presentation of invited papers is presented. PMID:3289907
Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.
We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.
Continuum extrapolation of energies of a four-quark system in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A continuum extrapolation of static two- and four-quark energies calculated in a quenched SU(2) lattice Monte Carlo simulation is carried out based on Sommer close-quote s method of setting the scale. The ? function is obtained as a side product of the extrapolations. Four-quark binding energies are found to be essentially constant at ??2.35 unlike the two-body potentials. A model for four-quark energies, with explicit gluonic degrees of freedom removed, is fitted to these energies and the behavior of the parameters of the model is investigated. An extension of the model using the first excited states of the two-body gluon field as additional basis states is found to be necessary for quarks at the corners of regular tetrahedra. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physics Department, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)
2015-01-12
Previously reported crystalline structures obtained by an iterative phase retrieval reconstruction of their diffraction patterns seem to be free from displaying any irregularities or defects in the lattice, which appears to be unrealistic. We demonstrate here that the structure of a nanocrystal including its atomic defects can unambiguously be recovered from its diffraction pattern alone by applying a direct phase retrieval procedure not relying on prior information of the object shape. Individual point defects in the atomic lattice are clearly apparent. Conventional phase retrieval routines assume isotropic scattering. We show that when dealing with electrons, the quantitatively correct transmission function of the sample cannot be retrieved due to anisotropic, strong forward scattering specific to electrons. We summarize the conditions for this phase retrieval method and show that the diffraction pattern can be extrapolated beyond the original record to even reveal formerly not visible Bragg peaks. Such extrapolated wave field pattern leads to enhanced spatial resolution in the reconstruction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previously reported crystalline structures obtained by an iterative phase retrieval reconstruction of their diffraction patterns seem to be free from displaying any irregularities or defects in the lattice, which appears to be unrealistic. We demonstrate here that the structure of a nanocrystal including its atomic defects can unambiguously be recovered from its diffraction pattern alone by applying a direct phase retrieval procedure not relying on prior information of the object shape. Individual point defects in the atomic lattice are clearly apparent. Conventional phase retrieval routines assume isotropic scattering. We show that when dealing with electrons, the quantitatively correct transmission function of the sample cannot be retrieved due to anisotropic, strong forward scattering specific to electrons. We summarize the conditions for this phase retrieval method and show that the diffraction pattern can be extrapolated beyond the original record to even reveal formerly not visible Bragg peaks. Such extrapolated wave field pattern leads to enhanced spatial resolution in the reconstruction
Source‐receiver two‐way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding‐reflector modeling and migration
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2010-10-17
While most of the modern seismic imaging methods perform imaging by separating input data into parts (shot gathers), we develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield backward in time. While computationally extensive, this approach has the potential of generating accurate images, free of artifacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high‐order partial differential equations in source‐receiver‐time domain. The fourth order nature of the extrapolation in time has four solutions two of which correspond to the ingoing and outgoing P‐waves and reduces to the zero‐offset exploding‐reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. Using asymptotic approximations, we develop an approach to extrapolating the full prestack wavefield forward or backward in time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Over the last decades, elemental maps have become a powerful tool for the analysis of the spatial distribution of the elements within specimen. In energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) one commonly uses two pre-edge and one post-edge image for the calculation of elemental maps. However, this so called three-window method can introduce serious errors into the extrapolated background for the post-edge window. Since this method uses only two pre-edge windows as data points to calculate a background model that depends on two fit parameters, the quality of the extrapolation can be estimated only statistically assuming that the background model is correct. In this paper, we will discuss a possibility to improve the accuracy and reliability of the background extrapolation by using a third pre-edge window. Since with three data points the extrapolation becomes over-determined, this change permits us to estimate not only the statistical uncertainly of the fit, but also the systematic error by using the experimental data. Furthermore we will discuss in this paper the acquisition parameters that should be used for the energy windows to reach an optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the elemental maps. -- Highlights: ? Comparison of three pre-edge windows to the regular two pre-edge windows. ? Investigation of the optimal positioning of the third pre-edge window. ? Description of the ?2 test for extrapolation quality check.
A new design of beta ray extrapolation ion chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In U.K. National Health Service Hospitals a widely used dosimeter system is the type 37C electrometer amplifier together with an air equivalent wall ionization chamber developed by Osborne at the time of the Adrian Committee survey of diagnostic X-ray doses. This paper describes the development and use of an extrapolation ion chamber which is interchangeable with Osborne's X-ray chamber and which, together with the type 37 electrometer amplifier, is suitable for the calibration of beta ray personnel dosimeters. A particular feature of this chamber is that the variable electrode separation is obtained by locating a spring loaded peg on a mechanical step wedge. This enables readings for a series of accurately known separations to be obtained very quickly, and the appropriate extrapolation dose to be deduced immediately. Evaluation work carried out on the new chamber, including measurements of beta depth dose distributions, is also reported
Properties of infrared extrapolations in a harmonic oscillator basis
Coon, Sidney A; Kruse, Michael K. G.
2014-01-01
We continue our studies of infrared (ir) and ultraviolet (uv) regulators of no-core shell model calculations. We extend our results that an extrapolation in the ir cutoff with the uv cutoff above the intrinsic uv scale of the interaction is quite successful, not only for the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian but also for expectation values of operators considered long range. The latter results are obtained with Hamiltonians transformed by the similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolution. On ...
Properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber in β radiation fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A commercial extrapolation chamber was tested in different β radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefulness for β radiation calibration and dosimetry was verified. Experiments were performed in order to obtain the main characteristics such as the calibration factors (and consequently the energy dependence) for all chamber collecting electrodes (between 10 and 40 mm diameter), the transmission factors in tissue and the useful source-detector distance range
Reverse Modeling and Autonomous Extrapolation of RF Threats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanguk Noh
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the investigation of the basic components of reverse modeling and autonomous extrapolation of radio frequency (RF threats in electronic warfare settings. To design and test our system, we first model RF threats using the radioactive parameters received. The enemy radar simulated with a transponder or emitter transmits electronic signals; next, the sensors of the system intercept those signals as radioactive parameters. We generate the attributes of RF threats during communication between the electronic emissions of RF threats and the receivers of our system in various electronic warfare scenarios. We then utilize the data acquired through our system to reversely model RF threats. Our system carries out the reverse extrapolation process for the purpose of identifying and classifying threats by using profiles compiled through a series of machine learning algorithms, i.e., naive Bayesian classifier, decision tree, and k-means clustering algorithms. This compilation technique, which is based upon the inductive threat model, could be used to analyze and predict what a real-time threat is. We summarize empirical results that demonstrate our system capabilities of reversely modeling and autonomously extrapolating RF threats in simulated electronic warfare settings.
Extrapolation of zircon fission-track annealing models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the purposes of this study is to give further constraints on the temperature range of the zircon partial annealing zone over a geological time scale using data from borehole zircon samples, which have experienced stable temperatures for ?1 Ma. In this way, the extrapolation problem is explicitly addressed by fitting the zircon annealing models with geological timescale data. Several empirical model formulations have been proposed to perform these calibrations and have been compared in this work. The basic form proposed for annealing models is the Arrhenius-type model. There are other annealing models, that are based on the same general formulation. These empirical model equations have been preferred due to the great number of phenomena from track formation to chemical etching that are not well understood. However, there are two other models, which try to establish a direct correlation between their parameters and the related phenomena. To compare the response of the different annealing models, thermal indexes, such as closure temperature, total annealing temperature and the partial annealing zone, have been calculated and compared with field evidence. After comparing the different models, it was concluded that the fanning curvilinear models yield the best agreement between predicted index temperatures and field evidence. - Highlights: ? Geological data were used along with lab data for improving model extrapolation. ? Index temperatures were simulated for testing model extrapolation. ? Curvilinear Arrhenius models produced better geological temperature predictions
Extrapolation and unitarity bounds for the B ? ? form factor
Imsong, I. Sentitemsu; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Mannel, Thomas; van Dyk, Danny
2015-02-01
We address the problem of extrapolating the vector form factor f {/B? +}, which is relevant to B ? ??? ? decays, from the region of small to the region of large momentum transfer. As input, we use the QCD light-cone sum rule at small momentum transfer. We carry out a comprehensive Bayesian uncertainty analysis and obtain correlated uncertainties for the normalization and shape parameters of the form factor. The z-series parametrization for f {/B? +} is employed to extrapolate our results to large momentum transfer, and to compare with the lattice QCD results. To test the validity of our extrapolation we use the upper and lower bounds from the unitarity and positivity of the two-point correlator of heavy-light quark currents. This correlator is updated by including the NNLO perturbative term and the NLO correction to the quark condensate contribution. We demonstrate that an additional input including the form factor, its first and second derivative calculated at one value of momentum transfer from the light-cone sum rules, considerably improves the bounds. This only holds when the correlations between the form factor parameters are taken into account. We further combine our results with the latest experimental measurements of B ? ??? ? by the BaBar and Belle collaborations, and obtain | V ub | = (3. 32{-/0.22 + 0.26}) ? 10- 3 from a Bayesian analysis.
Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-06-10
Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bressler B
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Brian Bressler,1 Theo Dingermann2 1St Pauls Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Frankfurt, Germany Abstract: Despite their enormous value for our health care system, biopharmaceuticals have become a serious threat to the system itself due to their high cost. Costs may be warranted if the medicine is new and innovative; however, it is no longer an innovation when its patent protection expires. As patents and exclusivities expire on biological drugs, biosimilar products defined as highly similar to reference biologics are being marketed. The goal of biosimilar development is to establish a high degree of biosimilarity, not to reestablish clinical efficacy and safety. Current sophisticated analytical methods allow the detection of even small changes in quality attributes and can therefore enable sensitive monitoring of the batch-to-batch consistency and variability of the manufacturing process. The European Medicines Agency (EMA, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and Health Canada have determined that a reduced number of nonclinical and clinical comparative studies can be sufficient for approval with clinical data from the most sensitive indication extrapolated to other indications. Extrapolation of data is a scientifically based principle, guided by specific criteria, and if approved by the EMA, FDA, and/or Health Canada is appropriate. Enablement of extrapolation of data is a core principle of biosimilar development, based on principles of comparability and necessary to fully realize cost savings for these drugs. Keywords: biosimilars, Inflectra, infliximab, pharmacoeconomics, Canada, Europe
Chaouche, L Yelles; Pillet, V Martínez; Moreno-Insertis, F
2012-01-01
The 3D structure of an active region (AR) filament is studied using nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations based on simultaneous observations at a photospheric and a chromospheric height. To that end, we used the Si I 10827 \\AA\\ line and the He I 10830 \\AA\\ triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the VTT (Tenerife). The two extrapolations have been carried out independently from each other and their respective spatial domains overlap in a considerable height range. This opens up new possibilities for diagnostics in addition to the usual ones obtained through a single extrapolation from, typically, a photospheric layer. Among those possibilities, this method allows the determination of an average formation height of the He I 10830 \\AA\\ signal of \\approx 2 Mm above the surface of the sun. It allows, as well, to cross-check the obtained 3D magnetic structures in view of verifying a possible deviation from the force- free condition especially at the photosphere. The extrapolati...
SU-E-J-145: Geometric Uncertainty in CBCT Extrapolation for Head and Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: One primary limitation of using CBCT images for H'N adaptive radiotherapy (ART) is the limited field of view (FOV) range. We propose a method to extrapolate the CBCT by using a deformed planning CT for the dose of the day calculations. The aim was to estimate the geometric uncertainty of our extrapolation method. Methods: Ten H'N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken, were selected. Furthermore, a small FOV CBCT (CT2short) was synthetically created by cropping CT2 to the size of a CBCT image. Then, an extrapolated CBCT (CBCTextrp) was generated by deformably registering CT1 to CT2short and resampling with a wider FOV (42mm more from the CT2short borders), where CT1 is deformed through translation, rigid, affine, and b-spline transformations in order. The geometric error is measured as the distance map ||DVF|| produced by a deformable registration between CBCTextrp and CT2. Mean errors were calculated as a function of the distance away from the CBCT borders. The quality of all the registrations was visually verified. Results: Results were collected based on the average numbers from 10 patients. The extrapolation error increased linearly as a function of the distance (at a rate of 0.7mm per 1 cm) away from the CBCT borders in the S/I direction. The errors (??) at the superior and inferior boarders were 0.8 0.5mm and 3.0 1.5mm respectively, and increased to 2.7 2.2mm and 5.9 1.9mm at 4.2cm away. The mean error within CBCT borders was 1.16 0.54mm . The overall errors within 4.2cm error expansion were 2.0 1.2mm (sup) and 4.5 1.6mm (inf). Conclusion: The overall error in inf direction is larger due to more large unpredictable deformations in the chest. The error introduced by extrapolation is plan dependent. The mean error in the expanded region can be large, and must be considered during implementation. This work is supported in part by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA.
Energy-variance extrapolation for importance-truncated no-core and valence-space shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The no-core shell model (NCSM) and valence-space shell model (SM) are successful tools for the description of the nuclear spectroscopy. Both methods are computationally demanding and are limited by the model-space dimensions. To extend the NCSM and SM to larger model spaces, we apply an importance-truncation (IT) scheme based on a perturbative importance measure reducing the model spaces to the relevant basis states for the description of one or a few target eigenstates. This IT scheme necessitates an extrapolation to vanishing importance measure. Since the dependence of the energies on the importance measure can be highly non-linear, the extrapolation can give rise to large uncertainties. We present a more sophisticated extrapolation technique based on the energy variance, which vanishes in the limit of the full model space. We demonstrate the efficiency of the IT-NCSM and IT-SM with energy-variance extrapolation for ground-state and excitation energies of p-shell nuclei (IT-NCSM) and pf-shell nuclei (IT-SM) by comparing the results to both, full and importance-truncated NCSM and SM calculations with the conventional threshold extrapolation.
QCD thermodynamics with continuum extrapolated dynamical overlap fermions
Borsanyi, Sz; Lippert, T; Nogradi, D; Pittler, F; Szabo, K K; Toth, B C
2015-01-01
We study the finite temperature transition in QCD with two flavors of dynamical fermions at a pseudoscalar pion mass of about 350 MeV. We use lattices with temporal extent of $N_t$=8, 10 and 12. For the first time in the literature a continuum limit is carried out for several observables with dynamical overlap fermions. These findings are compared with results obtained within the staggered fermion formalism at the same pion masses and extrapolated to the continuum limit. The presented results correspond to fixed topology and its effect is studied in the staggered case. Nice agreement is found between the overlap and staggered results.
Properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber in beta radiation fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefulness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. The Beta Secondary Standard setup of the IPEN calibration laboratory was utilized. This system, developed by the Physikalisch-Tecknische Bundesanstalt, Brunswick (Germany) and manufactured by Buchler and Co., consists of a source stand, a control unit with timer and four interchangeable beta sources: 90Sr-90Y (1850 and 74 MBq), 204Tl (18,5 MBq) ionization current detection. The variable volume ionization chamber of cylindrical form is provided with different collecting electrodes of tissue equivalent material and Mylar entrance windows of different thickesses
Resolution enhancement in digital holography by self-extrapolation of holograms
Latychevskaia, Tatiana
2013-01-01
It is generally believed that the resolution in digital holography is limited by the size of the captured holographic record. Here, we present a method to circumvent this limit by self-extrapolating experimental holograms beyond the area that is actually captured. This is done by first padding the surroundings of the hologram and then conducting an iterative reconstruction procedure. The wavefront beyond the experimentally detected area is thus retrieved and the hologram reconstruction shows enhanced resolution. To demonstrate the power of this concept, we apply it to simulated as well as experimental holograms.
Wouters, Sebastian; Limacher, Peter A; Van Neck, Dimitri; Ayers, Paul W
2012-04-01
We have implemented the sweep algorithm for the variational optimization of SU(2) U(1) (spin and particle number) invariant matrix product states (MPS) for general spin and particle number invariant fermionic Hamiltonians. This class includes non-relativistic quantum chemical systems within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. High-accuracy ab initio finite field results of the longitudinal static polarizabilities and second hyperpolarizabilities of one-dimensional hydrogen chains are presented. This allows to assess the performance of other quantum chemical methods. For small basis sets, MPS calculations in the saturation regime of the optical response properties can be performed. These results are extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit. PMID:22482543
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The design objectives and structure of' the Chinese accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) subcritical assembly VENUS-1 are presented. The experiment of source multiplication method is used to determine the final loading of the Chinese ADS VENUS-i subcritical assembly. The Keff of the assembly with the same loading as extrapolation experiment have been calculated. The results of calculation and experiment are evaluated. The final loading of the Chinese ADS VENUS-1 subcritical assembly has been determined by preliminary experiments on VENUS-1. (authors)
Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media
Waheed, Umair bin
2014-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.
Biokinetic modeling and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations.
Blaauboer, Bas J
2010-02-01
The introduction of in vitro methodologies in the toxicological risk assessment process requires a number of prerequisites regarding both the toxicodynamics and the biokinetics of the compounds under study. In vitro systems will need to be relevant for measuring those structural and physiological changes that are good indicators for adverse effects. Furthermore, the dose metric found to have an effect in the in vitro system should be relevant. One element in defining the appropriate dose metric is related to the kinetic behavior of the compound in the in vitro system: binding to proteins, binding to plastic, evaporation, and the interaction between the culture medium and the cells. Ways to measure and model "in vitro biokinetics" are described. Second, the appropriate dose metric in vitro, e.g., the effective concentration, will need to be extrapolated to relevant in vivo exposure scenarios. The application of physiologically based biokinetic modelling is essential in such extrapolations. The parameters needed to build these models often can be estimated based on nonanimal data, namely chemical properties (QSARs) and in vitro experiments. PMID:20574900
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyun Young Lee
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal ??(L2 error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.
Mirus, Benjamin B.; Halford, Keith; Sweetkind, Don; Fenelon, Joe
2016-02-01
The suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic conductivity (K) to length scales commensurate with hydraulic data is difficult to assess. A novel method is presented for evaluating assumed relations between K and geologic interpretations for regional-scale groundwater modeling. The approach relies on simultaneous interpretation of multiple aquifer tests using alternative geologic frameworks of variable complexity, where each framework is incorporated as prior information that assumes homogeneous K within each model unit. This approach is tested at Pahute Mesa within the Nevada National Security Site (USA), where observed drawdowns from eight aquifer tests in complex, highly faulted volcanic rocks provide the necessary hydraulic constraints. The investigated volume encompasses 40 mi3 (167 km3) where drawdowns traversed major fault structures and were detected more than 2 mi (3.2 km) from pumping wells. Complexity of the five frameworks assessed ranges from an undifferentiated mass of rock with a single unit to 14 distinct geologic units. Results show that only four geologic units can be justified as hydraulically unique for this location. The approach qualitatively evaluates the consistency of hydraulic property estimates within extents of investigation and effects of geologic frameworks on extrapolation. Distributions of transmissivity are similar within the investigated extents irrespective of the geologic framework. In contrast, the extrapolation of hydraulic properties beyond the volume investigated with interfering aquifer tests is strongly affected by the complexity of a given framework. Testing at Pahute Mesa illustrates how this method can be employed to determine the appropriate level of geologic complexity for large-scale groundwater modeling.
Kaltenboeck, Rudolf; Kerschbaum, Markus; Hennermann, Karin; Mayer, Stefan
2013-04-01
Nowcasting of precipitation events, especially thunderstorm events or winter storms, has high impact on flight safety and efficiency for air traffic management. Future strategic planning by air traffic control will result in circumnavigation of potential hazardous areas, reduction of load around efficiency hot spots by offering alternatives, increase of handling capacity, anticipation of avoidance manoeuvres and increase of awareness before dangerous areas are entered by aircraft. To facilitate this rapid update forecasts of location, intensity, size, movement and development of local storms are necessary. Weather radar data deliver precipitation analysis of high temporal and spatial resolution close to real time by using clever scanning strategies. These data are the basis to generate rapid update forecasts in a time frame up to 2 hours and more for applications in aviation meteorological service provision, such as optimizing safety and economic impact in the context of sub-scale phenomena. On the basis of tracking radar echoes by correlation the movement vectors of successive weather radar images are calculated. For every new successive radar image a set of ensemble precipitation fields is collected by using different parameter sets like pattern match size, different time steps, filter methods and an implementation of history of tracking vectors and plausibility checks. This method considers the uncertainty in rain field displacement and different scales in time and space. By validating manually a set of case studies, the best verification method and skill score is defined and implemented into an online-verification scheme which calculates the optimized forecasts for different time steps and different areas by using different extrapolation ensemble members. To get information about the quality and reliability of the extrapolation process additional information of data quality (e.g. shielding in Alpine areas) is extrapolated and combined with an extrapolation-quality-index. Subsequently the probability and quality information of the forecast ensemble is available and flexible blending to numerical prediction model for each subarea is possible. Simultaneously with automatic processing the ensemble nowcasting product is visualized in a new innovative way which combines the intensity, probability and quality information for different subareas in one forecast image.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez R, M. T.; Morales P, J. R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2001-01-15
From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Ophthalmic applicators {sup 9}0{sup S}r/{sup 90}Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)
True amplitude migration using common-shot one-way wavefield extrapolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Y.; Sun, J. [Veritas DGC Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Notfors, C. [Veritas DGC Inc., Singapore (Singapore); Gray, S.H. [Veritas DGC Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bleistein, N. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)
2003-07-01
Kirchhoff migration has been commonly applied to most 3-D prestack migrations because of its versatility, but the need for increased imaging fidelity has led to the development of methods that allow for an unlimited number of arrivals. This paper presented a fluid flow imaging method that can deal with more than a single arrival and describes a one-way wavefield extrapolation with particular reference to its amplitude and phase behaviour. This new method offers greater structural imaging quality. The amplitudes produced by shot-record migration using one-way wavefield extrapolation in a medium with velocity v(z) was analyzed. The amplitudes were then compared with those produced by true-amplitude Kirchhoff migration to determine amplitude and phase errors. The standard formulation of finite-difference migration consists of a downward continuation of the wavefields from the source and receiver locations using a split wave equation. It also includes an imaging condition which divides the downward receiver wavefield by the downward source wavefield at each image point. However, the wave equations in the downward continuation are not equivalent to the acoustic wave equation, resulting in a migrated wavefield and incorrect amplitude and phase behaviour. The equation was corrected by comparing the imaged wavefield with the reflection coefficient produced by true amplitude Kirchhoff migration. 7 refs., 5 figs.
3D Drop Size Distribution Extrapolation Algorithm Using a Single Disdrometer
Lane, John
2012-01-01
Determining the Z-R relationship (where Z is the radar reflectivity factor and R is rainfall rate) from disdrometer data has been and is a common goal of cloud physicists and radar meteorology researchers. The usefulness of this quantity has traditionally been limited since radar represents a volume measurement, while a disdrometer corresponds to a point measurement. To solve that problem, a 3D-DSD (drop-size distribution) method of determining an equivalent 3D Z-R was developed at the University of Central Florida and tested at the Kennedy Space Center, FL. Unfortunately, that method required a minimum of three disdrometers clustered together within a microscale network (.1-km separation). Since most commercial disdrometers used by the radar meteorology/cloud physics community are high-cost instruments, three disdrometers located within a microscale area is generally not a practical strategy due to the limitations of these kinds of research budgets. A relatively simple modification to the 3D-DSD algorithm provides an estimate of the 3D-DSD and therefore, a 3D Z-R measurement using a single disdrometer. The basis of the horizontal extrapolation is mass conservation of a drop size increment, employing the mass conservation equation. For vertical extrapolation, convolution of a drop size increment using raindrop terminal velocity is used. Together, these two independent extrapolation techniques provide a complete 3DDSD estimate in a volume around and above a single disdrometer. The estimation error is lowest along a vertical plane intersecting the disdrometer position in the direction of wind advection. This work demonstrates that multiple sensors are not required for successful implementation of the 3D interpolation/extrapolation algorithm. This is a great benefit since it is seldom that multiple sensors in the required spatial arrangement are available for this type of analysis. The original software (developed at the University of Central Florida, 1998.- 2000) has also been modified to read standardized disdrometer data format (Joss-Waldvogel format). Other modifications to the software involve accounting for vertical ambient wind motion, as well as evaporation of the raindrop during its flight time.
The use of extrapolation concepts to augment the Frequency Separation Technique
Alexiou, Spiros
2015-03-01
The Frequency Separation Technique (FST) is a general method formulated to improve the speed and/or accuracy of lineshape calculations, including strong overlapping collisions, as is the case for ion dynamics. It should be most useful when combined with ultrafast methods, that, however have significant difficulties when the impact regime is approached. These difficulties are addressed by the Frequency Separation Technique, in which the impact limit is correctly recovered. The present work examines the possibility of combining the Frequency Separation Technique with the addition of extrapolation to improve results and minimize errors resulting from the neglect of fast-slow coupling and thus obtain the exact result with a minimum of extra effort. To this end the adequacy of one such ultrafast method, the Frequency Fluctuation Method (FFM) for treating the nonimpact part is examined. It is found that although the FFM is unable to reproduce the nonimpact profile correctly, its coupling with the FST correctly reproduces the total profile.
UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations
Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N
2012-01-01
Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two transversely oscillating coronal loops are investigated in detail during a flare on the 2011 September 6 using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We compare two independent methods to determine the Alfvn speed inside these loops. Through the period of oscillation and loop length, information about the Alfvn speed inside each loop is deduced seismologically. This is compared with the Alfvn speed profiles deduced from magnetic extrapolation and spectral methods using AIA bandpass. We find that for both loops the two methods are consistent. Also, we find that the average Alfvn speed based on loop travel time is not necessarily a good measure to compare with the seismological result, which explains earlier reported discrepancies. Instead, the effect of density and magnetic stratification on the wave mode has to be taken into account. We discuss the implications of combining seismological, extrapolation, and spectral methods in deducing the physical properties of coronal loops.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambhl, Simon; Sterndorff, Martin
2014-01-01
Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto the structure and the harvested power of the device as well as the fact that extreme loads may occur during operation and not at extreme wave states when the device is in storm protection mode. The extrapolation method is based on shortterm load time series and applied to a case study where up-scaled surge load measurements from lab-scaled WEPTOS WEC are taken. Different catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) systems as well as single anchor legmooring (SALM)mooring systemsare implemented for a dynamic simulation with different number of mooring lines. Extreme tension loads with a return period of 50 years are assessed for the hawser as well as at the different mooring lines. Furthermore, the extreme load impact given failure of one mooring line is assessed and compared with extreme loads given no system failure.
