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Sample records for tafel extrapolation method

  1. Testing validity of the Tafel extrapolation method for monitoring corrosion of cold rolled steel in HCl solutions - Experimental and theoretical studies

    Amin, Mohammed A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: maaismail@yahoo.com; Khaled, K.F. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxi, Cairo (Egypt); Fadl-Allah, Sahar A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2010-01-15

    The protection influence of glycine (Gly) and a one of its derivatives, namely 2-(bis(2-aminoethyl)amino) acetic acid, designated here as GlyD; where GlyD stands for 'glycine derivative', against cold rolled steel (CRS) corrosion was studied in aerated stagnant 1.0 M HCl solutions at 25 deg. C. Measurements were conducted under various experimental conditions using Tafel polarization, linear polarization and impedance techniques. These studies have shown that Gly and GlyD are very good 'green', mixed-type inhibitors. GlyD is more effective than Gly itself in inhibiting the acid corrosion of CRS. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method of analysis are also presented here for monitoring corrosion. Corrosion rates obtained from both EFM and ICP-AES methods are comparable with those recorded using Tafel extrapolation method, confirming validation of corrosion rates measured by the latter. Adsorption via H-bond is discussed here, based on the presence of oxide film on the electrode surface as well as the number of NH linkages in the inhibitor molecule. Quantum chemical method was also employed to explore the relationship between the inhibitor molecular properties and its protection efficiency. The density function theory (DFT) is used to study the structural properties of Gly and GlyD in aqueous phase in an attempt to understand their inhibition mechanism. The protection efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices.

  2. Testing validity of the Tafel extrapolation method for monitoring corrosion of cold rolled steel in HCl solutions - Experimental and theoretical studies

    The protection influence of glycine (Gly) and a one of its derivatives, namely 2-(bis(2-aminoethyl)amino) acetic acid, designated here as GlyD; where GlyD stands for 'glycine derivative', against cold rolled steel (CRS) corrosion was studied in aerated stagnant 1.0 M HCl solutions at 25 deg. C. Measurements were conducted under various experimental conditions using Tafel polarization, linear polarization and impedance techniques. These studies have shown that Gly and GlyD are very good 'green', mixed-type inhibitors. GlyD is more effective than Gly itself in inhibiting the acid corrosion of CRS. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method of analysis are also presented here for monitoring corrosion. Corrosion rates obtained from both EFM and ICP-AES methods are comparable with those recorded using Tafel extrapolation method, confirming validation of corrosion rates measured by the latter. Adsorption via H-bond is discussed here, based on the presence of oxide film on the electrode surface as well as the number of NH linkages in the inhibitor molecule. Quantum chemical method was also employed to explore the relationship between the inhibitor molecular properties and its protection efficiency. The density function theory (DFT) is used to study the structural properties of Gly and GlyD in aqueous phase in an attempt to understand their inhibition mechanism. The protection efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices.

  3. Electrochemical frequency modulation and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy methods for monitoring corrosion rates and inhibition of low alloy steel corrosion in HCl solutions and a test for validity of the Tafel extrapolation method

    The inhibition effect of glycine (Gly) towards the corrosion of low alloy steel ASTM A213 grade T22 boiler steel was studied in aerated stagnant 0.50 M HCl solutions in the temperature range 20-60 deg. C using potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel polarization and linear polarization) and impedance techniques, complemented with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), a non-destructive corrosion measurement technique that can directly give values of corrosion current without prior knowledge of Tafel constants, is also presented here. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel extrapolation method are compared with corrosion rates obtained by electrochemical, namely EFM technique, and chemical (i.e., non-electrochemical) method for steel in HCl. The chemical method of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved determination of the dissolved cation, using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) method of analysis. Corrosion rates (in mm y-1) obtained from the electrochemical (Tafel extrapolation and EFM) and the chemical method, ICP, are in a good agreement. Polarization studies have shown that Gly is a good 'green', mixed-type inhibitor with cathodic predominance. The inhibition process was attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film on the metal surface that protects the metal against corrosive agents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) examinations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of such an adsorbed film. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in Gly concentration, while it decreases with solution temperature. Temkin isotherm is successfully applied to describe the adsorption process. Thermodynamic functions for the adsorption process were determined.

  4. Extrapolation methods theory and practice

    Brezinski, C

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a self-contained, exhaustive exposition of the extrapolation methods theory, and of the various algorithms and procedures for accelerating the convergence of scalar and vector sequences. Many subroutines (written in FORTRAN 77) with instructions for their use are provided on a floppy disk in order to demonstrate to those working with sequences the advantages of the use of extrapolation methods. Many numerical examples showing the effectiveness of the procedures and a consequent chapter on applications are also provided - including some never before published results and applicat

  5. Effects of scan rate on the corrosion behavior SS 304 stainless steel in the nanofluid measured by Tafel polarization methods

    The Effects of scan rate on the Tafel polarization curve that is obtained to determine corrosion rate are conducted. The tafel polarization curves are obtained at different scan rates for Stainless Steel 304 in nanofluids contain 0.01 gpl nano particle ZrO2. The corrosion stainless steel in nanofluid contains adm+0.01 gpl ZrO2 nanoparticles at different scan rate was performed by Tafel polarization. The results show that according corrosion potential examination of the stainless steel in nanofluid media 0.01gpl ZrO2 nanoparticle was actively corroded. The value of cathodic Tafel slope stainless steel in nanofluid at different scan rate relatively unchanged after polarization testing. Mean while the value of anodic Tafel slope stainless steel in nanofluid increase at different scan rate. The results of Tafel polarization technique show that corrosion rate of stainless steel in nanofluid increase with increasing scan rate. X ray diffraction examination of stainless steel after Tafel polarization depict that γ Fe phase is major phase in the surface of alloy

  6. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    Wu, Zedong

    2013-01-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wave-field extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media, because of its dispersion and artifact free, as well as highly accurate, solutions of the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number of inverse FFT required per time extrapolation step, and thus, a lower rank admits faster extrapolations. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its low rank representation.Thus,we obtain more accurate wave-fields using lower rank representation, and thus cheaper extrapolations. The optimization operation to define the low rank representation depends only on the velocity model, and this is done only once, and valid for a full reverse time migration (many shots) or one iteration of full waveform inversion. Applications on the BP model yielded superior results than those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, the solutions were free of the shear wave artifacts, and does not require that eta>0.

  7. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π+p interactions at an incident momentum of the π+ of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π+p→π+pπ0 and π+p→π+π+n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/2) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  8. Extrapolation Method for System Reliability Assessment

    Qin, Jianjun; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a new scheme for probability integral solution for system reliability analysis, which takes basis in the approaches by Naess et al. (2009) and Bucher (2009). The idea is to evaluate the probability integral by extrapolation, based on a sequence of MC approximations of...

  9. Multiparameter extrapolation and deflation methods for solving equation systems

    A. J. Hughes Hallett

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Most models in economics and the applied sciences are solved by first order iterative techniques, usually those based on the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. This paper examines the convergence of multiparameter extrapolations (accelerations of first order iterations, as an improved approximation to the Newton method for solving arbitrary nonlinear equation systems. It generalises my earlier results on single parameter extrapolations. Richardson's generalised method and the deflation method for detecting successive solutions in nonlinear equation systems are also presented as multiparameter extrapolations of first order iterations. New convergence results are obtained for those methods.

  10. Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations

    Jung, M.; Ruede, U. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz-Zwickau (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.

  11. Acceleration of nodal diffusion code by Chebychev polynomial extrapolation method

    This paper presents Chebychev acceleration of outer iterations of a nodal diffusion code of high accuracy. Extrapolation parameters, unique for all moments are calculated using the node integrated distribution of fission source. Sample calculations are presented indicating the efficiency of method. (author)

  12. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process an approx...

  13. A new extrapolation method for weak approximation schemes with applications

    Oshima, Kojiro; Veluscek, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    We review Fujiwara's scheme, a sixth order weak approximation scheme for the numerical approximation of SDEs, and embed it into a general method to construct weak approximation schemes of order $ 2m $ for $ m \\in \\mathbf{N} $. Those schemes cannot be seen as cubature schemes, but rather as universal ways how to extrapolate from a lower order weak approximation scheme, namely the Ninomiya-Victoir scheme, for higher orders.

  14. Extrapolative Projections of Mortality: Towards a More Consistent Method

    Ediev, Dalkhat M.

    2009-01-01

    After a comparative study of the Lee-Carter forecasting method and looking into the direct extrapolation of mortality by age and sex, this paper advocates the use of the latter method. The method is, however, supplemented by additional procedures in order to improve its efficiency in the short run and preclude implausible mortality patterns in the long run. The short-run efficiency is improved by building the forecast on data from the most recent periods of age/sex-specific duration, when the...

  15. Comparison of methods for extrapolating breaking creep results

    Among all the methods of extrapolation, the following have been selected: - parametric methods (Larson-Miller, Dorn, Manson-Haferd); - digital and parametric method (minimum commitment); - digital method (finite differences); - descriptive method (Givar). The Larson-Miller, Dorn and Manson-Haferd methods are commonly used for analyzing the breaking creep results of materials for which the master curves can be described simply. The other methods have been developed in order to analyze the breaking creep results of materials where the structural changes over time modify the creep behaviour. In each case the assessment of the parameters is achieved by the least squares method. These methods were compared with each other on two steels, namely: Z6 CND 17-12 (316) and Z4 CND 35-20 (800 alloy). The various analyses performed show that (a) the predictions made as from the different methods are in good agreement between each other when there is a sufficient number of experimental values and (b) the predictions of the breaking times in the case of the 800 alloy differ from one method to the next. This result is due to the limited sampling data and to the complex behaviour of this alloy, the properties of which change with ageing

  16. The absolute determination of activity by the efficiency extrapolation method

    As agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for the maintenance of the Australian standard of activity. The standard comprises activity measurement procedures involving the operation of 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment. The coincidence method requires the application of correction factors which depend on detection efficiency, such as arise for complex decay schemes and internal conversion. These corrections approach unity as the detection efficiency in the β-channel approaches 100 per cent. By performing activity determinations for a range of β detection efficiencies, an 'efficiency extrapolation' analysis can be applied which eliminates the need to determine the absolute detection efficiency for each channel

  17. Mean error of prediction for a method of empirical growth extrapolation

    Boguslaw Guzik

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to formulate a standard set of stochastic assumptions for a prediction method which consists in a linear extrapolation of the mean empirical growth. The author shows how to derive formulas for the mean error of prediction (the ex ante prediction error). These formulas are then compared to the prediction errors of the following methods: the status quo method, the mean extrapolation method and the extrapolation of the linear trend function estimated by the least-s...

  18. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-03-23

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  19. Definition of static magnetic characteristics of ferromagnetic specimens with extrapolation methods

    The problem of definition of static magnetic characteristics of ferromagnetic specimens on the basis of extrapolation treatment of the totality of dynamic characteristics recorded in low-frequency (1-25 Hz) magnetic fields is considered. The application of the extrapolation methods ensures a considerable increase in the productivity of control of the studied specimen magnetic properties

  20. The splitting extrapolation method a new technique in numerical solution of multidimensional problems

    Tao, Lu

    1995-01-01

    The splitting extrapolation method is a newly developed technique for solving multidimensional mathematical problems. It overcomes the difficulties arising from Richardson's extrapolation when applied to these problems and obtains higher accuracy solutions with lower cost and a high degree of parallelism. The method is particularly suitable for solving large scale scientific and engineering problems.This book presents applications of the method to multidimensional integration, integral equations and partial differential equations. It also gives an introduction to combination methods which are

  1. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-04-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity profiles from the entire cross section and multiple transects to determine a mean profile for the measurement. The use of an exponent derived from normalized data from the entire cross section is shown to be valid for application of the power velocity distribution law in the computation of the unmeasured discharge in a cross section. Selected statistics are combined with empirically derived criteria to automatically select the appropriate extrapolation methods. A graphical user interface (GUI) provides the user tools to visually evaluate the automatically selected extrapolation methods and manually change them, as necessary. The sensitivity of the total discharge to available extrapolation methods is presented in the GUI. Use of extrap by field hydrographers has demonstrated that extrap is a more accurate and efficient method of determining the appropriate extrapolation methods compared with tools currently (2012) provided in the ADCP manufacturers' software.

  2. The optimized expansion based low-rank method for wavefield extrapolation

    Wu, Zedong

    2014-03-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wavefield extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media because it tends to be dispersion and artifact free as well as highly accurate when solving the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain extrapolation operator efficiently. To solve this problem, we evaluated an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with a low-rank variable separation representation. The rank defines the number of inverse Fourier transforms for each time extrapolation step, and thus, the lower the rank, the faster the extrapolation. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its explicit low-rank representation. As a result, we obtain lower rank representations compared with the standard low-rank method within reasonable accuracy and thus cheaper extrapolations. Additional bounds set on the range of propagated wavenumbers to adhere to the physical wave limits yield unconditionally stable extrapolations regardless of the time step. An application on the BP model provided superior results compared to those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, because we used the pure P-wave dispersion relation, we obtained solutions that were free of the shear wave artifacts, and the algorithm does not require that n > 0. In addition, the required rank for the optimization approach to obtain high accuracy in anisotropic media was lower than that obtained by the decomposition approach, and thus, it was more efficient. A reverse time migration result for the BP tilted transverse isotropy model using this method as a wave propagator demonstrated the ability of the algorithm.

  3. Optimal back-extrapolation method for estimating plasma volume in humans using the indocyanine green dilution method

    2014-01-01

    Background The indocyanine green dilution method is one of the methods available to estimate plasma volume, although some researchers have questioned the accuracy of this method. Methods We developed a new, physiologically based mathematical model of indocyanine green kinetics that more accurately represents indocyanine green kinetics during the first few minutes postinjection than what is assumed when using the traditional mono-exponential back-extrapolation method. The mathematical model is used to develop an optimal back-extrapolation method for estimating plasma volume based on simulated indocyanine green kinetics obtained from the physiological model. Results Results from a clinical study using the indocyanine green dilution method in 36 subjects with type 2 diabetes indicate that the estimated plasma volumes are considerably lower when using the traditional back-extrapolation method than when using the proposed back-extrapolation method (mean (standard deviation) plasma volume?=?26.8 (5.4) mL/kg for the traditional method vs 35.1 (7.0) mL/kg for the proposed method). The results obtained using the proposed method are more consistent with previously reported plasma volume values. Conclusions Based on the more physiological representation of indocyanine green kinetics and greater consistency with previously reported plasma volume values, the new back-extrapolation method is proposed for use when estimating plasma volume using the indocyanine green dilution method. PMID:25052018

  4. Combining linear interpolation with extrapolation methods in range-separated ensemble density-functional theory

    Senjean, Bruno; Alam, Md Mehboob; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a recently proposed linear interpolation method (LIM) [Senjean et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 012518 (2015)], which enables the calculation of weight-independent excitation energies in range-separated ensemble density-functional approximations, with the extrapolation scheme of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)] is presented in this work. It is shown that LIM excitation energies vary quadratically with the inverse of the range-separation parameter mu when the latter is large. As a result, the extrapolation scheme, which is usually applied to long-range interacting energies, can be adapted straightforwardly to LIM. This extrapolated LIM (ELIM) has been tested on a small test set consisting of He, Be, H2 and HeH+. Relatively accurate results have been obtained for the first singlet excitation energies with the typical mu=0.4 value. The improvement of LIM after extrapolation is remarkable, in particular for the doubly-excited 2^1Sigma+g state in the stretched H2 molecule. Three-state ensemble ...

  5. Extrapolation of extreme sea levels: incorporation of Over-Threshold-Modeling to the Joint Probability Method

    Mazas, Franck; Hamm, Luc; Kergadallan, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    In France, the storm Xynthia of February 27-28th, 2010 reminded engineers and stakeholders of the necessity for an accurate estimation of extreme sea levels for the risk assessment in coastal areas. Traditionally, two main approaches exist for the statistical extrapolation of extreme sea levels: the direct approach performs a direct extrapolation on the sea level data, while the indirect approach carries out a separate analysis of the deterministic component (astronomical tide) and stochastic component (meteorological residual, or surge). When the tidal component is large compared with the surge one, the latter approach is known to perform better. In this approach, the statistical extrapolation is performed on the surge component then the distribution of extreme seal levels is obtained by convolution of the tide and surge distributions. This model is often referred to as the Joint Probability Method. Different models from the univariate extreme theory have been applied in the past for extrapolating extreme surges, in particular the Annual Maxima Method (AMM) and the r-largest method. In this presentation, we apply the Peaks-Over-Threshold (POT) approach for declustering extreme surge events, coupled with the Poisson-GPD model for fitting extreme surge peaks. This methodology allows a sound estimation of both lower and upper tails of the stochastic distribution, including the estimation of the uncertainties associated to the fit by computing the confidence intervals. After convolution with the tide signal, the model yields the distribution for the whole range of possible sea level values. Particular attention is paid to the necessary distinction between sea level values observed at a regular time step, such as hourly, and sea level events, such as those occurring during a storm. Extremal indexes for both surges and levels are thus introduced. This methodology will be illustrated with a case study at Brest, France.

  6. Extrapolative projections of mortality: Towards a more consistent method part I: the central scenario

    Ediev, Dalkhat M.

    2008-01-01

    After a comparative study of the Lee-Carter forecasting method and looking into the direct extrapolation of mortality by age and sex, this paper advocates the use of the latter method. The method is, however, supplemented by additional procedures in order to improve its efficiency in the short run and preclude implausible mortality patterns in the long run. The short-run efficiency is improved by building the forecast on data from the most recent periods of age/sex-specific duration, when the...

  7. Standardization of electron-capture and complex beta-gamma radionuclides by the efficiency extrapolation method

    The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)

  8. Multi-state extrapolation of UV/Vis absorption spectra with QM/QM hybrid methods

    Ren, Sijin; Caricato, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present a simple approach to simulate absorption spectra from hybrid QM/QM calculations. The goal is to obtain reliable spectra for compounds that are too large to be treated efficiently at a high level of theory. The present approach is based on the extrapolation of the entire absorption spectrum obtained by individual subcalculations. Our program locates the main spectral features in each subcalculation, e.g., band peaks and shoulders, and fits them to Gaussian functions. Each Gaussian is then extrapolated with a formula similar to that of ONIOM (Our own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital molecular Mechanics). However, information about individual excitations is not necessary so that difficult state-matching across subcalculations is avoided. This multi-state extrapolation thus requires relatively low implementation effort while affording maximum flexibility in the choice of methods to be combined in the hybrid approach. The test calculations show the efficacy and robustness of this methodology in reproducing the spectrum computed for the entire molecule at a high level of theory.

  9. Multi-state extrapolation of UV/Vis absorption spectra with QM/QM hybrid methods.

    Ren, Sijin; Caricato, Marco

    2016-05-14

    In this work, we present a simple approach to simulate absorption spectra from hybrid QM/QM calculations. The goal is to obtain reliable spectra for compounds that are too large to be treated efficiently at a high level of theory. The present approach is based on the extrapolation of the entire absorption spectrum obtained by individual subcalculations. Our program locates the main spectral features in each subcalculation, e.g., band peaks and shoulders, and fits them to Gaussian functions. Each Gaussian is then extrapolated with a formula similar to that of ONIOM (Our own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital molecular Mechanics). However, information about individual excitations is not necessary so that difficult state-matching across subcalculations is avoided. This multi-state extrapolation thus requires relatively low implementation effort while affording maximum flexibility in the choice of methods to be combined in the hybrid approach. The test calculations show the efficacy and robustness of this methodology in reproducing the spectrum computed for the entire molecule at a high level of theory. PMID:27179466

  10. Evaluation of functioning of an extrapolation chamber using Monte Carlo method

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Braff-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents a simulation for evaluating the functioning of an extrapolation chamber type 23392 of PTW, using the MCNPX Monte Carlo method. In the simulation, the fluence in the air collector cavity of the chamber was obtained. The influence of the materials that compose the camera on its response against beta radiation beam was also analysed. A comparison of the contribution of primary and secondary radiation was performed. The energy deposition in the air collector cavity for different depths was calculated. The component with the higher energy deposition is the Polymethyl methacrylate block. The energy deposition in the air collector cavity for chamber depth 2500 μm is greater with a value of 9.708E-07 MeV. The fluence in the air collector cavity decreases with depth. It's value is 1.758E-04 1/cm2 for chamber depth 500 μm. The values reported are for individual electron and photon histories. The graphics of simulated parameters are presented in the paper. (Author)

  11. An empirical comparison of low-dose extrapolation from points of departure (PoD) compared to extrapolations based upon methods that account for model uncertainty

    Matthew W. Wheeler; Bailer, A. John

    2013-01-01

    Experiments with relatively high doses are often used to predict risks at appreciably lower doses. A point of departure (PoD) can be calculated as the dose associated with a specified moderate response level that is often in the range of experimental doses considered. A linear extrapolation to lower doses often follows. An alternative to the PoD method is to develop a model that accounts for the model uncertainty in the dose–response relationship and to use this model to estimate the risk at ...

  12. An Efficient Method of Reweighting and Reconstructing Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation Data for Extrapolation to Different Temperature and Density Conditions

    Sun, Shuyu

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces an efficient technique to generate new molecular simulation Markov chains for different temperature and density conditions, which allow for rapid extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages at a range of temperatures and densities different from the original conditions where a single simulation is conducted. Obtained information from the original simulation are reweighted and even reconstructed in order to extrapolate our knowledge to the new conditions. Our technique allows not only the extrapolation to a new temperature or density, but also the double extrapolation to both new temperature and density. The method was implemented for Lennard-Jones fluid with structureless particles in single-gas phase region. Extrapolation behaviors as functions of extrapolation ranges were studied. Limits of extrapolation ranges showed a remarkable capability especially along isochors where only reweighting is required. Various factors that could affect the limits of extrapolation ranges were investigated and compared. In particular, these limits were shown to be sensitive to the number of particles used and starting point where the simulation was originally conducted.