Making the most of what we have: application of extrapolation approaches in wildlife transfer models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beresford, Nicholas A.; Barnett, Catherine L.; Wells, Claire [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Brown, Justin E.; Hosseini, Ali [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Willey, Neil [Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)
2014-07-01
Radiological environmental protection models need to predict the transfer of many radionuclides to a large number of organisms. There has been considerable development of transfer (predominantly concentration ratio) databases over the last decade. However, in reality it is unlikely we will ever have empirical data for all the species-radionuclide combinations which may need to be included in assessments. To provide default values for a number of existing models/frameworks various extrapolation approaches have been suggested (e.g. using data for a similar organism or element). This paper presents recent developments in two such extrapolation approaches, namely phylogeny and allometry. An evaluation of how extrapolation approaches have performed and the potential application of Bayesian statistics to make best use of available data will also be given. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we initially analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites to investigate if phylogenetic variation in transfer could be identified. The REML analysis generated an estimated mean value for each species on a common scale after taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we tested the hypothesis that the REML model outputs could be used to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in other species from the results of a species which had been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 lakes. Although initially investigated as an extrapolation approach the output of this work is a potential alternative to the highly site dependent concentration ratio model. We are currently applying this approach to a wider range of organism types and different ecosystems. An initial analysis of these results will be presented. The application of allometric, or mass-dependent, relationships within radioecology has increased with the evolution of models to predict the exposure of wildlife as it presents a method of addressing the lack of empirical data. Among the parameters which scale allometrically is radionuclide biological half-life. However, sufficient data across a range of species with different masses are required to establish allometric relationships for biological half-life and this is not always available. We have recently derived an alternative allometric approach to predict the biological half-life of radionuclides in homeothermic vertebrates which does not require such data. Predicted biological half-life values for four radionuclides compared well to available data for a range of species. The potential to further develop these approaches will be discussed. (authors)
Making the most of what we have: application of extrapolation approaches in wildlife transfer models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiological environmental protection models need to predict the transfer of many radionuclides to a large number of organisms. There has been considerable development of transfer (predominantly concentration ratio) databases over the last decade. However, in reality it is unlikely we will ever have empirical data for all the species-radionuclide combinations which may need to be included in assessments. To provide default values for a number of existing models/frameworks various extrapolation approaches have been suggested (e.g. using data for a similar organism or element). This paper presents recent developments in two such extrapolation approaches, namely phylogeny and allometry. An evaluation of how extrapolation approaches have performed and the potential application of Bayesian statistics to make best use of available data will also be given. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we initially analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites to investigate if phylogenetic variation in transfer could be identified. The REML analysis generated an estimated mean value for each species on a common scale after taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we tested the hypothesis that the REML model outputs could be used to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in other species from the results of a species which had been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted 137Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 lakes. Although initially investigated as an extrapolation approach the output of this work is a potential alternative to the highly site dependent concentration ratio model. We are currently applying this approach to a wider range of organism types and different ecosystems. An initial analysis of these results will be presented. The application of allometric, or mass-dependent, relationships within radioecology has increased with the evolution of models to predict the exposure of wildlife as it presents a method of addressing the lack of empirical data. Among the parameters which scale allometrically is radionuclide biological half-life. However, sufficient data across a range of species with different masses are required to establish allometric relationships for biological half-life and this is not always available. We have recently derived an alternative allometric approach to predict the biological half-life of radionuclides in homeothermic vertebrates which does not require such data. Predicted biological half-life values for four radionuclides compared well to available data for a range of species. The potential to further develop these approaches will be discussed. (authors)
Vector Extrapolation-Based Acceleration of Regularized Richardson Lucy Image Deblurring
Remmele, Steffen; Hesser, Jrgen
Confocal fluorescence microscopy has become an important tool in biological and medical sciences for imaging thin specimen, even living ones. Due to out-of-focus blurring and noise the acquired images are degraded and thus it is necessary to restore them. One of the most popular methods is an iterative Richardson-Lucy algorithm with total variation regularization. This algorithm while improving the image quality is converging slowly whereas with a constantly increasing amount of image data fast methods are required. In this paper, we present an accelerated version of the algorithm and investigate the achieved speed up. The acceleration method is based on a vector extrapolation technique and avoids a computational intensive evaluation of the underlying cost function. To evaluate the acceleration two synthetic test images are used. The accelerated algorithm reaches an acceptable result within 30% to 40% less computational time.
Extrapolation from animals to the human for the retention of radiothallium in the blood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extrapolation of tissue distribution data from animal to human has implications in the clinical application of new radiopharmaceuticals, in studies of biodistribution and biokinetics, and in estimation of radiation absorbed dose. The extrapolative method described in this study is based on the assumption that the mechanism of tissue distribution of a radionuclide in different mammalian species is similar. This assumption implies that the fractional distribution function, ?/sub h/(t), of a radionuclide in a specific tissue of one species is related to the corresponding fractional distribution function in any other species by linear transformations in the activity and time variables. To test this approach, data for retention of T1-201 in the blood of several species were used. Detailed biokinetic data in mice, collected in our laboratory, were used to determine the reference ?/sub h/(t)/sub mouse/. Data for other species were extracted from the literature and compared with ?/sub h/(t)/sub mouse/ to determine the transformation factors, using the least squares fitting technique. These factors appear, on the basis of the data available, to be power functions of body weight. Retention of activity in blood was chosen as a test of the theory because data have been published for several nonhuman species as well as verifying values for the human
Parallel 2D and 3D Prestack Depth Migration Using Recursive Kirchhoff Wavefield Extrapolation
Geiger, H. D.; Margrave, G. F.; Liu, K.
2004-05-01
Recursive Kirchhoff wavefield extrapolation in the space-frequency domain can be thought of as a simple convolutional filter that calculates a single output point at depth z+dz using a weighted summation of all input points within the extrapolator aperture at depth z. The desired velocity values for the extrapolator are the ones that provide the best approximation of the true phase (propagation time) of the seismic wavefield between the input points and the output point. Recursive Kirchhoff extrapolators can be designed to handle lateral variations in velocity in a number of ways: a PSPI-type (phase shift plus interpolation) extrapolator uses only the velocity at the output point, a NSPS-type (nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator uses the velocities at the input points; a SNPS-type (symmetric nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator incorporates two extrapolation steps of dz/2 where the first step uses the velocities at the input points (NSPS-type) and the second step uses the velocity at the output point (PSPI-type); while the Weyl-type extrapolator uses an average of the velocities between each input point and the output point. Here, we introduce the PAVG-type (slowness averaged) extrapolator, which uses velocity values calculated by an average of slowness along straight raypaths between each input point and the output point. Parallel 2D and 3D prestack depth migration algorithms have been coded in both MATLAB and C and tested on a small Linux cluster. A simple synthetic with a lateral step in velocity shows that the PAVG Kirchhoff extrapolator is very close to the exact desired response. Tests using the 2D Marmousi synthetic data set suggest that the extrapolator behaviour is only one of many considerations that must be addressed for accurate depth imaging. Other important considerations include preprocessing, aperture size, taper width, extrapolator stability, and imaging condition.
Uncertainty, low-dose extrapolation and the threshold hypothesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Risk-based radiation protection policy is influenced by estimated risk and by the uncertainty of that estimate. Thus, if the upper limit, at (say) 95% probability, of risk associated with a given radiation dose is at an 'acceptable' level, it is unlikely (or not credible) that the true level of risk associated with the dose is at an unacceptable level. Central estimates presented alone, in the absence of probability limits, lack this safety factor. Estimating cancer risks from low doses of ionising radiation involves extrapolation of risk estimates based on high-dose data to the much lower dose levels that characterize the vast majority of exposures of regulatory concern. Proof of a universal low-dose threshold, below which there is no radiation-related risk, would revolutionise radiation protection. Available data fail to provide such proof and, in fact, leave considerable room for the possibility that DNA damage from a single photon can contribute to the carcinogenic process. Allowing for the possibility of a threshold would, however, remove very little of the regulatory burden associated with the so-called linear, no-threshold hypothesis, unless that possibility were a virtual certainty. (author)
Characterization and application of two extrapolation chambers in standard X radiation beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extrapolation chambers are ionization chambers with variable volume, and they are mainly utilized as beta radiation detectors. In this work two extrapolation chambers were characterized, a commercial PTW extrapolation chamber and another extrapolation chamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, for application as reference systems in mammography, conventional diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy beams. The results obtained from the characterization tests of the chamber response: leakage current, short- and medium terms stability, determination of the saturation currents and the ion collection efficiencies, angular and energy dependence, show that these extrapolation chambers may be utilized for low-energy X radiation beam dosimetry. The transmission factors in tissue and the calibration factors were also determined for all cited radiation qualities. Finally, a procedure was established for calibration of radiation detectors in standard X radiation beams, using the extrapolation chambers. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The work presented covers different parts of a repository system such as near and far field aspects. Investigations are reported for the degradation of HLW glass, for the corrosion of container materials, for changes of geochemical environment in geological repositories, and for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of granitic host rock. Extrapolation methods are developed and applied for temperature and stress development in the host rock and for the radionuclide transport through a fractured system. (author)
Extrapolation chamber response in low-energy x radiation standard beams
Dias, Simone K.; Caldas, Linda V. E.
2001-01-01
Measurements of absorbed dose rates in air and tissue produced by low-energy x radiation are often difficult to obtain with accuracy. The recommended instruments for these applications are extrapolation chambers. The performance of an extrapolation chamber, developed at IPEN, was studied in low energy x radiation standard beams in relation to its response linearity, extrapolation curves and energy dependence. The results obtained indicate that the developed chamber is suitable for x radiation measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Intelligent Extrapolation Criticality Device is used for automatic counting and automatic extrapolation during the criticality experiment on the reactor. Test must be performed on the zero-power reactor or other reactor before the Device is used. The paper describes the test situation and test results of the Device on the zero-power reactor. The test results show that the Device has the function of automatic counting and automatic extrapolation, the deviation of the extrapolation data is small, and it can satisfy the requirements of physical startup on the reactor. (author)
Extrapolative Analysis of Fast-Switching Free Energy Estimates in a Molecular System
Zuckerman, D M; Zuckerman, Daniel M.; Woolf, Thomas B.
2001-01-01
We perform an extrapolative analysis of "fast-growth" free-energy-difference (DF) estimates of a computer-modeled, fully-solvated ethanemethanol transformation. The results suggest that extrapolation can greatly reduce the systematic error in DF estimated from a small number of very fast switches. Our extrapolation procedure uses block-averages of finite-data estimates, and appears to be particularly useful for broad, non-Gaussian distributions of data which produce substantial systematic errors with insufficient data. In every tested case, the extrapolative results were better than direct estimates.
Multi-threaded adaptive extrapolation procedure for Feynman loop integrals in the physical region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feynman loop integrals appear in higher order corrections of interaction cross section calculations in perturbative quantum field theory. The integrals are computationally intensive especially in view of singularities which may occur within the integration domain. For the treatment of threshold and infrared singularities we developed techniques using iterated (repeated) adaptive integration and extrapolation. In this paper we describe a shared memory parallelization and its application to one- and two-loop problems, by multi-threading in the outer integrations of the iterated integral. The implementation is layered over OpenMP and retains the adaptive procedure of the sequential method exactly. We give performance results for loop integrals associated with various types of diagrams including one-loop box, pentagon, two-loop self-energy and two-loop vertex diagrams
Ullemeyer, K.; Lokaj?ek, T.; Keppler, R.; Vasin, R. N.; Behrmann, J. H.
2015-04-01
The elastic anisotropy of bulk rock depends on the mineral textures, the crack fabric and external parameters like, e.g., confining pressure. The texture-related contribution to elastic anisotropy can be predicted from the mineral textures, the largely sample-dependent contribution of the other parameters must be determined experimentally. Laboratory measurements of the elastic wave velocities are mostly limited to pressures of the intermediate crust. We describe a method, how the elastic wave velocity trends and, by this means, the elastic constants can be extrapolated to the pressure conditions of the lower crust. The extrapolated elastic constants are compared to the texture-derived ones. Pronounced elastic anisotropy is evident for phyllosilicate minerals, hence, the approach is demonstrated for two phyllosilicate-rich gneisses with approximately identical volume fractions of the phyllosilicates but different texture types.
Patient-bounded extrapolation using low-dose priors for volume-of-interest imaging in C-arm CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging with C-arm systems provides anatomical information in a predefined 3D target region at a considerably low x-ray dose. However, VOI imaging involves laterally truncated projections from which conventional reconstruction algorithms generally yield images with severe truncation artifacts. Heuristic based extrapolation methods, e.g., water cylinder extrapolation, typically rely on techniques that complete the truncated data by means of a continuity assumption and thus appear to be ad-hoc. It is our goal to improve the image quality of VOI imaging by exploiting existing patient-specific prior information in the workflow. Methods: A necessary initial step prior to a 3D acquisition is to isocenter the patient with respect to the target to be scanned. To this end, low-dose fluoroscopic x-ray acquisitions are usually applied from anteriorposterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) views. Based on this, the patient is isocentered by repositioning the table. In this work, we present a patient-bounded extrapolation method that makes use of these noncollimated fluoroscopic images to improve image quality in 3D VOI reconstruction. The algorithm first extracts the 2D patient contours from the noncollimated AP and ML fluoroscopic images. These 2D contours are then combined to estimate a volumetric model of the patient. Forward-projecting the shape of the model at the eventually acquired C-arm rotation views gives the patient boundary information in the projection domain. In this manner, we are in the position to substantially improve image quality by enforcing the extrapolated line profiles to end at the known patient boundaries, derived from the 3D shape model estimate. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on eight clinical datasets with different degrees of truncation. The proposed algorithm achieved a relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of about 1.0% with respect to the reference reconstruction on nontruncated data, even in the presence of severe truncation, compared to a rRMSE of 8.0% when applying a state-of-the-art heuristic extrapolation technique. Conclusions: The method we proposed in this paper leads to a major improvement in image quality for 3D C-arm based VOI imaging. It involves no additional radiation when using fluoroscopic images that are acquired during the patient isocentering process. The model estimation can be readily integrated into the existing interventional workflow without additional hardware
Patient-bounded extrapolation using low-dose priors for volume-of-interest imaging in C-arm CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Y.; Maier, A.; Berger, M.; Hornegger, J. [Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Bauer, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim 91301 (Germany)
2015-04-15
Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging with C-arm systems provides anatomical information in a predefined 3D target region at a considerably low x-ray dose. However, VOI imaging involves laterally truncated projections from which conventional reconstruction algorithms generally yield images with severe truncation artifacts. Heuristic based extrapolation methods, e.g., water cylinder extrapolation, typically rely on techniques that complete the truncated data by means of a continuity assumption and thus appear to be ad-hoc. It is our goal to improve the image quality of VOI imaging by exploiting existing patient-specific prior information in the workflow. Methods: A necessary initial step prior to a 3D acquisition is to isocenter the patient with respect to the target to be scanned. To this end, low-dose fluoroscopic x-ray acquisitions are usually applied from anteriorposterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) views. Based on this, the patient is isocentered by repositioning the table. In this work, we present a patient-bounded extrapolation method that makes use of these noncollimated fluoroscopic images to improve image quality in 3D VOI reconstruction. The algorithm first extracts the 2D patient contours from the noncollimated AP and ML fluoroscopic images. These 2D contours are then combined to estimate a volumetric model of the patient. Forward-projecting the shape of the model at the eventually acquired C-arm rotation views gives the patient boundary information in the projection domain. In this manner, we are in the position to substantially improve image quality by enforcing the extrapolated line profiles to end at the known patient boundaries, derived from the 3D shape model estimate. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on eight clinical datasets with different degrees of truncation. The proposed algorithm achieved a relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of about 1.0% with respect to the reference reconstruction on nontruncated data, even in the presence of severe truncation, compared to a rRMSE of 8.0% when applying a state-of-the-art heuristic extrapolation technique. Conclusions: The method we proposed in this paper leads to a major improvement in image quality for 3D C-arm based VOI imaging. It involves no additional radiation when using fluoroscopic images that are acquired during the patient isocentering process. The model estimation can be readily integrated into the existing interventional workflow without additional hardware.
Miga, Michael I.; Dumpuri, Prashanth; Simpson, Amber L.; Weis, Jared A.; Jarnagin, William R.
2011-03-01
The problem of extrapolating cost-effective relevant information from distinctly finite or sparse data, while balancing the competing goals between workflow and engineering design, and between application and accuracy is the 'sparse data extrapolation problem'. Within the context of open abdominal image-guided liver surgery, one realization of this problem is compensating for non-rigid organ deformations while maintaining workflow for the surgeon. More specifically, rigid organ-based surface registration between CT-rendered liver surfaces and laser-range scanned intraoperative partial surface counterparts resulted in an average closest-point residual 6.1 +/- 4.5 mm with maximumsigned distances ranging from -13.4 to 16.2 mm. Similar to the neurosurgical environment, there is a need to correct for soft tissue deformation to translate image-guided interventions to the abdomen (e.g. liver, kidney, pancreas, etc.). While intraoperative tomographic imaging is available, these approaches are less than optimal solutions to the sparse data extrapolation problem. In this paper, we compare and contrast three sparse data extrapolation methods to that of datarich interpolation for the correction of deformation within a liver phantom containing 43 subsurface targets. The findings indicate that the subtleties in the initial alignment pose following rigid registration can affect correction up to 5- 10%. The best deformation compensation achieved was approximately 54.5% (target registration error of 2.0 +/- 1.6 mm) while the data-rich interpolative method was 77.8% (target registration error of 0.6 +/- 0.5 mm).
CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeghi Naini, Ali; Pierce, Greg; Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); and others
2011-02-15
Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The intensity mean absolute difference between these two images was calculated to be at 1%. Tumor center as well as a number of anatomical fiducial markers were traced in different corresponding slices of the two images. The average misalignment obtained for the constructed CT image was (0.64, 0.39, 0.11) mm, which indicates a very desirable accuracy for lung brachytherapy applications. Conclusions: The image construction accuracy obtained in this research is suitable for intraoperative tasks; e.g., tumor localization and fusing with real time navigation data in lung brachytherapy. These applications involve image registration with intraoperative U.S. images in order to enhance their poor quality. The proposed technique is also useful for preoperative tasks such as planning of lung brachytherapy treatment.
CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The intensity mean absolute difference between these two images was calculated to be at 1%. Tumor center as well as a number of anatomical fiducial markers were traced in different corresponding slices of the two images. The average misalignment obtained for the constructed CT image was (0.64, 0.39, 0.11) mm, which indicates a very desirable accuracy for lung brachytherapy applications. Conclusions: The image construction accuracy obtained in this research is suitable for intraoperative tasks; e.g., tumor localization and fusing with real time navigation data in lung brachytherapy. These applications involve image registration with intraoperative U.S. images in order to enhance their poor quality. The proposed technique is also useful for preoperative tasks such as planning of lung brachytherapy treatment.
Fuel cycle design for ITER and its extrapolation to DEMO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: s-konishi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Glugla, Manfred [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hayashi, Takumi [Apan Atomic Energy AgencyTokai, Ibaraki 319-0015 Japan (Japan)
2008-12-15
ITER is the first fusion device that continuously processes DT plasma exhaust and supplies recycled fuel in a closed loop. All the tritium and deuterium in the exhaust are recovered, purified and returned to the tokamak with minimal delay, so that extended burn can be sustained with limited inventory. To maintain the safety of the entire facility, plant scale detritiation systems will also continuously run to remove tritium from the effluents at the maximum efficiency. In this entire tritium plant system, extremely high decontamination factor, that is the ratio of the tritium loss to the processing flow rate, is required for fuel economy and minimized tritium emissions, and the system design based on the state-of-the-art technology is expected to satisfy all the requirements without significant technical challenges. Considerable part of the fusion tritium system will be verified with ITER and its decades of operation experiences. Toward the DEMO plant that will actually generate energy and operate its closed fuel cycle, breeding blanket and power train that caries high temperature and pressure media from the fusion device to the generation system will be the major addition. For the tritium confinement, safety and environmental emission, particularly blanket, its coolant, and generation systems such as heat exchanger, steam generator and turbine will be the critical systems, because the tritium permeation from the breeder and handling large amount of high temperature, high pressure coolant will be further more difficult than that required for ITER. Detritiation of solid waste such as used blanket and divertor will be another issue for both tritium economy and safety. Unlike in the case of ITER that is regarded as experimental facility, DEMO will be expected to demonstrate the safety, reliability and social acceptance issue, even if economical feature is excluded. Fuel and environmental issue to be tested in the DEMO will determine the viability of the fusion as a future energy source. Some of the subjects cannot be expected to be within the extrapolation of ITER technology and require long term efforts paralleling ITER.
Cross-species extrapolation of chemical effects: Challenges and new insights
One of the greatest uncertainties in chemical risk assessment is extrapolation of effects from tested to untested species. While this undoubtedly is a challenge in the human health arena, species extrapolation is a particularly daunting task in ecological assessments, where it is...
Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Bragg-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents the characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field. The absorbed dose rate to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm was calculated and is (0.132060.0028) ?Gy. The extrapolation chamber null depth was determined and its value is 60 ?m. The influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on the value of the corrected current was also evaluated. Temperature is the parameter that has more influence on this value and the influence of pressure and the humidity is not very significant. Extrapolation curves were obtained. (Author)
Can Pearlite form Outside of the Hultgren Extrapolation of the Ae3 and Acm Phase Boundaries?
Aranda, M. M.; Rementeria, R.; Capdevila, C.; Hackenberg, R. E.
2016-02-01
It is usually assumed that ferrous pearlite can form only when the average austenite carbon concentration C 0 lies between the extrapolated Ae3 ( ?/ ?) and Acm ( ?/ ?) phase boundaries (the "Hultgren extrapolation"). This "mutual supersaturation" criterion for cooperative lamellar nucleation and growth is critically examined from a historical perspective and in light of recent experiments on coarse-grained hypoeutectoid steels which show pearlite formation outside the Hultgren extrapolation. This criterion, at least as interpreted in terms of the average austenite composition, is shown to be unnecessarily restrictive. The carbon fluxes evaluated from Brandt's solution are sufficient to allow pearlite growth both inside and outside the Hultgren Extrapolation. As for the feasibility of the nucleation events leading to pearlite, the only criterion is that there are some local regions of austenite inside the Hultgren Extrapolation, even if the average austenite composition is outside.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ? The DPE method predicts temperature and density profiles in a fusion reactor. ? This method is based on the gyro-Bohm type parameter dependence. ? The size of fusion reactor is determined to fulfill the power balance. ? The reactor size is proportional to a factor and ?4/3 power of the magnetic field. ? This factor can be a measure of plasma performance like the fusion triple product. - Abstract: A new method named direct profile extrapolation (DPE) has been developed to estimate the radial profiles of temperature and density in a fusion reactor. This method directly extrapolates the radial profiles observed in present experiments to the fusion reactor condition assuming gyro-Bohm type parameter dependence. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium that fits the experimental profile data is used to determine the plasma volume. Four enhancement factors for the magnetic field strength, the density, the plasma beta, and the energy confinement are assumed. Then, the plasma size is determined so as to fulfill the power balance in the reactor plasma. The plasma performance can be measured by an index, Cexp, introduced in the DPE method. The minimum magnetic stored energy of the fusion reactor to achieve self-ignition is shown to be proportional to the cube of Cexp and inversely proportional to the square of magnetic field strength. Using this method, the design window of a self-ignited fusion reactor that can be extrapolated from recent experimental results in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is considered. Also discussed is how large an enhancement is needed for the LHD experiment to ensure the helical reactor design of FFHR2m2.
You, Jiachun; Li, Guangcai; Liu, Xuewei; Han, Wengong; Zhang, Guangde
2016-03-01
Most depth extrapolation schemes are based on a one-way wave equation, which possesses limited ability to provide the true amplitude values of reflectors that are highly important for amplitude-versus-offset inversion. After analysing the weaknesses of current migration methods and explaining the reason why wavefields cannot be extrapolated using the full-wave equation in the depth direction, a full-wave-equation migration method based on a new seismic acquisition system is proposed to provide accurately dynamic information of reflection interfaces for migration. In this new seismic acquisition system, double sensor data are provided to solve the acoustic wave equation in the depth domain accurately. To test the performance of recovering the true amplitudes of the full-wave-equation migration, we used a single shot gather and several multiple shot gathers produced by a 2-D numerical modelling technique to demonstrate that our methodology provides better estimated true amplitudes than that of the conventional Kirchhoff and reverse time migration algorithms through comparison of the amplitudes of the target reflectors with its theoretical reflection coefficients. Because double sensors are applied to implement the full-wave-equation migration, it is necessary to study the perfect distance between the double sensors to diminish the migration error for future practical exploration. Based on the application of the full-wave-equation migration method to the first set of actual seismic data collected from our double sensor acquisition system, our proposed method yields higher imaging quality than that of conventional methods. Numerical experiments and actual seismic data show that our proposed method has built a new bridge between true amplitude common-shot migration and full-wave-equation depth extrapolation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joana Aurora Braun Chagas
2010-02-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o protocolo de contenção química com cetamina S(+ e midazolam em bugios-ruivos, comparando o cálculo de doses pelo método convencional e o método de extrapolação alométrica. Foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios (Alouatta guariba clamitans hígidos, com peso médio de 4,84±0,97kg, de ambos os sexos. Após jejum alimentar de 12 horas e hídrico de seis horas, realizou-se contenção física manual e aferiram-se os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (f, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, temperatura retal (TR, pressão arterial sistólica não invasiva (PANI e valores de hemogasometria arterial. Posteriormente, os animais foram alocados em dois grupos: GC (Grupo Convencional, n=06, os quais receberam cetamina S(+ (5mg kg-1 e midazolam (0,5mg kg-1, pela via intramuscular, com doses calculadas pelo método convencional; e GA (Grupo Alometria, n=06, os quais receberam o mesmo protocolo, pela mesma via, utilizando-se as doses calculadas pelo método de extrapolação alométrica. Os parâmetros descritos foram mensurados novamente nos seguintes momentos: M5, M10, M20 e M30 (cinco, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após a administração dos fármacos, respectivamente. Também foram avaliados: qualidade de miorrelaxamento, reflexo podal e caudal, pinçamento interdigital, tempo para indução de decúbito, tempo hábil de sedação, qualidade de sedação, e tempo e qualidade de recuperação. O GA apresentou menor tempo para indução ao decúbito, maior grau e tempo de sedação, bem como redução significativa da FC e PANI de M5 até M30, quando comparado ao GC. Conclui-se que o grupo no qual o cálculo de dose foi realizado por meio da alometria (GA apresentou melhor grau de relaxamento muscular e sedação, sem produzir depressão cardiorrespiratória significativa.The aim of this study was to evaluate a protocol of chemical restraint comparing the conventional method of calculation (weight dose and allometric extrapolation. Twelve healthy red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans, average weight 4.84±0.97kg, male and female, were used for this study. After a 12-hour period of food restriction and 6 hours of water restriction, the animals were physically restraint and the following parameters were measured: heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, capillary refill time (CRT, rectal temperature (RT, non invasive systolic arterial pressure (NISAP and arterial blood gases analysis. The animals were distributed into two groups: CG (Conventional Group, n=6, in which the animals received S(+ ketamine (5mg kg-1 and midazolam (0.5mg kg-1, by intramuscular (IM injection; and AG (Allometry Group, n=6, in which the animals also received S(+ ketamine and midazolan IM, but the doses were calculated by allometric extrapolation. Parameters were evaluated at the following moments: M5, M10, M20 and M30 (5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after IM injection, respectively. Muscle relaxation, pedal and caudal reflexes, interdigital pinch, recumbency time, sedation's quality and duration, and recovery time and its quality were also evaluated. The AG had a faster time for recumbency, higher period and quality of sedation, and a significantly reduction on HR and SAP from M5 to M30 when compared to CG. It was concluded that allometric extrapolation presented a better muscle relaxation and sedation without significant cardiorespiratory depression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Interface System for the Extrapolation Chamber (SICE) contains several devices handled by a personal computer (PC), it is able to get the required data to calculate the absorbed dose due to Beta radiation. The main functions of the system are: a) Measures the ionization current or charge stored in the extrapolation chamber. b) Adjusts the distance between the plates of the extrapolation chamber automatically. c) Adjust the bias voltage of the extrapolation chamber automatically. d) Acquires the data of the temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity of the environment and the voltage applied between the plates of the extrapolation chamber. e) Calculates the effective area of the plates of the extrapolation chamber and the real distance between them. f) Stores all the obtained information in hard disk or diskette. A comparison between the desired distance and the distance in the dial of the extrapolation chamber, show us that the resolution of the system is of 20 μm. The voltage can be changed between -399.9 V and +399.9 V with an error of less the 3 % with a resolution of 0.1 V. These uncertainties are between the accepted limits to be used in the determination of the absolute absorbed dose due to beta radiation. (Author)
Faria, F. P.; Reynaldo, S.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.
2015-11-01
An extrapolation chamber is a parallel-plate ionization chamber with an adjustable air-cavity volume through the variation of the distance between the collecting electrode and the entrance foil. The measured ionization currents can be obtained for different chamber depths, and extrapolated towards zero chamber depth. In this work, results of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 and MCNPX codes are reported for 90Sr/90Y and 85Kr beta radiation spectra incident on a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber. The results for transmission factor, absorbed dose rate in tissue as well as the chamber response as a function of the chamber depth are in good agreement with experimental data.
Effect of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effects of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films on dissimilar cubic substrates have been studied on the basis of the mean-field Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) thermodynamic theory by taking an uneven distribution of the interior stress with thickness into account. It was found that the polarization of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films is strongly dependent on the extrapolation length of films. The physical origin of the extrapolation length during the phase transformation from paraelectric to ferroelectric was revealed in the case of ferroelectric thin films
Montiel, Ariadna; Sendra, Irene; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Salzano, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
In this work we present a nonparametric approach, which works on minimal assumptions, to reconstruct the cosmic expansion of the Universe. We propose to combine a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing method and a simulation-extrapolation method. The first one (Loess) is a nonparametric approach that allows to obtain smoothed curves with no prior knowledge of the functional relationship between variables nor of the cosmological quantities. The second one (Simex) takes into account the effect of measurement errors on a variable via a simulation process. For the reconstructions we use as raw data the Union2.1 Type Ia Supernovae compilation, as well as recent Hubble parameter measurements. This work aims to illustrate the approach, which turns out to be a self-sufficient technique in the sense we do not have to choose anything by hand. We examine the details of the method, among them the amount of observational data needed to perform the locally weighted fit which will define the robustness of our reconstructio...
Energy confinement scaling and the extrapolation to ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fusion performance of ITER is predicted using three different techniques; statistical analysis of the global energy confinement data, a dimensionless physics parameter similarity method and the full 1-D modeling of the plasma profiles. Although the three methods give overlapping predictions for the performance of ITER, the confidence interval of all of the techniques is still quite wide
Can Tauc plot extrapolation be used for direct-band-gap semiconductor nanocrystals?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Despite that Tauc plot extrapolation has been widely adopted for extracting bandgap energies of semiconductors, there is a lack of theoretical support for applying it to nanocrystals. In this paper, direct-allowed optical transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals have been formulated based on a purely theoretical approach. This result reveals a size-dependant transition of the power factor used in Tauc plot, increasing from one half used in the 3D bulk case to one in the 0D case. This size-dependant intermediate value of power factor allows a better extrapolation of measured absorption data. Being a material characterization technique, the generalized Tauc extrapolation gives a more reasonable and accurate acquisition of the intrinsic bandgap, while the unjustified purpose of extrapolating any elevated bandgap caused by quantum confinement is shown to be incorrect
Melting of non-magic argon clusters and extrapolation to the bulk limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senn, Florian, E-mail: f.senn@massey.ac.nz; Wiebke, Jonas; Schumann, Ole; Gohr, Sebastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter, E-mail: p.a.schwerdtfeger@massey.ac.nz [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Albany, Private Bag 102904, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Pahl, Elke, E-mail: e.pahl@massey.ac.nz [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University Albany, Private Bag 102904, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand)
2014-01-28
The melting of argon clusters Ar{sub N} is investigated by applying a parallel-tempering Monte Carlo algorithm for all cluster sizes in the range from 55 to 309 atoms. Extrapolation to the bulk gives a melting temperature of 85.9 K in good agreement with the previous value of 88.9 K using only Mackay icosahedral clusters for the extrapolation [E. Pahl, F. Calvo, L. Ko?i, and P. Schwerdtfeger, Accurate melting temperatures for neon and argon from ab initio Monte Carlo simulations, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8207 (2008)]. Our results for argon demonstrate that for the extrapolation to the bulk one does not have to restrict to magic number cluster sizes in order to obtain good estimates for the bulk melting temperature. However, the extrapolation to the bulk remains a problem, especially for the systematic selection of suitable cluster sizes.
Can Tauc plot extrapolation be used for direct-band-gap semiconductor nanocrystals?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Y., E-mail: yu.feng@unsw.edu.au; Lin, S.; Huang, S.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)
2015-03-28
Despite that Tauc plot extrapolation has been widely adopted for extracting bandgap energies of semiconductors, there is a lack of theoretical support for applying it to nanocrystals. In this paper, direct-allowed optical transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals have been formulated based on a purely theoretical approach. This result reveals a size-dependant transition of the power factor used in Tauc plot, increasing from one half used in the 3D bulk case to one in the 0D case. This size-dependant intermediate value of power factor allows a better extrapolation of measured absorption data. Being a material characterization technique, the generalized Tauc extrapolation gives a more reasonable and accurate acquisition of the intrinsic bandgap, while the unjustified purpose of extrapolating any elevated bandgap caused by quantum confinement is shown to be incorrect.
Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity data from limited surrogate test organisms to all wildlife with potential of chemical exposure remains a key challenge in ecological risk assessment. A number of factors affect extrapolation, including the chemical exposure, pharmacokinetic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The 90Sr+90Y applicators utilized in clinical procedures are special sources for brachytherapy, during the treatments of superficial lesions. The applicators have to be periodically calibrated, and the recommended instruments for this kind of calibration are the extrapolation chambers. These instruments are special ionization chambers with possibility of variation of their sensitive volumes. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of two extrapolation chambers with different physical characteristics that were developed at IPEN for the calibration of beta radiation applicators. One of this chambers is a mini-extrapolation chamber that has a 3.0 cm outer diameter, and it is 11.3 cm in length. Furthermore, an aluminized polyester foil is used as the entrance window while the collecting electrode is made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. The other extrapolation chamber has interchangeable electrodes with body of lucite, collector electrode of 3 and 10 mm in diameter and aluminized polyethylene foils used as the entrance window. These extrapolation chambers were previously utilized as absolute radiation detectors for the calibration of a commercial clinical applicator. In the present work, both extrapolation chambers were calibrated in relation to a standard dermatological applicator calibrated at the American primary standard laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Extrapolation curves for beta radiation of 90Sr+90Y were obtained and thus the calibration factors were determined for the chambers. Short and medium term stability tests were also realized, using constant interelectrode distances. Finally, the commercial clinical applicator was calibrated using both extrapolation chambers, and the results were compared with those obtained in previous works. (author)
Tay, Kim Gaik; Kek, Sie Long; Abdul-Kahar, Rosmila
2015-05-01
In this paper, we have further improved the limitations of our previous two Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculators for computing differentiations numerically. The new feature in this new Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculator is fully automated up to any level based on the stopping criteria using VBA programming. The new version is more flexible because it is controlled by programming. Furthermore, it reduces computational time and CPU memory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method previously suggested to calculate the correlation energy at the complete one-electron basis set limit by reassignment of the basis hierarchical numbers and use of the unified singlet- and triplet-pair extrapolation scheme is applied to a test set of 106 systems, some with up to 48 electrons. The approach is utilized to obtain extrapolated correlation energies from raw values calculated with second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled-cluster singles and doubles excitations method, some of the latter also with the perturbative triples corrections. The calculated correlation energies have also been used to predict atomization energies within an additive scheme. Good agreement is obtained with the best available estimates even when the (d, t) pair of hierarchical numbers is utilized to perform the extrapolations. This conceivably justifies that there is no strong reason to exclude double-zeta energies in extrapolations, especially if the basis is calibrated to comply with the theoretical model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varandas, A. J. C., E-mail: varandas@uc.pt [Departamento de Qumica, and Centro de Qumica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Departamento de Fsica, Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo, 29075-910 Vitria (Brazil); Pansini, F. N. N. [CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Braslia-DF 70040-020 (Brazil)
2014-12-14
A method previously suggested to calculate the correlation energy at the complete one-electron basis set limit by reassignment of the basis hierarchical numbers and use of the unified singlet- and triplet-pair extrapolation scheme is applied to a test set of 106 systems, some with up to 48 electrons. The approach is utilized to obtain extrapolated correlation energies from raw values calculated with second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled-cluster singles and doubles excitations method, some of the latter also with the perturbative triples corrections. The calculated correlation energies have also been used to predict atomization energies within an additive scheme. Good agreement is obtained with the best available estimates even when the (d, t) pair of hierarchical numbers is utilized to perform the extrapolations. This conceivably justifies that there is no strong reason to exclude double-zeta energies in extrapolations, especially if the basis is calibrated to comply with the theoretical model.
Schuddeboom, W; Wbbenhorst, Michael
1996-01-01
A model has been constructed to describe ball-bond corrosion in HTSL stress testing. In this model ion-mobility has been believed to be the rate determining step and has been found to be non-linear for the anti-popcorn plastic. In HTSL testing an Arrhenius type extrapolation of the mean-time to failure (MTTF) at high temperature has been used, to predict the value at lower temperatures. This method proves to be correct for a low-stress plastic. However possibly it underestimates the value for...
Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation
Developing and utilizing the wavefield kinematics for efficient wavefield extrapolation
Waheed, Umair bin
2015-08-01
Natural gas and oil from characteristically complex unconventional reservoirs, such as organic shale, tight gas and oil, coal-bed methane; are transforming the global energy market. These conventional reserves exist in complex geologic formations where conventional seismic techniques have been challenged to successfully image the subsurface. To acquire maximum benefits from these unconventional reserves, seismic anisotropy must be at the center of our modeling and inversion workflows. I present algorithms for fast traveltime computations in anisotropic media. Both ray-based and finite-difference solvers of the anisotropic eikonal equation are developed. The proposed algorithms present novel techniques to obtain accurate traveltime solutions for anisotropic media in a cost-efficient manner. The traveltime computation algorithms are then used to invert for anisotropy parameters. Specifically, I develop inversion techniques by using diffractions and diving waves in the seismic data. The diffraction-based inversion algorithm can be combined with an isotropic full-waveform inversion (FWI) method to obtain a high-resolution model for the anellipticity anisotropy parameter. The inversion algorithm based on diving waves is useful for building initial anisotropic models for depth-migration and FWI. I also develop the idea of \\'effective elliptic models\\' for obtaining solutions of the anisotropic two-way wave equation. The proposed technique offers a viable alternative for wavefield computations in anisotropic media using a computationally cheaper wave propagation operator. The methods developed in the thesis lead to a direct cost savings for imaging and inversion projects, in addition to a reduction in turn-around time. With an eye on the next generation inversion methods, these techniques allow us to incorporate more accurate physics into our modeling and inversion framework.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent investigations on mechanisms of carcinogenesis have demonstrated important quantitative relationships between the induction of neoplasia, the molecular dose of promutagenic DNA adducts and their efficiency for causing base-pair mismatch, and the extent of cell proliferation in target organ. These factors are involved in the multistage process of carcinogenesis, including initiation, promotion, and progression. The molecular dose of DNA adducts can exhibit supralinear, linear, or sublinear relationships to external dose due to differences in absorption, biotransformation, and DNA repair at high versus low doses. In contrast, increased cell proliferation is a common phenomena that is associated with exposures to relatively high doses of toxic chemicals. As such, it enhances the carcinogenic response at high doses, but has little effect at low doses. Since data on cell proliferation can be obtained for any exposure scenario and molecular dosimetry studies are beginning to emerge on selected chemical carcinogens, methods are needed so that these critical factors can be utilized in extrapolation from high to low doses and across species. The use of such information may provide a scientific basis for quantitative risk assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A GIS database was established for fertiliser recommendation domains in Kisii District by using FURP fertiliser trial results, KSS soils data and MDBP climatic data. These are manipulated in ESRI's (Personal Computer Environmental Systems Research Institute) ARCINFO and ARCVIEW softwares. The extrapolations were only done for the long rains season (March- August) with three to four years data. GIS technology was used to cluster fertiliser recommendation domains as a geographical area expressed in terms of variation over space and not limited to the site of experiment where a certain agronomic or economic fertiliser recommendation was made. The extrapolation over space was found to be more representative for any recommendation, the result being digital maps describing each area in the geographical space. From the results of the extrapolations, approximately 38,255 ha of the district require zero Nitrogen (N) fertilisation while 94,330 ha requires 75 kg ha-1 Nitrogen fertilisation during the (March-August) long rains. The extrapolation was made difficult since no direct relationships could be established to occur between the available-N, % Carbon (C) or any of the other soil properties with the obtained yields. Decision rules were however developed based on % C which was the soil variable with values closest to the obtained yields. 3% organic carbon was found to be the boundary between 0 application and 75 kg-N application. GIS techniques made it possible to model and extrapolates the results using the available data. The extrapolations still need to be verified with more ground data from fertiliser trials. Data gaps in the soil map left some soil mapping units with no recommendations. Elevation was observed to influence yields and it should be included in future extrapolation by clustering digital elevation models with rainfall data in a spatial model at the district scale
Mean field extrapolations of microscopic nuclear equations of state
Rrapaj, Ermal; Holt, Jeremy W
2015-01-01
We explore the use of mean field models to approximate microscopic nuclear equations of state derived from chiral effective field theory across the densities and temperatures relevant for simulating astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae and binary neutron star mergers. We consider both relativistic mean field theory with scalar and vector meson exchange as well as energy density functionals based on Skyrme phenomenology and compare to thermodynamic equations of state derived from chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in many-body perturbation theory. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are used to determine the density regimes in which perturbation theory with chiral nuclear forces is valid. Within the theoretical uncertainties associated with the many-body methods, we find that select mean field models describe well microscopic nuclear thermodynamics. As an additional consistency requirement, we study as well the single-particle properties of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ? The maximal predictive step size is determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent. ? A proper forecasting step size is applied to load demand forecasting. ? The improved approach is validated by the actual load demand data. ? Non-linear fractal extrapolation method is compared with three forecasting models. ? Performance of the models is evaluated by three different error measures. - Abstract: Precise short-term load forecasting (STLF) plays a key role in unit commitment, maintenance and economic dispatch problems. Employing a subjective and arbitrary predictive step size is one of the most important factors causing the low forecasting accuracy. To solve this problem, the largest Lyapunov exponent is adopted to estimate the maximal predictive step size so that the step size in the forecasting is no more than this maximal one. In addition, in this paper a seldom used forecasting model, which is based on the non-linear fractal extrapolation (NLFE) algorithm, is considered to develop the accuracy of predictions. The suitability and superiority of the two solutions are illustrated through an application to real load forecasting using New South Wales electricity load data from the Australian National Electricity Market. Meanwhile, three forecasting models: the gray model, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average approach and the support vector machine method, which received high approval in STLF, are selected to compare with the NLFE algorithm. Comparison results also show that the NLFE model is outstanding, effective, practical and feasible.
Extrapolation uncertainties in the importance-truncated No-Core Shell Model
Kruse, M K G; Navrátil, P; Barrett, B R; Ormand, W E
2013-01-01
We report on Li-6 calculations performed with the IT-NCSM and compare them to full NCSM calculations. We employ the Entem and Machleidt chiral two-body N3LO interaction (regulated at 500 MeV/c), which has been modified to a phase-shift equivalent potential by the similarity renormalization group (SRG) procedure. We investigate the dependence of the procedure on the technique employed to extrapolate to the complete Nmax space, the harmonic oscillator energy, and investigate the dependence on the momentum-decoupling scale (\\lambda) used in the SRG. We also investigate the use of one or several reference states from which the truncated basis is constructed. We find that the uncertainties generated from various extrapolating functions used to extrapolate to the complete Nmax space increase as Nmax increases. The extrapolation uncertainties range from a few keV for the smallest Nmax spaces to about 50 keV for the largest Nmax spaces. We note that the difference between extrapolated IT-NCSM and NCSM ground-state en...
Extrapolation of animal radionuclide retention data to man: Use of similarity ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A major problem in toxicology is the need for testing a myriad possible substances on several animal species as an aid in establishing standards for man. Particular interest in the problem of extrapolation to man is linked to a need for a method of obtaining transfer coefficients in food-chain models of ecosystems. Such a method could circumvent the necessity to test many species and compounds. Because of their particular interest in radioecology, the authors' studies were initiated using radionuclide retention data available in the literature. Since radionuclide retention should be a function of metabolism it follows that direct or indirect measures could be described by a ''power law'' based on body weight of the organism(s). However, when such power laws have been extended to interspecies comparisons the resulting power coefficients are usually substantially less than the value anticipated and seem to be different for each radionuclide. This paper proposes that interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the proportionality coefficient rather than the power parameter of the power function model and have called pairwise comparisons amongst species ''similarity ratios''. Retention data were examined from five non-ruminant species (including man) where several radionuclides with different physical properties were fed. Subsequently an expression was devised whereby an estimate of biological equilibrium level in man could be calculated using similar estimates from experiments using mice, rats or dogs. There are some statistical questions to resolve which have to do with the assumed frequency distribution for estimates of the proportionality coefficient. In addition, repeated use was made of the same data sets. (author)
Sherrill, C. David; Byrd, Edward F. C.; Head-Gordon, Martin
2000-07-01
A recent study by Ahmed, Peterka, and Suits [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4248 (1999)] has presented the first experimentally derived estimate of the singlet-triplet gap in the simplest alkyne, acetylene. Their value, T0(3B2)=28 900 cm-1, does not agree with previous theoretical predictions using the coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method and a triple-? plus double polarization plus f-function basis set (TZ2P f ), which yields 30 5001000 cm-1. This discrepancy has prompted us to investigate possible deficiencies in this usually-accurate theoretical approach. Employing extrapolations to the complete basis set limit along with corrections for full connected triple excitations, core correlation, and even relativistic effects, we obtain a value of 30 900 cm-1 (estimated uncertainty 230 cm-1), demonstrating that the experimental value is underestimated. To assist in the interpretation of anticipated future experiments, we also present highly accurate excitation energies for the other three low-lying triplet states of acetylene, 3Bu(33 570230 cm-1), b 3Au(36 040260 cm-1), and b 3A2(38 380260 cm-1), and the three lowest-lying states of vinylidene, X 1A1(15 150230 cm-1), 3B2(31 870230 cm-1), and b 3A2(36 840350 cm-1). Finally, we assess the ability of density functional theory (DFT) and the Gaussian-3 method to match our benchmark results for adiabatic excitation energies of C2H2.
Possible sharp quantization of extrapolated high temperature viscosity- theory and experiment
Nussinov, Z; Blodgett, M; Kelton, K F
2014-01-01
Quantum effects in material systems are often pronounced at low energies and become insignificant at high temperatures. We find that, perhaps counterintuitively, certain quantum effects may follow the opposite route and become progressively sharper when extrapolated to the "classical" high temperature limit. In the current work, we derive basic relations, extend standard kinetic theory by taking into account a possible fundamental quantum time scale, find new general equalities connecting semi-classical dynamics and thermodynamics to Planck's constant, and compute current correlation functions. Our analysis suggests that, on average, the extrapolated high temperature viscosity of general liquids may tend to a value set by the product of the particle number density ${\\sf n}$ and Planck's constant $h$. We compare this theoretical result with experimental measurements of an ensemble of 23 metallic fluids where this seems to indeed be the case. The extrapolated high temperature viscosity of each of these liquids ...
Comparison between the response of two extrapolation chambers in low energy X-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Extrapolation chambers are important metrological instruments for detection of beta radiation and low energy X-rays, since they are able to determine absolute measurements of radiations of soft penetration. These chambers are very useful, because they allow the determination of superficial doses through the variation of the air mass in its sensible volume. In this work, two extrapolation chambers were tested in order to establish which chamber presents the best response in some standard qualities of X-ray beams, radiotherapy level. For comparison, a commercial PTW extrapolation chamber model 23391 and an extrapolation chamber designed and constructed at the Radiation Metrology Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, were studied. The commercial chamber has a collecting electrode (40 mm diameter) and guard rings made of aluminum, and entrance window (0.025 mm thick) made of polyamide; the developed chamber presents a collecting electrode (10 mm diameter) and guard rings made of graphite, and entrance window (0,84 mg/cm2 thick) made of aluminized polyethylene terephthalate. Both chambers were positioned at 50 cm from the X-ray system focus. The ionization currents were measured at negative and positive polarities, and the mean values were considered. A Keithley 617 electrometer was utilized. The main characteristics of the extrapolation chambers, as ion collection efficiency, saturation curve, polarity effect, repeatability, long time stability, stabilization time, linearity response, extrapolation curve, energy dependency, and transmission factors were determined. The results show that both chambers present adequate responses for the verified X-ray beam qualities, confirming previous studies realized with these detectors. In conclusion, both chambers can be used for accurate measurements in low energy X-ray beams. (author)
Characterization of low energy X-rays beams with an extrapolation chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In laboratories involving Radiological Protection practices, it is usual to use reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and to study their response in terms of energy dependence. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established four series of reference X-rays beams in the ISO- 4037 standard: the L and H series, as low and high air Kerma rates, respectively, the N series of narrow spectrum and W series of wide spectrum. The X-rays beams with tube potential below 30 kV, called 'low energy beams' are, in most cases, critical as far as the determination of their parameters for characterization purpose, such as half-value layer. Extrapolation chambers are parallel plate ionization chambers that have one mobile electrode that allows variation of the air volume in its interior. These detectors are commonly used to measure the quantity Absorbed Dose, mostly in the medium surface, based on the extrapolation of the linear ionization current as a function of the distance between the electrodes. In this work, a characterization of a model 23392 PTW extrapolation chamber was done in low energy X-rays beams of the ISO- 4037 standard, by determining the polarization voltage range through the saturation curves and the value of the true null electrode spacing. In addition, the metrological reliability of the extrapolation chamber was studied with measurements of the value of leakage current and repeatability tests; limit values were established for the proper use of the chamber. The PTW23392 extrapolation chamber was calibrated in terms of air Kerma in some of the ISO radiation series of low energy; the traceability of the chamber to the National Standard Dosimeter was established. The study of energy dependency of the extrapolation chamber and the assessment of the uncertainties related to the calibration coefficient were also done; it was shown that the energy dependence was reduced to 4% when the extrapolation technique was used. Finally, the first half-value layers were determined for the low energy ISO N series with the extrapolation chamber, in collimated and uncollimated beams and it was showed that this detector is feasible for such measurements. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes the structure and application of an extrapolation ionisation chamber used for measuring dose-rates from plane and point beta-emitting sources. These measurements form the basis of the dosimetry for a collaborative radiobiological study of skin to study both stochastic and non-stochastic effects. A small sample from the wide range of measurements undertaken in the programme has been selected to illustrate the procedures involved. The extrapolation chamber is currently being automated and it is intended that this report should provide a source reference to the basis of the measurements made between 1977-86. (author)
Fang, Lei; Yang, Jian
2014-12-01
The Landsat derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is widely used for burn severity assessments. Studies of regional wildfire trends in response to climate change require consistency in dNBR mapping across multiple image dates, which may vary in atmospheric condition. Conversion of continuous dNBR images into categorical burn severity maps often requires extrapolation of dNBR thresholds from present fires for which field severity measurements such as Composite Burn Index (CBI) data are available, to historical fires for which CBI data are typically unavailable. Although differential atmospheric effects between image collection dates could lead to biased estimates of historical burn severity patterns, little is known concerning the influence of atmospheric effects on dNBR performance and threshold extrapolation. In this study, we compared the performance of dNBR calculated from six atmospheric correction methods using an optimality approach. The six correction methods included one partial (Top of atmosphere reflectance, TOA), two absolute, and three relative methods. We assessed how the correction methods affected the CBI-dNBR correlation and burn severity mapping in a Chinese boreal forest fire which occurred in 2010. The dNBR thresholds of the 2010 fire for each of the correction methods were then extrapolated to classify a historical fire from 2000. Classification accuracies of threshold extrapolations were assessed based on Cohen's Kappa analysis with 73 field-based validation plots. Our study found most correction methods improved mean dNBR optimality of the two fires. The relative correction methods generated 32% higher optimality than both TOA and absolute correction methods. All the correction methods yielded high CBI-dNBR correlations (mean R2 = 0.847) but distinctly different dNBR thresholds for severity classification of 2010 fire. Absolute correction methods could substantially increase optimality score, but were insufficient to provide a consistent scale of radiometric condition between multi-temporal Landsat images, which resulted in lower severity classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.53) than those relative correction methods (Kappa = 0.72) for the 2000 fire. Consistent radiometric response in remote sensing datasets proved essential for accuracy in regional burn severity trends monitoring. Extrapolation of empirical dNBR thresholds to historical conditions without relative normalization will likely lead to biased burn severity classifications.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mejsnar, Jan; Sokol, Zbyn?k; Peice, Petr
Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling : Institut fr Physik der Atmosphre, 2014. [ERAD 2014 - 8th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology. 01.09.2014-05.09.2014, Garmisch-Partenkirchen] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/erad2014/programme/ShortAbstracts/262_short.pdf
Study of the vortex conditions of wings with large sweepback by extrapolation of the Jones method
Hirsch, P.
1980-01-01
The pockets of separation originating on the leading edges are surrounded by vortex sheets. Their configuration and intensity were determined by four conditions with the JONES approximation, which is itself corrected by a simple logic. Field pressures and stresses were computed for different cases and are compared with test results (pure deltas, swallow tails, truncations, strakes, ducks, fuselage).
Birgand, F.; Etheridge, J. R.; Burchell, M. R.
2013-12-01
Tidal marshes are among the most dynamic aquatic systems in the world. While astronomical and wind driven tides are the major driver to displace water volumes, rainfall events and evapotranspiration move the overall balance towards water export or import, respectively. Until now, only glimpses of the associated biogeochemical functioning could be obtained, usually at one or several tidal cycles scale, because there was no obvious method to obtain long term water quality data at a high temporal frequency. We have successfully managed, using UV-Vis spectrophotometers in the field, to obtain water quality and flow data on a 15-min frequency for over 20 months in a restored brackish marsh in North Carolina. This marsh was designed to intercept water generated by subsurface drainage of adjacent agricultural land before discharge to the nearby estuary. It is particularly tempting in tidal systems where tides may look very similar from one to the next, to extrapolate results obtained possibly over several days or weeks to a ';seasonal biogeochemical functioning'. The lessons learned from high frequency data at the tidal scale are fascinating, but in the longer term, we have learned that a few and inherently rare rainfall events drove the overall nutrient balance in the marsh. Continuous water quality monitoring is thus essential for two reasons: 1) to observe the short term dynamics, as they are the key to unveil possibly misunderstood biogeochemical processes, and 2) to capture the rare yet essential events which drive the system's response. However, continuous water quality monitoring on a long term basis in harsh coastal environments is not without challenges.
Pre-operational characteristics of a mini-extrapolation chamber developed at IPEN-SP, Brazil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A mini-extrapolation chamber was developed at IPEN for the calibration of 90 Sr + 90 Y beta radiation sources. The pre-operational characteristics (saturation curve, ion collection efficiency and polarity effects) were determined, and the results were highly satisfactory. (author)
Scaling and chiral extrapolation of pion mass and decay constant with maximally twisted mass QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an update of the results for pion mass and pion decay constant as obtained by the ETM collaboration in large scale simulations with maximally twisted mass fermions and two mass degenerate flavours of light quarks. We discuss the continuum, chiral and infinite volume extrapolation of these quantities as well as the extraction of low energy constants, and investigate possible systematic uncertainties. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steam generator tubes are subjected to two categories of corrosion; metal/sodium reactions and metal/water-steam interactions. Referring to these environmental conditions the relevant parameters are discussed. The influences of these parameters on the sodium corrosion and water/steam-reactions are evaluated. Extrapolations of corrosion values to steam generator design conditions are performed and discussed in detail. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The characteristics of demonstration (DEMO) reactors that could be conservatively extrapolated from the data base that will be provided by ITER and its supporting R ampersand D and from a data base supplemented by advanced physics and advanced materials R ampersand D programs are identified
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The absorbed dose for equivalent soft tissue is determined,it is imparted by ophthalmologic applicators, (90 Sr/90 Y, 1850 MBq) using an extrapolation chamber of variable electrodes; when estimating the slope of the extrapolation curve using a simple lineal regression model is observed that the dose values are underestimated from 17.7 percent up to a 20.4 percent in relation to the estimate of this dose by means of a regression model polynomial two grade, at the same time are observed an improvement in the standard error for the quadratic model until in 50%. Finally the global uncertainty of the dose is presented, taking into account the reproducibility of the experimental arrangement. As conclusion it can infers that in experimental arrangements where the source is to contact with the extrapolation chamber, it was recommended to substitute the lineal regression model by the quadratic regression model, in the determination of the slope of the extrapolation curve, for more exact and accurate measurements of the absorbed dose. (Author)
Kinetic energy of solid neon by Monte Carlo with improved Trotter- and finite-size extrapolation
Cuccoli, Alessandro; Macchi, Alessandro; Pedrolli, Gaia; Tognetti, Valerio; Vaia, Ruggero
1997-01-01
The kinetic energy of solid neon is calculated by a path-integral Monte Carlo approach with a refined Trotter- and finite-size extrapolation. These accurate data present significant quantum effects up to temperature T=20 K. They confirm previous simulations and are consistent with recent experiments.