  13. Short-range stabilizing potential for computing energies and lifetimes of temporary anions with extrapolation methods

    Sommerfeld, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Sommerfeld@selu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, SLU 10878, Hammond, Louisiana 70402 (United States); Ehara, Masahiro, E-mail: ehara@ims.ac.jp [Research Center for Computational Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodai-ji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-01-21

    The energy of a temporary anion can be computed by adding a stabilizing potential to the molecular Hamiltonian, increasing the stabilization until the temporary state is turned into a bound state, and then further increasing the stabilization until enough bound state energies have been collected so that these can be extrapolated back to vanishing stabilization. The lifetime can be obtained from the same data, but only if the extrapolation is done through analytic continuation of the momentum as a function of the square root of a shifted stabilizing parameter. This method is known as analytic continuation of the coupling constant, and it requiresat least in principlethat the bound-state input data are computed with a short-range stabilizing potential. In the context of molecules and ab initio packages, long-range Coulomb stabilizing potentials are, however, far more convenient and have been used in the past with some success, although the error introduced by the long-rang nature of the stabilizing potential remains unknown. Here, we introduce a soft-Voronoi box potential that can serve as a short-range stabilizing potential. The difference between a Coulomb and the new stabilization is analyzed in detail for a one-dimensional model system as well as for the {sup 2}?{sub u} resonance of CO{sub 2}{sup ?}, and in both cases, the extrapolation results are compared to independently computed resonance parameters, from complex scaling for the model, and from complex absorbing potential calculations for CO{sub 2}{sup ?}. It is important to emphasize that for both the model and for CO{sub 2}{sup ?}, all three sets of results have, respectively, been obtained with the same electronic structure method and basis set so that the theoretical description of the continuum can be directly compared. The new soft-Voronoi-box-based extrapolation is then used to study the influence of the size of diffuse and the valence basis sets on the computed resonance parameters.

  14. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal lte radio base station exposure estimation: Test and validation

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on down-link band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders. (authors)

  15. The control volume radial basis function method CV-RBF with Richardson extrapolation in geochemical problems

    Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.

  16. A two-grid method with Richardson extrapolation for a semilinear convection-diffusion problem

    Tikhovskaya, S. V.; Zadorin, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    A boundary value problem for a second-order semilinear singularly perturbed ordinary differential equation is considered. We use Newton and Picard iterations for a linearization. To solve the problem at each iteration we apply the difference scheme with the property of uniform with respect to the singular perturbation parameter convergence. A modified Samarskii and central difference schemes on Shishkin mesh are considered. It is known that these schemes are almost second order accuracy uniformly with respect to the singular perturbation parameter. To decrease the required number of arithmetical operations for resolving the difference scheme, a two-grid method is proposed. To increase the accuracy of difference scheme, we investigate the possibility to apply Richardson extrapolation using known solutions of the difference scheme on both meshes. The comparison of modified Samarskii and central difference schemes is carried out. The results of some numerical experiments are discussed.

  17. 2.5-D and 3-D DC resistivity modelling using an extrapolation cascadic multigrid method

    Pan, Kejia; Tang, Jingtian

    2014-06-01

    Multigrid methods are well known for their high efficiency in solving elliptic boundary value problems. In this study, an improved extrapolation cascadic multigrid (EXCMG) method is presented to solve large sparse systems of linear equations, which are discretized from both 2.5-D and 3-D DC resistivity modelling using the finite element methods. To increase the accuracy, the singularity generated by the source term is removed by reformulating the solution with the secondary potential. In addition, a set of new and efficient Fourier coefficient is presented to transform the solutions in the 2.5-D Fourier domain to the 3-D Cartesian domain. To show the efficiency and the ease-to-implement of EXCMG, we first implement the EXCMG methods to a two-layered model of both 2-D and 3-D and compare the results with the analytical solutions. It has been shown that the maximum relative error in apparent resistivity is no more than 0.4 per cent provided an appropriate grid size is chosen. Then the comparisons of EXCMG with two other iterative solvers [symmetric successive over-relaxation conjugate gradient (SSORCG) and incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG)] show that converging at a rate independent of the grid size, the EXCMG method is much more efficient than SSORCG and ICCG solvers. Moreover, the EXCMG method has been shown its potential for being generalized to large-scale 3-D problems, due to the fact that it becomes more efficient as the size of the problem increases.

  18. Extrapolation methods for improving convergence of spherical Bessel integrals for the two-center Coulomb integrals

    Safouhi, Hassan; Bouferguene, Ahmed

    Multi-center two-electron Coulomb integrals over Slater-type functions are required for any accurate molecular electronic structure calculations. These integrals, which are numerous, are to be evaluated rapidly and accurately. Slater-type functions are expressed in terms of the so-called B functions, which are best suited to apply the Fourier transform method. The Fourier transform method allowed analytic expressions for these integrals to be developed. Unfortunately, the analytic expressions obtained turned out to be extremely difficult to evaluate accurately due to the presence of highly oscillatory spherical Bessel integrals. In this work, we used techniques based on nonlinear transformation and extrapolation methods for improving convergence of these oscillatory spherical Bessel integrals. These techniques, which led to highly efficient and rapid algorithms for the numerical evaluation of three- and four-center two-electron Coulomb and exchange integrals, are now shown to be applicable to the two-center two-electron Coulomb integrals. The numerical results obtained for the molecular integrals under consideration illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm described in the present work compared with algorithms using the epsilon (?) algorithm of Wynn and Levin's u transform.

  19. Propagation of internal errors in explicit Runge–Kutta methods and internal stability of SSP and extrapolation methods

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-04-11

    In practical computation with Runge--Kutta methods, the stage equations are not satisfied exactly, due to roundoff errors, algebraic solver errors, and so forth. We show by example that propagation of such errors within a single step can have catastrophic effects for otherwise practical and well-known methods. We perform a general analysis of internal error propagation, emphasizing that it depends significantly on how the method is implemented. We show that for a fixed method, essentially any set of internal stability polynomials can be obtained by modifying the implementation details. We provide bounds on the internal error amplification constants for some classes of methods with many stages, including strong stability preserving methods and extrapolation methods. These results are used to prove error bounds in the presence of roundoff or other internal errors.

  20. Activity determination of (41)Ar using efficiency extrapolation method and 4??(PS)-4??(NaI) coincidence system.

    Xie, Feng; Li, Xuesong; Dai, Yihua; Jiang, Wengang; He, Xiaobing; Yu, Gongshuo; Ni, Jianzhong

    2015-03-01

    Noble gas (41)Ar was measured with a 4??-4?? coincidence system, in which gamma- and beta-rays were respectively detected with a well-type NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator (PS) detector. The activity of (41)Ar was determined from an efficiency extrapolation method, in which the beta detector efficiency was varied by electronic discrimination using the software developed under Visual basic. In addition, high resolution gamma spectroscopy with HPGe detector was also used for activity determination of (41)Ar, and the result was satisfactory in agreement with that obtain by the efficiency extrapolation method. This work demonstrated that the activity of (41)Ar can be accurately measured by efficiency extrapolation method. PMID:25527895

  1. Stepwise Global Error Control in an Explicit Runge-Kutta Method Using Local Extrapolation with High-Order Selective Quenching

    Justin Steven Prentice

    2011-01-01

    Stepwise local error control using local extrapolation in Runge-Kutta methods is well-known. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm, designated RK$rv$Q$z,$ that is capable of controlling local and global errors in a stepwise manner. The algorithm utilizes three Runge-Kutta methods, of orders $r,v$ and $z$, with $rextrapolation, whereas global error is controlled using a technique we have termed `quenching', which exploits t...

  2. Extrapolation of traffic data for development of traffic load models: assessment of methods used during background works of Eurocode

    Zhou, Xiao Yi; SCHMIDT, Franziska; JACOB, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews several extrapolation methods (for example fitting a distribution to the upper tail of the data and Rice's formula) implemented in the background study of the normal load model, LM1, in Eurocode 1, Part 2. Recent extensively used extreme value theory (EVT) based methods (block maxima method and peaks over threshold method) in other domains such as meteorology (for flood levels, quantity of rain, etc) are also reviewed. The methods are applied on weigh-in-motion (WIM) data t...

  3. Simple Extrapolation Method to Predict the Electronic Structure of Conjugated Polymers from Calculations on Oligomers

    Larsen, Ross E.

    2016-05-12

    We introduce two simple tight-binding models, which we call fragment frontier orbital extrapolations (FFOE), to extrapolate important electronic properties to the polymer limit using electronic structure calculations on only a few small oligomers. In particular, we demonstrate by comparison to explicit density functional theory calculations that for long oligomers the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), and of the first electronic excited state are accurately described as a function of number of repeat units by a simple effective Hamiltonian parameterized from electronic structure calculations on monomers, dimers and, optionally, tetramers. For the alternating copolymer materials that currently comprise some of the most efficient polymer organic photovoltaic devices one can use these simple but rigorous models to extrapolate computed properties to the polymer limit based on calculations on a small number of low-molecular-weight oligomers.

  4. Defect image with transversal and longitudinal super-resolution achieved with two-measure adaptive extrapolation method

    Results of applying the method of two-measure adaptive extrapolation (modification of Hershberg-Papoulis algorithm) to achieve superresolution of defect images, reconstructed according to multifrequency acoustic digital holograms are considered. Increase of transversal and longitudinal resolutions by the factor of 4 and 2 respectively is obtained in experiments on processing images of point and volume defects. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity

  6. 3D Magnetic Field Configuration of the 2006 December 13 Flare Extrapolated with the Optimization Method

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Wiegelmann, T.; Li, H.

    2008-06-01

    The photospheric vector magnetic field of the active region NOAA 10930 was obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite with a very high spatial resolution (about 0.3''). Observations of the two-ribbon flare on 2006 December 13 in this active region provide us a good sample to study the magnetic field configuration related to the occurrence of the flare. Using the optimization method for nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation proposed by Wheatland et al. and recently developed by Wiegelmann, we derive the three-dimensional (3D) vector magnetic field configuration associated with this flare. The general topology can be described as a highly sheared core field and a quasi-potential envelope arch field. The core field clearly shows some dips supposed to sustain a filament. Free energy release in the flare, calculated by subtracting the energy contained in the NLFFF and the corresponding potential field, is 2.4 × 1031 ergs, which is ~2% of the preflare potential field energy. We also calculate the shear angles, defined as the angles between the NLFFF and potential field, and find that they become larger at some particular sites in the lower atmosphere, while they become significantly smaller in most places, implying that the whole configuration gets closer to the potential field after the flare. The Ca II H line images obtained with the Broadband Filter Imager (BFI) of the SOT and the 1600 Å images with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) show that the preflare heating occurs mainly in the core field. These results provide evidence in support of the tether-cutting model of solar flares.

  7. Comparison of precipitation nowcasting by extrapolation and statistical-advection methods

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Kitzmiller, D.; Pešice, Petr; Mejsnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, 1 April (2013), s. 17-30. ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09033 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * Statistical models * Regression * Quantitative precipitation forecast * Extrapolation forecast Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809512003390

  8. Linear extrapolation distance for a black cylindrical control rod with the pulsed neutron method

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the linear extrapolation distance for a central black cylindrical control rod in a cylindrical water moderator. The radius for both the control rod and the moderator was varied. The pulsed neutron technique was used and the decay constant was measured for both a homogeneous and a heterogeneous system. From the difference in the decay constants the extrapolation distance could be calculated. The conclusion is that within experimental error it is safe to use the approximate formula given by Pellaud or the more exact one given by Kavenoky. We can also conclude that linear anisotropic scattering is accounted for in a correct way in the approximate formula given by Pellaud and Prinja and Williams

  9. Principal components analysis and polynomials as methods for the track extrapolation/interpolation for SAPHIR

    A program to investigate the possibility of track extrapolation and interpolation for drift chambers with the Principal Components Analysis and polynoms was written for SAPHIR. The results for the most significant configurations at SAPHIR were pointed out. It was shown that the Principal Components Analysis is a good basis to write a fast track reconstruction program for a drift chamber using a global track model in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. A data input/output package was written, too. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative expression of uncertainty in nowcasting heavy convective precipitation in central Europe by extrapolation methods

    Mejsnar, Jan; Sokol, Zbyněk; Pešice, Petr

    Toulouse : Météo France, 2012. [ERAD 2012 - European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology /7./. Toulouse (FR), 24.06.2012-29.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09033 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation nowcasting * Lagrangien extrapolation * uncertainty in precipitation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.meteo.fr/cic/meetings/2012/ERAD/extended_abs/NOW_250_ext_abs.pdf

  11. Comparison of extrapolation methods for creep rupture stresses of 12Cr and 18Cr10NiTi steels

    As a part of a Soviet-Swedish research programme the creep rupture properties of two heat resisting steels namely a 12% Cr steel and an 18% Cr12% Ni titanium stabilized steel have been studied. One heat from each country of both steels were creep tested. The strength of the 12% Cr steels was similar to earlier reported strength values, the Soviet steel being some-what stronger due to a higher tungsten content. The strength of the Swedish 18/12 Ti steel agreed with earlier results, while the properties of the Soviet steel were inferior to those reported from earlier Soviet creep testings. Three extrapolation methods were compared on creep rupture data collected in both countries. Isothermal extrapolation and an algebraic method of Soviet origin gave in many cases rather similar results, while the parameter method recommended by ISO resulted in higher rupture strength values at longer times. (author)

  12. Correction method for critical extrapolation of control-rods-rising during physical start-up of reactor with spatial effect

    Reasons why the extrapolated critical curve obtained by lifting control rods is cambered during the physical start-up of a reactor are analyzed. Spatial flux deformation factor is introduced, and a new method, by which influences of spatial effect in the reactor are avoided additionally, is proposed based on what is achieved by removing source neutrons. The new method is employed to a real example. Comparing the new results with those of real physical start-up and achieved only by removing source neutrons, it is shown that the new method avoids cambering phenomenon of the extrapolated curve much better, and obtains more precise critical position of control rods, so the reactor will reach the criticality more safely. (authors)

  13. A comparison of high-order explicit Runge–Kutta, extrapolation, and deferred correction methods in serial and parallel

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-06-13

    We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.

  14. Standardization of I-125 solution by extrapolation of an efficiency wave obtained by coincidence X-(X-γ) counting method

    The activity concentration of 125I was determined by X-(X-α) coincidence counting method and efficiency extrapolation curve. The measurement system consists of 2 thin NaI(T1) scintillation detectors which are horizontally movable on a track. The efficiency curve is obtained by symmetricaly changing the distance between the source and the detectors and the activity is determined by applying a linear efficiency extrapolation curve. All sum-coincidence events are included between 10 and 100 KeV window counting and the main source of uncertainty is coming from poor counting statistic around zero efficiency. The consistence of results with other methods shows that this technique can be applied to photon cascade emitters and are not discriminating by the detectors. It has been also determined the 35,5 KeV gamma-ray emission probability of 125I by using a Gamma-X type high purity germanium detector. (author)

  15. Asymptotic Expansions and Extrapolation of Approximate Eigenvalues for Second Order Elliptic Problems by Mixed Finite Element Methods

    Xie, Hehu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an asymptotic error expansion for the eigenvalue approximations by the lowest order Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element method for the general second order elliptic eigenvalue problems. Extrapolation based on such an expansion is applied to improve the accuracy of the eigenvalue approximations. Furthermore, we also prove the superclose property between the finite element projection with the finite element approximation of the eigenvalue problems by mixed finite elemen...

  16. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-08-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  17. Preprocess the Photospheric Vector Magnetograms for NLFFF Extrapolation using a Potential Field Model and an Optimization Method

    Jiang, Chaowei

    2013-01-01

    Numerical reconstruction/extrapolation of coronal nonlinear force-free magnetic field (NLFFF) usually takes the photospheric vector magnetogram as input at the bottom boundary. Magnetic field observed at the photosphere, however, contains force which is in conflict with the fundamental assumption of the force-free model and measurement noise which is unfavorable for practical computation. Preprocessing of the raw magnetogram has been proposed by Wiegelmann, Inhester, and Sakurai (2006) to remove the force and noise for providing better input for NLFFF modeling. In this paper we develop a new code of magnetogram preprocessing which is consistent with our extrapolation method CESE-MHD-NLFFF (Jiang, Feng, and Xiang, 2012; Jiang and Feng, 2012). Basing on a magnetic-splitting rule that a magnetic field can be split into a potential field part and a non-potential part, we split the magnetogram and deal with the two parts separately. Preprocessing of the magnetogram's potential part is based on a numerical potentia...

  18. Comparison among creep rupture strength extrapolation methods with application to data for AISI 316 SS from Italy, France, U.K. and F.R.G

    Inside Activity 3 ''Materials'' of WGCS, the member states UK and FRG have developed a work regarding extrapolation methods for creep data. This work has been done by comparising extrapolation methods in use in their countries by applying them to creep rupture strength data on AISI 316 SS obtained in UK and FRG. This work has been issued on April 1978 and the Community has dealed it to all Activity 3 Members. Italy, in the figure of NIRA S.p.A., has received, from the European Community a contract to extend the work to Italian and French data, using extrapolation methods currently in use in Italy. The work should deal with the following points: - Collect of Italian experimental data; - Chemical analysis on Italian Specimen; - Comparison among Italian experimental data with French, FRG and UK data; - Description of extrapolation methods in use in Italy; - Application of these extrapolation methods to Italian, French, British and Germany data; - Extensions of a Final Report

  19. Comparison of Coronal Extrapolation Methods for Cycle 24 Using HMI Data

    Arden, William M; Sun, Xudong; Zhao, Xuepu

    2016-01-01

    Two extrapolation models of the solar coronal magnetic field are compared using magnetogram data from the SDO/HMI instrument. The two models, a horizontal current-current sheet-source surface (HCCSSS) model and a potential field-source surface (PFSS) model differ in their treatment of coronal currents. Each model has its own critical variable, respectively the radius of a cusp surface and a source surface, and it is found that adjusting these heights over the period studied allows better fit between the models and the solar open flux at 1 AU as calculated from the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The HCCSSS model provides the better fit for the overall period from 2010 November to 2015 May as well as for two subsets of the period - the minimum/rising part of the solar cycle, and the recently-identified peak in the IMF from mid-2014 to mid-2015 just after solar maximum. It is found that a HCCSSS cusp surface height of 1.7 Rsun provides the best fit to the IMF for the overall period, while 1.7 & 1.9 Rsu...

  20. Improvement of flux distribution calculation using the extrapolation method of Richardson

    Richardson have advanced a method for increasing the accuracy in numerical solving of linear differential equations. So, he proposed several schemes for performing algorythms, in which various approximtion parameters are used. It has been proved that a linear combination of this solution under certain circumstances gives a higher accuracy. Starting from these facts the present paper descpibes the application of the Richardson's method in improving the neutron flux calculation by using the EXTERMINATOR-2-INPR code. The considered benchmark problem has been conceived by D.R.Vondy from ORNL-USA. It consists of solving the multigroup diffusion equations for homogeneous two-dimensional slab. The results obtained show the efficiency of the Richardson method in improving the neutron flux calculation and constitutes a basis for achieving algorythms for other categories of problems. (authors)

  1. Application of the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM) to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region

    Ducasse, Q; Mathieu, L; Marini, P; Morillon, B; Aiche, M; Tsekhanovich, I

    2015-01-01

    The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 700, 59 (2013)] we developed the Extrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the 238U(d,p)239U and 238U(3He,d)239Np reactions. We have performed Hauser-Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of 239Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.

  2. Dirc van Delfts Tafel van den Kersten Ghelove en de stervensliteratuur

    Robbe, Joost Roger

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between Dirc van Delft’s Tafel vanden kersten ghelove (1404) and earlier traditional medieval literature on death and dying. Two chapters in the Tafel contain a treatise on death: Somerstuc XXXVIII and XLVIII. Their sources include not only Anselm of...... the Verses of Saint Bernard. In the second treatise, inspired by Henry Suso, Dirc van Delft addresses the danger of a sudden and unprepared death, concluding with an original ars vivendi for a life of moral perfection....

  3. Activity determination of 41Ar using efficiency extrapolation method and 4πβ(PS)–4πγ(NaI) coincidence system

    Noble gas 41Ar was measured with a 4πβ–4πγ coincidence system, in which gamma- and beta-rays were respectively detected with a well-type NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator (PS) detector. The activity of 41Ar was determined from an efficiency extrapolation method, in which the beta detector efficiency was varied by electronic discrimination using the software developed under Visual basic. In addition, high resolution gamma spectroscopy with HPGe detector was also used for activity determination of 41Ar, and the result was satisfactory in agreement with that obtain by the efficiency extrapolation method. This work demonstrated that the activity of 41Ar can be accurately measured by efficiency extrapolation method. - Highlights: • The gaseous 41Ar was measured with a 4πβ(PS)–4πγ(NaI) coincidence system. • The activity of 41Ar was determined by the efficiency extrapolation method. • The beta detector efficiency was changed using a program and extrapolating to 100% efficiency

  4. An approach to estimating and extrapolating model error based on inverse problem methods: towards accurate numerical weather prediction

    Model error is one of the key factors restricting the accuracy of numerical weather prediction (NWP). Considering the continuous evolution of the atmosphere, the observed data (ignoring the measurement error) can be viewed as a series of solutions of an accurate model governing the actual atmosphere. Model error is represented as an unknown term in the accurate model, thus NWP can be considered as an inverse problem to uncover the unknown error term. The inverse problem models can absorb long periods of observed data to generate model error correction procedures. They thus resolve the deficiency and faultiness of the NWP schemes employing only the initial-time data. In this study we construct two inverse problem models to estimate and extrapolate the time-varying and spatial-varying model errors in both the historical and forecast periods by using recent observations and analogue phenomena of the atmosphere. Numerical experiment on Burgers' equation has illustrated the substantial forecast improvement using inverse problem algorithms. The proposed inverse problem methods of suppressing NWP errors will be useful in future high accuracy applications of NWP. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  5. Insight on Tafel slopes from a microkinetic analysis of aqueous electrocatalysis for energy conversion

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ ≈ 0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report.

  6. Insight on Tafel slopes from a microkinetic analysis of aqueous electrocatalysis for energy conversion

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-09-08

    Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ ≈ 0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report.