The human brain's algorithm for extrapolating motion, and its possible gender-dependence.
Ehrlich, Robert
2005-02-01
Some athletes accomplish feats requiring a timing accuracy 100 times better than their reaction time. This capability implies that the brain can accurately extrapolate the motion of objects. We hypothesize that the brain uses a simple algorithm to accomplish this extrapolation, and that the algorithm is influenced by the subject's gender and recent observations of motion. We describe an experiment in timing the motion of a dot across a computer screen designed to discover the motion extrapolation algorithm. Different types of motion of the dot were studied. The experiment was conducted with 126 college students (two-thirds female), who each performed 1000 trials. By using as many as 126,000 trials, the random noise inherent in individual trials averages out, allowing the underlying algorithm to be revealed. The results show that motion extrapolation is done using the average velocity of a moving object with no correction for changes in velocity during the motion, but with an ad hoc adjustment based on recently observed motions and on gender-males having on average a smaller error than females. A future controlled experiment will be needed to establish whether the observed gender difference is due to the greater experience of males with such related tasks as video games and sports. PMID:15631893
Modeling and extrapolating mass flow characteristics of a radial turbocharger turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the turbocharger turbine plays an important role in determining the engine performance, how to model and extrapolate mass flow characteristics of the turbocharger turbine is very important especially when only a narrow range of turbine data is provided by manufacturers. In this paper, a new mass flow model is proposed based on the physical model of a radial turbine simplified as two nozzles in series. With the ideal nozzle flow equation applied on the turbine stator, the mass flow rate through the turbine can be expressed with three fitted coefficients which have clear physical meanings. Existing empirical and partly empirical models of turbine mass flow characteristics are reviewed and compared with the deduced model in the Matlab software. The results show that considering the number of fitted coefficients and the modeling accuracy, the deduced model performs well in regression analyses conducted with experimental data tested from three radial turbines of different sizes. Also interpolating and extrapolating performances of this new model can match the turbine model in the GT-Power commercial software. Thus this new model is sufficiently robust to model and extrapolate mass flow characteristics of the radial turbocharger turbine at off design operating conditions. - Highlights: • A physical based turbine model of mass flow characteristics is proposed. • Existing turbine mass flow models are reviewed and summarized. • Comparative analyses of the deduced model and existing models are conducted. • Interpolating and extrapolating abilities of the deduced model are evaluated
Measurement of the output of ISO recommended beta sources with an extrapolation chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Output measurements in terms of absorbed dose rate to tissue were carried out for the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) recommended beta sources 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm using an extrapolation chamber. A holder made of anodized aluminium for the extrapolation chamber for the output measurements was designed indigenously. The measured dose rates for three beta sources were compared with the corresponding values provided in the certificate by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the National Standard Laboratory of Germany. Depending upon the source and source-to-chamber distance, the PTB certificate values have uncertainties in the range 1.21.5%. The measured dose rates have uncertainties of about 0.3%. The deviations between the measured dose rates and the PTB certificate values compare well (maximum deviation is about 2%) considering the combined uncertainties associated with the measurements and the certificate values. The study suggests that the beta irradiation system comprising the above beta sources can be utilized for quality assurance programme related to personnel monitoring services in India. - Highlights: Absorbed dose rates to tissue were measured for 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm ISO recommended beta sources with extrapolation chamber. A holder made of aluminium was designed indigenously for the extrapolation chamber. The measured dose rates agree well with the values provided in the PTB certificate. The study suggests beta sources can be utilized for QA programme in personnel monitoring services
Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...
Atomization Energies of SO and SO2; Basis Set Extrapolation Revisted
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The addition of tight functions to sulphur and extrapolation to the complete basis set limit are required to obtain accurate atomization energies. Six different extrapolation procedures are tried. The best atomization energies come from the series of basis sets that yield the most consistent results for all extrapolation techniques. In the variable alpha approach, alpha values larger than 4.5 or smaller than 3, appear to suggest that the extrapolation may not be reliable. It does not appear possible to determine a reliable basis set series using only the triple and quadruple zeta based sets. The scalar relativistic effects reduce the atomization of SO and SO2 by 0.34 and 0.81 kcal/mol, respectively, and clearly must be accounted for if a highly accurate atomization energy is to be computed. The magnitude of the core-valence (CV) contribution to the atomization is affected by missing diffuse valence functions. The CV contribution is much more stable if basis set superposition errors are accounted for. A similar study of SF, SF(+), and SF6 shows that the best family of basis sets varies with the nature of the S bonding.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kissling, W. Daniel; Dalby, Lars
2014-01-01
Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (MammalDIET). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external validation showed that: (1) extrapolations were most reliable for primary food items; (2) several diet categories (Animal, Mammal, Invertebrate, Plant, Seed, Fruit, and Leaf) had high proportions of correctly predicted diet ranks; and (3) the potential of correctly extrapolating specific diet categories varied both within and among clades. Global maps of species richness and proportion showed congruence among trophic levels, but also substantial discrepancies between dietary guilds. MammalDIET provides a comprehensive, unique and freely available dataset on diet preferences for all terrestrial mammals worldwide. It enables broad-scale analyses for specific trophic levels and dietary guilds, and a first assessment of trait conservatism in mammalian diet preferences at a global scale. The digitalization, extrapolation and validation procedures could be transferable to other trait data and taxa.
Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Zontone, Federico; Fink, Hans-Werner
2015-01-01
We demonstrate enhancement in resolution of a noncrystalline object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction pattern by extrapolating the measured diffraction intensities beyond the detector area. The experimental record contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. The extrapolation is done by applying an iterative routine. The optimal parameters for implementing the iterative routine, including initial padding distribution and an object support, are studied. Extrapolation results in resolution enhancement and better matching between the recovered and experimental amplitudes in the Fourier domain. The limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.
Rudenko, G V
2000-01-01
This paper is concerned with the Laplace boundary-value problem with the directional derivative, corresponding to the specific nature of measurements of the longitudinal component of the photospheric magnetic field. Boundary conditions are specified by a distribution on the sphere of projection of the magnetic field vector unto a given direction. It is shown that the solution of this problem exists in the form of a spherical harmonic expansion, and uniqueness of this solution is proved. A conceptual sketch of numerical determination of the harmonic series coefficients is given. The field of application of the method is analyzed having regard to the peculiarities of actual data. Finally, we present differences in results derived from extrapolating the magnetic field from a synoptic map and a full-disk magnetogram.
Rong, Lu; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin
2014-01-01
We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO2 pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hind wing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 {\\mu}m width cross veins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The activity concentration of a 125I solution has been measured by a X-(X,?) coincidence counting method and an extrapolation of a linear function of the associated efficiency curve. Two thin NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors were mounted on a horizontal rail, and the efficiency curve was obtained by systematically changing the distance between the source and movable detectors. All sum-coincidence events were recorded with a counting window set between 10 and 100 keV. The disintegration rate was measured and the data expressed in terms of a linear function so that the activity concentration of 125I could be determined by extrapolation. A high-purity germanium detector (Ortec Gamma-X) was also used to determine an emission probability of 0.06680.0013 (1?) for the 35.5 keV gamma ray of 125I. (orig.)
Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M; Rsler, Boris
2015-01-01
We apply second order finite difference to calculate the lowest eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation, for complicated non-tensor domains in the plane, using different grids which sample exactly the border of the domain. We show that the results obtained applying Richardson and Pad\\'e-Richardson extrapolation to a set of finite difference eigenvalues corresponding to different grids allows to obtain extremely precise values. When possible we have assessed the precision of our extrapolations comparing them with the highly precise results obtained using the method of particular solutions. Our empirical findings suggest an asymptotic nature of the FD series. In all the cases studied, we are able to report numerical results which are more precise than those available in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dalila Khalfa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Increasing knowledge on wind shear models to strengthen their reliability appears as a crucial issue, markedly for energy investors to accurately predict the average wind speed at different turbine hub heights and thus the expected wind energy output. This is particularly helpful during the feasibility study to abate the costs of a wind power project. The extrapolation laws were found to provide the finest representation of the wind speed according to heights, thus avoiding installation of tall towers, or even more expensive devices such as LIDAR or SODAR. The proposed models are based on theories that determine the vertical wind profile from implicit relationships. However, these empirical extrapolation formulas have been developed for specific meteorological conditions and appropriate sites for wind turbines; reason that several studies have been made by various authors to determine the best suited formula to their own conditions. This study is aimed at proceeding the research issue addressed within a previous study, where some extrapolation models were tested and compared by extrapolating the energy resources at different heights. However, comparable results are returned by the power law and the log law which indeed proved to be preferable. In this context, this study deals the assessment of several wind speed extrapolation laws (six laws, by comparing the analytical results obtained with real data for two different meteorological Sites, different roughness, different altitudes and different measurement periods. The first site studied is an extremely rough site with daily measurements of March 2007, wind speed measurements are available at four different heights of Gantour/Gao site, obtained by the water, energy and environment company Senegal. The second site studied is a feeble rough site with monthly measurements for 2005, wind speed measurements are available at three different heights of Kuujjuarapik Site obtained by Hydro-Quebec Energy Helimax Canada. The study aims to determine the effectiveness and concordance between the extrapolation laws and the real measured data. The results show that the adjusted law is efficiently adequate for an extremely rough site and the modified laws with two other laws are efficiently adequate for a feeble rough site. The experimental results and numerical calculations exploited for the evaluation of the Weibull parameters fall the shape factors k greater than 9. The increase in altitude often causes an increase in the Weibull parameters values, however, our results show that the shape factor k can take lower values to those established in the reference altitude.
131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)
Extrapolation of Nystrom solution for two dimensional nonlinear Fredholm integral equations
Guoqiang, Han; Jiong, Wang
2001-09-01
In this paper, we analyze the existence of asymptotic error expansion of the Nystrom solution for two-dimensional nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We show that the Nystrom solution admits an error expansion in powers of the step-size h and the step-size k. For a special choice of the numerical quadrature, the leading terms in the error expansion for the Nystrom solution contain only even powers of h and k, beginning with terms h2p and k2q. These expansions are useful for the application of Richardson extrapolation and for obtaining sharper error bounds. Numerical examples show that how Richardson extrapolation gives a remarkable increase of precision, in addition to faster convergence.
Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JSC; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: CSSM and QCDSF/UKQCD Collaborations
2014-03-15
We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q{sup 2} in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio ?{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}. This quantity decreases with Q{sup 2} in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.
{sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br
2009-07-01
Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)
Neutron spectroscopy results of JET high-performance plasmas and extrapolations to DT performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a fusion reactor with high energy gain, the fusion power will be mainly thermonuclear (THN). Measurements of the THN neutron rate are a good performance indicator of a fusion plasma, requiring neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) measurements to distinguish thermal and nonthermal contributions. We report here on recent NES results from JET high-performance plasmas with high fractions (about 65%) of THN emission. The analysis is made with a framework for analyzing NES data, taking into account THN reactions and beam-target reactions. The results are used to extrapolate to the equivalent DT rates. Finally, we discuss the applicability of using NES in the deuterium phase of ITER, both for the extrapolations to ITER's future DT performance as well as for the measurements of confined energetic ions.
{sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas
2009-07-01
Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)
The immunogenicity of biosimilar infliximab: can we extrapolate the data across indications?
Ben-Horin, Shomron; Heap, Graham A; Ahmad, Tariq; Kim, HoUng; Kwon, TaekSang; Chowers, Yehuda
2015-01-01
Biopharmaceuticals or 'biologics' have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases. However, some patients generate an immune response to such drugs, potentially limiting clinical efficacy and safety. Infliximab (Remicade()) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat several immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. A biosimilar of infliximab, CT-P13 (Remsima(), Inflectra()), has recently been approved in Europe for all indications in which infliximab is approved. Approval of CT-P13 was based in part on extrapolation of clinical trial data from two indications (rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) to all other indications, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review discusses the validity of extrapolating immunogenicity data across indications - a process adopted by the EMA as part of their biosimilar approval process - with a focus on CT-P13. PMID:26395532
Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q2 in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV2. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio ?pGEp/GMp. This quantity decreases with Q2 in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.
Schwahofer, Andrea; Br, Esther; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Grossmann, J Gnter; Kachelrie, Marc; Sterzing, Florian
2015-12-01
Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (?Al=2.7g/cm(3)), titanium (?Ti=4.5g/cm(3)), steel (?steel=7.9g/cm(3)) and tungsten (?W=19.3g/cm(3)) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100kV and 140kV(Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ?=10g/cm(3)) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the order of 10% to 20%. Thus, the improvement is not significant for radiotherapy planning. For amalgam with a density between steel and tungsten, monoenergetic data sets of a patient do not show substantial artifact reduction. The local dose uncertainties around the metal artifact determined for a static field are of the order of 5%. Although dental fillings are smaller than the phantom inserts, metal artifacts could not be reduced effectively. In conclusion, the image based monoenergetic extrapolation method does not provide efficient reduction of the consequences of CT-generated metal artifacts for radiation therapy planning, but the suitability of other MAR methods will be subsequently studied. PMID:26144602
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρAl = 2.7 g/cm3), titanium (ρTi = 4.5 g/cm3), steel (ρsteel = 7.9 g/cm3) and tungsten (ρW = 19.3 g/cm3) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV (Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ = 10 g/cm3) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the order of 10% to 20%. Thus, the improvement is not significant for radiotherapy planning. For amalgam with a density between steel and tungsten, monoenergetic data sets of a patient do not show substantial artifact reduction. The local dose uncertainties around the metal artifact determined for a static field are of the order of 5%. Although dental fillings are smaller than the phantom inserts, metal artifacts could not be reduced effectively. In conclusion, the image based monoenergetic extrapolation method does not provide efficient reduction of the consequences of CT-generated metal artifacts for radiation therapy planning, but the suitability of other MAR methods will be subsequently studied.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thorndahl, Sren Liedtke; Grum, M.; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld
2011-01-01
Forecasting of flows, overflow volumes, water levels, etc. in drainage systems can be applied in real time control of drainage systems in the future climate in order to fully utilize system capacity and thus save possible construction costs. An online system for forecasting flows and water levels in a small urban catchment has been developed. The forecast is based on application of radar rainfall data, which by a correlation based technique, is extrapolated with a lead time up to two hours. The ...
Moura, A A
2002-01-01
Acoustic emission before the failure of heterogeneous materials is studied as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure. A formula for the energy release is suggested, which is valid in the whole diapason of pressures, from zero to the critical pressure of rupture. This formula is obtained by employing the extrapolation technique of the self-similar approximation theory. The result is fitted to experiment in order to demonstrate the correct general behaviour of the obtained expression for the energy release.
Moura, A.; V.I. Yukalov
2003-01-01
Acoustic emission before the failure of heterogeneous materials is studied as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure. A formula for the energy release is suggested, which is valid in the whole diapason of pressures, from zero to the critical pressure of rupture. This formula is obtained by employing the extrapolation technique of the self-similar approximation theory. The result is fitted to experiment in order to demonstrate the correct general behaviour of the obtained...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conventional microscopic records represent intensity distributions whereby local sample information is mapped onto local information at the detector. In coherent microscopy, the superposition principle of waves holds; field amplitudes are added, not intensities. This non-local representation is spread out in space and interference information combined with wave continuity allows extrapolation beyond the actual detected data. Established resolution criteria are thus circumvented and hidden object details can retrospectively be recovered from just a fraction of an interference pattern
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latychevskaia, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana@physik.uzh.ch; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physik Institut der Universitt Zrich Winterthurerstrasse 190 CH-8057 Zrich (Switzerland)
2013-11-11
Conventional microscopic records represent intensity distributions whereby local sample information is mapped onto local information at the detector. In coherent microscopy, the superposition principle of waves holds; field amplitudes are added, not intensities. This non-local representation is spread out in space and interference information combined with wave continuity allows extrapolation beyond the actual detected data. Established resolution criteria are thus circumvented and hidden object details can retrospectively be recovered from just a fraction of an interference pattern.
Iterative Solution of the Ornstein-Zernike Equation with Various Closures Using Vector Extrapolation
Homeier, Herbert H. H.; Rast, Sebastian; Krienke, Hartmut
1995-01-01
The solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation with various closure approximations is studied. This problem is rewritten as an integral equation that can be solved iteratively on a grid. The convergence of the fixed point iterations is relatively slow. We consider transformations of the sequence of solution vectors using non-linear sequence transformations, so-called vector extrapolation processes. An example is the vector J transformation. The transformed vector sequences turn out to converge...
Measurements of surface dose using build-up curves obtained with an extrapolation chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surface dose was measured in an extrapolation chamber and was found to be less than previously reported. The slope of the build-up curve was less steep with the Clinac 4 than with 60Co and much steeper with the Clinac 35 at 25 MV than with the betatron at the same energy. The gradient of the depth-dose curve in the build-up region is probably the best indicator of skin damage. (U.S.)
Testing magnetofrictional extrapolation with the Titov-Dmoulin model of solar active regions
Valori, G.; Kliem, B.; Trk, T.; Titov, V. S.
2010-09-01
We examine the nonlinear magnetofrictional extrapolation scheme using the solar active region model by Titov and Dmoulin as test field. This model consists of an arched, line-tied current channel held in force-free equilibrium by the potential field of a bipolar flux distribution in the bottom boundary. A modified version with a parabolic current density profile is employed here. We find that the equilibrium is reconstructed with very high accuracy in a representative range of parameter space, using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input. Structural features formed in the interface between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade - hyperbolic flux tube and bald patch separatrix surface - are reliably reproduced, as are the flux rope twist and the energy and helicity of the configuration. This demonstrates that force-free fields containing these basic structural elements of solar active regions can be obtained by extrapolation. The influence of the chosen initial condition on the accuracy of reconstruction is also addressed, confirming that the initial field that best matches the external potential field of the model quite naturally leads to the best reconstruction. Extrapolating the magnetogram of a Titov-Dmoulin equilibrium in the unstable range of parameter space yields a sequence of two opposing evolutionary phases, which clearly indicate the unstable nature of the configuration: a partial buildup of the flux rope with rising free energy is followed by destruction of the rope, losing most of the free energy.
Determination of the effective volume of an extrapolation chamber for x-ray dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The measurement of air kerma in low energy x-rays is performed at primary calibration laboratories with free-in-air ionization chamber. Although an extrapolation chamber is designed to be used for beta radiation dosimetry it may also be feasible for low energy x-ray since its small changeable volume makes possible to comply the Bragg-Gray cavity principle. An inherent capacitance is associated with any parallel-plate ionization chamber; therefore, there should be a well-defined relationship among the capacitance, the effective collecting area and the electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber. In this work, a critical analysis of the methodology for determining the air sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber through its capacitance in standardized condition was done. Low energy filtered x-rays were used with different tube currents and potentials; the relationship between the capacitance and the effective volume of a 23392 Boehm model PTW ionization chamber was analyzed within 0.4 to 5.0 mm electrode distances. (authors)
Limitations of force-free magnetic field extrapolations: revisiting basic assumptions
Peter, H; Chitta, L P; Cameron, R H
2015-01-01
Force-free extrapolations are widely used to study the magnetic field in the solar corona based on surface measurements. The extrapolations assume that the ratio of internal energy of the plasma to magnetic energy, the plasma-beta is negligible. Despite the widespread use of this assumption observations, models, and theoretical considerations show that beta is of the order of a few percent to more than 10%, and thus not small. We investigate what consequences this has for the reliability of extrapolation results. We use basic concepts starting with the force and the energy balance to infer relations between plasma-beta and free magnetic energy, to study the direction of currents in the corona with respect to the magnetic field, and to estimate the errors in the free magnetic energy by neglecting effects of the plasma (beta<<1). A comparison with a 3D MHD model supports our basic considerations. If plasma-beta is of the order of the relative free energy (the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the total...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Y. Su
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Spatial extrapolation has become a sine qua non and an ad hoc major research focus in applied ecology in the latter half 20th century. Progressive innovations in data acquisition and processing technologies over the last few decades, especially in the fields of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS and statistical modeling method, have greatly enhanced ecologists' capacity to face the challenge by enabling them to to describe patterns in nature over larger spatial scales and a greater level of details than ever before. Elaeocarpus japonicas (Japanese Elaeocarpus tree, JET was selected for applying in the concurrent developed technology, such as ecological distribution modeling and ecological extrapolation. The GPS-located JET samples were introduced in a GIS for overlaying with five environmental layers (elevation, slope, aspect, terrain position and vegetation index derived from two-date SPOT-5 images for ecological information extraction and model building. We created three sampling designs (SD, Tong-Feng samples for SD1, Kuan-Dau samples for SD2, and the merge of the two former datasets for SD3, according to watersheds, and the three SDs were used individually to test the extrapolation ability of predictive models. The results of the two-way extrapolation indicated it is hard to extend the predicted distribution patterns through different watersheds. The main reasons resulting in this outcome were the difference in microclimate and micro-terrain between these two watersheds. Consequently, the models built with SD3 were the more robust. The information of vegetation index in this study poorly improved the models, so we will adopt the hyperspectral data to overcome the shortage of the SPOT-5 images.
Antonio, Patrcia L.; Xavier, Marcos; Caldas, Linda V. E.
2014-11-01
The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is going to establish a Bhm extrapolation chamber as a primary standard system for the dosimetry and calibration of beta radiation sources and detectors. This chamber was already tested in beta radiation beams with an aluminized Mylar entrance window, and now, it was characterized with an original Hostaphan entrance window. A comparison between the results of the extrapolation chamber with the two entrance windows was performed. The results showed that this extrapolation chamber presents the same effectiveness in beta radiation fields as a primary standard system with both entrance windows, showing that any one of them may be utilized.
Challenges for In vitro to in Vivo Extrapolation of Nanomaterial Dosimetry for Human Risk Assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Jordan N.
2013-11-01
The proliferation in types and uses of nanomaterials in consumer products has led to rapid application of conventional in vitro approaches for hazard identification. Unfortunately, assumptions pertaining to experimental design and interpretation for studies with chemicals are not generally appropriate for nanomaterials. The fate of nanomaterials in cell culture media, cellular dose to nanomaterials, cellular dose to nanomaterial byproducts, and intracellular fate of nanomaterials at the target site of toxicity all must be considered in order to accurately extrapolate in vitro results to reliable predictions of human risk.
Don't stay local - extrapolation analytics for Dupire's local volatility
Friz, Peter
2011-01-01
A robust implementation of a Dupire type local volatility model is an important issue for every option trading floor. Typically, this (inverse) problem is solved in a two step procedure : (i) a smooth parametrization of the implied volatility surface; (ii) computation of the local volatility based on the resulting call price surface. Point (i), and in particular how to extrapolate the implied volatility in extreme strike regimes not seen in the market, has been the subject of numerous articles, starting with Lee (Math. Finance, 2004). In the present paper we give direct analytic insights into the asymptotic behavior of local volatility at extreme strikes.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE H-MODE PEDESTAL AND EXTRAPOLATION TO ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A271 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE H-MODE PEDESTAL AND EXTRAPOLATION TO ITER. The peeling-ballooning mode model for edge stability along with a model for the H-mode transport barrier width is used as an approach to estimating the H-mode pedestal conditions in ITER. Scalings of the barrier width based on ion-orbit loss, neutral penetration, and turbulence suppression are examined and empirical scalings of the barrier width are presented. An empirical scaling for the pedestal β is derived based on ideas from stability and the empirical width scaling. The impact of the stability model and other factors on ELM size is discussed
Impact of new collider data on fits and extrapolations of cross sections and slopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Block, M.M.; Cahn, R.N.
1985-08-01
The latest Collider data are compared with our earlier extrapolations. Fits that include the new data are made. Those for which sigma/sub tot/ grows as log/sup 2/(s/s/sub o/) indefinitely give a significantly poorer chi/sup 2/ than those for which sigma/sub tot/ eventually levels out. For the proposed SSC energy for the former fits predict sigma/sub tot/(..sqrt..s = 40 TeV) approx. =200 mb while the latter give sigma/sub tot/(..sqrt..s = 40 TeV) approx. = 100 mb. 6 refs.
Alessandria, F; Ardito, R; Arnaboldi, C; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bryant, A; Bucci, C; Cai, X Z; Canonica, L; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carrettoni, M; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Dafinei, I; Dally, A; De Biasi, A; Decowski, M P; Deninno, M M; de Waard, A; Di Domizio, S; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Fang, D Q; Farach, H; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Foggetta, L; Freedman, S; Frossati, G; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Heeger, K M; Huang, H Z; Ichimura, K; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Keppel, G; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, Y G; Kraft, S; Lenz, D; Li, Y L; Liu, X; Longo, E; Ma, Y G; Maiano, C; Maier, G; Martinez, C; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Newman, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rampazzo, V; Rimondi, F; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Salvioni, C; Sangiorgio, S; Schaeffer, D; Scielzo, N D; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Terenziani, G; Tian, W D; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wang, B; Wang, H W; Whitten, C A; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Xu, N; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhu, B X; Zucchelli, S
2011-01-01
The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.
Extrapolation of the Dutch 1 MW tunable free electron maser to a 5 MW ECRH source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Free Electron Maser (FEM) is now under construction at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz with wall plug efficiencies of 50% (Verhoeven, et al EC-9 Conference). An extrapolated version of this device is proposed which by scaling up the beam current, would produce microwave power levels of up to 5 MW CW in order to reduce the cost per watt and increase the power per module, thus providing the fusion community with a practical ECRH source
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent
2015-01-01
Whipping can contribute to increased fatigue and extreme loading of container ships, and guidelines have been made available by the leading class societies. Reports concerning the hogging collapse of MSC Napoli and MOL Comfort suggest that whipping contributed. The accidents happened in moderate to...... small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms. This...
Magnetic form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a 2+1-flavor lattice QCD calculation of the electromagnetic Dirac and Pauli form factors of the octet baryons. The magnetic Sachs form factor is extrapolated at six fixed values of Q2 to physical pseudoscalar masses and infinite volume using a formulation based on heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization. We properly account for omitted disconnected quark contractions using a partially-quenched effective field theory formalism. The results compare well with the experimental form factors of the nucleon and the magnetic moments of the octet baryons.
Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In0.48Ga0.52P buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, k-vector ? p-vector bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband k-vector ? p-vector approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental results and helped us to develop a suitable model for the spectrum, by assuming a not equiprobable weight from each dot, a model which is extremely consistent with the experimental data. (papers)
On the problem of extrapolating the data on Sr90 behaviour in dogs to a human organism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Regularities in the metabolism of radiostrontium have been comparatively studied in dogs and man. The fact revealed that they are the same makes it possible to extrapolate the radiostrontium doses used for dogs to a human organism
Wiegelmann, T.; Thalmann, J. K.; Inhester, B.; Tadesse, T.; Sun, X.; Hoeksema, J. T.
2012-11-01
The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides photospheric vector magnetograms with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Our intention is to model the coronal magnetic field above active regions with the help of a nonlinear force-free extrapolation code. Our code is based on an optimization principle and has been tested extensively with semianalytic and numeric equilibria and applied to vector magnetograms from Hinode and ground-based observations. Recently we implemented a new version which takes into account measurement errors in photospheric vector magnetograms. Photospheric field measurements are often affected by measurement errors and finite nonmagnetic forces inconsistent for use as a boundary for a force-free field in the corona. To deal with these uncertainties, we developed two improvements: i) preprocessing of the surface measurements to make them compatible with a force-free field, and ii) new code which keeps a balance between the force-free constraint and deviation from the photospheric field measurements. Both methods contain free parameters, which must be optimized for use with data from SDO/HMI. In this work we describe the corresponding analysis method and evaluate the force-free equilibria by how well force-freeness and solenoidal conditions are fulfilled, by the angle between magnetic field and electric current, and by comparing projections of magnetic field lines with coronal images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). We also compute the available free magnetic energy and discuss the potential influence of control parameters.
Ravichandran R; Binukumar J; Sivakumar.S; Krishnamurthy K; Davis C
2009-01-01
The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC) used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was use...
The role of strange sea quarks in chiral extrapolations on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the strange quark has a light mass of order O(?QCD), fluctuations of sea s anti s pairs may play a special role in the low-energy dynamics of QCD by inducing significantly different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in the chiral limits Nf=2 (mu=md=0, ms physical) and Nf=3 (mu=md=ms=0). This effect of vacuum fluctuations of s anti s pairs is related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector, described through the two O(p4) low-energy constants L4 and L6 of the three-flavour strong chiral lagrangian. In the case of significant vacuum fluctuations, three-flavour chiral expansions might exhibit numerical competition between leading- and next-to-leading-order terms according to the chiral counting, and chiral extrapolations should be handled with special care. We investigate the impact of the fluctuations of s anti s pairs on chiral extrapolations in the case of lattice simulations with three dynamical flavours in the isospin limit. Information on the size of the vacuum fluctuations can be obtained from the dependence of the masses and decay constants of pions and kaons on the light quark masses. Even in the case of large fluctuations, corrections due to the finite size of spatial dimensions can be kept under control for large enough boxes (L?2.5 fm). (orig.)
Finite-Element Extrapolation of Myocardial Structure Alterations Across the Cardiac Cycle in Rats.
David Gomez, Arnold; Bull, David A; Hsu, Edward W
2015-10-01
Myocardial microstructures are responsible for key aspects of cardiac mechanical function. Natural myocardial deformation across the cardiac cycle induces measurable structural alteration, which varies across disease states. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) has become the tool of choice for myocardial structural analysis. Yet, obtaining the comprehensive structural information of the whole organ, in 3D and time, for subject-specific examination is fundamentally limited by scan time. Therefore, subject-specific finite-element (FE) analysis of a group of rat hearts was implemented for extrapolating a set of initial DT-MRI to the rest of the cardiac cycle. The effect of material symmetry (isotropy, transverse isotropy, and orthotropy), structural input, and warping approach was observed by comparing simulated predictions against in vivo MRI displacement measurements and DT-MRI of an isolated heart preparation at relaxed, inflated, and contracture states. Overall, the results indicate that, while ventricular volume and circumferential strain are largely independent of the simulation strategy, structural alteration predictions are generally improved with the sophistication of the material model, which also enhances torsion and radial strain predictions. Moreover, whereas subject-specific transversely isotropic models produced the most accurate descriptions of fiber structural alterations, the orthotropic models best captured changes in sheet structure. These findings underscore the need for subject-specific input data, including structure, to extrapolate DT-MRI measurements across the cardiac cycle. PMID:26299478
The use of natural analogues in the long-term extrapolation of glass corrosion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the most critical aspects of nuclear waste management is the extrapolation of materials and systems behavior from short term experiments, typically on the order of one year, over comparatively very long periods of time. Safety and risk analyses have to rely on extrapolations and the respective findings have to be evaluated in the frame of licensing procedures. In this unique situation, any source of information that can lend support to the credibility of predicted behavior, should be exploited and investigated with great care. There are natural systems, e.g. the Oklo reactor, which can provide evidence of radionuclide migration over very long periods of time and thus help to answer specific questions of interest. Natural glasses and minerals can serve as analogues for both glass and crystalline nuclear waste forms, and the alteration of the natural materials can be studied to infer information on the behavior of the man-made products in geologic environments. This paper reviews most of the work performed by the authors and their colleagues in this field together with information available from literature and discusses the extent to which natural glasses can be used to validate or verify predictions. (author)
An analytic formula for the extrapolated range of electrons in condensed materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A single analytic formula for the extrapolated range rex of electrons in condensed materials of atomic numbers from 4 to 92 is given. It has the form of the product of the continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) range r0 and a factor fd related to multiple scattering detours. The factor fd is expressed as a function of incident electron energy T0 and atomic number Z of medium. Values of adjustable parameters in fd have been optimized for data on the ratio rex/r0, in which the Monte Carlo evaluated values of Tabata et al. [Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 95 (1995) 289] (from 0.1 to 100 MeV) and experimental data collected from literature (from 1 keV to 0.1 MeV) for rex have been used together with NIST-database values of r0. For r0 in the extrapolated-range formula, accurate database values or an approximate analytic expression developed as a function of T0, Z, atomic weight A and mean excitation energy I of medium can be used. The maximum deviation of the resultant formula from the Monte Carlo data is about 2% for either option of r0. The determination of the expression for fd at energies below 0.1 MeV is tentative. By using an effective atomic number and atomic weight, the formula can also be applied to light compounds and mixtures. (orig.)
Testing magnetofrictional extrapolation with the Titov-D\\'emoulin model of solar active regions
Valori, G; Trk, T; Titov, V S
2010-01-01
We examine the nonlinear magnetofrictional extrapolation scheme using the solar active region model by Titov and D\\'emoulin as test field. This model consists of an arched, line-tied current channel held in force-free equilibrium by the potential field of a bipolar flux distribution in the bottom boundary. A modified version, having a parabolic current density profile, is employed here. We find that the equilibrium is reconstructed with very high accuracy in a representative range of parameter space, using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input. Structural features formed in the interface between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade-"hyperbolic flux tube" and "bald patch separatrix surface"-are reliably reproduced, as are the flux rope twist and the energy and helicity of the configuration. This demonstrates that force-free fields containing these basic structural elements of solar active regions can be obtained by extrapolation. The influence of the chosen initial condition on the accuracy...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riley, A [of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Soares, C [NIST (Retired), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Micka, J; Culberson, W [University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); DeWerd, L [University of WIMadison/ ADCL, Madison, WI (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: Currently there is no primary calibration standard for determining the absorbed dose rate-to-water at the surface of ?-emitting concave ophthalmic applicators and plaques. Machining tolerances involved in the design of concave window extrapolation chambers are a limiting factor for development of such a standard. Use of a windowless extrapolation chamber avoids these window-machining tolerance issues. As a windowless extrapolation chamber has never been attempted, this work focuses on proof of principle measurements with a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber to verify the accuracy in comparison to initial calibration, which could be extended to the design of a hemispherical, windowless extrapolation chamber. Methods: The window of an extrapolation chamber defines the electrical field, aids in aligning the source parallel to the collector-guard assembly, and decreases the backscatter due to attenuation of lower electron energy. To create a uniform and parallel electric field in this research, the source was made common to the collector-guard assembly. A precise positioning protocol was designed to enhance the parallelism of the source and collector-guard assembly. Additionally, MCNP5 was used to determine a backscatter correction factor to apply to the calibration. With these issues addressed, the absorbed dose rate-to-water of a Tracerlab 90Sr planar ophthalmic applicator was determined using National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) calibration formalism, and the results of five trials with this source were compared to measurements at NIST with a traditional extrapolation chamber. Results: The absorbed dose rate-to-water of the planar applicator was determined to be 0.473 Gy/s 0.6%. Comparing these results to NIST's determination of 0.474 Gy/s yields a ?0.6% difference. Conclusion: The feasibility of a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber has been demonstrated. A similar principle will be applied to developing a primary calibration standard for concave applicators and plaques. This research is funded by the customers of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Currently there is no primary calibration standard for determining the absorbed dose rate-to-water at the surface of ?-emitting concave ophthalmic applicators and plaques. Machining tolerances involved in the design of concave window extrapolation chambers are a limiting factor for development of such a standard. Use of a windowless extrapolation chamber avoids these window-machining tolerance issues. As a windowless extrapolation chamber has never been attempted, this work focuses on proof of principle measurements with a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber to verify the accuracy in comparison to initial calibration, which could be extended to the design of a hemispherical, windowless extrapolation chamber. Methods: The window of an extrapolation chamber defines the electrical field, aids in aligning the source parallel to the collector-guard assembly, and decreases the backscatter due to attenuation of lower electron energy. To create a uniform and parallel electric field in this research, the source was made common to the collector-guard assembly. A precise positioning protocol was designed to enhance the parallelism of the source and collector-guard assembly. Additionally, MCNP5 was used to determine a backscatter correction factor to apply to the calibration. With these issues addressed, the absorbed dose rate-to-water of a Tracerlab 90Sr planar ophthalmic applicator was determined using National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) calibration formalism, and the results of five trials with this source were compared to measurements at NIST with a traditional extrapolation chamber. Results: The absorbed dose rate-to-water of the planar applicator was determined to be 0.473 Gy/s 0.6%. Comparing these results to NIST's determination of 0.474 Gy/s yields a ?0.6% difference. Conclusion: The feasibility of a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber has been demonstrated. A similar principle will be applied to developing a primary calibration standard for concave applicators and plaques. This research is funded by the customers of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Gong
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Large-scale hydrological models and land surface models are by far the only tools for accessing future water resources in climate change impact studies. Those models estimate discharge with large uncertainties, due to the complex interaction between climate and hydrology, the limited quality and availability of data, as well as model uncertainties. A new purely data-based scale-extrapolation method is proposed, to estimate water resources for a large basin solely from selected small sub-basins, which are typically two-orders-of-magnitude smaller than the large basin. Those small sub-basins contain sufficient information, not only on climate and land surface, but also on hydrological characteristics for the large basin In the Baltic Sea drainage basin, best discharge estimation for the gauged area was achieved with sub-basins that cover 24% of the gauged area. There exist multiple sets of sub-basins that resemble the climate and hydrology of the basin equally well. Those multiple sets estimate annual discharge for gauged area consistently well with 5% average error. The scale-extrapolation method is completely data-based; therefore it does not force any modelling error into the prediction. The multiple predictions are expected to bracket the inherent variations and uncertainties of the climate and hydrology of the basin. The method can be applied in both un-gauged basins and un-gauged periods with uncertainty estimation.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
E., Ortiz-Rascn; N. C., Bruce; A. A., Rodrguez-Rosales; J., Garduo-Meja; R., Ortega-Martnez.
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Este artculo presenta resultados de un mtodo para la formacin de imgenes resueltas temporalmente mediante la transmisin de luz usando una extrapolacin temporal. La extrapolacin temporal se realiza mediante la solucin a la ecuacin de transporte mediante la expansin en cumulantes. Los result [...] ados obtenidos se comparan con los resultados del mismo mtodo pero usando la solucin mediante la aproximacin de difusin. Se encuentra que los resultados son consistentes pero la el mtodo usando la expansin en cumulantes da mejor resolucin, en un factor de aproximadamente 3, para el proceso de formacin de imgenes, esto debido a que da una mejor estimacin de la contribucin de los fotones con tiempos de integracin menores. Abstract in english This paper presents results of a time-resolved transillumination imaging method using temporal extrapolation. The temporal extrapolation is performed with the cumulant expansion solution to the transport equation. The results obtained are compared to results of the same method but using the diffusio [...] n approximation solution. It is found that the results are consistent but that the cumulant expansion method gives better resolution, by a factor of approximately 3, for the imaging process, because it gives a better estimation of the photon contribution for shorter integration times.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fleming D
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Background : Therapeutic drug monitoring for mycophenolic acid (MPA is increasingly being advocated. Thepresent therapeutic range relates to the 12-hour area under the serum concentration time profile (AUC.However, this is a cumbersome, tedious, cost restricting procedure. Is it possible to reduce this samplingperiod? Aim : To compare the AUC from a reduced sampling strategy with the full 12-hour profile for MPA. Settings and Design : Clinical Pharmacology Unit of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Retrospective, paireddata. Materials and Methods : Thirty-four 12-hour profiles from post-renal transplant patients on Cellcept wereevaluated. Profiles were grouped according to steroid and immunosuppressant co-medication and the timeafter transplant. MPA was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. From the12-hour profiles the AUC up to only six hours was calculated by the trapezoidal rule and a correction factorapplied. These two AUCs were then compared. Statistical Analysis : Linear regression, intra-class correlations (ICC and a two-tailed paired t-test were appliedto the data. Results : Comparing the 12-hour AUC with the paired 6-hour extrapolated AUC, the ICC and linear regression(r2 were very good for all three groups. No statistical difference was found by a two-tailed paired t-test. Nobias was seen with a Bland Altman plot or by calculation. Conclusion : For patients on Cellcept with prednisolone cyclosporine the 6-hour corrected is an accuratemeasure of the full 12-hour AUC.
Extrapolation of lattice QCD results beyond the power-counting regime
Leinweber, D B; Young, R D
2005-01-01
Resummation of the chiral expansion is necessary to make accurate contact with current lattice simulation results of full QCD. Resummation techniques including relativistic formulations of chiral effective field theory and finite-range regularization (FRR) techniques are reviewed, with an emphasis on using lattice simulation results to constrain the parameters of the chiral expansion. We illustrate how the chiral extrapolation problem has been solved and use FRR techniques to identify the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral perturbation theory. To fourth-order in the expansion at the 1% tolerance level, we find $0 \\le m_\\pi \\le 0.18$ GeV for the PCR, extending only a small distance beyond the physical pion mass.
Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs
Modeling of systematic retention of beryllium in rats. Extrapolation to humans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and other animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with other previously published
Linear Extrapolation of Ultrarelativistic Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering to Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions
Jeon, S; Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph
1997-01-01
We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: all the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: it is a baseline linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions.
Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions
Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph
1997-07-01
We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)
2005-04-01
Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.
Lalone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Burgoon, Lyle D; Russom, Christine L; Helgen, Henry W; Berninger, Jason P; Tietge, Joseph E; Severson, Megan N; Cavallin, Jenna E; Ankley, Gerald T
2013-11-15
It is not feasible to conduct toxicity tests with all species that may be impacted by chemical exposures. Therefore, cross-species extrapolation is fundamental to environmental risk assessment. Recognition of the impracticality of generating empirical, whole organism, toxicity data for the extensive universe of chemicals in commerce has been an impetus driving the field of predictive toxicology. We describe a strategy that leverages expanding databases of molecular sequence information together with identification of specific molecular chemical targets whose perturbation can lead to adverse outcomes to support predictive species extrapolation. This approach can be used to predict which species may be more (or less) susceptible to effects following exposure to chemicals with known modes of action (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides). Primary amino acid sequence alignments are combined with more detailed analyses of conserved functional domains to derive the predictions. This methodology employs bioinformatic approaches to automate, collate, and calculate quantitative metrics associated with cross-species sequence similarity of key molecular initiating events (MIEs). Case examples focused on the actions of (a) 17?-ethinyl estradiol on the human (Homo sapiens) estrogen receptor; (b) permethrin on the mosquito (Aedes aegypti) voltage-gated para-like sodium channel; and (c) 17?-trenbolone on the bovine (Bos taurus) androgen receptor are presented to demonstrate the potential predictive utility of this species extrapolation strategy. The examples compare empirical toxicity data to cross-species predictions of intrinsic susceptibility based on analyses of sequence similarity relevant to the MIEs of defined adverse outcome pathways. Through further refinement, and definition of appropriate domains of applicability, we envision practical and routine utility for the molecular target similarity-based predictive method in chemical risk assessment, particularly where testing resources are limited. PMID:24177217
EVIDENCE FOR SOLAR TETHER-CUTTING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION FROM CORONAL FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnetic reconnection is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering solar eruptive events, but direct observation of this rapid process has been a challenge. In this Letter, using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation technique, we present a visualization of field line connectivity changes resulting from tether-cutting reconnection over about 30 minutes during the 2011 February 13 M6.6 flare in NOAA AR 11158. Evidence for the tether-cutting reconnection was first collected through multiwavelength observations and then by analysis of the field lines traced from positions of four conspicuous flare 1700 footpoints observed at the event onset. Right before the flare, the four footpoints are located very close to the regions of local maxima of the magnetic twist index. In particular, the field lines from the inner two footpoints form two strongly twisted flux bundles (up to ?1.2 turns), which shear past each other and reach out close to the outer two footpoints, respectively. Immediately after the flare, the twist index of regions around the footpoints diminishes greatly and the above field lines become low-lying and less twisted (?0.6 turns), overarched by loops linking the two flare ribbons formed later. About 10% of the flux (?3 1019 Mx) from the inner footpoints undergoes a footpoint exchange. This portion of flux originates from the edge regions of the inner footpoints that are brightened first. These rapid changes of magnetic field connectivity inferred from the NLFFF extrapolation are consistent with the tether-cutting magnetic reconnection model
(Solid + liquid) solubility of organic compounds in organic solvents Correlation and extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: A novel, robust semi-empirical model for regression of solubility is presented. The model fulfils thermodynamic boundary conditions at the melting point. The activity coefficient is modelled with a scaled three-parameter Weibull function. A three-parameter regression equation is derived from the semi-empirical model. This equation provides good accuracy and robustness compared to standard models. - Abstract: A semi-empirical model is developed for the regression of (solid + liquid) solubility data with temperature. The model fulfils the required boundary conditions, allowing for robust extrapolation to higher and lower temperatures. The model combines a representation of the solid-state activity which accommodates a temperature-dependent heat capacity difference contribution with a scaled three-parameter Weibull function representing the temperature dependence of the solution activity coefficient at equilibrium. Evaluation of the model is based on previously published experimental calorimetric and solubility data of four organic compounds, fenoxycarb, fenofibrate, risperidone and butyl paraben, in five common organic solvents, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrile, and toluene. The temperature dependence of the vant Hoff enthalpy of solution and its components is analysed and discussed. Among the four compounds the influence of temperature on the enthalpy of fusion varies from moderate to substantial. Based on the semi-empirical model, a new equation containing three adjustable parameters is proposed for regression and extrapolation of solubility data for cases when only melting data and solubility data is available. The equation is shown to provide good accuracy and robustness when evaluated against the full semi-empirical model as well as against commonly used, more simple empirical equations. It is shown how such a model can be used to obtain an estimate of the heat capacity difference for cases where accurate solubility data is available in multiple solvents
EVIDENCE FOR SOLAR TETHER-CUTTING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION FROM CORONAL FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS
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Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Wiegelmann, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fr Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Moore, Ronald L., E-mail: chang.liu@njit.edu [Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office, ZP13, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812-9900 (United States)
2013-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering solar eruptive events, but direct observation of this rapid process has been a challenge. In this Letter, using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation technique, we present a visualization of field line connectivity changes resulting from tether-cutting reconnection over about 30 minutes during the 2011 February 13 M6.6 flare in NOAA AR 11158. Evidence for the tether-cutting reconnection was first collected through multiwavelength observations and then by analysis of the field lines traced from positions of four conspicuous flare 1700 footpoints observed at the event onset. Right before the flare, the four footpoints are located very close to the regions of local maxima of the magnetic twist index. In particular, the field lines from the inner two footpoints form two strongly twisted flux bundles (up to ?1.2 turns), which shear past each other and reach out close to the outer two footpoints, respectively. Immediately after the flare, the twist index of regions around the footpoints diminishes greatly and the above field lines become low-lying and less twisted (?0.6 turns), overarched by loops linking the two flare ribbons formed later. About 10% of the flux (?3 10{sup 19} Mx) from the inner footpoints undergoes a footpoint exchange. This portion of flux originates from the edge regions of the inner footpoints that are brightened first. These rapid changes of magnetic field connectivity inferred from the NLFFF extrapolation are consistent with the tether-cutting magnetic reconnection model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Choi Kwok
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background False discovery rate (FDR control is commonly accepted as the most appropriate error control in multiple hypothesis testing problems. The accuracy of FDR estimation depends on the accuracy of the estimation of p-values from each test and validity of the underlying assumptions of the distribution. However, in many practical testing problems such as in genomics, the p-values could be under-estimated or over-estimated for many known or unknown reasons. Consequently, FDR estimation would then be influenced and lose its veracity. Results We propose a new extrapolative method called Constrained Regression Recalibration (ConReg-R to recalibrate the empirical p-values by modeling their distribution to improve the FDR estimates. Our ConReg-R method is based on the observation that accurately estimated p-values from true null hypotheses follow uniform distribution and the observed distribution of p-values is indeed a mixture of distributions of p-values from true null hypotheses and true alternative hypotheses. Hence, ConReg-R recalibrates the observed p-values so that they exhibit the properties of an ideal empirical p-value distribution. The proportion of true null hypotheses (?0 and FDR are estimated after the recalibration. Conclusions ConReg-R provides an efficient way to improve the FDR estimates. It only requires the p-values from the tests and avoids permutation of the original test data. We demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves FDR estimation on several gene expression datasets obtained from microarray and RNA-seq experiments. Reviewers The manuscript was reviewed by Prof. Vladimir Kuznetsov, Prof. Philippe Broet, and Prof. Hongfang Liu (nominated by Prof. Yuriy Gusev.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several methods of coincidence counting of 129I are examined. Efficiency functions are estimated for these different methods and compared with the results of experiments leading to the indication of the most suitable conditions of measurements. It was also found that the ?-efficiency of the 4?? methane flow counter for photons near 32 keV was 0.024 +- 0.005. Finally some general remarks are made on the extrapolation technique as used for coincidence counting. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is going to establish a Bhm extrapolation chamber as a primary standard system for the dosimetry and calibration of beta radiation sources and detectors. This chamber was already tested in beta radiation beams with an aluminized Mylar entrance window, and now, it was characterized with an original Hostaphan entrance window. A comparison between the results of the extrapolation chamber with the two entrance windows was performed. The results showed that this extrapolation chamber presents the same effectiveness in beta radiation fields as a primary standard system with both entrance windows, showing that any one of them may be utilized. - Highlights: The Bhm extrapolation chamber response was studied in two different conditions. The extrapolation chamber was studied with two different entrance windows. The instrument was exposed to 90Sr+90Y beams. Different characterization tests of the chamber were performed. All results confirmed the adequate behavior of the chamber in both situations
Eco-label - simple environmental choice / Andres Viia, Klliki Tafel
Viia, Andres
2003-01-01
Autorid selgitavad komrgistuse olemust ja vajalikkust tarbijate teavitamisel vhem keskkonda kahjustavatest toodetest ning teenustest. Lisatud niteid regionaalsetest ja rahvuslikest komrkidest EL-is, tuntumatest komrkidest vljaspool Euroopat, hoiatavatest ja informatiivsetest keskkonnamrkidest ning libakomrkidest. Vt. samas: North-East Estonia - a seat of an environment-friendly batteries' recycling
Mis tekitab paksu verd juhi ja omaniku vahel / Klliki Tafel
Tafel, Klliki
2006-01-01
EBSi ja Tulevikuuringute Instituudi uuring nitab, et Eestis ei ole juhtide ja omanike vahel teravaid erimeelsusi. Soovitused tippjuhtidele ja omanikele konfliktide rahoidmiseks. Lisa: EBSi ja ETI hine uurimisprogramm
Loomemajandus - loovus pluss ri / Erik Terk, Klliki Tafel
Terk, Erik
2006-01-01
Kui kultuuripoliitika ksitleb kultuuri valdavalt toetuse vajaja ja saajana, siis loomemajanduslik mte neb kultuuri ja loovust kui vrtuslikku sisendit majandusele ning selles mttes kui vrdvrset partnerit, kirjutavad autorid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rothe, R.E.
1997-12-01
Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epidemiological surveys can play an important role in answering the question whether the risk of lung cancer by radon exposure in houses can be estimated on the basis of linear extrapolation of miner data or not. Recently, some of those surveys have been evaluated. It was concluded that linear extrapolation is subject to great doubts. A reliable epidemiological survey was carried out by means of a Finnish cohort of lung cancer patients and controls, who lived in the same house for at least 18 years. For one year radon concentrations were measured in their houses. The odds ratio (comparable to relative risk) for long cancer was 1.01 per 100 Bqm-3, which value is significantly different from the value of 1.15, calculated on the basis of linear extrapolation of miner data. 3 tabs., 18 refs
Reinisch, Walter; Louis, Edouard; Danese, Silvio
2015-01-01
Extrapolation of clinical data from other indications is an important concept in the development of biosimilars. This process depends on strict comparability exercises to establish similarity to the reference medicinal product. However, the extrapolation paradigm has prompted a fierce scientific debate. CT-P13 (Remsima(), Inflectra()), an infliximab biosimilar, is a TNF antagonist used to treat immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. On the basis of totality of similarity data, the EMA approved CT-P13 for all indications held by its reference medicinal product (Remicade()) including inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of action of TNF antagonists in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and illustrates the comparable profiles of CT-P13 and reference medicinal product on which the extrapolation of indications including inflammatory bowel disease is based. PMID:26395531
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide
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Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa; Salama, Amgad
2014-08-01
Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.
Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad
2014-08-01
Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.
Kadoura, Ahmad Salim
2014-08-01
Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system\\'s potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The numerical analysis of practically all existing formulae such as expansion series, Tait, logarithm, Van der Waals and virial equations for interpolation of experimental molar volumes versus high pressure was carried out. One can conclude that extrapolating dependences of molar volumes versus pressure and temperature can be valid. It was shown that virial equations can be used for fitting experimental data at relatively low pressures P<3 kbar too in distinction to other equations. Direct solving of a linear equation of the third order relatively to volume using extrapolated virial coefficients allows us to obtain good agreement between existing experimental data for high pressure and calculated values
Top-down workforce demand extrapolation based on an EC energy road-map scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The EHRO-N team of JRC-IET provides the EC with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The current paper deals with an alternative approach to derive figures for the demand side information of the nuclear workforce. Complementary to the bottom-up approach, a top-down modelling approach extrapolation of an EC Energy road-map nuclear energy demand scenario is followed here in addition to the survey information. In this top-down modelling approach, the number of nuclear power plants that are in operation and under construction is derived as a function of time from 2010 up to 2050 assuming that the current reactor park will be replaced by generic third generation reactors of 1400 MWe or 1000 MWe. Depending on the size of new build reactors, the analysis shows the number of new reactors required to fulfil the demand for nuclear energy. Based on workforce models for operation and construction of nuclear power plants, the model allows an extrapolation of these respective work-forces. Using the nuclear skills pyramid, the total workforce employed at a plant is broken down in a nuclear (experts), nuclearized, and nuclear aware workforce. With retirement profiles for nuclear power plants derived from the bottom-up EHRO-N survey, the replacement of the current workforce is taken into account. The peak of the new workforce (partly replacing the retiring workforce and additionally keeping up with the growing total workforce demand) for nuclear experts and nuclearized employees is to be expected at the end of the considered period (2050). However, the peak workforce for nuclear aware employees is to be expected around 2020. When comparing to historical data for the nuclear capacity being installed at the same time in Europe, it is clear that the expected future capacity to be installed at the same time in Europe is significantly lower (factor of 2) than in the early 1980's. However, it should be realized that the skills demand might have been more relaxed in those days. Furthermore, a steep rise in construction is to be expected within 10 to 15 years. This is due to the fact that not only additional nuclear power plants need to be built to keep up with the growing nuclear energy demand, but also the current nuclear reactor park needs to be replaced. In order to deal with this steep rise, the nuclear industry may consider buying time by extending the lifetime of the current nuclear reactor park. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans
Hybrid superconducting a.c. current limiter extrapolation 63 kV-1 250 A
Tixador, P.; Levque, J.; Brunet, Y.; Pham, V. D.