  7. Insight on Tafel slopes from a microkinetic analysis of aqueous electrocatalysis for energy conversion.

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ≈0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report. PMID:26348156

  8. Synthesis of Dipeptide Benzoylalanylglycine Methyl Ester and Corrosion Inhibitor Evaluation by Tafel Equation

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in petroleum mining and processing industry. The pipelines used to transport crude oil from reservoir to the processing installation were made from carbon steel that is susceptible towards corrosion. One of the best methods to prevent corrosion that occurred at the inner parts of carbon steel pipelines is to use organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the potent organic corrosion inhibitors is amino acids derivatives. In this study, dipeptide compound namely benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and benzoylalanylglycine have been synthesized. The structure elucidation of the products was performed by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The determination of corrosion inhibition activity utilized the Tafel method. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of glycine methyl ester, benzoyl alanine, dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine were 63.34 %, 35.86 %, 68.40 % and 27.72 %, respectively. These results showed that the formation of dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester, derived from carboxylic protected glycine and amine protected alanine, increased the corrosion inhibition activity due to the loss of acidity center in the structure of glycine and L-alanine that would induce the corrosive environment towards carbon steel. (author)

  9. Extrapolation and perturbation schemes for accelerating the convergence of quantum mechanical free energy calculations via the Fourier path-integral Monte Carlo method

    We present two simple but effective techniques designed to improve the rate of convergence of the Fourier path-integral Monte Carlo method for quantum partition functions with respect to the Fourier space expansion length, K, especially at low temperatures. The first method treats the high Fourier components as a perturbation, and the second method involves an extrapolation of the partition function (or perturbative correction to the partition function) with respect to the parameter K. We perform a sequence of calculations at several values of K such that the statistical errors for the set of results are correlated, and this permits extremely accurate extrapolations. We demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of these new approaches by computing partition functions for H2O from 296 to 4000 K and comparing to the accurate results of Partridge and Schwenke. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Impedance and Tafel-plot techniques of indium in acidic media

    The corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of indium in various concentrations of hydrochloric and sulphuric acids have been studied using impedance and Tafel-plot measurements over cathodic and anodic regions. Numerical values of polarisation resistances, double layer capacitances, corrosion potentials and corrosion currents are calculated, compared and discussed. (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Infrared extrapolations for atomic nuclei

    Furnstahl, R J; Papenbrock, T; Wendt, K A

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic oscillator model-space truncations introduce systematic errors to the calculation of binding energies and other observables. We identify the relevant infrared scaling variable and give values for this nucleus-dependent quantity. We consider isotopes of oxygen computed with the coupled-cluster method from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order and show that the infrared component of the error is sufficiently understood to permit controlled extrapolations. By employing oscillator spaces with relatively large frequencies, well above the energy minimum, the ultraviolet corrections can be suppressed while infrared extrapolations over tens of MeVs are accurate for ground-state energies. However, robust uncertainty quantification for extrapolated quantities that fully accounts for systematic errors is not yet developed.

  12. Extrapolation of stable random fields

    Karcher, Wolfgang; Spodarev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three extrapolation methods for alpha-stable random fields with 1method and providing sufficient conditions for path continuity. Two methods are based on minimizing the variability of the difference between the predictor and the theoretical value, whereas in the third approach we provide a new method that maximizes the covariation between these two quantities.

  13. On the Extrapolation Estimates

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Sobukawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2003), s. 97-104. ISSN 1331-4343 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/0333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : extrapolation theorem * Orlicz class Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2003

  14. Finite lattice extrapolation algorithms

    Two algorithms for sequence extrapolation, due to von den Broeck and Schwartz and Bulirsch and Stoer are reviewed and critically compared. Applications to three states and six states quantum chains and to the (2+1)D Ising model show that the algorithm of Bulirsch and Stoer is superior, in particular if only very few finite lattice data are available. (orig.)

  15. Optimal analytical extrapolations revisite

    The problem of optimal analytic extrapolation of holomorphic functions from a finite set of interior data points to an other interior point is completely solved in the general case of data known with unequal errors. Simple and easily to handle algorithms are obtained. (author)

  16. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-07-03

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  17. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  18. Beam Based Measurements of Field Multipoles in the RHIC Low Beta Insertions and Extrapolation of the Method to the LHC

    Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Ptitsyn, V I

    2001-01-01

    The multipolar content of the dipoles and quadrupoles is known to limit the stability of the beam dynamics in super-conducting machines like RHIC and even more in LHC. The low-beta quadrupoles are thus equipped with correcting coils up to the dodecapole order. The correction is planned to rely on magnetic measurements. We show that a relatively simple method allows an accurate measurement of the multipolar field aberrations using the beam. The principle is to displace the beam in the non-linear fields by local closed orbit bumps and to measure the variation of sensitive beam observable. The resolution and robustness of the method are found appropriate. Experimentation at RHIC showed clearly the presence of normal and skew sextupolar field components in addition to a skew quadrupolar component in the interaction regions. Higher-order components up to decapole order appear as well.

  19. Evidence, eminence and extrapolation.

    Hlavin, Gerald; Koenig, Franz; Male, Christoph; Posch, Martin; Bauer, Peter

    2016-06-15

    A full independent drug development programme to demonstrate efficacy may not be ethical and/or feasible in small populations such as paediatric populations or orphan indications. Different levels of extrapolation from a larger population to smaller target populations are widely used for supporting decisions in this situation. There are guidance documents in drug regulation, where a weakening of the statistical rigour for trials in the target population is mentioned to be an option for dealing with this problem. To this end, we propose clinical trials designs, which make use of prior knowledge on efficacy for inference. We formulate a framework based on prior beliefs in order to investigate when the significance level for the test of the primary endpoint in confirmatory trials can be relaxed (and thus the sample size can be reduced) in the target population while controlling a certain posterior belief in effectiveness after rejection of the null hypothesis in the corresponding confirmatory statistical test. We show that point-priors may be used in the argumentation because under certain constraints, they have favourable limiting properties among other types of priors. The crucial quantity to be elicited is the prior belief in the possibility of extrapolation from a larger population to the target population. We try to illustrate an existing decision tree for extrapolation to paediatric populations within our framework. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26753552

  20. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  1. Thermal calculation for hydrocarbon vapor condensers by the Gloyer method. Its extrapolation to heat transfer calculation of two phase streams

    The report resumes the calculation basia given by Walter Gloyer in his different papers and adds certain improvements acquired by long experience in thermal calculation engineering. The following points, necessary for the calculations, are examined in detail: verification of the thermal balances; calculation of the average temperature difference between the vapour and liquid, taking into account the efficiency of the exchanger; pressure loss of the phase stream; calculation of the various thermal resistances; calculation of the exchange surface. The basis of calculation being thus defined, a numerical application of the cooler calculation for hydrocarbon vapour + liquid mixtures with partial condensation is treated and enables the general use of this method to be considered for transfer problems in two-phase streams

  2. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  3. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...... must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined...

  4. A single-phase model for liquid-feed DMFCs with non-Tafel kinetics

    Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2007-09-27

    An isothermal single-phase 3D/1D model for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is presented. Three-dimensional (3D) mass, momentum and species transport in the anode channels and gas diffusion layer is modeled using a commercial, finite-volume based, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software complemented with user supplied subroutines. The 3D model is locally coupled to a one-dimensional (1D) model accounting for the electrochemical reactions in both the anode and the cathode, which provides a physically sound boundary condition for the velocity and methanol concentration fields at the anode gas diffusion layer/catalyst interface. The 1D model - comprising the membrane-electrode assembly, cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode channel - assumes non-Tafel kinetics to describe the complex kinetics of the multi-step methanol oxidation reaction at the anode, and accounts for the mixed potential associated with methanol crossover, induced both by diffusion and electro-osmotic drag. Polarization curves computed for various methanol feed concentrations, temperatures, and methanol feed velocities show good agreement with recent experimental results. The spatial distribution of methanol in the anode channels, together with the distributions of current density, methanol crossover and fuel utilization at the anode catalyst layer, are also presented for different opperating conditions. (author)

  5. Estimation of low-level neutron dose-equivalent rate by using extrapolation method for a curie level Am–Be neutron source

    Neutron radiation protection is an important research area because of the strong radiation biological effect of neutron field. The radiation dose of neutron is closely related to the neutron energy, and the connected relationship is a complex function of energy. For the low-level neutron radiation field (e.g. the Am–Be source), the commonly used commercial neutron dosimeter cannot always reflect the low-level dose rate, which is restricted by its own sensitivity limit and measuring range. In this paper, the intensity distribution of neutron field caused by a curie level Am–Be neutron source was investigated by measuring the count rates obtained through a 3He proportional counter at different locations around the source. The results indicate that the count rates outside of the source room are negligible compared with the count rates measured in the source room. In the source room, 3He proportional counter and neutron dosimeter were used to measure the count rates and dose rates respectively at different distances to the source. The results indicate that both the count rates and dose rates decrease exponentially with the increasing distance, and the dose rates measured by a commercial dosimeter are in good agreement with the results calculated by the Geant4 simulation within the inherent errors recommended by ICRP and IEC. Further studies presented in this paper indicate that the low-level neutron dose equivalent rates in the source room increase exponentially with the increasing low-energy neutron count rates when the source is lifted from the shield with different radiation intensities. Based on this relationship as well as the count rates measured at larger distance to the source, the dose rates can be calculated approximately by the extrapolation method. This principle can be used to estimate the low level neutron dose values in the source room which cannot be measured directly by a commercial dosimeter. - Highlights: • The scope of the affected area for a curie-level Am–Be neutron source was measured. • The low-level neutron dose-equivalent rates around the source increase exponentially with the increasing count rates when the source is in different shielding state. • This principle can be used to estimate the low level neutron dose values in the source room which cannot be measured directly by a commercial dosimeter

  6. Extrapolation Distances for Pulsed Neutron Experiments

    Attention has been drawn in earlier work to the effect of uncertainty in extrapolation distance on the results of pulsed neutron experiments and hence to the need for more accurate knowledge of this parameter. The extrapolated endpoints can be obtained from flux plots and the value for large systems can be deduced from diffusion coefficients. Information from both approaches is given and the dependence of extrapolated endpoint on temperature and on buckling is discussed. Decay times and time-dependent flux plots have been measured in pulsed source experiments on small, accurately-known, volumes of water and Dowtherm A (thermex) by the use of a small scintillation detector and a time analyser; a separate scintillation detector or a BF3 counter has been used as a monitor. Spatial harmonic analysis of the flux plots was performed by the method of least squares to obtain the extrapolated endpoints once appropriate corrections have been made to the recorded counts. Some consideration was given to the possibility of testing for the effect of flux distortion near the boundary by successive removal of the outer points and to the effects on extrapolated endpoint of the flux perturbation produced by the detector. The results presented are mainly for measurements at 20°C in 4-in and 7-in cubic containers lined with cadmium, but very preliminary information was obtained for water at temperatures up to 80°C and equipment is being designed to extend the range of temperatures still further. (author)

  7. SPATIAL EXTRAPOLATION OF ANISOTROPIC ROAD TRAFFIC DATA

    Hans Braxmeier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of spatial extrapolation of traffic data is proposed. The traffic data is given by GPS signals over downtown Berlin sent by approximately 300 taxis. To reconstruct the traffic situation at a given time spatially, i.e., in the form of traffic maps, kriging with moving neighborhood based on residuals is used. Due to significant anisotropy in directed traffic data, the classical kriging has to be modified in order to include additional information. To verify the extrapolation results, test examples on the basis of a well-known model of stochastic geometry, the Boolean random function are considered.

  8. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  9. The extrapolated-efficiency method, a new technique to determine the γ-cascade detection efficiency in experiments based on the surrogate-reaction method

    The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect technique to extract neutron-induced cross-sections of short-lived nuclei. In the last years several experiments have been performed to investigate whether this technique can be applied to infer radiative-capture cross-sections. A major difficulty in this type of measurements is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. The pulse-height weighting technique (PHWT) has been previously used to determine this quantity in surrogate experiments. In this work, we present a new method to determine the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the vicinity of the neutron-separation energy that is much simpler than the PHWT. We also investigate the possibility to apply this new technique in standard experiments using neutron beams.

  10. The extrapolated-efficiency method, a new technique to determine the γ-cascade detection efficiency in experiments based on the surrogate-reaction method

    Boutoux, G., E-mail: guillaume.boutoux@cea.fr [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); University Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Jurado, B.; Mathieu, L. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); University Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Méot, V. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Aïche, M.; Barreau, G. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); University Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Blanc, A. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Companis, I. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); University Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Roig, O.; Théroine, C. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-02-01

    The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect technique to extract neutron-induced cross-sections of short-lived nuclei. In the last years several experiments have been performed to investigate whether this technique can be applied to infer radiative-capture cross-sections. A major difficulty in this type of measurements is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. The pulse-height weighting technique (PHWT) has been previously used to determine this quantity in surrogate experiments. In this work, we present a new method to determine the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the vicinity of the neutron-separation energy that is much simpler than the PHWT. We also investigate the possibility to apply this new technique in standard experiments using neutron beams.

  11. Uncertainties of Euclidean Time Extrapolation in Lattice Effective Field Theory

    Lähde, Timo A; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolations in Euclidean time form a central part of Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT) calculations using the Projection Monte Carlo method, as the sign problem in many cases prevents simulations at large Euclidean time. We review the next-to-next-to-leading order NLEFT results for the alpha nuclei up to $^{28}$Si, with emphasis on the Euclidean time extrapolations, their expected accuracy and potential pitfalls. We also discuss possible avenues for improving the reliability of Euclidean time extrapolations in NLEFT.

  12. Efficient and stable extrapolation of prestack wavefields

    Wu, Zedong

    2013-09-22

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields in time, nevertheless, is a big challenge because the radicand can be negative, thus reduce to a complex phase velocity, which will make the rank of the mixed domain matrix very high. Using the vertical offset between the sources and receivers, we introduce a method for deriving the DSR formulation, which gives us the opportunity to derive approximations for the mixed domain operator. The method extrapolates prestack wavefields by combining all data into one wave extrapolation procedure, allowing both upgoing and downgoing wavefields since the extrapolation is done in time, and doesn’t have the v(z) assumption in the offset axis of the media. Thus, the imaging condition is imposed by taking the zero-time and zero-offset slice from the multi-dimensional prestack wavefield. Unlike reverse time migration (RTM), no crosscorrelation is needed and we also have access to the subsurface offset information, which is important for migration velocity analysis. Numerical examples show the capability of this approach in dealing with complex velocity models and can provide a better quality image compared to RTM more efficiently.

  13. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    Fomel, Sergey

    2012-04-30

    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  14. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-02-27

    Solving the wave equation using finite-difference approximations allows for fast extrapolation of the wavefield for modelling, imaging and inversion in complex media. It, however, suffers from dispersion and stability-related limitations that might hamper its efficient or proper application to high frequencies. Spectral-based time extrapolation methods tend to mitigate these problems, but at an additional cost to the extrapolation. I investigate the prospective of using a residual formulation of the spectral approach, along with utilizing Shanks transform-based expansions, that adheres to the residual requirements, to improve accuracy and reduce the cost. Utilizing the fact that spectral methods excel (time steps are allowed to be large) in homogeneous and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms required in every step of the spectral-based implementation. The approach here fixes that by improving the accuracy of each, potentially longer, time step.

  15. Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses

    Knudsen, B. M.; Harris, N. R. P.; S. B. Andersen; Christiansen, B.; N. Larsen; Rex, M.; B. Naujokat

    2004-01-01

    Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour may cool the stratosphere further and increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated from the highly significant trends 1958-2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result...

  16. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  17. Renyi extrapolation of Shannon entropy

    Zyczkowski, K

    2003-01-01

    Relations between Shannon entropy and Renyi entropies of integer order are discussed. For any N-point discrete probability distribution for which the Renyi entropies of order two and three are known, we provide an lower and an upper bound for the Shannon entropy. The average of both bounds provide an explicit extrapolation for this quantity. These results imply relations between the von Neumann entropy of a mixed quantum state, its linear entropy and traces.

  18. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.

    2014-07-18

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  19. Uncertainties of Euclidean time extrapolation in lattice effective field theory

    Extrapolations in Euclidean time form a central part of nuclear lattice effective field theory (NLEFT) calculations using the projection Monte Carlo method, as the sign problem in many cases prevents simulations at large Euclidean time. We review the next-to-next-to-leading order NLEFT results for the alpha nuclei up to 28Si, with emphasis on the Euclidean time extrapolations, their expected accuracy and potential pitfalls. We also discuss possible avenues for improving the reliability of Euclidean time extrapolations in NLEFT. (paper)

  20. De Tafel van den Kersten Ghelove (1404) als bron van en sleutel tot het auteurschap van de vijftiende-eeuwse Latijnse ars moriendi

    Robbe, Joost Roger

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between Dirc van Delft’s Tafel vanden kersten ghelove (1404) and both versions of the fifteenth-century Latin ars moriendi: the Speculum artis bene moriendi and the Bilder-ars. It demonstrates that Dirc van Delft’s Tafel vanden kersten ghelove was used as a...... source text for both versions -- as a direct source for the Speculum and as both a direct and an indirect source for the Bilder-ars. Based on this, this article suggests that Denis the Carthusian (1402/3- 1471) was the author of both versions of the fifteenth-century Latin ars moriendi....

  1. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    Fang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  2. Interpolation and extrapolation of creep rupture data by the Minimum Commitment Method. I - Focal-point convergence. II - Oblique translation. III - Analysis of multiheats

    Manson, S. S.; Ensign, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    The framework in which minimum-commitment analyses of creep-rupture data can be implemented is outlined. The approach is termed the focal point convergence method (FPCM) because the basic parameter A, also known as stability factor, is geometrically the (imaginary) focal point of convergence of all isothermals when extended to the very long or very short times necessary for such convergence to occur. The method can be implemented either by manual-graphical analysis or by computer code. The method is illustrated in detail for the nickel-base alloy Astroloy, as well as for steels, other nickel-base alloys, and aluminum alloys. The minimum-commitment concept is extended to the analysis of creep-rupture data where each isothermal is generated by an oblique translation of the 'master curve' when plotted on log rupture time and log stress axes. The oblique translation method uses the same types of functions in the FPCM. Approaches for treating multiheats on the basis of the FPCM are discussed in detail.

  3. De vier rationaliteiten in Bestuurskundige Argumentatie: De Praxeologische tafel als integratieve methodologie

    Edwards, Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Als toepassingsgericht en multidisciplinaire wetenschap behoeft de bestuurskunde een eigen methodologie, naast de algemene sociaalwetenschappelijke methodologie voor het doen van empirisch onderzoek. Deze eigen bestuurskundige methodologie zou kunnen uitgaan van een argumentatieve benadering, gericht op versterking van de kwaliteit van de praktijkredeneringen die aan bestuurlijk handelen ten grondslag liggen. In dit artikel wordt aangegeven hoe de door Brasz ontwikkelde praxeologische methode...

  4. The Magnetic Field of Active Region 11158 During the 2011 February 12-17 Flares : Differences between Photospheric Extrapolation and Coronal Forward-Fitting Methods

    Aschwanden, Markus J; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    We developed a {\\sl coronal non-linear force-free field (COR-NLFFF)} forward-fitting code that fits an approximate {\\sl non-linear force-free field (NLFFF)} solution to the observed geometry of automatically traced coronal loops. In contrast to photospheric NLFFF codes, which calculate a magnetic field solution from the constraints of the transverse photospheric field, this new code uses coronal constraints instead, and this way provides important information on systematic errors of each magnetic field calculation method, as well as on the non-forcefreeness in the lower chromosphere. In this study we applied the COR-NLFFF code to active region NOAA 11158, during the time interval of 2011 Feb 12 to 17, which includes an X2.2 GOES-class flare plus 35 M and C-class flares. We calcuated the free magnetic energy with a 6-minute cadence over 5 days. We find good agreement between the two types of codes for the total nonpotential $E_N$ and potential energy $E_P$, but find up to a factor of 4 discrepancy in the free ...

  5. The magnetic field of active region 11158 during the 2011 February 12-17 flares: Differences between photospheric extrapolation and coronal forward-fitting methods

    Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Sun, Xudong; Liu, Yang, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: xudongs@stanford.edu, E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We developed a coronal nonlinear force-free field (COR-NLFFF) forward-fitting code that fits an approximate nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) solution to the observed geometry of automatically traced coronal loops. In contrast to photospheric NLFFF codes, which calculate a magnetic field solution from the constraints of the transverse photospheric field, this new code uses coronal constraints instead, and this way provides important information on systematic errors of each magnetic field calculation method, as well as on the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. In this study we applied the COR-NLFFF code to NOAA Active Region 11158, during the time interval of 2011 February 12-17, which includes an X2.2 GOES-class flare plus 35 M- and C-class flares. We calculated the free magnetic energy with a 6 minute cadence over 5 days. We find good agreement between the two types of codes for the total nonpotential E{sub N} and potential energy E{sub P} but find up to a factor of 4 discrepancy in the free energy E {sub free} = E{sub N} E{sub P} and up to a factor of 10 discrepancy in the decrease of the free energy ?E {sub free} during flares. The coronal NLFFF code exhibits a larger time variability and yields a decrease of free energy during the flare that is sufficient to satisfy the flare energy budget, while the photospheric NLFFF code shows much less time variability and an order of magnitude less free-energy decrease during flares. The discrepancy may partly be due to the preprocessing of photospheric vector data but more likely is due to the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. We conclude that the coronal field cannot be correctly calculated on the basis of photospheric data alone and requires additional information on coronal loop geometries.

  6. Extrapolating Satellite Winds to Turbine Operating Heights

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Mouche, Alexis; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    extrapolation of satellitebased wind maps. Winds near the sea surface are obtained from satellite data and used together with an adaptation of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory to estimate the wind speed at higher levels. The thermal stratification of the atmosphere is taken into account through a long......-term stability correction that is based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) model outputs. The effect of the long-term stability correction on the wind profile is significant. The method is applied to Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar scenes acquired over the south Baltic Sea. This leads to maps of the...... long-term stability correction and wind speed at a height of 100 m with a spatial resolution of 0.028. Calculations of the corresponding wind power density and Weibull parameters are shown. Comparisons with mast observations reveal that NWP model outputs can correct successfully for long-term stability...

  7. Fuzzy Model Comparison to Extrapolate Rainfall Data

    C. Tzimopoulos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents two fuzzy rule-based models for extrapolating the missing rainfall data records of a station, utilizing as a reference the values from another meteorological station located in an adjacent area. The first one is constructed based on the least squares algorithm and the second one using ANFIS method. Three stations were used in this research, all located in Northern Greece. The values of Thessaloniki station were used as fuzzy premises and the values of Sindos and Kria Vrisi were used as fuzzy responses. The model performance was measured by testing several types and numbers of membership functions. Both models are compared with the classical method of linear regression. The comparison between the classical and fuzzy logic method, shows that the second one performs better in recovering the missing rainfall values. It was also found that a fuzzy rule based system, trained with the least squares algorithm, with two fully overlapping fuzzy numbers, is identical to the linear regression method.

  8. A new approach for stress rupture data extrapolation

    The common feature of stress rupture lines in the usual log σ/log tsub(f) - plot is that their curvature is always d2log σ/d(logtsub(f)2<0. Hence, a linear extrapolation from these graphs leads to non-conservative estimates. In the present investigation it is shown that stress rupture functions F(σ,tsub(f)) can be derived which are more suitable for life time extrapolations as the usual one mentioned above. Best results were obtained with a function of the type tsub(f) approx.sinh βσ. Besides a better extrapolation, the functions examined allow a better understanding about the nature of the life time determining mechanisms. The new method is applied to stress rupture data of SS AISI 304. (author)

  9. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    Hove, D; Riisager, K

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighbouring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei with same parity. The mass relations are first tested and shown to either be rather accurately obeyed or revealing signatures of quickly varying structures. Extrapolations are initially made for a nucleus by applying each of these relations. Very reliable estimates are then produced either by an average or by choosing the extrapolation where the smoothest structures enter. Corresponding mass relations for $Q_{\\alpha}$ values are used to study the general structure of super-heavy elements. A minor neutron shell at $N = 152$ is seen, but no sign of other shell structures are apparent in the super-heavy region. Accuracies are typically substantially better than $0.5$~MeV.

  10. Chiral extrapolation beyond the power-counting regime

    Hall, J M M; Leinweber, D B; Liu, K F; Mathur, N; Young, R D; Zhang, J B

    2011-01-01

    Chiral effective field theory can provide valuable insight into the chiral physics of hadrons when used in conjunction with non-perturbative schemes such as lattice QCD. In this discourse, the attention is focused on extrapolating the mass of the rho meson to the physical pion mass in quenched QCD (QQCD). With the absence of a known experimental value, this serves to demonstrate the ability of the extrapolation scheme to make predictions without prior bias. By using extended effective field theory developed previously, an extrapolation is performed using quenched lattice QCD data that extends outside the chiral power-counting regime (PCR). The method involves an analysis of the renormalization flow curves of the low energy coefficients in a finite-range regularized effective field theory. The analysis identifies an optimal regulator, which is embedded in the lattice QCD data themselves. This optimal regulator is the regulator value at which the renormalization of the low energy coefficients is approximately i...

  11. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei with...

  12. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    The National Research Councils (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  13. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  14. Design and building of an extrapolation ionization chamber for beta dosimetry

    An extrapolation chamber was designed and built to be used in beta dosimetry. The basic characteristics of an extrapolation chamber are discussed, together with fundamental principle of the dosimetric method used. Details of the chamber's design and properties of materials employed are presented. A full evaluation of extrapolation chamber under irradiation from two 90Sr + 90Y beta sources is done. The geometric parameters of the chamber, leakage current and ion collection efficiency are determined. (Author)

  15. Extrapolative prediction using physically-based QSAR.

    Cleves, Ann E; Jain, Ajay N

    2016-02-01

    Surflex-QMOD integrates chemical structure and activity data to produce physically-realistic models for binding affinity prediction . Here, we apply QMOD to a 3D-QSAR benchmark dataset and show broad applicability to a diverse set of targets. Testing new ligands within the QMOD model employs automated flexible molecular alignment, with the model itself defining the optimal pose for each ligand. QMOD performance was compared to that of four approaches that depended on manual alignments (CoMFA, two variations of CoMSIA, and CMF). QMOD showed comparable performance to the other methods on a challenging, but structurally limited, test set. The QMOD models were also applied to test a large and structurally diverse dataset of ligands from ChEMBL, nearly all of which were synthesized years after those used for model construction. Extrapolation across diverse chemical structures was possible because the method addresses the ligand pose problem and provides structural and geometric means to quantitatively identify ligands within a model's applicability domain. Predictions for such ligands for the four tested targets were highly statistically significant based on rank correlation. Those molecules predicted to be highly active ([Formula: see text]) had a mean experimental [Formula: see text] of 7.5, with potent and structurally novel ligands being identified by QMOD for each target. PMID:26860112

  16. Infrared extrapolations of quadrupole moments and transitions

    Odell, D; Platter, L

    2015-01-01

    We study the convergence of bound-state quadrupole moments in finite harmonic oscillator spaces. We derive an expression for the infrared extrapolation for the quadrupole moment of a nucleus and benchmark our results using different model interactions for the deuteron. We find good agreement between the analytically derived and numerically obtained convergence behavior. We also derive an extrapolation formula for electric quadrupole transitions and find good agreement with the numerical calculation of a simple system.

  17. Frequency extrapolation by nonconvex compressive sensing

    Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sidky, Emil Y [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Pan, Xiaochaun [UNIV OF CHICAGO

    2010-12-03

    Tomographic imaging modalities sample subjects with a discrete, finite set of measurements, while the underlying object function is continuous. Because of this, inversion of the imaging model, even under ideal conditions, necessarily entails approximation. The error incurred by this approximation can be important when there is rapid variation in the object function or when the objects of interest are small. In this work, we investigate this issue with the Fourier transform (FT), which can be taken as the imaging model for magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) or some forms of wave imaging. Compressive sensing has been successful for inverting this data model when only a sparse set of samples are available. We apply the compressive sensing principle to a somewhat related problem of frequency extrapolation, where the object function is represented by a super-resolution grid with many more pixels than FT measurements. The image on the super-resolution grid is obtained through nonconvex minimization. The method fully utilizes the available FT samples, while controlling aliasing and ringing. The algorithm is demonstrated with continuous FT samples of the Shepp-Logan phantom with additional small, high-contrast objects.

  18. Parallel relaxed and extrapolated algorithms for computing PageRank

    Arnal García, Josep; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; Migallón Gomis, Violeta; Palomino Benito, Juan; Penadés Martínez, José

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, parallel Relaxed and Extrapolated algorithms based on the Power method for accelerating the PageRank computation are presented. Different parallel implementations of the Power method and the proposed variants are analyzed using different data distribution strategies. The reported experiments show the behavior and effectiveness of the designed algorithms for realistic test data using either OpenMP, MPI or an hybrid OpenMP/MPI approach to exploit the benefits of shared memory ins...

  19. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-04-30

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  20. A dimensional extrapolation technique for ITER

    A novel methodology for extrapolation of the performance of ITER class machines is introduced. This procedure utilizes the ITER ELMy H mode database by means of a similarity approach where every discharge is extrapolated to a machine satisfying the ITER performance requirements through the use of the tokamak system code developed during the course of the ITER design evolution. This approach attempts, amongst other things, to overcome the difficulty associated with the simultaneous choice of non-dimensional parameters which, in particular when close to their respective limits, may have some significant mutual interactions affecting energy confinement time. The methodology is also applied to the ITER Physics Basis scalings to develop a non-statistical approach where fusion power is extrapolated at constant beta and confinement is assumed to follow a gyroBohm form. In both cases, out of more than a thousand discharges in the ELMy H mode database, less than half turn out to extrapolate to a Q = 10 machine whose major radius is smaller than 8 m. However, a significant number of discharges do extrapolate to a Q 10 machine with R < 6.2 m. This strengthens confidence in the present choice of ITER parameters. In addition, from this analysis, it has been possible to identify a set of high performance 'ITER relevant' discharges from a number of machines, which could be used as starting points for investigation of further improvements in confinement. (author)

  1. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    Ma, Xuxin

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  2. A new clinical extrapolation chamber dosimeter

    A new clinical extrapolation chamber dosimeter has been developed for electron beams and X-rays from medical linac. It consists of a new type extrapolation chamber, a water phantom and an intelligent portable instrument. The chamber is fitted a thin entrance window and has a collecting electrode make of polystyrene 20 mm in diameter. The electrode spacing can be varied by stepping motor drive achieving high precision of electrode setting/ The variable gap is as small as 0.20 mm to 6 mm. The dosimeter can automatically finish the measuring process, and has error self-test and dose self-recording function. The total uncertainty is 2.7%

  3. Cosmogony as an extrapolation of magnetospheric research

    A theory of the origin and evolution of the Solar System (Alfven and Arrhenius, 1975: 1976) which considered electromagnetic forces and plasma effects is revised in the light of new information supplied by space research. In situ measurements in the magnetospheres and solar wind have changed our views of basic properties of cosmic plasmas. These results can be extrapolated both outwards in space, to interstellar clouds, backwards in time, to the formation of the solar system. The first extrapolation leads to a revision of some cloud properties which are essential for the early phases in the formation of stars and solar nebule. The latter extrapolation makes possible to approach the cosmogonic processes by extrapolation of (rather) well-known magnetospheric phenomena. Pioneer-Voyager observations of the Saturnian rings indicate that essential parts of their structure are fossils from cosmogonic times. By using detailed information from these space missions, it seems possible to reconstruct certain events 4-5 billion years ago with an accuracy of a few percent. This will cause a change in our views of the evolution of the solar system.(author)

  4. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...... out-of-plane bending moment and the tower mudline bending moment of a pitch-controlled wind turbine. In general, the results show that the method based on average conditional exceedance rates predicts the extrapolated characteristic response loads at the individual mean wind speeds well and results in...

  5. Survival extrapolation using the poly-Weibull model.

    Demiris, Nikolaos; Lunn, David; Sharples, Linda D

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies of (cost-) effectiveness in cardiothoracic transplantation have required estimation of mean survival over the lifetime of the recipients. In order to calculate mean survival, the complete survivor curve is required but is often not fully observed, so that survival extrapolation is necessary. After transplantation, the hazard function is bathtub-shaped, reflecting latent competing risks which operate additively in overlapping time periods. The poly-Weibull distribution is a flexible parametric model that may be used to extrapolate survival and has a natural competing risks interpretation. In addition, treatment effects and subgroups can be modelled separately for each component of risk. We describe the model and develop inference procedures using freely available software. The methods are applied to two problems from cardiothoracic transplantation. PMID:21937472

  6. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of 90Sr/90Y)

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: 90Sr/90Y; Ophthalmic applicators 90Sr/90Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  7. Issues and current applications of interspecies extrapolation of carcinogenic potency as a component of risk assessment.

    Visek, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    The Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO) of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) is conducting this symposium under contract with the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has requested information on the strengths and weaknesses of current interspecies extrapolation methods using metabolic and pharmacokinetic data, identity of data for these methods, bases for choice of extrapolation method and...

  8. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Whipping can contribute to increased fatigue and extreme loading of container ships, and guidelines have been made available by the leading class societies. Reports concerning the hogging collapse of MSC Napoli and MOL Comfort suggest that whipping contributed. The accidents happened in moderate to...... paper considers various extrapolation methods to investigate the uncertainty in the extrapolation methods and to see if all methods confirm that the moderate storms are dimensioning....

  9. Monitoring corrosion and corrosion control of iron in HCl by non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series - Part I. Tafel polarisation, ICP-AES and EFM studies

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, known as TRITON-X-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on iron in 1.0 M HCl solution were studied. Measurements were conducted in 1.0 M HCl solutions without and with various concentrations of the three selected surfactants using chemical (ICP-AES method of analysis of dissolved cations) and electrochemical (Tafel polarisation and EFM) techniques at 25 deg. C. These measurements were complemented with SEM and EDX examinations of the electrode surface. Polarisation data showed that the non-ionic surfactants used in this study acted as mixed-type inhibitors with cathodic predominance. The protection efficiency increased with increase in surfactant concentration. Maximum protection efficiency of the surfactant was observed at concentrations around its CMC. From their molecular structure, these surfactants may adsorb on the metal surface through two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atoms of the hydrophilic head group.

  10. Knowledge-based antenna pattern extrapolation

    Robinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We describe a theoretically-motivated algorithm for extrapolation of antenna radiation patterns from a small number of measurements. This algorithm exploits constraints on the antenna's underlying design to avoid ambiguities, but is sufficiently general to address many different antenna types. A theoretical basis for the robustness of this algorithm is developed, and its performance is verified in simulation using a number of popular antenna designs.

  11. Local Map Extrapolation in Dynamic Environments

    Drouilly, Romain; Papadakis, Panagiotis; Rives, Patrick; Morisset, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    We present a generative approach to perform robot mapping that is based on an intelligent integration of static and dynamic entity classes within an environment, in order to extrap-olate map information at various resolutions. Our framework differentiates from the conventional standpoint where different mapping levels are overlaid on one another, by fusing information from different mapping levels that allows us to infer new information within partially mapped environments. Towards this goal,...

  12. A simple extrapolation of thermodynamic perturbation theory to infinite order

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2015-09-01

    Recent analyses of the third and fourth order perturbation contributions to the equations of state for square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains show trends that persist across orders and molecular models. In particular, the ratio between orders (e.g., A3/A2, where Ai is the ith order perturbation contribution) exhibits a peak when plotted with respect to density. The trend resembles a Gaussian curve with the peak near the critical density. This observation can form the basis for a simple recursion and extrapolation from the highest available order to infinite order. The resulting extrapolation is analytic and therefore cannot fully characterize the critical region, but it remarkably improves accuracy, especially for the binodal curve. Whereas a second order theory is typically accurate for the binodal at temperatures within 90% of the critical temperature, the extrapolated result is accurate to within 99% of the critical temperature. In addition to square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains, we demonstrate how the method can be applied semi-empirically to the Perturbed Chain - Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT).

  13. Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation

    Ibanez Jacome, Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  14. Use of extrapolation to forecast the working capital in the mechanical engineering companies

    Cherep, A.; Shvets, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the method of extrapolation, highlighting the effectiveness of the financial activity of JSC «ZAZ» and for its future development. In the process of analyzing and exploring the scientific work of many scientists, effectiveness of using the extrapolation method for predicting performance was determined. As a result of research in the article analyzes the financial position of the enterprises of mechanical engineering in modern conditions, the efficienc...

  15. On extrapolation blowups in the scale

    Fiorenza Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yano's extrapolation theorem dated back to 1951 establishes boundedness properties of a subadditive operator acting continuously in for close to and/or taking into as and/or with norms blowing up at speed and/or , . Here we give answers in terms of Zygmund, Lorentz-Zygmund and small Lebesgue spaces to what happens if as . The study has been motivated by current investigations of convolution maximal functions in stochastic analysis, where the problem occurs for . We also touch the problem of comparison of results in various scales of spaces.

  16. Chiral and Continuum Extrapolation of Partially-Quenched Hadron Masses

    Allton, C.R.; Armour, W.; D. B. Leinweber; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Using the finite-range regularisation (FRR) of chiral effective field theory, the chiral extrapolation formula for the vector meson mass is derived for the case of partially-quenched QCD. We re-analyse the dynamical fermion QCD data for the vector meson mass from the CP-PACS collaboration. A global fit, including finite lattice spacing effects, of all 16 of their ensembles is performed. We study the FRR method together with a naive polynomial approach and find excellent agreement ~1% with the...

  17. Chiral and continuum extrapolation of partially-quenched hadron masses

    Chris Allton; Wes Armour; Derek Leinweber; Anthony Thomas; Ross Young

    2005-09-29

    Using the finite-range regularization (FRR) of chiral effective field theory, the chiral extrapolation formula for the vector meson mass is derived for the case of partially-quenched QCD. We re-analyze the dynamical fermion QCD data for the vector meson mass from the CP-PACS collaboration. A global fit, including finite lattice spacing effects, of all 16 of their ensembles is performed. We study the FRR method together with a naive polynomial approach and find excellent agreement ({approx}1%) with the experimental value of M{sub {rho}} from the former approach. These results are extended to the case of the nucleon mass.

  18. Chiral and continuum extrapolation of partially-quenched hadron masses

    Using the finite-range regularization (FRR) of chiral effective field theory, the chiral extrapolation formula for the vector meson mass is derived for the case of partially-quenched QCD. We re-analyze the dynamical fermion QCD data for the vector meson mass from the CP-PACS collaboration. A global fit, including finite lattice spacing effects, of all 16 of their ensembles is performed. We study the FRR method together with a naive polynomial approach and find excellent agreement (∼1%) with the experimental value of Mρ from the former approach. These results are extended to the case of the nucleon mass

  19. Extrapolation models: Absolute and relative risk

    For lifetime experiences concerning the radiation-induced frequency of cancer, there are only a few data available form any of the larger epidemiological studies. Appropriate models must therefore be developed to extrapolate the limited period of life of those irradiated persons that were examined in these studies. Basically, two models may be differentiated for defining the radiation risk after a certain length of study and for extrapolating the risk for the irradiated persons over the actual length of the study. The absolute risk model is based on the assumption that radiation-induced cancer cases occur on a constant level or reach a maximum after a certain latency period, in addition to the spontaneously occurring cancer cases. For the relative risk model it is assumend that radiation-induced cancer increases proportionally to the spontaneous cases. The doubling dose, i.e. the dose which doubles the spontaneous risk, is a particular form of the relative risk and is used specifically for genetic radiation effect. From recent data is more and more apparent that epidemiological findings are better described by a relative rather than an absolute risk model. In consequence of a relative risk projection, the values for the assessed radiation risk are expected to be higher. (orig.)

  20. Dioxin equivalency: Challenge to dose extrapolation

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Silkworth, J.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Extensive research has shown that all biological effects of dioxin-like agents are mediated via a single biochemical target, the Ah receptor (AhR), and that the relative biologic potencies of such agents in any given system, coupled with their exposure levels, may be described in terms of toxic equivalents (TEQ). It has also shown that the TEQ sources include not only chlorinated species such as the dioxins (PCDDs), PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, but also non-chlorinated substances such as the PAHs of wood smoke, the AhR agonists of cooked meat, and the indolocarbazol (ICZ) derived from cruciferous vegetables. Humans have probably had elevated exposures to these non-chlorinated TEQ sources ever since the discoveries of fire, cooking, and the culinary use of Brassica spp. Recent assays of CYP1A2 induction show that these ``natural`` or ``traditional`` AhR agonists are contributing 50--100 times as much to average human TEQ exposures as do the chlorinated xenobiotics. Currently, the safe doses of the xenobiotic TEQ sources are estimated from their NOAELs and large extrapolation factors, derived from arbitrary mathematical models, whereas the NOAELs themselves are regarded as the safe doses for the TEQs of traditional dietary components. Available scientific data can neither support nor refute either approach to assessing the health risk of an individual chemical substance. However, if two substances be toxicologically equivalent, then their TEQ-adjusted health risks must also be equivalent, and the same dose extrapolation procedure should be used for both.

  1. Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    This paper examines the events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences to further understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The first section deals with a report of the events that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just after the 1945 bombings with respect to the physical conditions of the affected areas, the immediate effects on humans, the psychological response of the victims, and the nature of outside assistance. Because there can be no experimental data to validate the effects on cities and their populations of detonations from current weapons, the data from the actual explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide a point of departure. The second section examines possible extrapolations from and comparisons with the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. A comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from the conventional bombings of cities during World War II, the consequences of major earthquakes, the historical effects of the Black Plague and widespread famines, and other extreme natural events. The potential effects of detonating a modern 1 MT warhead on the city of Hiroshima as it exists today are simulated. This is extended to the local effects on a targeted city from a global nuclear war, and attention is directed to problems of estimating the societal effects from such a war

  2. In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields. PMID:22271226

  3. Extrapolation procedure for low-temperature series for the square lattice spin-1 Ising model

    I Jensen; A. J. Guttmann(Department of Mathematics, The University of Melbourne Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia)

    1996-01-01

    The finite-lattice method of series expansions has been combined with a new extrapolation procedure to extend the low-temperature series for the specific heat, spontaneous magnetisation and susceptibility of the spin-1 Ising model on the square lattice. The extended series were derived by directly calculating the series to order 99 (in the variable $u=\\exp[-J/k_B T])$ and using the new extrapolation procedure to calculate an additional 13--14 terms.

  4. Calibration of the 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic and dermatological applicators with an extrapolation ionization minichamber.

    Antonio, Patrcia L; Oliveira, Mrcia L; Caldas, Linda V E

    2014-02-01

    (90)Sr+(90)Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. (90)Sr+(90)Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. PMID:24362457

  5. Extrapolation of Calibration Curve of Hot-wire Spirometer Using a Novel Neural Network Based Approach

    Ardekani, Mohammad Ali; Nafisi, Vahid Reza; Farhani, Foad

    2012-01-01

    Hot-wire spirometer is a kind of constant temperature anemometer (CTA). The working principle of CTA, used for the measurement of fluid velocity and flow turbulence, is based on convective heat transfer from a hot-wire sensor to a fluid being measured. The calibration curve of a CTA is nonlinear and cannot be easily extrapolated beyond its calibration range. Therefore, a method for extrapolation of CTA calibration curve will be of great practical application. In this paper, a novel approach b...

  6. Scintillation counting: an extrapolation into the future

    Progress in scintillation counting is intimately related to advances in a variety of other disciplines such as photochemistry, photophysics, and instrumentation. And while there is steady progress in the understanding of luminescent phenomena, there is a virtual explosion in the application of semiconductor technology to detectors, counting systems, and data processing. The exponential growth of this technology has had, and will continue to have, a profound effect on the art of scintillation spectroscopy. This paper will review key events in technology that have had an impact on the development of scintillation science (solid and liquid) and will attempt to extrapolate future directions based on existing and projected capability in associated fields. Along the way there have been occasional pitfalls and several false starts; these too will be discussed as a reminder that if you want the future to be different than the past, study the past

  7. Cosmological extrapolation of modified Newtonian dynamics

    The regime of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), which is used in astronomy to describe gravitating systems of the island type without the need to postulate the existence of a hypothetical dark matter, is generalized to the case of homogeneous distribution of usual matter by introducing a linear dependence of the critical acceleration on the size of the region under consideration. We show that such an extrapolation of MOND in cosmology is consistent with both the observed dependence of brightness on the redshift for type Ia supernovae and the parameters of large-scale structure of the evolving Universe, that are determined by the presence of a cosmological constant, the ordinary matter of baryons and electrons, and photon and neutrino radiation, without any dark matter. (paper)

  8. Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER

    An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q95 . The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)

  9. Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER

    An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q95. The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)

  10. The extrapolation of creep rupture data by PD6605 - An independent case study

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65 Fisher Avenue, Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The worked example presented in BSI document PD6605-1:1998, to illustrate the selection, validation and extrapolation of a creep rupture model using statistical analysis, was independently examined. Alternative rupture models were formulated and analysed by the same statistical methods, and were shown to represent the test data more accurately than the original model. Median rupture lives extrapolated from the original and alternative models were found to diverge widely under some conditions of practical interest. The tests prescribed in PD6605 and employed to validate the original model were applied to the better of the alternative models. But the tests were unable to discriminate between the two, demonstrating that these tests fail to ensure reliability in extrapolation. The difficulties of determining when a model is sufficiently reliable for use in extrapolation are discussed and some proposals are made.

  11. Extrapolation of hydrogen molar volumes by the virial equation on wide pressure and temperature intervals

    A virial equation was used for approximation of experimental molar volumes at high and low pressures for experimental temperatures. It was shown that the virial equation can be used for wide pressure and temperature intervals in distinction of the Tait, logarithm and other equations. The obtained under fitting of experimental data virial parameters were used for their following extrapolations on wide temperature intervals. The direct solution of the third order linear virial equations relative to molar volumes using the Kardano or Newton methods was employed for extrapolation of experimental dependences from high pressure to low pressure and from low pressure to high and superhigh pressures. A quite good agreement between experimental values of molar volumes versus pressures and extrapolating ones allows one to conclude that for a definite temperature interval with high probability and proof it is possible to make extrapolations on superhigh pressures

  12. Calibration of the 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic and dermatological applicators with an extrapolation ionization minichamber

    90Sr+90Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. - Highlights: • 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators were calibrated using a mini-extrapolation chamber. • An extrapolation curve was obtained for each applicator during its calibration. • The results were compared with those provided by the calibration certificates. • All results of the dermatological applicators presented lower differences than 5%

  13. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  14. Extrapolating W -associated jet-production ratios at the LHC

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L. J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Hche, S.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D. A.; Matre, D.