1994-04-01
Following the developement of a.c. superconducting wires a.c. current superconducting limiters have emerged. These limiters limit the fault currents nearly instantaneously, without detection nor order giver and may be suitable for high voltages. They are based on the natural transition from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state by overstepping the critical current of a superconducting coil which limits or triggers the limitation. Our limiter device consists essentially of two copper windings coupled through a saturable magnetic circuit and of a non inductively wound superconducting coil with a reduced current compared to the line current. This design allows a simple superconducting cable and reduced cryogenic losses but the dielectric stresses are high during faults. A small model (150 V/50 A) has experimentally validated our design. An industrial scale current limiter is designed and the comparisons between this design and other superconducting current limiters are given. Les courants de court-circuit sur les grands rseaux lectriques ne cessent d'augmenter. Dans ce contexte sont apparus les limiteurs supraconducteurs de courant suite au dveloppement des brins supraconducteurs alternatifs. Ces limiteurs peuvent limiter les courants de dfaut presque instantanment, sans dtection de dfaut ni donneur d'ordre et ils sont extrapolables aux hautes tensions. Ils sont fonds sur la transition naturelle de l'tat supraconducteur l'tat normal trs rsistif par dpassement du courant critique d'un enroulement supraconducteur qui limite ou dclenche la limitation. Notre limiteur est compos de deux enroulements en cuivre coupls par un circuit magntique saturable et d'une bobine supraconductrice courant rduit par rapport au courant de la ligne. Cette conception permet un cble supraconducteur simple et des pertes cryogniques rduites mais les contraintes dilectriques en rgime de dfaut sont importantes. Une maquette (150 V/50 A) a permis de valider exprimentalement cette conception. Nous aborderons l'extrapolation d'un limiteur de taille industrielle (63 kV/1 250 A). Les rsultats seront compars des limiteurs supraconducteurs rsistifs et de type DASC.
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Amin, Mohammed A., E-mail: maaismail@yahoo.co [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, 11566 Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Arida, H.A. [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Arslan, Taner [Department of Chemistry, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Saracoglu, Murat [Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kandemirli, Fatma [Department of Chemistry, Nigde University, 41000 Nigde (Turkey)
2011-02-15
Research highlights: TX-305 exhibits inhibiting properties for iron corrosion more than TX-165 and TX 100. Inhibition efficiency increases with temperature, suggesting chemical adsorption. The three tested surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitors with cathodic predominance. Validation of corrosion rates measured by Tafel extrapolation method is confirmed. - Abstract: The inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, namely TRITON-X-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on the corrosion of iron was studied in 1.0 M HCl solutions as a function of inhibitor concentration (0.005-0.075 g L{sup -1}) and solution temperature (278-338 K). Measurements were conducted based on Tafel extrapolation method. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), a non-destructive corrosion measurement technique that can directly give values of corrosion current without prior knowledge of Tafel constants, is also presented. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel extrapolation method were compared with corrosion rates obtained by the EFM technique and an independent method of chemical analysis. The chemical method of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved determination of the dissolved cation, using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). The aim was to confirm validation of corrosion rates measured by the Tafel extrapolation method. Results obtained showed that, in all cases, the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in temperature, suggesting that chemical adsorption occurs. The adsorptive behaviour of the three surfactants followed Temkin-type isotherm. The standard free energies of adsorption decreased with temperature, reflecting better inhibition performance. These findings confirm chemisorption of the tested inhibitors. Thermodynamic activation functions of the dissolution process were also calculated as a function of each inhibitor concentration. All the results obtained from the methods employed are in reasonable agreement.
The risk of extrapolation in neuroanatomy: the case of the mammalian vomeronasal system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignacio Salazar
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The sense of smell plays a crucial role in mammalian social and sexual behaviour, identification of food, and detection of predators. Nevertheless, mammals vary in their olfactory ability. One reason for this concerns the degree of development of their pars basalis rhinencephali, an anatomical feature that has has been considered in classifying this group of animals as macrosmatic, microsmatic or anosmatic. In mammals, different structures are involved in detecting odours: the main olfactory system, the vomeronasal system (VNS, and two subsystems, namely the ganglion of Grüneberg and the septal organ. Here, we review and summarise some aspects of the comparative anatomy of the VNS and its putative relationship to other olfactory structures. Even in the macrosmatic group, morphological diversity is an important characteristic of the VNS, specifically of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb. We conclude that it is a big mistake to extrapolate anatomical data of the VNS from species to species, even in the case of relatively close evolutionary proximity between them. We propose to study other mammalian VNS than those of rodents in depth as a way to clarify its exact role in olfaction. Our experience in this field leads us to hypothesise that the VNS, considered for all mammalian species, could be a system undergoing involution or regression, and could serve as one more integrated olfactory subsystem.
Reggiannini, Ruggero
2015-12-01
This paper is concerned with spatial properties of linear arrays of antennas spaced less than half wavelength. Possible applications are in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless links for the purpose of increasing the spatial multiplexing gain in a scattering environment, as well as in other areas such as sonar and radar. With reference to a receiving array, we show that knowledge of the received field can be extrapolated beyond the actual array size by exploiting the finiteness of the interval of real directions from which the field components impinge on the array. This property permits to increase the performance of the array in terms of angular resolution. A simple signal processing technique is proposed allowing formation of a set of beams capable to cover uniformly the entire horizon with an angular resolution better than that achievable by a classical uniform-weighing half-wavelength-spaced linear array. Results are also applicable to active arrays. As the above approach leads to arrays operating in super-directive regime, we discuss all related critical aspects, such as sensitivity to external and internal noises and to array imperfections, and bandwidth, so as to identify the basic design criteria ensuring the array feasibility.
Natural basaltic glass analogue for the long-term extrapolation of nuclear waste glass aging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Increased confidence is provided to the extrapolation of long-term waste form behavior by comparing the alteration of experimentally aged natural basaltic glass to the condition of the same glass as it has been geologically aged. The similarity between the laboratory and geologic alterations indicates that important aging variables have been identified and incorporated into the laboratory experiments. This provides credibility to the long-term predictions made for waste form borosilicate glasses using similar experimental procedures. In addition, these experiments have demonstrated that the aging processes for natural basaltic glass are relevant to the alteration of nuclear waste glasses, as both appear to react via similar processes. The alteration of a synthetic basaltic glass was measured in MCC-1 tests done at 900C, a SA/V of 0.1 cm-1 and time periods up to 182 days. Tests were also done using (1) MCC-2 procedures at 1900C, a SA/V of 0.1 cm-1 and time periods up to 91 days and (2) hydration tests in saturated water vapor at 2400C, a SA/V of approx. 106 cm-1, and time periods up to 63 days. These results are compared to alteration observed in natural basaltic glasses of great age. 6 references, 6 figures, 1 table
DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN ISOTOPE EXTRAPOLATION CURVE FOR PLATINUM CATYLIZED ZEOLITE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staack, G.
2010-07-07
Experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 with protium and deuterium to demonstrate the hydrogen exchange properties of various catalyzed zeolites for tritium stripping purposes. A column was loaded with the experimental material and purged with either H{sub 2} or D{sub 2} as shown in Figure 1 and the effluent monitored with a Prisma Quadrupole. The purge gas was switched when the column outlet concentrations reached >95% of the purge isotope. Outlet concentrations were calculated as the sum of the purge isotope in the elemental form plus the purge isotope in the oxide form (the purge stream was humidified as it passed through the column) divided by the total hydrogen isotopes in the effluent. 1.5 wt.% Pt on CBV 780 zeolite, manufactured by Zeolist International, had the best exchange characteristics, high capacity and fast kinetics, of the materials tested. This memorandum describes an approach to extrapolate previously unpublished hydrogen for deuterium exchange data collected earlier on 1.5 wt.% Pt on CBV 780 to lower concentrations for potential engineering applications.
Extrapolation of stress rupture data on 9 to 12% Cr steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this document the stress rupture strengths at times of up to 300 000h have been evaluated. In relation to the stress rupture strength, data from four steels, namely 9Cr1Mo, 9Cr2MoNbV, 9Cr1MoVNb and 12CrMoV, were examined and in each case four different parameters (Larson-Miller, Orr-Sherby-Dorn (original), Orr-Sherby-Dorn (ORNL) and Manson-Haferd) were employed to extrapolate the data out to 300 000h. At temperatures relevant to steam generators (c. 500OC) there was found to be little difference in predicted long-term strength values using the four approaches. However, the lower 95% confidence limits have been evaluated and it was found that for some of the steels these were different to the often assumed minimum set at 80% of the average. The rupture ductility values have been statistically evaluated at specific temperatures to establish the trend in ductility with increasing rupture time
Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying; Krems, Roman V.
2015-10-01
We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A-H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A-H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A-X. We assume that the effect of the -H ?-X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values which corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the He atom with the CN fragment of the molecule. The unknown parameters are then varied within physically reasonable ranges to produce a prediction uncertainty of the cross sections. The results are normalized to the cross sections for He C6H6 collisions obtained from quantum scattering calculations in order to provide a prediction interval of the thermally averaged cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He.
Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karsten Schulz
2011-12-01
Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.
Evaluation of simple in vitro to in vivo extrapolation approaches for environmental compounds.
Yoon, Miyoung; Efremenko, Alina; Blaauboer, Bas J; Clewell, Harvey J
2014-03-01
As part of an effort to support in silico/in vitro based risk assessment, we evaluated the accuracy associated with conducting simple in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for environmental compounds using available in vitro human metabolism data. The IVIVE approach was applied to a number of compounds with a wide range of properties spanning the diversity of characteristics of environmental compounds, and where possible the resulting estimates of the in vivo steady-state blood concentration were compared with estimates derived on the basis of human in vivo kinetic data. There appears to be a systematic bias in the estimation of intrinsic clearance (Clint) from in vitro versus in vivo data, with in vitro based estimates underestimating in vivo clearance for small values of Clint but with the opposite relationship at large values of Clint. Nevertheless, the resulting estimates of Css were in good agreement. The chief drawback of the simple approach used in this study, which performs the IVIVE prediction for the parent compound only, is that it is not applicable for toxicity associated with a metabolite. PMID:24216301
[Extrapolation of dose-effect relationships for cytogenetic aberrations from high to low doses].
Eidus, L Kh
1999-01-01
It is known, that extrapolation of dose response curve for cytogenic lesions, based on the linear non-threshold concept is not correct due to anomalies in the low dose region, among them the dose intervals of the so-called "low dose effects" (LDE) and "plato"-effect. As a rule they are attributed to assumed heterogeneity of cell populations or to existence of several repair systems. Analysing the data on modification the cytogenetic lesions we concluded, that in the whole low-dose range functions one on the same repair system, but it "switches on" only at sufficient reorganization of chromatin (accompanied by expression of before "silent" genes), caused by radiation-induced increase of the membranes permeability. In the dose interval of LDE this occurs only in vary narrow diapason of dose rate (approximately(1-30) cGy/min for many cell kinds); in the "plato" dose interval--in its beginning. By the assessment of cancerogenic risk the linear non threshold concept can be used only for dose dependence, obtained when repair is absent or inhibited. PMID:10347611
Extrapolation of experimental data on late effects of low-dose radionuclides in man
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The situation of living of population on radionuclide contamination areas was simulated in the experimental study using white strainless rats of different ages. The significance of age for late stochastic effects of internal radionuclide contamination with low doses of 131I, 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru was studied. Some common regularities and differences in late effects formation depending on age were found. Results of the study showed that the number of tumors developed increased in groups of animals exposed at the youngest age. The younger animal at the moment of internal radionuclide contamination, the higher percentage of malignant tumors appeared. It was especially so for tumors of endocrine glands (pituitary, suprarenal,- and thyroid). Differences in late effects formation related to different type of radionuclide distribution within the body were estimated. On the base of extrapolation the conclusion was made that human organism being exposed at early postnatal or pubertal period could be the most radiosensitive (1.5-2.0 or sometimes even 3-5 times higher than adults). Data confirmed the opinion that children are the most critical part of population even in case of low dose radiation exposure. (author)
Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V
2015-01-01
We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A-H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A-H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A-X. We assume that the effect of the $-$H $\\rightarrow$ $-$X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values that corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C$_6$H$_5$CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the H...
Hartree-Fock mass formulas and extrapolation to new mass data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two previously published Hartree-Fock (HF) mass formulas, HFBCS-1 and HFB-1 (HF-Bogoliubov), are shown to be in poor agreement with new Audi-Wapstra mass data. The problem lies first with the prescription adopted for the cutoff of the single-particle spectrum used with the ?-function pairing force, and second with the Wigner term. We find an optimal mass fit if the spectrum is cut off both above EF+15 MeV and below EF-15 MeV, EF being the Fermi energy of the nucleus in question. In addition to the Wigner term of the form VW exp(-?|N-Z|/A) already included in the two earlier HF mass formulas, we find that a second Wigner term linear in |N-Z| leads to a significant improvement in lighter nuclei. These two features are incorporated into our new Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model, which leads to much improved extrapolations. The 18 parameters of the model are fitted to the 2135 measured masses for N,Z?8 with an rms error of 0.674 MeV. With this parameter set a complete mass table, labeled HFB-2, has been constructed, going from one drip line to the other, up to Z=120. The new pairing-cutoff prescription favored by the new mass data leads to weaker neutron-shell gaps in neutron-rich nuclei
Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying; Krems, Roman V
2015-10-21
We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A-H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A-H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A-X. We assume that the effect of the -H ?-X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values which corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the He atom with the CN fragment of the molecule. The unknown parameters are then varied within physically reasonable ranges to produce a prediction uncertainty of the cross sections. The results are normalized to the cross sections for He - C6H6 collisions obtained from quantum scattering calculations in order to provide a prediction interval of the thermally averaged cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He. PMID:26493891
DOSE-RESPONSE BEHAVIOR OF ANDROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC CHEMICALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW-DOSE EXTRAPOLATION AND CUMULATIVE TOXICITY. LE Gray Jr, C Wolf, J Furr, M Price, C Lambright, VS Wilson and J Ostby. USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, EB, RTD, RTP, NC, USA.Dose-response behavior of a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nos-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics steered by effective solvation forces allows huge outer time steps up to tens of picoseconds without affecting the equilibrium and conformational properties, and thus provides a 100- to 500-fold effective speedup in comparison to conventional MD with explicit solvent. With the statistical-mechanical 3D-RISM-KH account for effective solvation forces, the method provides efficient sampling of biomolecular processes with slow and/or rare solvation events such as conformational transitions of hydrated alanine dipeptide with the mean life times ranging from 30 ps up to 10 ns for flip-flop conformations, and is particularly beneficial for biomolecular systems with exchange and localization of solvent and ions, ligand binding, and molecular recognition
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Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)
2013-12-28
We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nos-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics steered by effective solvation forces allows huge outer time steps up to tens of picoseconds without affecting the equilibrium and conformational properties, and thus provides a 100- to 500-fold effective speedup in comparison to conventional MD with explicit solvent. With the statistical-mechanical 3D-RISM-KH account for effective solvation forces, the method provides efficient sampling of biomolecular processes with slow and/or rare solvation events such as conformational transitions of hydrated alanine dipeptide with the mean life times ranging from 30 ps up to 10 ns for flip-flop conformations, and is particularly beneficial for biomolecular systems with exchange and localization of solvent and ions, ligand binding, and molecular recognition.
Measurement of absorbed dose with a bone-equivalent extrapolation chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water trade mark sign and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absorbed dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain absorbed dose in bone for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC by 0.7% to ?2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water trade mark sign PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). In conjunction with appropriate correction factors determined with Monte Carlo techniques, the uncalibrated hybrid PEEC can be used for measuring absorbed dose in bone material to within 2% for high-energy photon and electron beams
Deposition of inhaled radionuclides in bronchial airways: Implications for extrapolation modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The laboratory rat has frequently been used as a human surrogate to estimate potential health effects following the inhalation of radioactive aerosol particles. Interspecies differences in biological response are commonly related to interspecies differences in particle deposition efficiencies. In addition, the documented site selectivity of bronchial carcinomas suggests that localized particle deposition patterns within bronchial airway bifurcations may have important implications for inhalation risk assessments. Interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns may be related primarily to differences in airway morphometries. Thus the validity of extrapolating rat deposition data to human inhalation conditions depends on their morphometric similarities and differences. It is well known that there are significant structural differences between the human - rather symmetric - and the rat - monopodial - airway systems. In the present approach, we focus on localized deposition patterns and deposition efficiencies in selected asymmetric bronchial airway bifurcations, whose diameters, lengths and branching angles were derived from the stochastic airway models of human and rat lungs (Koblinger and Hofmann, 1985;1988), which are based on the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976). The effects of interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns are explored in this study for two asymmetric bifurcation geometries in segmental bronchi and terminal bronchioles of both the human and rat lungs at different particle sizes. In order to examine the effect of flow rate on particle deposition in the human lung, we selected two different minute volumes, i.e., 10 and 60 1 min-1 , which are representative of low and heavy physical activity breathing conditions. In the case of the rat we used a minute volume of 0.234 1 min-1 (Hofmann et al., 1993)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report addresses safety analysis of the whole repository life-cycle that may require long term performance assessment of its components and evaluation of potential impacts of the facility on the environment. Generic consideration of procedures for the development of predictive tools are completed by detailed characterization of selected principles and methods that were applied and presented within the co-ordinated research project (CRP). The project focused on different approaches to extrapolation, considering radionuclide migration/sorption, physical, geochemical and geotechnical characteristics of engineered barriers, irradiated rock and backfill performance, and on corrosion of metallic and vitreous materials. This document contains a comprehensive discussion of the overall problem and the practical results of the individual projects preformed within the CRP. Each of the papers on the individual projects has been indexed separately
Grard Meunier; James Roudet; Jrmie Aim; Thanh-Son Tran; Edith Clavel
2009-01-01
Regarding standards, it is well established that common mode currents are the main source of far field emitted by variable frequency drive (VFD)-cable-motor associations. These currents are generated by the combination of floating potentials with stray capacitances between these floating potential tracks and the mechanical parts connected to the earth (the heatsink or cables are usual examples). Nowadays, due to frequency and power increases, the systematic compliance to EMC (ElectroMagnetic ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tero-Vescan Amelia
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A fost validat? o metod? simpl? ?i selectiv? de determinare a genisteinei (GNST din ficat ?i rinichi de ?obolan n vederea studierii efectului fitoestrogenic al GNST la ?obolani Wistar de sex feminin ovariectomiza?i. GNST a fost separat? pe o coloan? Kromasil 100-RP8, de 150 mm x 4,6 mm, 5 ?m prev?zut? cu precoloan? Kromasil RP 8. Faza mobil? a fost 55:45 (v/v acid fosforic 15 mmol n ap? : metanol la un debit de 1,3 ml/min. Ca standard intern a fost folosit? luteolina 20 ?g/ml n metanol. Timpul de reten?ie al GNST a fost tR = 13,22 min ?i tR = 11,60 min pentru standardul intern. Curbele de calibrare pe domeniul 40-400 ?g GNST/100g ficat ?i 20-200 ?g GNST/100g rinichi au prezentat coeficien?i de determinare ?0,99. Metoda a prezentat o bun? precizie ?i acurate?e la limita de cuantificare. 10 ?obolani albi Wistar de sex feminin, cu vrsta de 8 s?pt?mni au fost trata?i s.c. cu 10 mg/kg c/zi solu?ie GNST timp de 8 s?pt?mni, n timp ce un lot de 10 animale au folosit ca martor. Valorile ob?inute pentru GNST n ficat au fost 192.12 53.46 ?g/100g, iar n rinichi 74.51 12.77 ?g/100g.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Eric A.B. da; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: ebrito@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2011-10-26
The extrapolation chamber is a ionization chamber used for detection low energy radiation and can be used as an standard instrument for beta radiation beams. This type of ionization chamber have as main characteristic the variation of sensible volume. This paper performs a study of characterization of a PTW commercial extrapolation chamber, in the energy interval of the qualities of conventional radiodiagnostic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The neutron count rate of detector in fast-thermal boundary showed quite different performance in critical extrapolation experiment on Venus 1# , which was listed as a benchmark of accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS). In order to explain the abnormal phenomenon in experiment, numerical simulations of experiment and calculations of neutron spectrum in fast-thermal boundary were performed, analyses to the abnormal neutron count rate were also represented through calculations. The results indicate that neutron spectrum change during critical extrapolation is the main contributor to the abnormal performance of detector in experiment. This research work will supply theoretical basis for neutronics study on fast-thermal coupling sub-critical systems of the future. (authors)
Some numerical methods for integrating systems of first-order ordinary differential equations
Clark, N. W.
1969-01-01
Report on numerical methods of integration includes the extrapolation methods of Bulirsch-Stoer and Neville. A comparison is made nith the Runge-Kutta and Adams-Moulton methods, and circumstances are discussed under which the extrapolation method may be preferred.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with radiochromic films in both BSS2 showed that some of them were not geometrically aligned. (author)
Dellmuth, Lisa Maria; Tallberg, Jonas
2015-01-01
Social legitimacy is central to the effectiveness of international organisations (IOs). Yet, so far, we have little systematic knowledge about what drives citizens to support or oppose IOs. In this article, we isolate and assess three alternative explanations of social legiti- macy in global governance, privileging interest representation, institutional performance, and confidence extrapolation. We test these theories in a multilevel analysis of citizen confidence in the United Nations (UN) u...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)
2015-10-15
Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)
Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang
2016-01-01
In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Dmoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the hyperbolic flux tube and bald patch separatrix surface, are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.
Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang
2016-01-01
In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.
Jiang, Chaowei
2015-01-01
In the solar corona, magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of magnetic field from boundary data is the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information of the corona. As a result, the ability of reliable recovering coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF, Jiang & Feng 2012) is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Demoulin (1999), which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding an semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field is reconstructed with high accuracy. Especially, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rop...
Fallou, Hlne; Cimetire, Nicolas; Giraudet, Sylvain; Wolbert, Dominique; Le Cloirec, Pierre
2016-01-15
Activated carbon fiber cloths (ACFC) have shown promising results when applied to water treatment, especially for removing organic micropollutants such as pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, further investigations are required, especially considering trace concentrations, which are found in current water treatment. Until now, most studies have been carried out at relatively high concentrations (mgL(-1)), since the experimental and analytical methodologies are more difficult and more expensive when dealing with lower concentrations (ngL(-1)). Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate an extrapolation procedure from high to low concentrations, for four compounds (Carbamazepine, Diclofenac, Caffeine and Acetaminophen). For this purpose, the reliability of the usual adsorption isotherm models, when extrapolated from high (mgL(-1)) to low concentrations (ngL(-1)), was assessed as well as the influence of numerous error functions. Some isotherm models (Freundlich, Toth) and error functions (RSS, ARE) show weaknesses to be used as an adsorption isotherms at low concentrations. However, from these results, the pairing of the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model with Marquardt's percent standard of deviation was evidenced as the best combination model, enabling the extrapolation of adsorption capacities by orders of magnitude. PMID:26606322
Scott, Bradley J; Klein, Agnes V; Wang, Jian
2015-03-01
Monoclonal antibodies have become mainstays of treatment for many diseases. After more than a decade on the Canadian market, a number of authorized monoclonal antibody products are facing patent expiry. Given their success, most notably in the areas of oncology and autoimmune disease, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are eager to produce their own biosimilar versions and have begun manufacturing and testing for a variety of monoclonal antibody products. In October of 2013, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody products were approved by the European Medicines Agency (Remsima and Inflectra). These products were authorized by Health Canada shortly after; however, while the EMA allowed for extrapolation to all of the indications held by the reference product, Health Canada limited extrapolation to a subset of the indications held by the reference product, Remicade. The purpose of this review is to discuss the Canadian regulatory framework for the authorization of biosimilar mAbs with specific discussion around the clinical requirements for establishing (bio)-similarity and to present the principles that are used in the clinical assessment of New Drug Submissions for intended biosimilar monoclonal antibodies. Health Canada's current views regarding indication extrapolation, product interchangeability, and post-market surveillance are discussed as well. PMID:24965228
Li, Yong-Qing; Song, Yu-Zhi; Joaquim de Campos Varandas, Antnio
2015-01-01
An accurate single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the title system. It is obtained by using the aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets with extrapolation of the electron correlation energy to the complete basis set limit, plus extrapolation to the complete basis set limit of the complete-active-space self-consistent field energy. The collinear and bending barrier heights of the new global potential energy surface is 2.301 and 1.768 kcal mol-1, in very good agreement with the values of 2.222 and 1.770 kcal mol-1 from the current best potential energy surface. In particular, the new potential energy surface describes well the important van der Waals interactions which is very useful for investigating the dynamics of the title system. Thus, the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of the F + H2 reaction and as building block for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger fluorine/hydrogen containing systems. Based on the new potential energy surface, a preliminary theoretical study of the reaction F(2P) + H2 (X1 ?g+) ? FH(X1?+) + H(2S) has been carried out with the methods of quasi-classical trajectory and quantum mechanical. The results have shown that the new PES is suitable for any kind of dynamics studies. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2014-50445-3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandrappa, K.G. [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Jnana Sahyadri Campus, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577451, Karnataka (India); Venkatesha, T.V., E-mail: drtvvenkatesha@yahoo.co.uk [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Jnana Sahyadri Campus, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577451, Karnataka (India)
2012-11-25
Graphical abstract: The pseudo-cubic cobalt oxide microparticles have been successfully synthesized by a solution combustion method using Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (oxidizer) and dextrose (sugar; fuel). The as-synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles are crystalline and Rietveld refinement of calcined samples exhibited cubic structure with space group of Fm3m (No. 227). The generated Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles were used to fabricate Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films for corrosion protection. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of pseudo-cubic Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles by solution combustion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} compounds are calcined and structurally characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are utilized for the fabrication of Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films. - Abstract: Microcrystalline cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) powder was successfully synthesized by a simple, fast, economical and eco-friendly solution-combustion method. The as-synthesized powder was calcined for an hour at temperatures ranging from 100 to 900 Degree-Sign C. The crystallite size, morphology, and chemical state of synthesized powders were characterized by powder XRD, TG-DTA, XPS, SEM/EDAX, TEM and FT-IR spectral methods. The as-synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder was single-crystalline and Rietveld refinement of calcined samples exhibited cubic structure with space group of Fm3m (No. 227). The effect of calcination temperature on crystallite size and morphology was assessed. Scanning electron micrographs show a uniform, randomly oriented pseudo-cubic particle with porous like morphology and EDAX measurement showed its chemical composition. Thermal behavior of as-synthesized compound was examined. The TEM result revealed that, the particles are pseudo-cubic in nature with diameter of 0.2-0.6 {mu}m and a length of 0.9-1.2 {mu}m. The crystallite size increased with increase of calcination temperature. The synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder was used to fabricate Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by anodic polarization, tafel extrapolation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that the Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films have potential applications to corrosion protection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC50 for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC50 were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC50 dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC50 equaled rat brain levels associated with seizure. • PBPK-predicted human brain levels at seizure also equaled EC50 cell concentrations. • In vitro MEA results are predictive of lindane in vivo dose–response in rats/humans
QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR CROSS-SPECIES MAPPING (CSM)
Cross species extrapolation will be defined as prediction from one species to another without empirical verification. ross species mapping (CSM) is the same except empirical verification is performed. SM may be viewed as validation of methods for extrapolation. Algorithms for CSM...
Assessing dose metrics in in vitro cell assays to improve in vitro in vivo dose extrapolations
Groothuis, F.A.
2012-01-01
High requirements and challenges formed by legislations like REACH and the 7th amendment of cosmetics have accelerated the development of new alternative toxicology testing methods. In vitro cell systems combined with in silico methods have been deemed good alternatives for toxicology testing, aiming to reduce or even replace conventional animal toxicity experiments. Unfortunately these methods are not ready to replace animal based toxicity assays yet for several reasons. One of the issues as...