    2015-07-01

    Electroweak vector-boson production, accompanied by multiple jets, is an important background to searches for physics beyond the standard model. A precise and quantitative understanding of this process is helpful in constraining deviations from known physics. We study four key ratios in W +n -jet production at the LHC. We compute the ratio of cross sections for W +n - to W +(n -1 )-jet production as a function of the minimum jet transverse momentum. We also study the ratio differentially, as a function of the W -boson transverse momentum; as a function of the scalar sum of the jet transverse energy, HTjets; and as a function of certain jet transverse momenta. We show how to use such ratios to extrapolate differential cross sections to W +6 -jet production at next-to-leading order, and we cross-check the method against a direct calculation at leading order. We predict the differential distribution in HTjets for W +6 jets at next-to-leading order using such an extrapolation. We use the BlackHat software library together with SHERPA to perform the computations.

  15. Estimation of macro velocity models by wave field extrapolation

    Cox, Hendricus Lambertus Hubertus

    A method to estimate accurate macro velocity models for prediction of traveltimes of seismic waves in the earth's subsurface is developed. The sensitivity of prestack migration is used to estimate the model and since model errors are expressed in the quality of the migration result, the migration process itself can be used to determine these errors. Using an initial model, shot records are downward extrapolated to grid points (depth points) in the subsurface. The extrapolated data can be reordered into so called common depth point (CDP) gathers, image gathers and focus panels. The deviation from horizontal alignment is used to quantify the errors in the model and to apply update corrections accordingly. The analysis can be done before or after stacking over all shot records (CDP stacking). the previously mentioned focus panels are generated by CDP stacking. The alignment analysis reduces then to a simple focusing analysis. The examples discussed show that horizontal alignment gives accurate macro velocity models for prestack depth migration. Focus panels can be difficult to interpret in complicated situations, where it is impossible to converge to the correct solution with focus panels only. The process should be guided by macrogeologic models of the area. In complicated situations, a layer stripping strategy is preferred.

  16. Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation

    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the 12C, 6He and 6Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of tissues toxicity.

    Hamon, Jrmy; Renner, Maria; Jamei, Masoud; Lukas, Arno; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Bois, Frdric Y

    2015-12-25

    Predicting repeated-dosing in vivo drug toxicity from in vitro testing and omics data gathering requires significant support in bioinformatics, mathematical modeling and statistics. We present here the major aspects of the work devoted within the framework of the European integrated Predict-IV to pharmacokinetic modeling of in vitro experiments, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, mechanistic models of toxicity for the kidney and brain, large scale dose-response analyses methods and biomarker discovery tools. All of those methods have been applied to various extent to the drug datasets developed by the project's partners. Our approach is rather generic and could be adapted to other drugs or drug candidates. It marks a successful integration of the work of the different teams toward a common goal of predictive quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. PMID:25678044

  18. Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation

    Laehde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany); Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Rupak, Gautam [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the {sup 12}C, {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)

  19. Hard hadronic collisions - extrapolation of standard effects

    We study hard hadronic collisions for the proton-proton (pp) and the proton-antiproton (panti p) option in the CERN LEP tunnel. Based on our current knowledge of hard collisions at the present CERN panti p Collider, and with the help of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), we extrapolate to the next generation of hadron colliders with a centre-of-mass energy Esub(cm) = 10-20 TeV. We estimate various signatures, trigger rates, event topologies, and associated distributions for a variety of old and new physical processes, involving prompt photons, leptons, jets, Wsup(+-) and Z bosons in the final state. We also calculate the maximum fermion and boson masses accessible at the LEP Hadron Collider. The standard QCD and electroweak processes studied here, being the main body of standard hard collisions, quantify the challenge of extracting new physics with hadron colliders. We hope that our estimates will provide a useful profile of the final states, and that our experimental physics colleagues will find this of use in the design of their detectors. (orig.)

  20. Hard hadronic collisions: extrapolation of standard effects

    We study hard hadronic collisions for the proton-proton (pp) and the proton-antiproton (p anti p) option in the CERN LEP tunnel. Based on our current knowledge of hard collisions at the present CERN p anti p Collider, and with the help of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), we extrapolate to the next generation of hadron colliders with a centre-of-mass energy E/sub cm/ = 10 to 20 TeV. We estimate various signatures, trigger rates, event topologies, and associated distributions for a variety of old and new physical processes, involving prompt photons, leptons, jets, W+- and Z bosons in the final state. We also calculate the maximum fermion and boson masses accessible at the LEP Hadron Collider. The standard QCD and electroweak processes studied here, being the main body of standard hard collisions, quantify the challenge of extracting new physics with hadron colliders. We hope that our estimates will provide a useful profile of the final states, and that our experimental physics colleagues will find this of use in the design of their detectors. 84 references

  1. Ultraviolet extrapolations in finite oscillator bases

    König, S; Furnstahl, R J; More, S N; Papenbrock, T

    2014-01-01

    The use of finite harmonic oscillator spaces in many-body calculations introduces both infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) errors. The IR effects are well approximated by imposing a hard-wall boundary condition at a properly identified radius L_eff. We show that duality of the oscillator implies that the UV effects are equally well described by imposing a sharp momentum cutoff at a momentum Lambda_eff complementary to L_eff. By considering two-body systems with separable potentials, we show that the UV energy corrections depend on details of the potential, in contrast to the IR energy corrections, which depend only on the S-matrix. An adaptation of the separable treatment to more general interactions is developed and applied to model potentials as well as to the deuteron with realistic potentials. The previous success with a simple phenomenological form for the UV error is also explained. Possibilities for controlled extrapolations for A > 2 based on scaling arguments are discussed.

  2. Nuclear Lattice Simulations using Symmetry-Sign Extrapolation

    Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Rupak, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. We now introduce the technique of "symmetry-sign extrapolation" which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to control the sign oscillations without introducing unknown systematic errors. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the $^{12}$C, $^6$He and $^6$Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter.

  3. Extrapolation of Calibration Curve of Hot-wire Spirometer Using a Novel Neural Network Based Approach.

    Ardekani, Mohammad Ali; Nafisi, Vahid Reza; Farhani, Foad

    2012-10-01

    Hot-wire spirometer is a kind of constant temperature anemometer (CTA). The working principle of CTA, used for the measurement of fluid velocity and flow turbulence, is based on convective heat transfer from a hot-wire sensor to a fluid being measured. The calibration curve of a CTA is nonlinear and cannot be easily extrapolated beyond its calibration range. Therefore, a method for extrapolation of CTA calibration curve will be of great practical application. In this paper, a novel approach based on the conventional neural network and self-organizing map (SOM) method has been proposed to extrapolate CTA calibration curve for measurement of velocity in the range 0.7-30 m/seconds. Results show that, using this approach for the extrapolation of the CTA calibration curve beyond its upper limit, the standard deviation is about -0.5%, which is acceptable in most cases. Moreover, this approach for the extrapolation of the CTA calibration curve below its lower limit produces standard deviation of about 4.5%, which is acceptable in spirometry applications. Finally, the standard deviation on the whole measurement range (0.7-30 m/s) is about 1.5%. PMID:23724368

  4. Downward extrapolation of multi-component seismic data

    Haime, Gregory Carlo

    An evaluation of the problems involved in elastic seismic migration is presented. Elastic wave field extrapolated operators are presented that are applicable to a general three dimensional elastic and anisotropic medium. Although the elastic operators derived are stand alone elements and can be used in any migration scheme, they are developed to take part in the stepwise elastic inversion scheme proposed by Berkhout and Wapenaar. The advantages of multicomponent seismic acquisition are discussed. The necessity of multicomponent data in elastic processing is demonstrated by an example, and a global description of all modules in the stepwise elastic inversion scheme is given. Elastic P and S extrapolation operators are derived starting from the full elastic Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral. An analysis of the contribution of the different elastic terms in the extrapolation process is presented. It is made clear that there are many different ways to generate extrapolation operators for a so called macro model. (Such a macro model represents a global description of the subsurface in terms of velocities and densities and must be estimated before the actual extrapolation step can be performed.) A quantitative error analysis of the extrapolation operators proposed is performed. The influence of macro model errors on the amplitudes of the extrapolated P and S wave fields is examined. The use of the elastic P and S extrapolation operators in redatuming and migration schemes is considered.

  5. Dose rates from a C-14 source using extrapolation chamber and MC calculations

    The extrapolation chamber technique and the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation technique based on the EGS4 system have been studied for application for determination of dose rates in a low-energy β radiation field e.g., that from a 14C source. The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for determination of dose rates in β radiation fields. Applying a number of correction factors and the stopping power ratio, tissue to air, the measured dose rate in an air volume surrounded by tissue equivalent material is converted into dose to tissue. Various details of the extrapolation chamber measurement method and evaluation procedure have been studied and further developed, and a complete procedure for the experimental determination of dose rates from a14C source is presented. A number of correction factors and other parameters used in the evaluation procedure for the measured data have been obtained by MC calculations. The whole extrapolation chamber measurement procedure was simulated using the MC method. The measured dose rates showed an increasing deviation from the MC calculated dose rates as the absorber thickness increased. This indicates that the EGS4 code may have some limitations for transport of very low-energy electrons. i.e., electrons with estimated energies less than 10 - 20 keV. MC calculations of dose to tissue were performed using two models: a cylindrical tissue phantom and a computer model of the extrapolation chamber. The dose to tissue in the extrapolation chamber model showed an additional buildup dose compared to the dose in the tissue model. (au) 10 tabs., 11 ills., 18 refs

  6. Comparing gravitational waveform extrapolation to Cauchy-characteristic extraction in binary black hole simulations

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Boyle, Michael; Reisswig, Christian; Scheel, Mark A.; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2013-12-01

    We extract gravitational waveforms from numerical simulations of black hole binaries computed using the Spectral Einstein Code. We compare two extraction methods: direct construction of the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar Ψ4 at a finite distance from the source and Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE). The direct NP approach is simpler than CCE, but NP waveforms can be contaminated by near-zone effects—unless the waves are extracted at several distances from the source and extrapolated to infinity. Even then, the resulting waveforms can in principle be contaminated by gauge effects. In contrast, CCE directly provides, by construction, gauge-invariant waveforms at future null infinity. We verify the gauge invariance of CCE by running the same physical simulation using two different gauge conditions. We find that these two gauge conditions produce the same CCE waveforms but show differences in extrapolated-Ψ4 waveforms. We examine data from several different binary configurations and measure the dominant sources of error in the extrapolated-Ψ4 and CCE waveforms. In some cases, we find that NP waveforms extrapolated to infinity agree with the corresponding CCE waveforms to within the estimated error bars. However, we find that in other cases extrapolated and CCE waveforms disagree, most notably for m=0 “memory” modes.

  7. Accurate equilibrium inversion barrier of ammonia by extrapolation to the one-electron basis set limit

    A scheme based on treating uniform singlet-pair and triplet-pair interactions is suggested to extrapolate electron correlation energy of ammonia, calculated at two basis-set levels of ab initio theory in the infinite one-electron basis-set limit. The dual-level method is tested on the extrapolation of the full correlation in coupled-cluster singles and doubles and in the case also a noniterative perturbative correction for connected triple energies for the C3v and D3h structures of ammonia, with correlation-consistent basis sets of the type cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5,6) and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5). For testing and comparison purposes, the energies reported by Klopper [J. Comput. Chem. 22 1306 (2001)] have been taken. From a corresponding extrapolation of CCSD(T)/AVXZ energies for X = 4, 5, we obtain total inversion barriers of 1833.87 cm−1/1832.33 cm−1 for the two/three-parameter extrapolation rules, which are in good agreement with other theoretical extrapolation and empirical values in the literature. (atomic and molecular physics)

  8. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  9. Spatial extrapolation of the vine water status at the whole denomination scale

    Baralon, K.; Payan, J.C.; Salancon, E.; Tisseyre, B.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to test an approach to extrapolate the vine water status over a whole denomination. The method has already been tested at the field level, but it has never been validated on a larger spatial scale. The extrapolation model is based on an empirical approach that relies on the collaboration of a reference measurement and a model of the plant water status spatial variability. Experiments were carried out over the 946 ha of the denomination of Tavel (Gard, France). Th...

  10. Extrapolation of neutron-rich isotope cross-sections from projectile fragmentation

    Mocko, M.; Tsang, M. B.; Z.Y. Sun; Andronenko, L.; Andronenko, M.; Delaunay, F.; Famiano, M.; Friedman, W. A.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Hui, H.; Liu, X. D.; Lukyanov, S.; Lynch, W.G.; Rogers, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using the measured fragmentation cross sections produced from the 48Ca and 64Ni beams at 140 MeV per nucleon on 9Be and 181Ta targets, we find that the cross sections of unmeasured neutron rich nuclei can be extrapolated using a systematic trend involving the average binding energy. The extrapolated cross-sections will be very useful in planning experiments with neutron rich isotopes produced from projectile fragmentation. The proposed method is general and could be applied to other fragmenta...

  11. Slow neutron flux extrapolation distances in R-5 and CIRUS reactors

    In order to calculate the core reactivity, fuel channel power outputs and neutron flux levels in the R-5 reactor at Trombay, axial flux extrapolation distances are required. For this, an analysis is carried out considering the reactor core as a two region neutron multiplying system in axial direction. The slow neutron diffusion equations for both the regions are solved analytically by applying suitable boundary conditions. Application of this method for the estimation of top extrapolation distances in CIRUS, has given results which agree well with accepted values for the reactor. (author)

  12. Non-linearity correction of control rods worth for critical extrapolation during start-up

    Distant extrapolation is usually used during the startup of the research reactor, by lifting the control rods step by step to reach the critical state. Due to the non-linearity of the integral worth of the control rods, this process was risky or conservative, especially when the rods were positioned in the non-linear region. A formula could be derived from the point reactor model. in which the reciprocal of the count rate was proportional to Δkeff. Together with the integral worth curve of the control rods, the effect of the non-linearity could be corrected. This method was validated by critical extrapolation data. (authors)

  13. Analysis of π-p → π-p, π-p → π-π0p et π-p → π+π-n reactions at 2,77 GeV/c and study of the ππ elastic scattering by the Chew-Low extrapolation method applied to π-p → π-π0p and π-p → π+π-n reactions

    180000 pictures taken in the 2 m CERN hydrogen bubble chamber with an incident beam of 2.77 GeV/e were examined. High statistics obtained in the whole angular production range allowed to study the dσ/dt differential cross section behaviour, the mass and width of the ρ meson, and the multipole parameters of this resonance. Nevertheless, the aim of this experiment was the application of the CHEW - LOW extrapolation method. Different types of extrapolation procedures were compared. Phase shift analysis of the elastic ππ scattering between 500 and 1100 MeV, performed with conformal mappings, allowed to determine the values of the S0, S2, P1, D0, D2 waves. Forward dispersion relations were used to obtain scattering length values of the S2 and P1 phase shifts. (author)

  14. Chiral extrapolation and determination of low-energy constants from lattice data

    Ecker, Gerhard; Masjuan, Pere; Neufeld, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    We propose analytic approximations of chiral SU(3) amplitudes for the extrapolation of lattice data to the physical meson masses. The method allows the determination of NNLO low-energy constants in a controllable fashion. We test the approach with recent lattice data for the ratio F_K/F_pi of meson decay constants.

  15. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    Coherent diffraction imaging is a high-resolution imaging technique whose potential can be greatly enhanced by applying the extrapolation method presented here. We demonstrate the enhancement in resolution of a non-periodical object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction record which contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. A diffraction pattern is extrapolated beyond the detector area and as a result, the object is reconstructed at an enhanced resolution and better agreement with experimental amplitudes is achieved. The optimal parameters for the iterative routine and the limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed

  16. Extrapolation-based implicit-explicit general linear methods

    Cardone, Angelamaria; Jackiewicz, Zdzislaw; Zhang, Hong; Sandu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    For many systems of differential equations modeling problems in science and engineering, there are natural splittings of the right hand side into two parts, one non-stiff or mildly stiff, and the other one stiff. For such systems implicit-explicit (IMEX) integration combines an explicit scheme for the non-stiff part with an implicit scheme for the stiff part. In a recent series of papers two of the authors (Sandu and Zhang) have developed IMEX GLMs, a family of implicit-explicit schemes based...

  17. Resolution enhancement by extrapolation of coherent diffraction images: a quantitative study about the limits and a numerical study of non-binary and phase objects

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    In coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) the resolution with which the reconstructed object can be obtained is limited by the numerical aperture of the experimental setup. We present here a theoretical and numerical study for achieving super-resolution by post-extrapolation of coherent diffraction images, such as diffraction patterns or holograms. We proof that a diffraction pattern can unambiguously be extrapolated from just a fraction of the entire pattern and that the ratio of the extrapolated signal to the originally available signal, is linearly proportional to the oversampling ratio. While there could be in principle other methods to achieve extrapolation, we devote our discussion to employing phase retrieval methods and demonstrate their limits. We present two numerical studies; namely the extrapolation of diffraction patterns of non-binary and that of phase objects together with a discussion of the optimal extrapolation procedure.

  18. Limitations of force-free magnetic field extrapolations: Revisiting basic assumptions

    Peter, H.; Warnecke, J.; Chitta, L. P.; Cameron, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Force-free extrapolations are widely used to study the magnetic field in the solar corona based on surface measurements. Aims: The extrapolations assume that the ratio of internal energy of the plasma to magnetic energy, the plasma β, is negligible. Despite the widespread use of this assumption observations, models, and theoretical considerations show that β is of the order of a few percent to more than 10%, and thus not small. We investigate what consequences this has for the reliability of extrapolation results. Methods: We use basic concepts starting with force and energy balance to infer relations between plasma β and free magnetic energy to study the direction of currents in the corona with respect to the magnetic field, and to estimate the errors in the free magnetic energy by neglecting effects of the plasma (β ≪ 1). A comparison with a 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) model supports our basic considerations. Results: If plasma β is of the order of the relative free energy (the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the total magnetic energy) then the pressure gradient can balance the Lorentz force. This is the case in solar corona, and therefore the currents are not properly described. In particular, the error in terms of magnetic energy by neglecting the plasma is of the order of the free magnetic energy, so that the latter cannot be reliably determined by an extrapolation. Conclusions: While a force-free extrapolation might capture the magnetic structure and connectivity of the coronal magnetic field, the derived currents and free magnetic energy are not reliable. Thus quantitative results of extrapolations on the location and amount of heating in the corona (through current dissipation) and on the energy storage of the magnetic field (e.g. for eruptive events) are limited.

  19. Role of animal studies in low-dose extrapolation

    Current data indicate that in the case of low-LET radiation linear, extrapolation from data obtained at high doses appears to overestimate the risk at low doses to a varying degree. In the case of high-LET radiation, extrapolation from data obtained at doses as low as 40 rad (0.4 Gy) is inappropriate and likely to result in an underestimate of the risk

  20. Application of Curve Fitting Extrapolation in Measuring Transient Surface Temperature

    Xiaojian Hao; Lina Hao; Hanchang Zhou; Sanping Jiang; Yanfeng Li

    2013-01-01

    The engine inner wall surface temperature was measured by the plug blind-hole extrapolation, and multiple thermocouples were installed at different depths in the substrate. The engine wall extrapolation model of transient high temperature was established according to the basic principles of heat transfer. The transient temperatures were measured by thermocouples buried at different depths of the engine wall and fitting curve was got. The transient temperature field which was generated by the ...

  1. X-CAPM: An Extrapolative Capital Asset Pricing Model

    Barberis, Nicholas; Greenwood, Robin Marc; Jin, Lawrence; Shleifer, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Survey evidence suggests that many investors form beliefs about future stock market returns by extrapolating past returns: they expect the stock market to perform well (poorly) in the near future if it performed well (poorly) in the recent past. Such beliefs are hard to reconcile with existing models of the aggregate stock market. We study a consumption-based asset pricing model in which some investors form beliefs about future price changes in the stock market by extrapolating past price cha...

  2. Extrapolation of mean-field models to superheavy nuclei

    The extrapolation of self-consistent nuclear mean-field models to the region of superheavy elements is discussed with emphasis on the extrapolating power of the models. The predictions of modern mean-field models are confronted with recent experimental data. It is shown that a final conclusion about the location of the expected island of spherical doubly-magic superheavy nuclei cannot be drawn on the basis of the available data. (orig.)

  3. Extrapolation of linear attenuation coefficients of biological materials from diagnostic-energy x-ray levels to the megavoltage range.

    Payne, W H; McDavid, W D; Waggener, R G; Dennis, M J; Sank, V J

    1977-01-01

    A dual-energy algorithm is used in determining the effective atomic number, atomic density, and electron density of biological substances. These quantities are then used to calculate linear attenuation coefficients at the megavolttage level. The validity of this method is checked several ways, including a comparison of extrapolated values with experimental data reported by Rao and Gregg where linear attenuation coefficients at 60 and 122 keV are used to extrapolate coefficients at 662 keV. Except for a few instances, the extrapolated values agree quite well with the reported experimental values. This method is also used to calculate coefficients at the 60Co range, and these are compared with experimental values measured in water and various types of tissue-equivalent materials. An additional algorithm is developed to extrapolate coefficients in water and bone up to 10 MeV. These quantities are compared with accepted values previously reported in the literature. PMID:562977

  4. Pair Interaction Potentials of Colloids by Extrapolation of Confocal Microscopy Measurements of Collective Structure

    Iacovella, Christopher R.; Rogers, Reginald R.; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A method for measuring the pair interaction potential between colloidal particles by extrapolation measurement of collective structure to infinite dilution is presented and explored using simulation and experiment. The method is particularly well suited to systems in which the colloid is fluorescent and refractive index matched with the solvent. The method involves characterizing the potential of mean force between colloidal particles in suspension by measurement of the radial distribution fu...

  5. -Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Lee HyunYoung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  6. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-10-08

    Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.

  7. Full waveform inversion with extrapolated low frequency data

    Li, Yunyue Elita

    2016-01-01

    The availability of low frequency data is an important factor in the success of full waveform inversion (FWI) in the acoustic regime. The low frequencies help determine the kinematically relevant, low-wavenumber components of the velocity model, which are in turn needed to avoid convergence of FWI to spurious local minima. However, acquiring data below 2 or 3 Hz from the field is a challenging and expensive task. In this paper we explore the possibility of synthesizing the low frequencies computationally from high-frequency data, and use the resulting prediction of the missing data to seed the frequency sweep of FWI. As a signal processing problem, bandwidth extension is a very nonlinear and delicate operation. It requires a high-level interpretation of bandlimited seismic records into individual events, each of which is extrapolable to a lower (or higher) frequency band from the non-dispersive nature of the wave propagation model. We propose to use the phase tracking method for the event separation task. The...

  8. Statistical atlas based extrapolation of CT data

    Chintalapani, Gouthami; Murphy, Ryan; Armiger, Robert S.; Lepisto, Jyri; Otake, Yoshito; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Taylor, Russell H.; Armand, Mehran

    2010-02-01

    We present a framework to estimate the missing anatomical details from a partial CT scan with the help of statistical shape models. The motivating application is periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), a technique for treating developmental hip dysplasia, an abnormal condition of the hip socket that, if untreated, may lead to osteoarthritis. The common goals of PAO are to reduce pain, joint subluxation and improve contact pressure distribution by increasing the coverage of the femoral head by the hip socket. While current diagnosis and planning is based on radiological measurements, because of significant structural variations in dysplastic hips, a computer-assisted geometrical and biomechanical planning based on CT data is desirable to help the surgeon achieve optimal joint realignments. Most of the patients undergoing PAO are young females, hence it is usually desirable to minimize the radiation dose by scanning only the joint portion of the hip anatomy. These partial scans, however, do not provide enough information for biomechanical analysis due to missing iliac region. A statistical shape model of full pelvis anatomy is constructed from a database of CT scans. The partial volume is first aligned with the statistical atlas using an iterative affine registration, followed by a deformable registration step and the missing information is inferred from the atlas. The atlas inferences are further enhanced by the use of X-ray images of the patient, which are very common in an osteotomy procedure. The proposed method is validated with a leave-one-out analysis method. Osteotomy cuts are simulated and the effect of atlas predicted models on the actual procedure is evaluated.

  9. Vector extrapolation enhanced TSVD for linear discrete ill-posed problems

    Jbilou, K.; Reichel, L.; Sadok, H.

    2009-06-01

    The truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is a popular solution method for small to moderately sized linear ill-posed problems. The truncation index can be thought of as a regularization parameter; its value affects the quality of the computed approximate solution. The choice of a suitable value of the truncation index generally is important, but can be difficult without auxiliary information about the problem being solved. This paper describes how vector extrapolation methods can be combined with TSVD, and illustrates that the determination of the proper value of the truncation index is less critical for the combined extrapolation-TSVD method than for TSVD alone. The numerical performance of the combined method suggests a new way to determine the truncation index.

  10. Accelerating Monte Carlo Molecular Simulations Using Novel Extrapolation Schemes Combined with Fast Database Generation on Massively Parallel Machines

    Amir, Sahar Z.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to extrapolate and interpolate normalized Canonical NVT ensemble averages like pressure and energy for Lennard-Jones (L-J) fluids. Preliminary results show promising applicability in oil and gas modeling, where accurate determination of thermodynamic properties in reservoirs is challenging. The thermodynamic interpolation and thermodynamic extrapolation schemes predict ensemble averages at different thermodynamic conditions from expensively simulated data points. The methods reweight and reconstruct previously generated database values of Markov chains at neighboring temperature and density conditions. To investigate the efficiency of these methods, two databases corresponding to different combinations of normalized density and temperature are generated. One contains 175 Markov chains with 10,000,000 MC cycles each and the other contains 3000 Markov chains with 61,000,000 MC cycles each. For such massive database creation, two algorithms to parallelize the computations have been investigated. The accuracy of the thermodynamic extrapolation scheme is investigated with respect to classical interpolation and extrapolation. Finally, thermodynamic interpolation benefiting from four neighboring Markov chains points is implemented and compared with previous schemes. The thermodynamic interpolation scheme using knowledge from the four neighboring points proves to be more accurate than the thermodynamic extrapolation from the closest point only, while both thermodynamic extrapolation and thermodynamic interpolation are more accurate than the classical interpolation and extrapolation. The investigated extrapolation scheme has great potential in oil and gas reservoir modeling.That is, such a scheme has the potential to speed up the MCMC thermodynamic computation to be comparable with conventional Equation of State approaches in efficiency. In particular, this makes it applicable to large-scale optimization of L-J model parameters for hydrocarbons and other important reservoir species. The efficiency of the thermodynamic dependent techniques is expected to make the Markov chains simulation an attractive alternative in compositional multiphase flow simulation.

  11. A physically based methodology to extrapolate performance maps of radial turbines

    Highlights: ► Physical based methodology to extrapolate radial turbine efficiency measured data. ► Equation relating efficiency versus blade to speed ratio (υ) have been developed. ► Developed efficiency equation takes into account turbine mass flow parameter. ► Efficiency versus υ at constant pressure ratio is discussed, also at constant speed. ► The methodology has been validated with a broad range of experimental results. - Abstract: This paper details a physically based methodology to perform an extrapolation of the radial turbine performance maps, both mass flow characteristics and the efficiency curve. This method takes into account a narrow range of experimental data, which is usually the data available when such turbines are part of a turbocharger. Therefore, the extrapolation methodology is especially useful when data from third parties are being used or when the compressor of a turbocharger is used as the turbine brake in a gas stand. The nozzle equation is used to develop an interpolation and extrapolation of the mass flow rate trough the turbine. Then, specific information is extracted from this extrapolation and is fed into a total-to-static efficiency equation to carry out an extension of the efficiency curve. This equation is developed using the definition of the total-to-static efficiency, velocity triangles and thermodynamic and fluid fundamental equations. This procedure has been applied to five radial turbines of different sizes and types. Results are compared against experimental information available in the literature or provided by the turbine manufacturers and a good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimentally estimated data.

  12. Properties of infrared extrapolations in a harmonic oscillator basis

    Coon, Sidney A

    2014-01-01

    We continue our studies of infrared (ir) and ultraviolet (uv) regulators of no-core shell model calculations. We extend our results that an extrapolation in the ir cutoff with the uv cutoff above the intrinsic uv scale of the interaction is quite successful, not only for the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian but also for expectation values of operators considered long range. The latter results are obtained with Hamiltonians transformed by the similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolution. On the other hand, a suggested extrapolation in the uv cutoff when the ir cutoff is below the intrinsic ir scale is neither robust nor reliable.

  13. What Can we Learn from Nonlinear Force-Free Extrapolations?

    Régnier, S.

    2008-09-01

    Nonlinear force-free extrapolations are used to determine the 3D nature of the coronal magnetic field. The nonlinear force-free fields require knowledge of the vector magnetic field as boundary conditions at the photospheric or chromospheric level. The development of new vector magnetographs such as Hinode/SOT and SDO/HMI will certainly enhance the science that can be done by combining vector field measurements and nonlinear force-free extrapolations. Here, therefore, we summarize our current work on the key properties of a magnetic configuration: geometry, magnetic energy, magnetic helicity, connectivity and magnetic topology. Physical insights deduced from the magnetic configurations are discussed.

  14. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/Lα two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol–1. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol–1

  15. Truncated aperture extrapolation for Fourier-based near-field acoustic holography by means of border-padding.

    Scholte, Rick; Lopez, Ines; Bert Roozen, N; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2009-06-01

    Although near-field acoustic holography (NAH) is recognized as a powerful and extremely fast acoustic imaging method based on the inverse solution of the wave-equation, its practical implementation has suffered from problems with the use of the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) in combination with small aperture sizes and windowing. In this paper, a method is presented that extrapolates the finite spatial aperture before the DFT is applied, which is based on the impulse response information of the known aperture data. The developed method called linear predictive border-padding is an aperture extrapolation technique that greatly reduces leakage and spatial truncation errors in planar NAH (PNAH). Numerical simulations and actual measurements on a hard-disk drive and a cooling fan illustrate the low error, high speed, and utilization of border-padding. Border-padding is an aperture extrapolation technique that makes PNAH a practical and accurate inverse near-field acoustic imaging method. PMID:19507967

  16. Resolution enhancement in digital holography by self-extrapolation of holograms

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that the resolution in digital holography is limited by the size of the captured holographic record. Here, we present a method to circumvent this limit by self-extrapolating experimental holograms beyond the area that is actually captured. This is done by first padding the surroundings of the hologram and then conducting an iterative reconstruction procedure. The wavefront beyond the experimentally detected area is thus retrieved and the hologram reconstruction shows ...

  17. HIV infection in older adults in sub-Saharan Africa: extrapolating prevalence from existing data

    Joel Negin; Cumming, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of cases and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among older adults in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We reviewed data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although in these surveys all female respondents are 50 years. To estimate the percentage of older adults (i.e. people > 50 years of age) who were positive for HIV (HIV+), we extrapolated from d...

  18. Routine Data Sources Challenge International Diabetes Federation Extrapolations of National Diabetes Prevalence in Switzerland

    Bopp, Matthias; Zellweger, Ulrich; Faeh, David

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Information on diabetes prevalence in the general population is scarce and often based on extrapolations. We evaluated whether prevalence could be estimated from routine data sources. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The sources were 1) hospital discharges (2008, n = 828,171), 2) death registry (2007/2008, n = 118,659), and 3) Swiss Health Survey (SHS; 2007, n = 18,665). Persons without diabetes as underlying cause of death (death registry) or principal diagnosis (hospital discharges) w...

  19. Comparing Gravitational Waveform Extrapolation to Cauchy-Characteristic Extraction in Binary Black Hole Simulations

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Boyle, Michael; Reisswig, Christian; Scheel, Mark A.; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2013-01-01

    We extract gravitational waveforms from numerical simulations of black hole binaries computed using the Spectral Einstein Code. We compare two extraction methods: direct construction of the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar $\\Psi_4$ at a finite distance from the source and Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE). The direct NP approach is simpler than CCE, but NP waveforms can be contaminated by near-zone effects---unless the waves are extracted at several distances from the source and extrapolated t...

  20. Panel discussion on Chiral extrapolation of physical observables

    Bernard, C; Leinweber, D B; Lepage, P; Pallante, E; Sharpe, S R; Wittig, H; Bernard, Claude; Hashimoto, Shoji; Leinweber, Derek B.; Lepage, Peter; Pallante, Elisabetta; Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wittig, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    This is an approximate reconstruction of the panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables. The session consisted of brief presentations from panelists, followed by responses from the panel, and concluded with questions and comments from the floor with answers from panelists. In the following, the panelists have summarized their statements, and the ensuing discussion has been approximately reconstructed from notes.

  1. Extrapolation of ZPR sodium void measurements to the power reactor

    Sodium-voiding measurements of ZPPR assemblies 2 and 5 are analyzed with ENDF/B Version IV data. Computations include directional diffusion coefficients to account for streaming effects resulting from the plate structure of the critical assembly. Bias factors for extrapolating critical assembly data to the CRBR design are derived from the results of this analysis

  2. 40 CFR 86.435-78 - Extrapolated emission values.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extrapolated emission values. 86.435-78 Section 86.435-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles,...

  3. Analytic Approximations for the Extrapolation of Lattice Data

    Masjuan, Pere

    2010-01-01

    We present analytic approximations of chiral SU(3) amplitudes for the extrapolation of lattice data to the physical masses and the determination of Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order low-energy constants. Lattice data for the ratio F_K/F_pi is used to test the approximation proposed.

  4. Issues and current applications of interspecies extrapolation of carcinogenic potency as a component of risk assessment.

    Visek, W J

    1988-04-01

    The Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO) of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) is conducting this symposium under contract with the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has requested information on the strengths and weaknesses of current interspecies extrapolation methods using metabolic and pharmacokinetic data, identity of data for these methods, bases for choice of extrapolation method and selection of data base, validity and uniformity of interspecies extrapolation from target organ data, and nature and completeness of supporting data. Definitions and basic concepts of dose scaling are addressed and questions regarding appropriate units of measurement (e.g., mg/kg body weight, mg/m3 respired air, mg/m2 surface area) are raised. The use of DNA damage as a marker or end point upon which to scale carcinogenic potency is considered. Genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis are emphasized because the roles of DNA adducts and DNA repair processes in initiation and promotion are much better defined than the mechanism for nongenotoxic carcinogenesis. The problems encountered in evaluating the human carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene are reviewed. The broad objectives of the symposium are discussed and the development of a structured format for the presentation of invited papers is presented. PMID:3289907

  5. Continuum extrapolation of energies of a four-quark system in lattice gauge theory

    A continuum extrapolation of static two- and four-quark energies calculated in a quenched SU(2) lattice Monte Carlo simulation is carried out based on Sommer close-quote s method of setting the scale. The ? function is obtained as a side product of the extrapolations. Four-quark binding energies are found to be essentially constant at ??2.35 unlike the two-body potentials. A model for four-quark energies, with explicit gluonic degrees of freedom removed, is fitted to these energies and the behavior of the parameters of the model is investigated. An extension of the model using the first excited states of the two-body gluon field as additional basis states is found to be necessary for quarks at the corners of regular tetrahedra. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Atomically resolved structural determination of graphene and its point defects via extrapolation assisted phase retrieval

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physics Department, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-01-12

    Previously reported crystalline structures obtained by an iterative phase retrieval reconstruction of their diffraction patterns seem to be free from displaying any irregularities or defects in the lattice, which appears to be unrealistic. We demonstrate here that the structure of a nanocrystal including its atomic defects can unambiguously be recovered from its diffraction pattern alone by applying a direct phase retrieval procedure not relying on prior information of the object shape. Individual point defects in the atomic lattice are clearly apparent. Conventional phase retrieval routines assume isotropic scattering. We show that when dealing with electrons, the quantitatively correct transmission function of the sample cannot be retrieved due to anisotropic, strong forward scattering specific to electrons. We summarize the conditions for this phase retrieval method and show that the diffraction pattern can be extrapolated beyond the original record to even reveal formerly not visible Bragg peaks. Such extrapolated wave field pattern leads to enhanced spatial resolution in the reconstruction.

  7. Comparing Gravitational Waveform Extrapolation to Cauchy-Characteristic Extraction in Binary Black Hole Simulations

    Taylor, Nicholas W; Reisswig, Christian; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Szilagyi, Bela

    2013-01-01

    We extract gravitational waveforms from numerical simulations of black hole binaries computed using the Spectral Einstein Code. We compare two extraction methods: direct construction of the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar $\\Psi_4$ at a finite distance from the source and Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE). The direct NP approach is simpler than CCE, but NP waveforms can be contaminated by near-zone effects---unless the waves are extracted at several distances from the source and extrapolated to infinity. Even then, the resulting waveforms can in principle be contaminated by gauge effects. In contrast, CCE directly provides, by construction, gauge-invariant waveforms at future null infinity. We verify the gauge invariance of CCE by running the same physical simulation using two different gauge conditions. We find that these two gauge conditions produce the same CCE waveforms but show differences in extrapolated-$\\Psi_4$ waveforms. We examine data from several different binary configurations and measure the domi...

  8. Source‐receiver two‐way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding‐reflector modeling and migration

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-10-17

    While most of the modern seismic imaging methods perform imaging by separating input data into parts (shot gathers), we develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield backward in time. While computationally extensive, this approach has the potential of generating accurate images, free of artifacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high‐order partial differential equations in source‐receiver‐time domain. The fourth order nature of the extrapolation in time has four solutions two of which correspond to the ingoing and outgoing P‐waves and reduces to the zero‐offset exploding‐reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. Using asymptotic approximations, we develop an approach to extrapolating the full prestack wavefield forward or backward in time.

  9. Atomically resolved structural determination of graphene and its point defects via extrapolation assisted phase retrieval

    Previously reported crystalline structures obtained by an iterative phase retrieval reconstruction of their diffraction patterns seem to be free from displaying any irregularities or defects in the lattice, which appears to be unrealistic. We demonstrate here that the structure of a nanocrystal including its atomic defects can unambiguously be recovered from its diffraction pattern alone by applying a direct phase retrieval procedure not relying on prior information of the object shape. Individual point defects in the atomic lattice are clearly apparent. Conventional phase retrieval routines assume isotropic scattering. We show that when dealing with electrons, the quantitatively correct transmission function of the sample cannot be retrieved due to anisotropic, strong forward scattering specific to electrons. We summarize the conditions for this phase retrieval method and show that the diffraction pattern can be extrapolated beyond the original record to even reveal formerly not visible Bragg peaks. Such extrapolated wave field pattern leads to enhanced spatial resolution in the reconstruction

  10. Low-energy particle physics and chiral extrapolations

    Wittig, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    In this review I discuss the role of chiral extrapolations for the determination of several phenomenologically relevant quantities, including light quark masses, meson decay constants and the axial charge of the nucleon. In particular, I investigate whether chiral extrapolations are sufficiently controlled in order to rightfully claim the accuracy which is quoted in recent compilations of these quantities. While this is the case for the masses of the light quarks and the ratio fK/fpi of decay constants, small inconsistencies in the chiral and continuum behaviour of individual decay constants fK and fpi, as well as the hadronic radii r0, r1 remain and must be clarified. In the case of the nucleon axial charge, gA, the chiral behaviour is still poorly understood due to the presence of other systematic effects.

  11. A new design of beta ray extrapolation ion chamber

    In U.K. National Health Service Hospitals a widely used dosimeter system is the type 37C electrometer amplifier together with an air equivalent wall ionization chamber developed by Osborne at the time of the Adrian Committee survey of diagnostic X-ray doses. This paper describes the development and use of an extrapolation ion chamber which is interchangeable with Osborne's X-ray chamber and which, together with the type 37 electrometer amplifier, is suitable for the calibration of beta ray personnel dosimeters. A particular feature of this chamber is that the variable electrode separation is obtained by locating a spring loaded peg on a mechanical step wedge. This enables readings for a series of accurately known separations to be obtained very quickly, and the appropriate extrapolation dose to be deduced immediately. Evaluation work carried out on the new chamber, including measurements of beta depth dose distributions, is also reported

  12. A variational principle for the Milne problem linear extrapolation length

    Highlights: • Bilinear functional F is both null and stationary at true flux and adjoint. • Null F gives best discrete mode amplitudes without differentiation. • Optimum amplitude ratio gotten as a solution to a simple quadratic. • All subcritical canonical lengths numerically matched to within 0.5%. - Abstract: A simple bilinear functional F is introduced on behalf of the Milne subcritical problem with replication parameter 0⩽c⩽1. This functional depends upon two arguments, respectively intended to be the neutron flux and its adjoint, and is stationary about the true solution pair where, in addition, it vanishes. The stationarity and null value can then be united as a basis for the demand that F continue to vanish even when flux and adjoint are both approximated by just the two modes from the discrete eigenvalue spectrum, a representation akin to what is known as the asymptotic portion of the neutron flux, and one which is clearly incapable of matching interface boundary conditions. The stationarity of F, however, renders it tolerant of such boundary defect, as a result of which one can expect the persisting null demand, F=0, to yield the best possible value for the ratio of the two discrete mode amplitudes. We go on to implement this program, and find as its outcome that the optimum amplitude ratio is determined as one preferred solution of a simple quadratic equation. With that solution in hand, it is an easy step then to a computation of the linear extrapolation length λ. We follow through with a numerical embodiment of these ideas, obtaining the discrete, real and positive eigenvalue ν0 on the run via a Newton–Raphson tangent encroachment root hunt. With sufficient start-up care the Newton–Raphson root hunt proves here to be exceedingly rapid, and it, together with the quadratic underpinning, provides for λ a string of values that differ by less than 0.5% from those found in the classic compendium on neutron transport from the pens of Case, de Hoffmann, and Placzek. In particular, we are able to bypass in this way, and with quite elementary tools indeed, a known canonical machinery of far greater weight and sophistication, be it based upon the Wiener–Hopf method, or else upon flux decomposition along both discrete and singular eigenfunction modes. To our way of thinking, such a simple alternative is aesthetically pleasing in its own right, and both provides a measure of confirmation to, and is itself checked by, the more formidable apparatus

  13. Properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber in β radiation fields

    A commercial extrapolation chamber was tested in different β radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefulness for β radiation calibration and dosimetry was verified. Experiments were performed in order to obtain the main characteristics such as the calibration factors (and consequently the energy dependence) for all chamber collecting electrodes (between 10 and 40 mm diameter), the transmission factors in tissue and the useful source-detector distance range

  14. Properties of infrared extrapolations in a harmonic oscillator basis

    Coon, Sidney A; Kruse, Michael K. G.

    2014-01-01

    We continue our studies of infrared (ir) and ultraviolet (uv) regulators of no-core shell model calculations. We extend our results that an extrapolation in the ir cutoff with the uv cutoff above the intrinsic uv scale of the interaction is quite successful, not only for the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian but also for expectation values of operators considered long range. The latter results are obtained with Hamiltonians transformed by the similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolution. On ...

  15. Extrapolation of zircon fission-track annealing models

    One of the purposes of this study is to give further constraints on the temperature range of the zircon partial annealing zone over a geological time scale using data from borehole zircon samples, which have experienced stable temperatures for ∼1 Ma. In this way, the extrapolation problem is explicitly addressed by fitting the zircon annealing models with geological timescale data. Several empirical model formulations have been proposed to perform these calibrations and have been compared in this work. The basic form proposed for annealing models is the Arrhenius-type model. There are other annealing models, that are based on the same general formulation. These empirical model equations have been preferred due to the great number of phenomena from track formation to chemical etching that are not well understood. However, there are two other models, which try to establish a direct correlation between their parameters and the related phenomena. To compare the response of the different annealing models, thermal indexes, such as closure temperature, total annealing temperature and the partial annealing zone, have been calculated and compared with field evidence. After comparing the different models, it was concluded that the fanning curvilinear models yield the best agreement between predicted index temperatures and field evidence. - Highlights: ► Geological data were used along with lab data for improving model extrapolation. ► Index temperatures were simulated for testing model extrapolation. ► Curvilinear Arrhenius models produced better geological temperature predictions

  16. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-06-10

    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Reverse Modeling and Autonomous Extrapolation of RF Threats

    Sanguk Noh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the investigation of the basic components of reverse modeling and autonomous extrapolation of radio frequency (RF threats in electronic warfare settings. To design and test our system, we first model RF threats using the radioactive parameters received. The enemy radar simulated with a transponder or emitter transmits electronic signals; next, the sensors of the system intercept those signals as radioactive parameters. We generate the attributes of RF threats during communication between the electronic emissions of RF threats and the receivers of our system in various electronic warfare scenarios. We then utilize the data acquired through our system to reversely model RF threats. Our system carries out the reverse extrapolation process for the purpose of identifying and classifying threats by using profiles compiled through a series of machine learning algorithms, i.e., naive Bayesian classifier, decision tree, and k-means clustering algorithms. This compilation technique, which is based upon the inductive threat model, could be used to analyze and predict what a real-time threat is. We summarize empirical results that demonstrate our system capabilities of reversely modeling and autonomously extrapolating RF threats in simulated electronic warfare settings.