Gaddah, Wajdi A.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we present highly accurate numerical results for the lowest four energy eigenvalues of the quartic, sextic and octic anharmonic oscillators over a wide range of the anharmonicity parameter ? . Also, we provide illustrative graphs describing the dependence of the eigenvalues on ? . Our computation is carried out by using higher-order finite-difference approximation, involving the nine-and-ten-point differentiation formulas. In addition, we apply Richardsons extrapolation method in our calculation for the purpose of achieving a maximum numerical precision. The main advantage of utilizing the finite-difference approach lies in its simplicity and capability to transform the time-independent Schrdinger equation into an eigenvalue matrix equation. This allows the use of numerical matrix algebra for obtaining several eigenvalues and eigenvectors simultaneously without consuming much of the computer time. The method is illustrated in a simple pedagogical way through which the close relation between differential and algebraic eigenvalue problems are clearly seen. The findings of our computations via MATLAB are tested on a number of accurate results derived by different methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Risser, L.; Vincent, T.; Ciuciu, Ph. [NeuroSpin CEA, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Risser, L.; Vincent, T. [Laboratoire de Neuroimagerie Assistee par Ordinateur (LNAO) CEA - DSV/I2BM/NEUROSPIN (France); Risser, L. [Institut de mecanique des fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS: UMR5502 - Universite Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III - Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (France); Idier, J. [Institut de Recherche en Communications et en Cybernetique de Nantes (IRCCyN) CNRS - UMR6597 - Universite de Nantes - ecole Centrale de Nantes - Ecole des Mines de Nantes - Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes (France)
2009-07-01
In this paper, we present a first numerical scheme to estimate Partition Functions (PF) of 3D Ising fields. Our strategy is applied to the context of the joint detection-estimation of brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, where the goal is to automatically recover activated regions and estimate region-dependent, hemodynamic filters. For any region, a specific binary Markov random field may embody spatial correlation over the hidden states of the voxels by modeling whether they are activated or not. To make this spatial regularization fully adaptive, our approach is first based upon it, classical path-sampling method to approximate a small subset of reference PFs corresponding to pre-specified regions. Then, file proposed extrapolation method allows its to approximate the PFs associated with the Ising fields defined over the remaining brain regions. In comparison with preexisting approaches, our method is robust; to topological inhomogeneities in the definition of the reference regions. As a result, it strongly alleviates the computational burden and makes spatially adaptive regularization of whole brain fMRI datasets feasible. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present a first numerical scheme to estimate Partition Functions (PF) of 3D Ising fields. Our strategy is applied to the context of the joint detection-estimation of brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, where the goal is to automatically recover activated regions and estimate region-dependent, hemodynamic filters. For any region, a specific binary Markov random field may embody spatial correlation over the hidden states of the voxels by modeling whether they are activated or not. To make this spatial regularization fully adaptive, our approach is first based upon it, classical path-sampling method to approximate a small subset of reference PFs corresponding to pre-specified regions. Then, file proposed extrapolation method allows its to approximate the PFs associated with the Ising fields defined over the remaining brain regions. In comparison with preexisting approaches, our method is robust; to topological inhomogeneities in the definition of the reference regions. As a result, it strongly alleviates the computational burden and makes spatially adaptive regularization of whole brain fMRI datasets feasible. (authors)
Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sivakumar, S S; Krishnamurthy, K; Davis, C A
2009-01-01
The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC) used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water) the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor variations in dose output on different days. PMID:20126563
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravichandran R
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor variations in dose output on different days.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thorndahl, Sren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.
2013-01-01
Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel...... radar rainfall extrapolation (nowcast) limits the lead time of the system to two hours. In this paper, the model set-up is tested on a small urban catchment for a period of 1.5 years. The 50 largest events are presented....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)
1997-12-31
The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes the methodology and the results obtained at 1304 A wavelength from an analysis of the AFGL Polar Bear experiment. The basic measurement equipment provided data of a spatial resolution of 20 km over a large portion of the earth. The instrumentation also provided sampled outputs as the footprint scanned along the measurement track. The combination of the fine scanning and large area coverage provided opportunity for a spatial power spectral analysis that in turn provided a means for extrapolation to finer spatial scale
Zope, Rajendra. R.; Dunlap, Brett I.
2005-01-01
Using a new analytic quantum mechanical method based on Slater's Xalpha method, we show that a fairly accurate estimate of the total energy of a molecule can be obtained from the exact energies of its constituent atoms. The mean absolute error in the total energies thus determined for the G2 set of 56 molecules is about 16 kcal/mol, comparable to or better than some popular pure and hybrid density functional models.
Oscar, T P
2015-10-01
Mathematical models that predict the behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting the behavior of Salmonella enterica serotype 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how well the model would predict the behavior of other serotypes of Salmonella stored under the same conditions. To develop the model, ground chicken thigh meat (0.75 cm(3)) was inoculated with 1.7 log Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 and then stored for 0 to 8 -8 to 16C. An automated miniaturized most-probable-number (MPN) method was developed and used for the enumeration of Salmonella. Commercial software (Excel and the add-in program NeuralTools) was used to develop a multilayer feedforward neural network model with one hidden layer of two nodes. The performance of the model was evaluated using the acceptable prediction zone (APZ) method. The number of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stayed the same (P > 0.05) during 8 days of storage at -8 to 8C but increased (P < 0.05) during storage at 9C (+0.6 log) to 16C (+5.1 log). The proportion of residual values (observed minus predicted values) in an APZ (pAPZ) from -1 log (fail-safe) to 0.5 log (fail-dangerous) was 0.939 for the data (n = 426 log MPN values) used in the development of the model. The model had a pAPZ of 0.944 or 0.954 when it was extrapolated to test data (n = 108 log MPN per serotype) for other serotypes (S. enterica serotype Typhimurium var 5-, Kentucky, Typhimurium, and Thompson) of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -4, 4, 12, or 16C under the same experimental conditions. A pAPZ of ?0.7 indicates that a model provides predictions with acceptable bias and accuracy. Thus, the results indicated that the model provided valid predictions of the survival and growth of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -8 to 16C and that the model was validated for extrapolation to four other serotypes of Salmonella. PMID:26408130
Bobin, C; Thiam, C; Bouchard, J
2016-03-01
At LNE-LNHB, a liquid scintillation (LS) detection setup designed for Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) measurements is also used in the ?-channel of a 4?(LS)?-? coincidence system. This LS counter based on 3 photomultipliers was first modeled using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 to enable the simulation of optical photons produced by scintillation and Cerenkov effects. This stochastic modeling was especially designed for the calculation of double and triple coincidences between photomultipliers in TDCR measurements. In the present paper, this TDCR-Geant4 model is extended to 4?(LS)?-? coincidence counting to enable the simulation of the efficiency-extrapolation technique by the addition of a ?-channel. This simulation tool aims at the prediction of systematic biases in activity determination due to eventual non-linearity of efficiency-extrapolation curves. First results are described in the case of the standardization (59)Fe. The variation of the ?-efficiency in the ?-channel due to the Cerenkov emission is investigated in the case of the activity measurements of (54)Mn. The problem of the non-linearity between ?-efficiencies is featured in the case of the efficiency tracing technique for the activity measurements of (14)C using (60)Co as a tracer. PMID:26699674
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unionised ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to freshwater organisms. Yet, most of the available toxicity data on NH3 were predominantly generated from temperate regions, while toxicity data on NH3 derived from tropical species were limited. To address this issue, we first conducted standard acute toxicity tests on NH3 using ten tropical freshwater species. Subsequently, we constructed a tropical species sensitivity distribution (SSD) using these newly generated toxicity data and available tropical toxicity data of NH3, which was then compared with the corresponding temperate SSD constructed from documented temperate acute toxicity data. Our results showed that tropical species were generally more sensitive to NH3 than their temperate counterparts. Based on the ratio between temperate and tropical hazardous concentration 10% values, we recommend an extrapolation factor of four to be applied when surrogate temperate toxicity data or temperate water quality guidelines of NH3 are used for protecting tropical freshwater ecosystems. - Highlights: • We tested acute toxicity of unionized ammonia to 10 tropical freshwater species. • Tropical species are more sensitive to NH3 than their temperate counterparts. • Molluscs are the most sensitive taxon to NH3 and suitable for toxicity testing. • A temperate-to-tropic safety extrapolation factor of 4 against NH3 is recommended. - Tropical freshwater species are more sensitive to NH3 than their temperate counterparts, and direct adoption of temperate WQGs cannot adequately protect tropical freshwater ecosystems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamic phenomena indicative of slipping reconnection and magnetic implosion were found in a time series of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations for the active region 11515, which underwent significant changes in the photospheric fields and produced five C-class flares and one M-class flare over five hours on 2012 July 2. NLFFF extrapolation was performed for the uninterrupted 5 hour period from the 12 minute cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. According to the time-dependent NLFFF model, there was an elongated, highly sheared magnetic flux rope structure that aligns well with an H? filament. This long filament splits sideways into two shorter segments, which further separate from each other over time at a speed of 1-4kms1, much faster than that of the footpoint motion of the magnetic field. During the separation, the magnetic arcade arching over the initial flux rope significantly decreases in height from ?4.5Mm to less than 0.5Mm. We discuss the reality of this modeled magnetic restructuring by relating it to the observations of the magnetic cancellation, flares, a filament eruption, a penumbra formation, and magnetic flows around the magnetic polarity inversion line
Low concentrations and short environmental persistence times of some herbicides make it difficult to develop analytical methods to detect herbicide residues in plants or soils. In contrast, genomics may provide tools to identify herbicide exposure to plants in field settings. Usi...
Predictive Toxicology and In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation (AsiaTox2015)
A significant challenge in toxicology is the too many chemicals problem. Humans and environmental species are exposed to as many as tens of thousands of chemicals, few of which have been thoroughly tested using standard in vivo test methods. This talk will discuss several appro...
MOORE´S LAW EVALUATION AND PROPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE FORECASTING MODEL BASED ON TREND EXTRAPOLATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo D'Emidio
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This study´s core objective is to validate whether the model proposed by Moore (1975 - also known as Moore’s Law – adequately describes the technological evolution of microprocessors. It further poses to verify whether this model is a feasible predictive tool and, finally, present an alternative model. To this extent, the forecasting technique method, based on historical data projections, will be applied. Statistical tests employed presented strong indications that the method proposed by Moore (1975 adequately described the evolution of processor component numbers during the 70s, 80s and 90s. As to the 2000s, however, the same cannot be affirmed and consequently the present study encountered grounding for the need to adapt the model to enable its application as a predictive tool.Key-words: Moore’s Law. Forecast. Technological evolution.
Ezequiel Geremia
2013-01-01
The large size of the datasets produced by medical imaging protocols contributes to the success of supervised discriminative methods for semantic labelling of images. Our study makes use of a general and efficient emerging framework, discriminative random forests, for the detection of brain lesions in multi-modal magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The contribution is three-fold. First, we focus on segmentation of brain lesions which is an essential task to diagnosis, prognosis and therapy plan...
Julija Ogrin Papić; Borut Poljšak
2012-01-01
Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aq...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Reyers, Belinda; Le Roux, Peter C.; Greve, Michelle; Chown, Steven L.
2009-01-01
five tests: the first three compared the predicted community structure against well-documented macroecological patterns; the final two compared published abundance estimates for rare species and the total regional abundance estimate against predicted abundances. Approximately two billion birds were......The estimation of species abundances at regional scales requires a cost-efficient method that can be applied to existing broadscale data. We compared the performance of eight models for estimating species abundance and community structure from presence-absence maps of the southern African avifauna...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Gerken
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.
Extrapolating cosmic ray variations and impacts on life: Morlet wavelet analysis
Zarrouk, N.; Bennaceur, R.
2009-07-01
Exposure to cosmic rays may have both a direct and indirect effect on Earth's organisms. The radiation may lead to higher rates of genetic mutations in organisms, or interfere with their ability to repair DNA damage, potentially leading to diseases such as cancer. Increased cloud cover, which may cool the planet by blocking out more of the Sun's rays, is also associated with cosmic rays. They also interact with molecules in the atmosphere to create nitrogen oxide, a gas that eats away at our planet's ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. On the ground, humans are protected from cosmic particles by the planet's atmosphere. In this paper we give estimated results of wavelet analysis from solar modulation and cosmic ray data incorporated in time-dependent cosmic ray variation. Since solar activity can be described as a non-linear chaotic dynamic system, methods such as neural networks and wavelet methods should be very suitable analytical tools. Thus we have computed our results using Morlet wavelets. Many have used wavelet techniques for studying solar activity. Here we have analysed and reconstructed cosmic ray variation, and we have better depicted periods or harmonics other than the 11-year solar modulation cycles.
Extrapolating ecological risks of ionizing radiation from individuals to populations to ecosystems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Approaches for protecting ecosystems from ionizing radiation are quite different from those used for protecting ecosystems from adverse effects of toxic chemicals. The methods used for chemicals are conceptually similar to those used to assess risks of chemicals to human health in that they focus on the protection of the most sensitive or most highly exposed individuals. The assumption is that if sensitive or maximally exposed species and life stages are protected, then ecosystems will be protected. Radiological protection standards, on the other hand, are explicitly premised on the assumption that organisms, populations and ecosystems all possess compensatory capabilities to allow them to survive in the face of unpredictable natural variation in their environments. These capabilities are assumed to persist in the face of at least some exposure to ionizing radiation. The prevailing approach to radiological protection was developed more than 30 years ago, at a time when the terms risk assessment and risk management were rarely used. The expert review approach used to derive radiological protection standards is widely perceived to be inconsistent with the open, participatory approach that prevails today for the regulation of toxic chemicals. The available data for environmental radionuclides vastly exceeds that available for any chemical. Therefore, given an understanding of dose-response relationships for radiation effects and exposures for individual organisms, it should be possible to develop methods for quantifying effects of radiation on populations. A tiered assessment scheme as well as available population models that could be used for the ecological risk assessment of radionuclides is presented. (author)
Reddy, A V R; Satpati, A. K.
2011-01-01
Dissolution characteristics of copper in hydrochloric acid medium and the effect of 4-amino 1,2,4-triazole (ATA) on the corrosion process have been studied using conventional electrochemical techniques and rotating ring-disc electrodes (RRDEs). Corrosion potential ( c o r r ) and corrosion current density ( c o r r ) were obtained by Tafel extrapolation methods. Charge transfer resistance ( c t ) and double-layer capacitance ( d l ) were obtained from the electrochemical impedance spe...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Reyers, Belinda; Le Roux, Peter C.; Greve, Michelle; Chown, Steven L.
2009-01-01
estimated as occurring in South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. SPO models outperformed the OAR models, due to OAR models assuming environmental homogeneity and yielding scale-dependent estimates. Therefore, OAR models should only be applied across small, homogenous areas. By contrast, SPO models are......The estimation of species abundances at regional scales requires a cost-efficient method that can be applied to existing broadscale data. We compared the performance of eight models for estimating species abundance and community structure from presence-absence maps of the southern African avifauna...... five tests: the first three compared the predicted community structure against well-documented macroecological patterns; the final two compared published abundance estimates for rare species and the total regional abundance estimate against predicted abundances. Approximately two billion birds were...
Kinetic model for extrapolation of combined radiation-thermal accelerated aging experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general theoretical model has been derived for the case of oxidative degradation dominated by the slow breakdown of hydroperoxide species. The model has been used to predict the general form of dose-rate effects for this mechanism. The model also suggests a method for creating isothermal dose-rate curves through a time-temperature dose rate superposition procedure which utilizes no adjustable parameters. The superposition procedure and the kinetic model are quantitatively verified using accelerated aging laboratory data and real-time nuclear power plant aging data on a PVC and a PE material. Although oxidative degradation is discussed in this paper, the general form of the theoretical model should allow it to be applied to oxidative crosslinking as well. 1 reference, 1 figure
Extrapolation of Urn Models via Poissonization: Accurate Measurements of the Microbial Unknown
Lladser, Manuel; Reeder, Jens; 10.1371/journal.pone.0021105
2011-01-01
The availability of high-throughput parallel methods for sequencing microbial communities is increasing our knowledge of the microbial world at an unprecedented rate. Though most attention has focused on determining lower-bounds on the alpha-diversity i.e. the total number of different species present in the environment, tight bounds on this quantity may be highly uncertain because a small fraction of the environment could be composed of a vast number of different species. To better assess what remains unknown, we propose instead to predict the fraction of the environment that belongs to unsampled classes. Modeling samples as draws with replacement of colored balls from an urn with an unknown composition, and under the sole assumption that there are still undiscovered species, we show that conditionally unbiased predictors and exact prediction intervals (of constant length in logarithmic scale) are possible for the fraction of the environment that belongs to unsampled classes. Our predictions are based on a P...
Thomson, C. J.
2005-10-01
Several observations are made concerning the numerical implementation of wide-angle one-way wave equations, using for illustration scalar waves obeying the Helmholtz equation in two space dimensions. This simple case permits clear identification of a sequence of physically motivated approximations of use when the mathematically exact pseudo-differential operator (PSDO) one-way method is applied. As intuition suggests, these approximations largely depend on the medium gradients in the direction transverse to the main propagation direction. A key point is that narrow-angle approximations are to be avoided in the interests of accuracy. Another key consideration stems from the fact that the so-called `standard-ordering' PSDO indicates how lateral interpolation of the velocity structure can significantly reduce computational costs associated with the Fourier or plane-wave synthesis lying at the heart of the calculations. A third important point is that the PSDO theory shows what approximations are necessary in order to generate an exponential one-way propagator for the laterally varying case, representing the intuitive extension of classical integral-transform solutions for a laterally homogeneous medium. This exponential propagator permits larger forward stepsizes. Numerical comparisons with Helmholtz (i.e. full) wave-equation finite-difference solutions are presented for various canonical problems. These include propagation along an interfacial gradient, the effects of a compact inclusion and the formation of extended transmitted and backscattered wave trains by model roughness. The ideas extend to the 3-D, generally anisotropic case and to multiple scattering by invariant embedding. It is concluded that the method is very competitive, striking a new balance between simplifying approximations and computational labour. Complicated wave-scattering effects are retained without the need for expensive global solutions, providing a robust and flexible modelling tool.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to obtain the beta response of survey instruments, the working group no.5 of the C.E.A. Radiation Offices has studied an extrapolation chamber as reference apparatus. The value of the different correcting factors which modify the number of ions pairs collected per mass of air, in other words, the absorbed dose in the air of the cavity is reported. Then, the physical constants (transmission, back-scattering...) which are necessary to pass from the absorbed dose in the air of the cavity, to the absorbed dose in the tissue for a semi-infinite medium below a thickness of 7.5mg/cm2 are given. The absorbed dose in tissue, to within an error of about 4%, can be estimated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Den Tonkelaar, Wim A.M. [TNO Institute of Environmental Science, Delft (Netherlands)
1996-09-06
As an alternative to extensive monitoring a calculating system called CAR Smog was developed. This system extrapolates the results of hourly measurements of CO, NO{sub x} and NO{sub 2} from 13 street stations of the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network to air pollution levels in busy (standard) streets in all large Dutch cities. Basic assumptions are that hourly fluctuations in emissions, dispersion characteristics and the atmospheric NO{sub 2} formation rate in all streets will approximately be the same. Measured and modelled concentrations agree well with each other, even during smog episodes. Since 1993 the system has been in use in The Netherlands and the results are available through Viditel within a timespan of one hour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.
1994-11-01
The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.
Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten
2015-09-01
Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental data (12 evts/?N???N reactions) were derived from the analysis of 450000 pictures obtained with the 2 meter hydrogen bubble chamber at CERN. The Chew-Low extrapolation method was used to obtain total and differential cross-sections of ?+0?-??+0?- reactions. Pseudo-peripherism hypothesis, in agreement with data at energy less 1 GeV, was modified to take into account the non-vanishing reactions amplitude at t=0, observed above 1 GeV. Several phase shift analyses were done, either with energy parametrisation of phase shifts, or at fixed energy. Main results concern the parameters of S* (Jsup(P)=0+) resonance which come out from a meromorphic parametrisation of the S0 wave amplitude in the region of the KantiK channel threshold (987 MeV) and the dynamical wave structures in the f0 (Jsup(P)=2+) resonance region. The agreement observed between these results and those of main previous experiments is a proof of the usefulness of the extrapolation method above 1 GeV
A Novel Gaussian Extrapolation Approach for 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Saturated Protein Spots.
Natale, Massimo; Caiazzo, Alfonso; Ficarra, Elisa
2016-01-01
Analysis of images obtained from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) is a topic of utmost importance in bioinformatics research, since commercial and academic softwarecurrently available have proven to be neither completely effective nor fully automatic, often requiring manual revision and refinement of computer generated matches. In this chapter, we present an effective technique for the detection and the reconstruction of over-saturated protein spots. Firstly, the algorithm reveals overexposed areas, where spots may be truncated, and plateau regions caused by smeared and overlapping spots. Next, it reconstructs the correct distribution of pixel values in these overexposed areas and plateau regions, using a two-dimensional least-squares fitting based on a generalized Gaussian distribution.Pixel correction in saturated and smeared spots allows more accurateproteins quantification, providing more reliable image analysis results. The method is validated for processing highly exposed 2-D GE images, comparing reconstructed spots with the corresponding non-saturated image. The results demonstrate that the algorithm enables correct spot quantification. PMID:26611417
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A.
2009-01-01
The estimation of species abundances at regional scales requires a cost-efficient method that can be applied to existing broadscale data. We compared the performance of eight models for estimating species abundance and community structure from presence-absence maps of the southern African avifauna. Six models were based on the intraspecific occupancy-abundance relationship (OAR); the other two on the scaling pattern of species occupancy (SPO), which quantifies the decline in species range size when measured across progressively finer scales. The performance of these models was examined using five tests: the first three compared the predicted community structure against well-documented macroecological patterns; the final two compared published abundance estimates for rare species and the total regional abundance estimate against predicted abundances. Approximately two billion birds were estimated as occurring in South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. SPO models outperformed the OAR models, due to OAR models assuming environmental homogeneity and yielding scale-dependent estimates. Therefore, OAR models should only be applied across small, homogenous areas. By contrast, SPO models are suitable for data at larger spatial scales because they are based on the scale dependence of species range size and incorporate environmental heterogeneity (assuming fractal habitat structure or performing a Bayesian estimate of occupancy). Therefore, SPO models are recommended for assemblage-scale regional abundance estimation based on spatially explicit presence-absence data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: The ability to predict normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is essential for NTCP-based treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to estimate the Lyman NTCP model parameters for liver irradiation from published clinical data of different fractionation regimens. A new expression of normalized total dose (NTD) is proposed to convert NTCP data between different treatment schemes. Method and Materials: The NTCP data of radiation- induced liver disease (RILD) from external beam radiation therapy for primary liver cancer patients were selected for analysis. The data were collected from 4 institutions for tumor sizes in the range of of 8-10 cm. The dose per fraction ranged from 1.5 Gy to 6 Gy. A modified linear-quadratic model with two components corresponding to radiosensitive and radioresistant cells in the normal liver tissue was proposed to understand the new NTD formalism. Results: There are five parameters in the model: TD50, m, n, ?/? and f. With two parameters n and ?/? fixed to be 1.0 and 2.0 Gy, respectively, the extracted parameters from the fitting are TD50(1) = 40.3 8.4Gy, m =0.36 0.09, f = 0.156 0.074 Gy and TD50(1) = 23.9 5.3Gy, m = 0.41 0.15, f = 0.0 0.04 Gy for patients with liver cirrhosis scores of Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B, respectively. The fitting results showed that the liver cirrhosis score significantly affects fractional dose dependence of NTD. Conclusion: The Lyman parameters generated presently and the new form of NTD may be used to predict NTCP for treatment planning of innovative liver irradiation with different fractionations, such as hypofractioned stereotactic body radiation therapy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Incorporation of temperature corrections is gaining priority regarding geochemical modelling computer codes with built-in thermodynamic databases related to performance assessment in nuclear waste management. As no experimental data at elevated temperatures are available e.g. for many actinide and lanthanide species, the simplest one-term extrapolations of equilibrium constants are usually assumed in practice. Such extrapolations, if set inappropriately, may accumulate large additional uncertainty at temperatures above 100 deg C. Such errors can be avoided because one-, two- and three-term extrapolations have great predictive potential for isoelectric/iso-coulombic reactions which has to be explored and extensively used in geochemical modelling by LMA and/or GEM algorithm. This can be done efficiently and consistently via implementing a built-in 'hybrid' database combining 'kernel' thermochemical/EoS data for substances with the 'extension' reaction-defined data for other species. (author)
Perez, Gabriel
2005-01-01
This paper shows a simple implementation of the Histogram Method for extrapolations in Monte Carlo simulations, using the moments of the operators that define the energy, instead of their histogram. This implementation is suitable for extrapolation over several operators, a type of calculation that is hindered by computer memory limitations. Examples of this approach are given for the 2-D Ising model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastos, Fernanda Martins
2015-04-01
In laboratories involving Radiological Protection practices, it is usual to use reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and to study their response in terms of energy dependence. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established four series of reference X-rays beams in the ISO- 4037 standard: the L and H series, as low and high air Kerma rates, respectively, the N series of narrow spectrum and W series of wide spectrum. The X-rays beams with tube potential below 30 kV, called 'low energy beams' are, in most cases, critical as far as the determination of their parameters for characterization purpose, such as half-value layer. Extrapolation chambers are parallel plate ionization chambers that have one mobile electrode that allows variation of the air volume in its interior. These detectors are commonly used to measure the quantity Absorbed Dose, mostly in the medium surface, based on the extrapolation of the linear ionization current as a function of the distance between the electrodes. In this work, a characterization of a model 23392 PTW extrapolation chamber was done in low energy X-rays beams of the ISO- 4037 standard, by determining the polarization voltage range through the saturation curves and the value of the true null electrode spacing. In addition, the metrological reliability of the extrapolation chamber was studied with measurements of the value of leakage current and repeatability tests; limit values were established for the proper use of the chamber. The PTW23392 extrapolation chamber was calibrated in terms of air Kerma in some of the ISO radiation series of low energy; the traceability of the chamber to the National Standard Dosimeter was established. The study of energy dependency of the extrapolation chamber and the assessment of the uncertainties related to the calibration coefficient were also done; it was shown that the energy dependence was reduced to 4% when the extrapolation technique was used. Finally, the first half-value layers were determined for the low energy ISO N series with the extrapolation chamber, in collimated and uncollimated beams and it was showed that this detector is feasible for such measurements. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and HaCaT • Systemic metabolism was modeled using hepatocyte cultures. • Toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied to estimate systemic exposure. • There was a good agreement between in vitro and in vivo data
Transport equation solving methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aim: To assess the value of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and an iterative frequency split-normalized metal artefact reduction (IFS-MAR) algorithm compared to filtered back projections (FBP) from single-energy CT (SECT) for artefact reduction in internally fixated humeral fractures. Materials and methods: Six internally fixated cadaveric humeri were examined using SECT and DECT. Data were reconstructed using FBP, IFS-MAR, and mono-energetic DECT extrapolations. Image analysis included radiodensity values and qualitative evaluation of artefacts, image quality, and level of confidence for localizing screw tips. Results: Radiodensity values of streak artefacts were significantly different (p < 0.05) between FBP (−104 ± 222) and IFS-MAR (73 ± 122), and between FBP and DECT (32 ± 151), without differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.553). Compared to FBP, qualitative artefacts were significantly reduced using IFS-MAR (p < 0.001) and DECT (p < 0.05), without significant differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.219). Image quality significantly (p = 0.016) improved for IFS-MAR and DECT compared to FBP, without significant differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.553). The level of confidence for screw tip localization was assessed as best for DECT in all cases. Conclusion: Both IFS-MAR in SECT and mono-energetic DECT produce improved image quality and a reduction of metal artefacts. Screw tip positions can be most confidently assessed using DECT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Deutsch
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Rates of denitrification in sediments were measured with the isotope pairing technique at different sites in the southern and central Baltic Sea. They varied between 0.5 ?mol m^{?2} h^{?1} in sands and 28.7 ?mol m^{?2} h^{?1} in muddy sediments and showed a good correlation to the organic carbon contents of the surface sediments. N-removal rates via sedimentary denitrification were estimated for the entire Baltic Sea calculating sediment specific denitrification rates and interpolating them to the whole Baltic Sea area. Another approach was carried out by using the relationship between the organic carbon content and the rate of denitrification. For the entire Baltic Sea the N-removal by denitrification in sediments varied between 426652 kt N a^{?1}, which is around 4873% of the external N inputs delivered via rivers, coastal point sources and atmospheric deposition. Moreover, an expansion of the anoxic bottom areas was considered under the assumption of a rising oxycline from 100 to 80 m water depth. This leads to an increase of the area with anoxic conditions and an overall decrease in sedimentary denitrification by 14%. Overall we can show here that this type of data extrapolation is a powerful tool to estimate the nitrogen losses for a whole coastal sea and may be applicable to other coastal regions and enclosed seas, too.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maingi, R [PPPL
2014-07-01
Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.