  18. Establishing a new marketplace for biologic therapy with biosimilar agents: importance of extrapolation of data

    Bressler B

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Bressler,1 Theo Dingermann2 1St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Frankfurt, Germany Abstract: Despite their enormous value for our health care system, biopharmaceuticals have become a serious threat to the system itself due to their high cost. Costs may be warranted if the medicine is new and innovative; however, it is no longer an innovation when its patent protection expires. As patents and exclusivities expire on biological drugs, biosimilar products defined as highly similar to reference biologics are being marketed. The goal of biosimilar development is to establish a high degree of biosimilarity, not to reestablish clinical efficacy and safety. Current sophisticated analytical methods allow the detection of even small changes in quality attributes and can therefore enable sensitive monitoring of the batch-to-batch consistency and variability of the manufacturing process. The European Medicines Agency (EMA, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and Health Canada have determined that a reduced number of nonclinical and clinical comparative studies can be sufficient for approval with clinical data from the most sensitive indication extrapolated to other indications. Extrapolation of data is a scientifically based principle, guided by specific criteria, and if approved by the EMA, FDA, and/or Health Canada is appropriate. Enablement of extrapolation of data is a core principle of biosimilar development, based on principles of comparability and necessary to fully realize cost savings for these drugs. Keywords: biosimilars, Inflectra, infliximab, pharmacoeconomics, Canada, Europe 

  19. The 3D structure of an active region filament as extrapolated from photospheric and chromospheric observations

    Chaouche, L Yelles; Pillet, V Martínez; Moreno-Insertis, F

    2012-01-01

    The 3D structure of an active region (AR) filament is studied using nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations based on simultaneous observations at a photospheric and a chromospheric height. To that end, we used the Si I 10827 \\AA\\ line and the He I 10830 \\AA\\ triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the VTT (Tenerife). The two extrapolations have been carried out independently from each other and their respective spatial domains overlap in a considerable height range. This opens up new possibilities for diagnostics in addition to the usual ones obtained through a single extrapolation from, typically, a photospheric layer. Among those possibilities, this method allows the determination of an average formation height of the He I 10830 \\AA\\ signal of \\approx 2 Mm above the surface of the sun. It allows, as well, to cross-check the obtained 3D magnetic structures in view of verifying a possible deviation from the force- free condition especially at the photosphere. The extrapolati...

  20. SU-E-J-145: Geometric Uncertainty in CBCT Extrapolation for Head and Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: One primary limitation of using CBCT images for H'N adaptive radiotherapy (ART) is the limited field of view (FOV) range. We propose a method to extrapolate the CBCT by using a deformed planning CT for the dose of the day calculations. The aim was to estimate the geometric uncertainty of our extrapolation method. Methods: Ten H'N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken, were selected. Furthermore, a small FOV CBCT (CT2short) was synthetically created by cropping CT2 to the size of a CBCT image. Then, an extrapolated CBCT (CBCTextrp) was generated by deformably registering CT1 to CT2short and resampling with a wider FOV (42mm more from the CT2short borders), where CT1 is deformed through translation, rigid, affine, and b-spline transformations in order. The geometric error is measured as the distance map ||DVF|| produced by a deformable registration between CBCTextrp and CT2. Mean errors were calculated as a function of the distance away from the CBCT borders. The quality of all the registrations was visually verified. Results: Results were collected based on the average numbers from 10 patients. The extrapolation error increased linearly as a function of the distance (at a rate of 0.7mm per 1 cm) away from the CBCT borders in the S/I direction. The errors (??) at the superior and inferior boarders were 0.8 0.5mm and 3.0 1.5mm respectively, and increased to 2.7 2.2mm and 5.9 1.9mm at 4.2cm away. The mean error within CBCT borders was 1.16 0.54mm . The overall errors within 4.2cm error expansion were 2.0 1.2mm (sup) and 4.5 1.6mm (inf). Conclusion: The overall error in inf direction is larger due to more large unpredictable deformations in the chest. The error introduced by extrapolation is plan dependent. The mean error in the expanded region can be large, and must be considered during implementation. This work is supported in part by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA.

  1. Energy-variance extrapolation for importance-truncated no-core and valence-space shell model

    The no-core shell model (NCSM) and valence-space shell model (SM) are successful tools for the description of the nuclear spectroscopy. Both methods are computationally demanding and are limited by the model-space dimensions. To extend the NCSM and SM to larger model spaces, we apply an importance-truncation (IT) scheme based on a perturbative importance measure reducing the model spaces to the relevant basis states for the description of one or a few target eigenstates. This IT scheme necessitates an extrapolation to vanishing importance measure. Since the dependence of the energies on the importance measure can be highly non-linear, the extrapolation can give rise to large uncertainties. We present a more sophisticated extrapolation technique based on the energy variance, which vanishes in the limit of the full model space. We demonstrate the efficiency of the IT-NCSM and IT-SM with energy-variance extrapolation for ground-state and excitation energies of p-shell nuclei (IT-NCSM) and pf-shell nuclei (IT-SM) by comparing the results to both, full and importance-truncated NCSM and SM calculations with the conventional threshold extrapolation.

  2. Properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber in beta radiation fields

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefulness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. The Beta Secondary Standard setup of the IPEN calibration laboratory was utilized. This system, developed by the Physikalisch-Tecknische Bundesanstalt, Brunswick (Germany) and manufactured by Buchler and Co., consists of a source stand, a control unit with timer and four interchangeable beta sources: 90Sr-90Y (1850 and 74 MBq), 204Tl (18,5 MBq) ionization current detection. The variable volume ionization chamber of cylindrical form is provided with different collecting electrodes of tissue equivalent material and Mylar entrance windows of different thickesses

  3. The evaluation of preliminary extrapolation experimental results of the chinese ADS subcritical experimental assembly venus-1

    The design objectives and structure of' the Chinese accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) subcritical assembly VENUS-1 are presented. The experiment of source multiplication method is used to determine the final loading of the Chinese ADS VENUS-i subcritical assembly. The Keff of the assembly with the same loading as extrapolation experiment have been calculated. The results of calculation and experiment are evaluated. The final loading of the Chinese ADS VENUS-1 subcritical assembly has been determined by preliminary experiments on VENUS-1. (authors)

  4. Longitudinal static optical properties of hydrogen chains: finite field extrapolations of matrix product state calculations.

    Wouters, Sebastian; Limacher, Peter A; Van Neck, Dimitri; Ayers, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    We have implemented the sweep algorithm for the variational optimization of SU(2) U(1) (spin and particle number) invariant matrix product states (MPS) for general spin and particle number invariant fermionic Hamiltonians. This class includes non-relativistic quantum chemical systems within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. High-accuracy ab initio finite field results of the longitudinal static polarizabilities and second hyperpolarizabilities of one-dimensional hydrogen chains are presented. This allows to assess the performance of other quantum chemical methods. For small basis sets, MPS calculations in the saturation regime of the optical response properties can be performed. These results are extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit. PMID:22482543

  5. Frequency extrapolation to enhance the deconvolution of transmitted seismic waves

    We investigate the enhanced deconvolution of transmitted seismic waves from distant natural sources using autoregressive extrapolation (AR) and extended time-domain deconvolution. The amplitude spectrum of deconvolved seismograms is often restricted to a reduced frequency range from the use of a water table for the deconvolution. The attenuation effects on the teleseismic seismic waves also reduce the frequency content of the data. We compare the deconvolved spectra obtained from an AR-extended deconvolution (EARD) and an extended time-domain deconvolution (ETDD) technique for teleseismic waves. For EARD, we analyse the spectral content for the deconvolved spectra to differentiate between the domains of known and unknown spectral values. A prediction error filter is used to perform the autoregressive extrapolation to estimate the unknown spectral values. This procedure is applied on 1D and 2D synthetic data to test the approach. The EARD approach is then compared with the ETDD approach which applies an extended high-pass filter to the time-domain deconvolution approach. Both the EARD and ETDD approaches for extending the effective frequency range of the deconvolution results are then compared using observed teleseismic data recorded in southern India

  6. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  7. L2-Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Hyun Young Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal ℓ∞(L2 error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  8. Testing the suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic properties across regional scales

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Halford, Keith; Sweetkind, Don; Fenelon, Joe

    2016-02-01

    The suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic conductivity (K) to length scales commensurate with hydraulic data is difficult to assess. A novel method is presented for evaluating assumed relations between K and geologic interpretations for regional-scale groundwater modeling. The approach relies on simultaneous interpretation of multiple aquifer tests using alternative geologic frameworks of variable complexity, where each framework is incorporated as prior information that assumes homogeneous K within each model unit. This approach is tested at Pahute Mesa within the Nevada National Security Site (USA), where observed drawdowns from eight aquifer tests in complex, highly faulted volcanic rocks provide the necessary hydraulic constraints. The investigated volume encompasses 40 mi3 (167 km3) where drawdowns traversed major fault structures and were detected more than 2 mi (3.2 km) from pumping wells. Complexity of the five frameworks assessed ranges from an undifferentiated mass of rock with a single unit to 14 distinct geologic units. Results show that only four geologic units can be justified as hydraulically unique for this location. The approach qualitatively evaluates the consistency of hydraulic property estimates within extents of investigation and effects of geologic frameworks on extrapolation. Distributions of transmissivity are similar within the investigated extents irrespective of the geologic framework. In contrast, the extrapolation of hydraulic properties beyond the volume investigated with interfering aquifer tests is strongly affected by the complexity of a given framework. Testing at Pahute Mesa illustrates how this method can be employed to determine the appropriate level of geologic complexity for large-scale groundwater modeling.

  9. Atmospheric methane flux from bubbling seeps: Spatially extrapolated quantification from a Black Sea shelf area

    Greinert, Jens; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Naudts, Lieven; Linke, Peter; de Batist, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Bubble transport of methane from shallow seep sites in the Black Sea west of the Crimea Peninsula between 70 and 112 m water depth has been studied by extrapolation of results gained through different hydroacoustic methods and direct sampling. Ship-based hydroacoustic echo sounders can locate bubble releasing seep sites very precisely and facilitate their correlation with geological or other features at the seafloor. Here, the backscatter strength of a multibeam system was integrated with single-beam data to estimate the amount of seeps/m2 for different backscatter intensities, resulting in 2709 vents in total. Direct flux measurements by submersible revealed methane fluxes from individual vents of 0.32-0.85 l/min or 14.5-37.8 mmol/min at ambient pressure and temperature conditions. A conservative estimate of 30 mmol/min per site was used to estimate the flux into the water to be 1219-1355 mmol/s. The flux to the atmosphere was calculated by applying a bubble dissolution model taking release depth, temperature, gas composition, and bubble size spectra into account. The flux into the atmosphere (3930-4533 mol/d) or into the mixed layer (6186-6899 mol/d) from the 21.8 km2 large study area is three times higher than independently measured fluxes of dissolved methane for the same area using geochemical methods (1030-2495 mol/d). The amount of methane dissolving in the mixed layer is 2256-2366 mol/d. This close match shows that the hydroacoustic approach for extrapolating the number of seeps/m2 and the applied bubble dissolution model are suitable to extrapolate methane fluxes over larger areas.

  10. Visualization and Nowcasting for Aviation using online verified ensemble weather radar extrapolation.

    Kaltenboeck, Rudolf; Kerschbaum, Markus; Hennermann, Karin; Mayer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Nowcasting of precipitation events, especially thunderstorm events or winter storms, has high impact on flight safety and efficiency for air traffic management. Future strategic planning by air traffic control will result in circumnavigation of potential hazardous areas, reduction of load around efficiency hot spots by offering alternatives, increase of handling capacity, anticipation of avoidance manoeuvres and increase of awareness before dangerous areas are entered by aircraft. To facilitate this rapid update forecasts of location, intensity, size, movement and development of local storms are necessary. Weather radar data deliver precipitation analysis of high temporal and spatial resolution close to real time by using clever scanning strategies. These data are the basis to generate rapid update forecasts in a time frame up to 2 hours and more for applications in aviation meteorological service provision, such as optimizing safety and economic impact in the context of sub-scale phenomena. On the basis of tracking radar echoes by correlation the movement vectors of successive weather radar images are calculated. For every new successive radar image a set of ensemble precipitation fields is collected by using different parameter sets like pattern match size, different time steps, filter methods and an implementation of history of tracking vectors and plausibility checks. This method considers the uncertainty in rain field displacement and different scales in time and space. By validating manually a set of case studies, the best verification method and skill score is defined and implemented into an online-verification scheme which calculates the optimized forecasts for different time steps and different areas by using different extrapolation ensemble members. To get information about the quality and reliability of the extrapolation process additional information of data quality (e.g. shielding in Alpine areas) is extrapolated and combined with an extrapolation-quality-index. Subsequently the probability and quality information of the forecast ensemble is available and flexible blending to numerical prediction model for each subarea is possible. Simultaneously with automatic processing the ensemble nowcasting product is visualized in a new innovative way which combines the intensity, probability and quality information for different subareas in one forecast image.

  11. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y); Patron Nacional para la realizacion de la unidad de la rapidez de dosis absorbida en aire para radiacion beta. (Metodo: Ionometrico, cavidad de Bragg-Gray implementada en una camara de extrapolacion con electrodos de separacion variable, expuesta a un campo de radiacion beta de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Alvarez R, M. T.; Morales P, J. R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-01-15

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Ophthalmic applicators {sup 9}0{sup S}r/{sup 90}Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  12. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value of the...

  13. The use of extrapolation concepts to augment the Frequency Separation Technique

    Alexiou, Spiros

    2015-03-01

    The Frequency Separation Technique (FST) is a general method formulated to improve the speed and/or accuracy of lineshape calculations, including strong overlapping collisions, as is the case for ion dynamics. It should be most useful when combined with ultrafast methods, that, however have significant difficulties when the impact regime is approached. These difficulties are addressed by the Frequency Separation Technique, in which the impact limit is correctly recovered. The present work examines the possibility of combining the Frequency Separation Technique with the addition of extrapolation to improve results and minimize errors resulting from the neglect of fast-slow coupling and thus obtain the exact result with a minimum of extra effort. To this end the adequacy of one such ultrafast method, the Frequency Fluctuation Method (FFM) for treating the nonimpact part is examined. It is found that although the FFM is unable to reproduce the nonimpact profile correctly, its coupling with the FST correctly reproduces the total profile.

  14. 2D interpolation and extrapolation of discrete magnetic measurements with toroidal harmonics for equilibrium reconstruction in a tokamak

    We present a method based on the use of toroidal harmonics and on a modelization of the poloidal field coils and divertor coils for the 2D interpolation and extrapolation of discrete magnetic measurements in a tokamak. The method is generic and can be used to provide the Cauchy boundary conditions needed as input by a fixed domain equilibrium reconstruction code like Equinox (Blum et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 960–80). It can also be used to extrapolate the magnetic measurements in order to compute the plasma boundary itself. The proposed method and algorithm are detailed in this paper and results from numerous numerical experiments are presented. The method is foreseen to be used in the real-time plasma control loop on the WEST tokamak (Bucalossi et al 2011 Fusion Eng. Des. 86 684–8). (paper)

  15. UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations

    Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

    2012-01-01

    Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

  16. Determining critical flow valve characteristics using extrapolation techniques

    This report presents the methodology and documentation of the calibration of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) power-operated relief and safety relief valve (PORV + SRV) for the L9-3 anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) experiment. A multiposition globe valve was calibrated to produce scaled high-pressure flow rates using a low-pressure calibration facility and a simple RELAP5 critical flow model to extrapolate the calibration data to expected operating pressures. It was demonstrated that an accurate high-pressure, multiphase flow calibration can be performed without the necessity of actual high-pressure testing. This technique, when applied to large pressurized water reactor (LPWR) safety and relief valves, represents a potentially large savings in the capacity qualification procedure of full-scale pressure reduction valves

  17. Making the most of what we have: application of extrapolation approaches in wildlife transfer models

    Radiological environmental protection models need to predict the transfer of many radionuclides to a large number of organisms. There has been considerable development of transfer (predominantly concentration ratio) databases over the last decade. However, in reality it is unlikely we will ever have empirical data for all the species-radionuclide combinations which may need to be included in assessments. To provide default values for a number of existing models/frameworks various extrapolation approaches have been suggested (e.g. using data for a similar organism or element). This paper presents recent developments in two such extrapolation approaches, namely phylogeny and allometry. An evaluation of how extrapolation approaches have performed and the potential application of Bayesian statistics to make best use of available data will also be given. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we initially analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites to investigate if phylogenetic variation in transfer could be identified. The REML analysis generated an estimated mean value for each species on a common scale after taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we tested the hypothesis that the REML model outputs could be used to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in other species from the results of a species which had been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted 137Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 lakes. Although initially investigated as an extrapolation approach the output of this work is a potential alternative to the highly site dependent concentration ratio model. We are currently applying this approach to a wider range of organism types and different ecosystems. An initial analysis of these results will be presented. The application of allometric, or mass-dependent, relationships within radioecology has increased with the evolution of models to predict the exposure of wildlife as it presents a method of addressing the lack of empirical data. Among the parameters which scale allometrically is radionuclide biological half-life. However, sufficient data across a range of species with different masses are required to establish allometric relationships for biological half-life and this is not always available. We have recently derived an alternative allometric approach to predict the biological half-life of radionuclides in homeothermic vertebrates which does not require such data. Predicted biological half-life values for four radionuclides compared well to available data for a range of species. The potential to further develop these approaches will be discussed. (authors)

  18. Vector Extrapolation-Based Acceleration of Regularized Richardson Lucy Image Deblurring

    Remmele, Steffen; Hesser, Jrgen

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy has become an important tool in biological and medical sciences for imaging thin specimen, even living ones. Due to out-of-focus blurring and noise the acquired images are degraded and thus it is necessary to restore them. One of the most popular methods is an iterative Richardson-Lucy algorithm with total variation regularization. This algorithm while improving the image quality is converging slowly whereas with a constantly increasing amount of image data fast methods are required. In this paper, we present an accelerated version of the algorithm and investigate the achieved speed up. The acceleration method is based on a vector extrapolation technique and avoids a computational intensive evaluation of the underlying cost function. To evaluate the acceleration two synthetic test images are used. The accelerated algorithm reaches an acceptable result within 30% to 40% less computational time.

  19. Parallel 2D and 3D Prestack Depth Migration Using Recursive Kirchhoff Wavefield Extrapolation

    Geiger, H. D.; Margrave, G. F.; Liu, K.

    2004-05-01

    Recursive Kirchhoff wavefield extrapolation in the space-frequency domain can be thought of as a simple convolutional filter that calculates a single output point at depth z+dz using a weighted summation of all input points within the extrapolator aperture at depth z. The desired velocity values for the extrapolator are the ones that provide the best approximation of the true phase (propagation time) of the seismic wavefield between the input points and the output point. Recursive Kirchhoff extrapolators can be designed to handle lateral variations in velocity in a number of ways: a PSPI-type (phase shift plus interpolation) extrapolator uses only the velocity at the output point, a NSPS-type (nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator uses the velocities at the input points; a SNPS-type (symmetric nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator incorporates two extrapolation steps of dz/2 where the first step uses the velocities at the input points (NSPS-type) and the second step uses the velocity at the output point (PSPI-type); while the Weyl-type extrapolator uses an average of the velocities between each input point and the output point. Here, we introduce the PAVG-type (slowness averaged) extrapolator, which uses velocity values calculated by an average of slowness along straight raypaths between each input point and the output point. Parallel 2D and 3D prestack depth migration algorithms have been coded in both MATLAB and C and tested on a small Linux cluster. A simple synthetic with a lateral step in velocity shows that the PAVG Kirchhoff extrapolator is very close to the exact desired response. Tests using the 2D Marmousi synthetic data set suggest that the extrapolator behaviour is only one of many considerations that must be addressed for accurate depth imaging. Other important considerations include preprocessing, aperture size, taper width, extrapolator stability, and imaging condition.

  20. Chiral extrapolation of matrix elements of BSM kaon operators

    Bailey, Jon A; Lee, Weonjong; Sharpe, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Models of new physics induce K_0-K_0bar mixing through operators having Dirac structures other than the "left-left" form of the Standard Model. To carry out the chiral-continuum extrapolation of results from numerical simulations, one needs to know the quark mass and lattice spacing dependence of the corresponding B-parameters in the partially quenched theory at least at next-to-leading order. For simulations using staggered fermions (such as that we are doing with HYP-smeared valence fermions on the MILC asqtad lattices) one must determine this dependence using staggered chiral perturbation theory (SChPT). We have calculated the required dependence in both SU(3) and SU(2) SChPT, working at next-to-leading order, and we give here an overview of the methodology and results. The SU(3) SChPT result turns out to be much simpler than that for the Standard Model B_K operator, due to the absence of chiral suppression for the new operators. The SU(2) SChPT result turns out to be closely related to that for B_K: the c...