Extrapolation of IAPWS-IF97 data: The saturation pressure of H2O in the critical region
Ustyuzhanin, E. E.; Ochkov, V. F.; Shishakov, V. V.; Rykov, A. V.
2015-11-01
Some literature sources and web sites are analyzed in this report. These sources contain an information about thermophysical properties of H2O including the vapor pressure Ps. (Ps,T)-data have a form of the international standard tables named as IAPWS-IF97 data. Our analysis shows that traditional databases represent (Ps,T)-data at t > 0.002, here t = (Tc ? T)/Tc is a reduced temperature. It is an interesting task to extrapolate IAPWS-IF97 data in to the critical region and to get (Ps,T)-data at t laws of the scaling theory (ST). A combined model (CM) is chosen as a form, F(t,D,B), to express a function ln(Ps/Pc) in the critical region including t laws of ST are taken into account to elaborate F(t, D, B). Adjustable coefficients (B) are determined by fitting CM to input (Ps,T)-points those belong to IAPWS-IF97 data. Application results are got with a help of CM in the critical region including values of the first and the second derivatives for Ps(T). Some models Ps(T) are compared with CM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parabens have been reported as potential endocrine disrupters and are widely used in consumer projects including cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. We report on the development of a PBPK model for methyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben. The model was parameterized through a combination of QSAR for tissue solubility and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for hydrolysis in portals of entry including intestine and skin as well as in the primary site of metabolism, the liver. Overall, the model provided very good agreement with published time-course data in blood and urine from controlled dosing studies in rat and human, and demonstrates the potential value of quantitative IVIVE in expanding the use of human biomonitoring data in safety assessment. An in vitro based cumulative margin of safety (MOS) was calculated by comparing the effective concentrations from an in vitro assay of estrogenicity to the free paraben concentrations predicted by the model to be associated with the 95th percentile urine concentrations reported in NHANES (2009–2010 collection period). The calculated MOS for adult females was 108, whereas the MOS for males was 444
Powers, Jennifer S; Corre, Marife D; Twine, Tracy E; Veldkamp, Edzo
2011-04-12
Accurately quantifying changes in soil carbon (C) stocks with land-use change is important for estimating the anthropogenic fluxes of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and for implementing policies such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) that provide financial incentives to reduce carbon dioxide fluxes from deforestation and land degradation. Despite hundreds of field studies and at least a dozen literature reviews, there is still considerable disagreement on the direction and magnitude of changes in soil C stocks with land-use change. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies that quantified changes in soil C stocks with land use in the tropics. Conversion from one land use to another caused significant increases or decreases in soil C stocks for 8 of the 14 transitions examined. For the three land-use transitions with sufficient observations, both the direction and magnitude of the change in soil C pools depended strongly on biophysical factors of mean annual precipitation and dominant soil clay mineralogy. When we compared the distribution of biophysical conditions of the field observations to the area-weighted distribution of those factors in the tropics as a whole or the tropical lands that have undergone conversion, we found that field observations are highly unrepresentative of most tropical landscapes. Because of this geographic bias we strongly caution against extrapolating average values of land-cover change effects on soil C stocks, such as those generated through meta-analysis and literature reviews, to regions that differ in biophysical conditions. PMID:21444813
What you see may not always be what you get : Bioavailability and extrapolation from in vitro tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Bo
2008-01-01
In human risk assessment, bioavailability needs to be considered when relying on in vitro toxicity results. For single chemicals, this quantitative challenge is often handled through a bioavailability factor. For mixtures, however, things are more complicated. Thus, individual constituents may not only interact toxicodynamically and toxicokinetically, but the composition of constituents reaching the target site may also differ from what was present at the site of exposure due to the differences in their bioavailabilities. A recent study concluded on the in vivo potential of Australian tea-tree oil (TTO) to act as an endocrine disruptor based on an in vitro protocol measuring the growth of MCF-7 cells following chemical exposure to TTO. TTO is primarily used topically in humans, and is not a single chemical but is a mixture with some constituents penetrating the skin which others do not. The present study evaluated in an identical in vitro model to what extent TTO and its skin penetrating constituents affected the growth of MCF-7 cells. The estrogenic potency of TTO was confirmed, but none of the bioavailable TTO constituents demonstrated estrogenicity. The present study, therefore, cautions in vitro to in vivo extrapolations from the mixtures of constituents with potentially varying bioavailabilities. Udgivelsesdato: June
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Time-temperature superposition has been applied in combined radiation-thermal environments, yielding an empirical time-temperature-dose rate shifting procedure. The procedure derives an isothermal curve for a given amount of material damage versus dose rate at a selected reference temperature by finding the Arrhenius activation energy which causes higher-temperature, dose-rate data to superpose when shifted to the reference temperature. The resulting superposed curve extends to much lower dose rates which, in effect, are experimentally inaccessible due to the long time periods which would be required. This procedure therefore allows meaningful predictions to be made for long-term, low dose rate, radiation aging conditions. We have successfully applied the time-temperature-dose rate superposition approach to four different materials. For two of these materials, extrapolated predictions based on the superposed data were found to be in excellent agreement with 12 year, low dose rate aging results. Additional confidence in the approach results from the observation that the empirically-derived activation energies for all four materials can be quantitatively rationalized. (author)
Ferrada, Evandro; Melo, Francisco
2007-01-01
The accurate assessment of structural errors plays a key role in protein structure prediction, constitutes the first step of protein structure refinement, and has a major impact on subsequent functional inference from structural data. In this study, we assess and compare the ability of different full atom knowledge-based potentials to detect small and localized errors in comparative protein structure models of known accuracy. We have evaluated the effect of incorporating close nonbonded pairwise atom terms on the task of classifying residue modeling accuracy. Since the direct and unbiased derivation of close nonbonded terms from current experimental data is not possible, we extrapolated those terms from the corresponding pseudo-energy functions of a nonlocal knowledge-based potential. It is shown that this methodology clearly improves the detection of errors in protein models, suggesting that a proper description of close nonbonded terms is important to achieve a more complete and accurate description of native protein conformations. The use of close nonbonded terms directly derived from experimental data exhibited a poor performance, demonstrating that these terms cannot be accurately obtained by using the current data and methodology. Some external knowledge-based energy functions that are widely used in model assessment also performed poorly, which suggests that the benchmark of models and the specific error detection task tested in this study constituted a difficult challenge. The methodology presented here could be useful to detect localized structural errors not only in high-quality protein models, but also in experimental protein structures. PMID:17586774
Tassis, Konstantinos; Pavlidou, Vasiliki
2015-07-01
Recent Planck results have shown that radiation from the cosmic microwave background passes through foregrounds in which aligned dust grains produce polarized dust emission, even in regions of the sky with the lowest level of dust emission. One of the most commonly used ways to remove the dust foreground is to extrapolate the polarized dust emission signal from frequencies where it dominates (e.g. 350 GHz) to frequencies commonly targeted by cosmic microwave background experiments (e.g. 150 GHz). In this Letter, we describe an interstellar medium effect that can lead to decorrelation of the dust emission polarization pattern between different frequencies due to multiple contributions along the line of sight. Using a simple 2-cloud model we show that there are two conditions under which this decorrelation can be large: (a) the ratio of polarized intensities between the two clouds changes between the two frequencies; (b) the magnetic fields between the two clouds contributing along a line of sight are significantly misaligned. In such cases, the 350 GHz polarized sky map is not predictive of that at 150 GHz. We propose a possible correction for this effect, using information from optopolarimetric surveys of dichroicly absorbed starlight.
Maingi, R.
2014-11-01
Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. Two strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R&D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and enhanced pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength ? 100G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both sides of the PIL and the transverse field has a low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, extrapolating a large-scale FR in such a case represents a far more difficult challenge. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is sufficient for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Jos Francisco dos, Reis Sobrinho; Levi de Oliveira, Bueno.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Hot tensile and creep data were obtained for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel, ASTM A387 Gr.22CL2, at the temperatures of 500-550-600-650-700 C. Using the concept of equivalence between hot tensile data and creep data, the results were analyzed according to the methodology based on Kachanov Continuum Damage Mechan [...] ics proposed by Penny, which suggests the possibility of using short time creep data obtained in laboratory for extrapolation to long operating times corresponding to tens of thousands hours. The hot tensile data (converted to creep) define in a better way the region where ?=0 and the creep data define the region where ?=1, according to the methodology. Extrapolation to 10,000 h and 100,000 h is performed and the results compared with results obtained by other extrapolation procedures such as the Larson-Miller and Manson-Haferd methodologies. Extrapolation from ASTM and NIMS Datasheets for 10,000 h and 100,000 h as well as data from other authors on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel are used for assessing the reliability of the results.
cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amin, Mohammed A., E-mail: maaismail@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Ibrahim, Mohamed M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516 (Egypt); Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia)
2011-03-15
Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: GlyD1 exhibits inhibiting properties more than GlyD2 and Gly. Inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. Inhibition efficiency decreases with temperature, suggesting physical adsorption. Validation of corrosion rates measured by Tafel extrapolation method is confirmed. - Abstract: A newly synthesized glycine derivative (GlyD1), 2-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylamino)acetic acid hydrochloride, was used to control mild steel corrosion in 4.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions at different temperatures (278-338 K). Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization resistance (LPR) and impedance methods were used to test corrosion inhibitor efficiency. An independent method of chemical analysis, namely ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) was also used to test validity of corrosion rate measured by Tafel extrapolation method. Results obtained were compared with an available glycine derivative (GlyD2) and glycine (Gly). Tafel polarization measurements revealed that the three tested inhibitors function as mixed-type compounds. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased with temperature, suggesting the occurrence of physical adsorption. The adsorptive behaviour of the three inhibitors followed Temkin-type isotherm and the standard free energy changes of adsorption ({Delta}G{sub ads}{sup o}) were evaluated for the three tested inhibitors as a function of temperature. The inhibition performance of GlyD1 was much better than those of GlyD2 and Gly itself. Results obtained from the different corrosion evaluation techniques were in good agreement.
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Testing was performed to determine if gravel particles will creep into and puncture the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner in the catch basin of a grout vault over a nominal 30-year period. Testing was performed to support a design without a protective geotextile cover after the geotextile was removed from the design. Recently, a protective geotextile cover over the liner was put back into the design. The data indicate that the geotextile has an insignificant effect on the creep of gravel into the liner. However, the geotextile may help to protect the liner during construction. Two types of tests were performed to evaluate the potential for creep-related puncture. In the first type of test, a very sensitive instrument measured the rate at which a probe crept into HDPE over a 20-minute period at temperatures of 176 degrees F to 212 degrees F (80 degrees C to 100 degrees C). The second type of test consisted of placing the liner between gravel and mortar at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) and 45.1 psi overburden pressure for periods up to 1 year. By combining data from the two tests, the long-term behavior of the creep was extrapolated to 30 years of service. After 30 years of service, the liner will be in a nearly steady condition and further creep will be extremely small. The results indicate that the creep of gravel into the liner will not create a puncture during service at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C). The estimated creep over 30 years is expected to be less than 25 mils out of the total initial thickness of 60 mils. The test temperature of 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) corresponds to the design basis temperature of the vault. Lower temperatures are expected at the liner, which makes the test conservative. Only the potential for failure of the liner resulting from creep of gravel is addressed in this report
Pellicciotti, F.; Ragettli, S.; Carenzo, M.; Ayala, A.; McPhee, J. P.; Stoffel, M.
2014-12-01
While glacier responses to climate are understood in general terms and in their main trends, model based projections are affected by the type of model used and uncertainties in the meteorological input data, among others. Recent works have attempted at improving glacio-hydrological models by including neglected processes and investigating uncertainties in their outputs. In this work, we select two knowledge gaps in current modelling practices and illustrate their importance through modelling with a fully distributed mass balance model that includes some of the state of the art approaches for calculations of glacier ablation, accumulation and glacier geometry changes. We use an advanced mass balance model applied to glaciers in the Andes of Chile, Swiss Alps and Nepalese Himalaya to investigate two issues that seem of importance for a sound assessment of glacier changes: 1) the use of physically-based models of glacier ablation (energy balance) versus more empirical models (enhanced temperature index approaches); 2) the importance of the correct extrapolation of air temperature forcing on glaciers and the large uncertainty in model outputs associated with it. The ablation models are calibrated with a large amount of data from in-situ campaigns, and distributed observations of air temperature used to calculate lapse rates and calibrate a thermodynamic model of temperature distribution. We show that no final assessment can be made of what type of melt model is more appropriate or accurate for simulation of glacier ablation at the glacier scale, not even for relatively well studied glaciers. Both models perform in a similar manner at low elevations, but important differences are evident at high elevations, where lack of data prevents a final statement on which model better represent the actual ablation amounts. Accurate characterization of air temperature is important for correct simulations of glacier mass balance and volume changes. Substantial differences are obtained if we use the common approach of constant in time LRs (even if properly calibrated) or more sophisticated approaches accounting for the different thermal regime off and on-glacier, as distinct thermal conditions exist on and off glacier associated with the presence of the glacier boundary layer where katabatic flow is important.
A study of the inhibition of iron corrosion in HCl solutions by some amino acids
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The performance of three selected amino acids, namely alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys) and S-methyl cysteine (S-MCys) as safe corrosion inhibitors for iron in aerated stagnant 1.0 M HCl solutions was evaluated by Tafel polarization and impedance measurements. Results indicate that Ala acts mainly as a cathodic inhibitor, while Cys and S-MCys function as mixed-type inhibitors. Cys, which contains a mercapto group in its molecular structure, was the most effective among the inhibitors tested, while Ala was less effective than S-MCys. The low inhibition efficiency recorded for S-MCys compared with that of Cys was attributed to steric effects caused by the substituent methyl on the mercapto group. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), were also applied to make accurate determination of corrosion rates. Validation of the Tafel extrapolation method for measuring corrosion rates was tested. Rates of corrosion rates (in ?m y-1) obtained from Tafel extrapolation method are in good agreement with those measured using EFM and ICP methods. Some theoretical studies, including molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT), were also employed to establish the correlation between the structure (molecular and electronic) of the three tested inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency. Adsorption via hydrogen bonding was discussed here based on some theoretical studies. Experimental and theoretical results were in good agreement.
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Schabel, C.; Bongers, M.; Grosse, U.; Mangold, S.; Claussen, C.D.; Thomas, C. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sedlmair, M. [Siemens AG, Forchheim (Germany). Healthcare; Korn, A. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology
2014-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate a novel monoenergetic post-processing algorithm (MEI+) in patients with poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Materials and Methods: 25 patients were retrospectively included in this study. Late-phase imaging of the upper abdomen, which was acquired in dual-energy mode (100/140 kV), was used as a model for poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Traditional monoenergetic images (MEI), linearly weighted mixed images with different mixing ratios (MI), sole 100 and 140 kV and MEI+ images were calculated. MEI+ is a novel technique which applies frequency-based mixing of the low keV images and an image of optimal keV from a noise perspective to combine the benefits of both image stacks. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the intrahepatic vasculature (IHV) and liver parenchyma (LP) were objectively measured and depiction of IHV was subjectively rated and correlated with portal venous imaging by two readers in consensus. Results: MEI+ was able to increase the SNR of the IHV (5.7 0.4 at 40 keV) and LP (4.9 1.0 at 90 keV) and CNR (2.1 0.6 at 40 keV) greatly compared to MEI (5.1 1.1 at 80 keV, 4.7 1.0 at 80 keV, 1.0 0.4 at 70 keV), MI (5.2 1.1 M5:5, 4.8 1.0 M5:5, 1.0 3.5 M9:1), sole 100 kV images (4.4 1.0, 3.7 0.8, 1.0 0.3) and 140 kV images (2.8 0.5, 3.1 0.6, 0.1 0.2). Subjective assessment rated MEI+ of virtual 40 keV superior to all other images. Conclusion: MEI+ is a very promising algorithm for monoenergetic extrapolation which is able to overcome noise limitations associated with traditional monoenergetic techniques at low virtual keV levels and consequently does not suffer from a decline of SNR and CNR at low keV values. This algorithm allows an improvement of IHV depiction in the presence of poor contrast. (orig.)
Raine, R.; HAINES, A.; Sensky, T.; Hutchings, A.; Larkin, K; Black, N
2002-01-01
Objectives: To determine the strength of evidence for the effectiveness of mental health interventions for patients with three common somatic conditions (chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic back pain). To assess whether results obtained in secondary care can be extrapolated to primary care and suggest how future trials should be designed to provide more rigorous evidence. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: Five electronic databases, key texts, referen...
On extrapolation blowups in the
Fiorenza Alberto; Krbec Miroslav; Capone Claudia
2006-01-01
Yano's extrapolation theorem dated back to 1951 establishes boundedness properties of a subadditive operator acting continuously in for close to and/or taking into as and/or with norms blowing up at speed and/or , . Here we give answers in terms of Zygmund, Lorentz-Zygmund and small Lebesgue spaces to what happens if as . The study has been motivated by current investigations of convolution maximal functions in stochastic analysis, where the problem occurs for . We also touch the ...
Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang
2014-01-01
Solar filament are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, from the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is the first in that current NLFFF extrapolations with presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion line (PIL) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of a FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength $\\lesssim 100$ G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both side of the PIL and the transverse field has a low value of signal-to-noise ratio. Thus it represents a far more difficult challenge to extrapolate a large-sc...
On the Spectroscopic Method of Measuring the Size of the Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Beloussov, I. V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Dobinda, I. I.
2014-01-01
The dependences of the fundamental transition on the semiconductor quantum dot size obtained experimentally at various temperatures using different measuring methods are analyzed and compared. The possibility to extrapolate the results for the case of arbitrary temperature is discussed.
The proposed paradigm for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century supports the development of mechanistically-based, high-throughput in vitro assays as a potential cost effective and scientifically-sound alternative to some whole animal hazard testing. To accomplish this long-term...
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In this paper, we propose a fast numerical scheme to estimate Partition Functions (PF) of symmetric Potts fields. Our strategy is first validated on 2D two-color Potts fields and then on 3D two- and three-color Potts fields. It is then applied to the joint detection-estimation of brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, where the goal is to automatically recover activated, deactivated and inactivated brain regions and to estimate region dependent hemodynamic filters. For any brain region, a specific 3D Potts field indeed embodies the spatial correlation over the hidden states of the voxels by modeling whether they are activated, deactivated or inactive. To make spatial regularization adaptive, the PFs of the Potts fields over all brain regions are computed prior to the brain activity estimation. Our approach is first based upon a classical path-sampling method to approximate a small subset of reference PFs corresponding to pre-specified regions. Then, we propose an extrapolation method that allows us to approximate the PFs associated to the Potts fields defined over the remaining brain regions. In comparison with preexisting methods either based on a path sampling strategy or mean-field approximations, our contribution strongly alleviates the computational cost and makes spatially adaptive regularization of whole brain fMRI datasets feasible. It is also robust against grid inhomogeneities and efficient irrespective of the topological configurations of the brain regions. (authors)
Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry
Goodson, David Z
2011-01-01
Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistrypresents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical
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The recent demonstration that transformation of cultured cells can be induced by exposure to DNA fragments prepared from normal mouse tissues provides experimental support to the gene transfer-misrepair hypothesis of radiation carcinogenesis. It is predicted that the proposed mechanism implies a non-linear extrapolation model for the calculation of cancer risks caused by very low doses of ionizing radiation of low LET. It also follows from this hypothesis that X- and ?-radiation delivered at an extremely low dose rate will be less carcinogenic than at high dose rate, in particular where low total doses are concerned. (author)
Mara Victoria Casares; de Cabo, Laura I.; Rafael S. Seoane; Natale, Oscar E.; Milagros Castro Ros; Cristian Weigandt; de Iorio, Alicia F.
2012-01-01
In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50) to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96?h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42?mg Cu L?1. The 96?h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655?mg L?1 (0.823 ? 0.488). 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722?mg L?1. A...
Xu, Cong; Quinney, Sara K; Guo, Yingying; Hall, Stephen D; Li, Lang; Desta, Zeruesenay
2013-01-01
Efavirenz is mainly cleared by CYP2B6. The CYP2B6*6 allele is associated with lower efavirenz clearance. Efavirenz clearance was predictable using in vitro data for carriers of the CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype, but the prediction in carriers of the CYP2B6*6 allele was poor. To test the hypothesis that incorporation of mechanism of reduced efavirenz metabolism by the CYP2B6*6 allele can predict the genetic effect on efavirenz pharmacokinetics, in vitroin vivo extrapolation of efavirenz clearance was ...
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The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Pedro, Hfig; Elvio, Giasson; Pedro Rodolfo Siqueira, Vendrame.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar metodologias de mapeamento digital de solos (MDS) e avaliar a possibilidade de extrapolao de mapas entre reas fisiograficamente semelhantes. A rea de referncia para o treinamento do modelo localizou-se no Municpio de Sentinela do Sul, RS, e a extrapolao f [...] oi feita para o Municpio Cerro Grande do Sul, RS. Desenvolveram-se pelo MDS modelos com o uso de variveis ambientais, como preditoras, e as classes de solos - obtidas de um levantamento convencional na escala 1:50.000 - como variveis dependentes. Testou-se o uso combinado de dois modelos de rvore de deciso (AD), treinados em duas paisagens com diferentes classes de drenagem. Para Sentinela do Sul, a concordncia dos mapas preditos com os produzidos pelo levantamento convencional foi avaliada por matrizes de erro. Como a importncia dos erros de mapeamento varivel, criou-se uma matriz ponderada, para atribuir diferentes importncias aos erros especficos de mapeamento entre as distintas unidades de mapeamento. A acurcia do mapa de Cerro Grande do Sul foi avaliada pela verdade de campo. A extrapolao dos mapas gera resultados satisfatrios, com acurcia maior do que 75%. O uso de modelos com duas AD separadas por paisagens homogneas gera mapas extrapolados com maior acurcia, avaliada pela verdade de campo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to test methodologies for digital soil mapping (DSM) and to evaluate the possibility of map extrapolation between physiographically similar areas. The reference area for model training was located at the municipality of Sentinela do Sul, in the state of Rio Grand do Su [...] l (RS), Brazil, and the extrapolation was done for the municipality of Cerro Grande do Sul, RS. Models were developed by DSM using environmental variables as predictors, and soil classes - obtained from a conventional soil survey at 1:50,000 scale - as dependent variables. The combined use of two decision trees (DT), trained in two landscapes with different drainage classes, was tested. For Sentinela do Sul, the agreement between the predicted maps with the ones produced by conventional survey was evaluated using error matrices. Since the importance of mapping errors is variable, a weighted error matrix was created to assign different importances to specific mapping errors between different mapping units. Map accuracy of Cerro Grande do Sul was evaluated by ground truth. Map extrapolation yields satisfactory results, with accuracy higher than 75%. The use of models with two DTs divided by homogeneous landscapes generates extrapolated maps with a greater accuracy, evaluated by ground truth.
This study focuses on the application of electrochemical approaches to drinking water copper corrosion problems. Applying electrochemical approaches combined with copper solubility measurements, and solid surface analysis approaches were discussed. Tafel extrapolation and Electro...
Zou, Peng; Liu, Xingrong; Wong, Susan; Feng, Meihua Rose; Liederer, Bianca M
2013-08-01
Biliary clearance (CLb ) is often underestimated by in vitro-in vivo extrapolation from sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a universal correction factor with transporter-based correction factors in correcting underestimation of CLb . The apparent in vitro CLb of a training set of 21 compounds was determined using the SCH model and extrapolated to apparent in vivo CLb (CLb, app ). A universal correction factor (10.2) was obtained by a linear regression of the predicted CLb, app and observed in vivo CLb of training set compounds and applied to an independent test set (n = 20); the corrected CLb predictions of 13 compounds were within twofold error of observed values. Furthermore, two transporter-based correction factors (Organic anion transporting polypeptides/multidrug-resistance-related protein 2 and diffusion/P-glycoprotein) were estimated by linear regression analysis of training set compounds. The applications of the two correction factors to the test set resulted in improved prediction precision. In conclusion, both the universal correction factor and transporter-based correction factors provided reasonable corrections of CLb values, which are often underestimated by the SCH model. The use of transporter-based correction factors resulted in an even greater improvement of predictions for compounds with intermediate-to-high CLb values. PMID:23712819
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Thiosemicarbazones have attracted great pharmacological interest because of their biological properties, such as cytotoxic activity against multiple strains of human tumors. Due to the excellent properties of 64Cu, the copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone ( (64Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl) was developed for tumor detection by positron emission tomography. The radiopharmaceuticals were produced in the nuclear reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1 from CDTN. At the present work, (64Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for (64Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 64Cu in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)
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The austenitic stainless steel X6CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) that is used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep tested in a temperature range of 550-6500C under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program ('Extrapolation-Program') lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3 x 104 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to >= 105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out over temperature range of 5500C - 7500C. The present report describes the state in the running program with test-times up to 35.000 hours. Besides the creep-rupture behaviour it is possible to make a distinct quantitativ statement for the creep-behaviour and ductility. Extensive metallographic examinations show the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (orig.)
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The austenitic stainless steel X6CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) that is used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep-tested in a temperature range of 550-6500C under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program ( Extrapolation Program ) lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3 x 104 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to >= 105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out over temperature range of 550-7500C. The present report describes the state in the total running program with test-times up to 55 000 hours. Besides the creep-rupture behaviour it is possible to make a distinct quantitativ statement for the creep-behaviour and ductility. Extensive metallographic and electronmicroscopic examinations show the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (orig.)
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An attempt is made to determine the dose within 24,48 and 72 hours of eventual exposure of healthy individuals to ionizing radiation through extrapolation of data retrieved from rats exposed to irradiation with 1, 3, 6 and 9 Gy X-rays. Seven clinic-chemical parameters are used: urea in the urine, taurine in the urine, urea in the serum, serum alkaline phosphatase, total serum lipids, sialic acid and thromboxane in the serum. A special formula is worked out and used for extrapolation of the experimental data, retrieved from irradiated rats, with due consideration to differences in the intensity of metabolic processes and species' radiosensitivity of rats and humans. The values of the aforementioned parameters that could be obtained upon eventual exposure of persons to ionizing irradiation are determined through computerization of the experimental data. It is believed that an accessible model for radiation dose assessment in the first three days after accidental exposure of human beings to ionizing irradiation is created. 5 refs., 4 figs. (author)
Casares, Mara Victoria; de Cabo, Laura I.; Seoane, Rafael S.; Natale, Oscar E.; Castro Ros, Milagros; Weigandt, Cristian; de Iorio, Alicia F.
2012-01-01
In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50) to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96?h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42?mg Cu L?1. The 96?h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655?mg L?1 (0.823 ? 0.488). 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722?mg L?1. Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test. PMID:22523491
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The austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) that is used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep tested in a temperature range of 550-650 deg under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program (''Extrapolation-Program'') lies in the knowledge of the cree-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3X10-4 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to (>=)105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out over temperature range 550 deg - 750 deg C. The present report describes the state in the running program with test-time up to 35.000 hours. Besides the cree-rupture behaviour it is possible to make a distinct quantitative statement for the creep-behaviour and ductility. Extensive metallographic examinations show the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (author)