  1. Characterization and extrapolation of a conceptual experimental accelerator driven system

    This paper deals with the neutronic Monte Carlo simulations in view of an eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (XADS) optimization and characterization. With this aim, the quite realistic concept of XADS chosen for our investigations, comes from the preliminary studies done by Framatome ANP. First, we simulate this basic concept with different fuels and characterize the time evolution of the conceivable fuels, especially with minor actinides. Secondly, we consider the neutronic parameters in view of an extrapolation of the XADS toward a large ADS. We also consider some alternative solutions to reduce the flux peak in the first assemblies around the spallation target of a large ADS and consequently to improve the shape factor and the efficiency of the core. Finally, we focus on the generation of 233U based on a plutonium and minor actinide fuel associated to thorium oxide to start power Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) and to accelerate the transition toward a 232Th/233U cycle which offers an interesting option for nuclear waste reduction and nuclear energy production during many centuries. (authors)

  2. Uncertainty, low-dose extrapolation and the threshold hypothesis

    Risk-based radiation protection policy is influenced by estimated risk and by the uncertainty of that estimate. Thus, if the upper limit, at (say) 95% probability, of risk associated with a given radiation dose is at an 'acceptable' level, it is unlikely (or not credible) that the true level of risk associated with the dose is at an unacceptable level. Central estimates presented alone, in the absence of probability limits, lack this safety factor. Estimating cancer risks from low doses of ionising radiation involves extrapolation of risk estimates based on high-dose data to the much lower dose levels that characterize the vast majority of exposures of regulatory concern. Proof of a universal low-dose threshold, below which there is no radiation-related risk, would revolutionise radiation protection. Available data fail to provide such proof and, in fact, leave considerable room for the possibility that DNA damage from a single photon can contribute to the carcinogenic process. Allowing for the possibility of a threshold would, however, remove very little of the regulatory burden associated with the so-called linear, no-threshold hypothesis, unless that possibility were a virtual certainty. (author)

  3. Characterization and application of two extrapolation chambers in standard X radiation beams

    The extrapolation chambers are ionization chambers with variable volume, and they are mainly utilized as beta radiation detectors. In this work two extrapolation chambers were characterized, a commercial PTW extrapolation chamber and another extrapolation chamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, for application as reference systems in mammography, conventional diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy beams. The results obtained from the characterization tests of the chamber response: leakage current, short- and medium terms stability, determination of the saturation currents and the ion collection efficiencies, angular and energy dependence, show that these extrapolation chambers may be utilized for low-energy X radiation beam dosimetry. The transmission factors in tissue and the calibration factors were also determined for all cited radiation qualities. Finally, a procedure was established for calibration of radiation detectors in standard X radiation beams, using the extrapolation chambers. (author)

  4. The extrapolation of short term observation to time periods for isolation of long lived radioactive wastes (India)

    The work presented covers different parts of a repository system such as near and far field aspects. Investigations are reported for the degradation of HLW glass, for the corrosion of container materials, for changes of geochemical environment in geological repositories, and for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of granitic host rock. Extrapolation methods are developed and applied for temperature and stress development in the host rock and for the radionuclide transport through a fractured system. (author)

  5. Extrapolative Analysis of Fast-Switching Free Energy Estimates in a Molecular System

    Zuckerman, Daniel M.; Woolf, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    We perform an extrapolative analysis of "fast-growth" free-energy-difference (DF) estimates of a computer-modeled, fully-solvated ethanemethanol transformation. The results suggest that extrapolation can greatly reduce the systematic error in DF estimated from a small number of very fast switches. Our extrapolation procedure uses block-averages of finite-data estimates, and appears to be particularly useful for broad, non-Gaussian distributions of data which produce substantial systematic err...

  6. Extrapolation chamber response in low-energy x radiation standard beams

    Dias, Simone K.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of absorbed dose rates in air and tissue produced by low-energy x radiation are often difficult to obtain with accuracy. The recommended instruments for these applications are extrapolation chambers. The performance of an extrapolation chamber, developed at IPEN, was studied in low energy x radiation standard beams in relation to its response linearity, extrapolation curves and energy dependence. The results obtained indicate that the developed chamber is suitable for x radiation measurements.

  7. Test on the reactor with the intelligent extrapolation criticality device for physical startup experiment

    The Intelligent Extrapolation Criticality Device is used for automatic counting and automatic extrapolation during the criticality experiment on the reactor. Test must be performed on the zero-power reactor or other reactor before the Device is used. The paper describes the test situation and test results of the Device on the zero-power reactor. The test results show that the Device has the function of automatic counting and automatic extrapolation, the deviation of the extrapolation data is small, and it can satisfy the requirements of physical startup on the reactor. (author)

  8. Multi-threaded adaptive extrapolation procedure for Feynman loop integrals in the physical region

    Feynman loop integrals appear in higher order corrections of interaction cross section calculations in perturbative quantum field theory. The integrals are computationally intensive especially in view of singularities which may occur within the integration domain. For the treatment of threshold and infrared singularities we developed techniques using iterated (repeated) adaptive integration and extrapolation. In this paper we describe a shared memory parallelization and its application to one- and two-loop problems, by multi-threading in the outer integrations of the iterated integral. The implementation is layered over OpenMP and retains the adaptive procedure of the sequential method exactly. We give performance results for loop integrals associated with various types of diagrams including one-loop box, pentagon, two-loop self-energy and two-loop vertex diagrams

  9. Extrapolation of extreme response for different mooring line systems of floating wave energy converters

    Ambühl, Simon; Sterndorff, Martin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto the...... measurements from lab-scaled WEPTOS WEC are taken. Different catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) systems as well as single anchor legmooring (SALM)mooring systemsare implemented for a dynamic simulation with different number of mooring lines. Extreme tension loads with a return period of 50 years are assessed...... for the hawser as well as at the different mooring lines. Furthermore, the extreme load impact given failure of one mooring line is assessed and compared with extreme loads given no system failure....

  10. Bulk rock elastic moduli at high pressures, derived from the mineral textures and from extrapolated laboratory data

    Ullemeyer, K.; Lokaj?ek, T.; Keppler, R.; Vasin, R. N.; Behrmann, J. H.

    2015-04-01

    The elastic anisotropy of bulk rock depends on the mineral textures, the crack fabric and external parameters like, e.g., confining pressure. The texture-related contribution to elastic anisotropy can be predicted from the mineral textures, the largely sample-dependent contribution of the other parameters must be determined experimentally. Laboratory measurements of the elastic wave velocities are mostly limited to pressures of the intermediate crust. We describe a method, how the elastic wave velocity trends and, by this means, the elastic constants can be extrapolated to the pressure conditions of the lower crust. The extrapolated elastic constants are compared to the texture-derived ones. Pronounced elastic anisotropy is evident for phyllosilicate minerals, hence, the approach is demonstrated for two phyllosilicate-rich gneisses with approximately identical volume fractions of the phyllosilicates but different texture types.

  11. Patient-bounded extrapolation using low-dose priors for volume-of-interest imaging in C-arm CT

    Xia, Y.; Maier, A.; Berger, M.; Hornegger, J. [Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Bauer, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim 91301 (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging with C-arm systems provides anatomical information in a predefined 3D target region at a considerably low x-ray dose. However, VOI imaging involves laterally truncated projections from which conventional reconstruction algorithms generally yield images with severe truncation artifacts. Heuristic based extrapolation methods, e.g., water cylinder extrapolation, typically rely on techniques that complete the truncated data by means of a continuity assumption and thus appear to be ad-hoc. It is our goal to improve the image quality of VOI imaging by exploiting existing patient-specific prior information in the workflow. Methods: A necessary initial step prior to a 3D acquisition is to isocenter the patient with respect to the target to be scanned. To this end, low-dose fluoroscopic x-ray acquisitions are usually applied from anterior–posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) views. Based on this, the patient is isocentered by repositioning the table. In this work, we present a patient-bounded extrapolation method that makes use of these noncollimated fluoroscopic images to improve image quality in 3D VOI reconstruction. The algorithm first extracts the 2D patient contours from the noncollimated AP and ML fluoroscopic images. These 2D contours are then combined to estimate a volumetric model of the patient. Forward-projecting the shape of the model at the eventually acquired C-arm rotation views gives the patient boundary information in the projection domain. In this manner, we are in the position to substantially improve image quality by enforcing the extrapolated line profiles to end at the known patient boundaries, derived from the 3D shape model estimate. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on eight clinical datasets with different degrees of truncation. The proposed algorithm achieved a relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of about 1.0% with respect to the reference reconstruction on nontruncated data, even in the presence of severe truncation, compared to a rRMSE of 8.0% when applying a state-of-the-art heuristic extrapolation technique. Conclusions: The method we proposed in this paper leads to a major improvement in image quality for 3D C-arm based VOI imaging. It involves no additional radiation when using fluoroscopic images that are acquired during the patient isocentering process. The model estimation can be readily integrated into the existing interventional workflow without additional hardware.

  12. CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation

    Sadeghi Naini, Ali; Pierce, Greg; Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); and others

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The intensity mean absolute difference between these two images was calculated to be at 1%. Tumor center as well as a number of anatomical fiducial markers were traced in different corresponding slices of the two images. The average misalignment obtained for the constructed CT image was (0.64, 0.39, 0.11) mm, which indicates a very desirable accuracy for lung brachytherapy applications. Conclusions: The image construction accuracy obtained in this research is suitable for intraoperative tasks; e.g., tumor localization and fusing with real time navigation data in lung brachytherapy. These applications involve image registration with intraoperative U.S. images in order to enhance their poor quality. The proposed technique is also useful for preoperative tasks such as planning of lung brachytherapy treatment.

  13. CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The intensity mean absolute difference between these two images was calculated to be at 1%. Tumor center as well as a number of anatomical fiducial markers were traced in different corresponding slices of the two images. The average misalignment obtained for the constructed CT image was (0.64, 0.39, 0.11) mm, which indicates a very desirable accuracy for lung brachytherapy applications. Conclusions: The image construction accuracy obtained in this research is suitable for intraoperative tasks; e.g., tumor localization and fusing with real time navigation data in lung brachytherapy. These applications involve image registration with intraoperative U.S. images in order to enhance their poor quality. The proposed technique is also useful for preoperative tasks such as planning of lung brachytherapy treatment.

  14. Fuel cycle design for ITER and its extrapolation to DEMO

    Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: s-konishi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Glugla, Manfred [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hayashi, Takumi [Apan Atomic Energy AgencyTokai, Ibaraki 319-0015 Japan (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    ITER is the first fusion device that continuously processes DT plasma exhaust and supplies recycled fuel in a closed loop. All the tritium and deuterium in the exhaust are recovered, purified and returned to the tokamak with minimal delay, so that extended burn can be sustained with limited inventory. To maintain the safety of the entire facility, plant scale detritiation systems will also continuously run to remove tritium from the effluents at the maximum efficiency. In this entire tritium plant system, extremely high decontamination factor, that is the ratio of the tritium loss to the processing flow rate, is required for fuel economy and minimized tritium emissions, and the system design based on the state-of-the-art technology is expected to satisfy all the requirements without significant technical challenges. Considerable part of the fusion tritium system will be verified with ITER and its decades of operation experiences. Toward the DEMO plant that will actually generate energy and operate its closed fuel cycle, breeding blanket and power train that caries high temperature and pressure media from the fusion device to the generation system will be the major addition. For the tritium confinement, safety and environmental emission, particularly blanket, its coolant, and generation systems such as heat exchanger, steam generator and turbine will be the critical systems, because the tritium permeation from the breeder and handling large amount of high temperature, high pressure coolant will be further more difficult than that required for ITER. Detritiation of solid waste such as used blanket and divertor will be another issue for both tritium economy and safety. Unlike in the case of ITER that is regarded as experimental facility, DEMO will be expected to demonstrate the safety, reliability and social acceptance issue, even if economical feature is excluded. Fuel and environmental issue to be tested in the DEMO will determine the viability of the fusion as a future energy source. Some of the subjects cannot be expected to be within the extrapolation of ITER technology and require long term efforts paralleling ITER.

  15. On the existence of the optimal order for wavefunction extrapolation in Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics

    Fang, Jun; Song, Haifeng; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Wavefunction extrapolation greatly reduces the number of self-consistent field (SCF) iterations and thus the overall computational cost of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) that is based on the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. Going against the intuition that the higher order of extrapolation possesses a better accuracy, we demonstrate, from both theoretical and numerical perspectives, that the extrapolation accuracy firstly increases and then decreases with respect to the order, and an optimal extrapolation order in terms of minimal number of SCF iterations always exists. We also prove that the optimal order tends to be larger when using larger MD time steps or more strict SCF convergence criteria. By example BOMD simulations of a solid copper system, we show that the optimal extrapolation order covers a broad range when varying the MD time step or the SCF convergence criterion. Therefore, we suggest the necessity for BOMD simulation packages to open the user interface and to provide more choice...

  16. Can Pearlite form Outside of the Hultgren Extrapolation of the Ae3 and Acm Phase Boundaries?

    Aranda, M. M.; Rementeria, R.; Capdevila, C.; Hackenberg, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    It is usually assumed that ferrous pearlite can form only when the average austenite carbon concentration C 0 lies between the extrapolated Ae3 ( γ/ α) and Acm ( γ/ θ) phase boundaries (the "Hultgren extrapolation"). This "mutual supersaturation" criterion for cooperative lamellar nucleation and growth is critically examined from a historical perspective and in light of recent experiments on coarse-grained hypoeutectoid steels which show pearlite formation outside the Hultgren extrapolation. This criterion, at least as interpreted in terms of the average austenite composition, is shown to be unnecessarily restrictive. The carbon fluxes evaluated from Brandt's solution are sufficient to allow pearlite growth both inside and outside the Hultgren Extrapolation. As for the feasibility of the nucleation events leading to pearlite, the only criterion is that there are some local regions of austenite inside the Hultgren Extrapolation, even if the average austenite composition is outside.

  17. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Bragg-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents the characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field. The absorbed dose rate to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm was calculated and is (0.13206±0.0028) μGy. The extrapolation chamber null depth was determined and its value is 60 μm. The influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on the value of the corrected current was also evaluated. Temperature is the parameter that has more influence on this value and the influence of pressure and the humidity is not very significant. Extrapolation curves were obtained. (Author)

  18. A new mini-extrapolation chamber for beta source uniformity measurements

    According to recent international recommendations, beta particle sources should be specified in terms of absorbed dose rates to water at the reference point. However, because of the clinical use of these sources, additional information should be supplied in the calibration reports. This additional information include the source uniformity. A new small volume extrapolation chamber was designed and constructed at the Calibration Laboratory at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, Brazil, for the calibration of 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic plaques. This chamber can be used as a primary standard for the calibration of this type of source. Recent additional studies showed the feasibility of the utilization of this chamber to perform source uniformity measurements. Because of the small effective electrode area, it is possible to perform independent measurements by varying the chamber position by small steps. The aim of the present work was to study the uniformity of a 90Sr+90Y plane ophthalmic plaque utilizing the mini extrapolation chamber developed at IPEN. The uniformity measurements were performed by varying the chamber position by steps of 2 mm in the source central axis (x-and y-directions) and by varying the chamber position off-axis by 3 mm steps. The results obtained showed that this small volume chamber can be used for this purpose with a great advantage: it is a direct method, being unnecessary a previously calibration of the measurement device in relation to a reference instrument, and it provides real -time results, reducing the time necessary for the study and the determination of the uncertainties related to the measurements. (authors)

  19. Direct extrapolation of radial profile data to a self-ignited fusion reactor based on the gyro-Bohm model

    Highlights: ? The DPE method predicts temperature and density profiles in a fusion reactor. ? This method is based on the gyro-Bohm type parameter dependence. ? The size of fusion reactor is determined to fulfill the power balance. ? The reactor size is proportional to a factor and ?4/3 power of the magnetic field. ? This factor can be a measure of plasma performance like the fusion triple product. - Abstract: A new method named direct profile extrapolation (DPE) has been developed to estimate the radial profiles of temperature and density in a fusion reactor. This method directly extrapolates the radial profiles observed in present experiments to the fusion reactor condition assuming gyro-Bohm type parameter dependence. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium that fits the experimental profile data is used to determine the plasma volume. Four enhancement factors for the magnetic field strength, the density, the plasma beta, and the energy confinement are assumed. Then, the plasma size is determined so as to fulfill the power balance in the reactor plasma. The plasma performance can be measured by an index, Cexp, introduced in the DPE method. The minimum magnetic stored energy of the fusion reactor to achieve self-ignition is shown to be proportional to the cube of Cexp and inversely proportional to the square of magnetic field strength. Using this method, the design window of a self-ignited fusion reactor that can be extrapolated from recent experimental results in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is considered. Also discussed is how large an enhancement is needed for the LHD experiment to ensure the helical reactor design of FFHR2m2.

  20. Full-wave-equation depth extrapolation for true amplitude migration based on a dual-sensor seismic acquisition system

    You, Jiachun; Li, Guangcai; Liu, Xuewei; Han, Wengong; Zhang, Guangde

    2016-03-01

    Most depth extrapolation schemes are based on a one-way wave equation, which possesses limited ability to provide the true amplitude values of reflectors that are highly important for amplitude-versus-offset inversion. After analysing the weaknesses of current migration methods and explaining the reason why wavefields cannot be extrapolated using the full-wave equation in the depth direction, a full-wave-equation migration method based on a new seismic acquisition system is proposed to provide accurately dynamic information of reflection interfaces for migration. In this new seismic acquisition system, double sensor data are provided to solve the acoustic wave equation in the depth domain accurately. To test the performance of recovering the true amplitudes of the full-wave-equation migration, we used a single shot gather and several multiple shot gathers produced by a 2-D numerical modelling technique to demonstrate that our methodology provides better estimated true amplitudes than that of the conventional Kirchhoff and reverse time migration algorithms through comparison of the amplitudes of the target reflectors with its theoretical reflection coefficients. Because double sensors are applied to implement the full-wave-equation migration, it is necessary to study the perfect distance between the double sensors to diminish the migration error for future practical exploration. Based on the application of the full-wave-equation migration method to the first set of actual seismic data collected from our double sensor acquisition system, our proposed method yields higher imaging quality than that of conventional methods. Numerical experiments and actual seismic data show that our proposed method has built a new bridge between true amplitude common-shot migration and full-wave-equation depth extrapolation.

  1. Associação de cetamina S(+ e midazolam pelo método convencional de cálculo e pela extrapolação alométrica em bugios-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans: resposta clínica e cardiorrespiratória S(+ ketamine and midazolam association by the conventional method of calculation and allometric extrapolation in red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans: clinical and cardiopulmonary response

    Joana Aurora Braun Chagas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o protocolo de contenção química com cetamina S(+ e midazolam em bugios-ruivos, comparando o cálculo de doses pelo método convencional e o método de extrapolação alométrica. Foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios (Alouatta guariba clamitans hígidos, com peso médio de 4,84±0,97kg, de ambos os sexos. Após jejum alimentar de 12 horas e hídrico de seis horas, realizou-se contenção física manual e aferiram-se os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (f, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, temperatura retal (TR, pressão arterial sistólica não invasiva (PANI e valores de hemogasometria arterial. Posteriormente, os animais foram alocados em dois grupos: GC (Grupo Convencional, n=06, os quais receberam cetamina S(+ (5mg kg-1 e midazolam (0,5mg kg-1, pela via intramuscular, com doses calculadas pelo método convencional; e GA (Grupo Alometria, n=06, os quais receberam o mesmo protocolo, pela mesma via, utilizando-se as doses calculadas pelo método de extrapolação alométrica. Os parâmetros descritos foram mensurados novamente nos seguintes momentos: M5, M10, M20 e M30 (cinco, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após a administração dos fármacos, respectivamente. Também foram avaliados: qualidade de miorrelaxamento, reflexo podal e caudal, pinçamento interdigital, tempo para indução de decúbito, tempo hábil de sedação, qualidade de sedação, e tempo e qualidade de recuperação. O GA apresentou menor tempo para indução ao decúbito, maior grau e tempo de sedação, bem como redução significativa da FC e PANI de M5 até M30, quando comparado ao GC. Conclui-se que o grupo no qual o cálculo de dose foi realizado por meio da alometria (GA apresentou melhor grau de relaxamento muscular e sedação, sem produzir depressão cardiorrespiratória significativa.The aim of this study was to evaluate a protocol of chemical restraint comparing the conventional method of calculation (weight dose and allometric extrapolation. Twelve healthy red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans, average weight 4.84±0.97kg, male and female, were used for this study. After a 12-hour period of food restriction and 6 hours of water restriction, the animals were physically restraint and the following parameters were measured: heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, capillary refill time (CRT, rectal temperature (RT, non invasive systolic arterial pressure (NISAP and arterial blood gases analysis. The animals were distributed into two groups: CG (Conventional Group, n=6, in which the animals received S(+ ketamine (5mg kg-1 and midazolam (0.5mg kg-1, by intramuscular (IM injection; and AG (Allometry Group, n=6, in which the animals also received S(+ ketamine and midazolan IM, but the doses were calculated by allometric extrapolation. Parameters were evaluated at the following moments: M5, M10, M20 and M30 (5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after IM injection, respectively. Muscle relaxation, pedal and caudal reflexes, interdigital pinch, recumbency time, sedation's quality and duration, and recovery time and its quality were also evaluated. The AG had a faster time for recumbency, higher period and quality of sedation, and a significantly reduction on HR and SAP from M5 to M30 when compared to CG. It was concluded that allometric extrapolation presented a better muscle relaxation and sedation without significant cardiorespiratory depression.

  2. Design and construction of an interface system for the extrapolation chamber from the beta secondary standard

    The Interface System for the Extrapolation Chamber (SICE) contains several devices handled by a personal computer (PC), it is able to get the required data to calculate the absorbed dose due to Beta radiation. The main functions of the system are: a) Measures the ionization current or charge stored in the extrapolation chamber. b) Adjusts the distance between the plates of the extrapolation chamber automatically. c) Adjust the bias voltage of the extrapolation chamber automatically. d) Acquires the data of the temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity of the environment and the voltage applied between the plates of the extrapolation chamber. e) Calculates the effective area of the plates of the extrapolation chamber and the real distance between them. f) Stores all the obtained information in hard disk or diskette. A comparison between the desired distance and the distance in the dial of the extrapolation chamber, show us that the resolution of the system is of 20 μm. The voltage can be changed between -399.9 V and +399.9 V with an error of less the 3 % with a resolution of 0.1 V. These uncertainties are between the accepted limits to be used in the determination of the absolute absorbed dose due to beta radiation. (Author)

  3. Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm for an accelerated solution of weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations

    In this paper, we apply Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm as acceleration technique for the solution of a weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. In this paper, based on Tao and Yong (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 324 225-37.) the integral equation is solved by Navot's quadrature formula. Also, Tao and Yong (2006) for the first time applied Richardson extrapolation to accelerating convergence for the weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind. To our knowledge, this paper may be the first attempt to apply Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm for the weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind.

  4. Extrapolated masses towards drip lines from the regularity of the AMC12 mass surfaces

    The new atomic mass compilation AMC12 provides a variety of potential uses. One such important application is to predict dependable estimates of unknown, poorly known or questionable masses and extrapolation toward the drip lines and also to test the theoretical models. Such an attempt has been made in this work. The procedures by which we get the extrapolated values encompass a subjective component in the form of individual judgments. So we want to study the possibilities of avoiding the personal judgment by applying objective techniques for extrapolation. Despite the complexity of nuclear interactions some simple trends in the mass surfaces can be used to obtain unknown masses

  5. Nonparametric reconstruction of the cosmic expansion with local regression smoothing and simulation extrapolation

    Montiel, Ariadna; Sendra, Irene; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a nonparametric approach, which works on minimal assumptions, to reconstruct the cosmic expansion of the Universe. We propose to combine a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing method and a simulation-extrapolation method. The first one (Loess) is a nonparametric approach that allows to obtain smoothed curves with no prior knowledge of the functional relationship between variables nor of the cosmological quantities. The second one (Simex) takes into account the effect of measurement errors on a variable via a simulation process. For the reconstructions we use as raw data the Union2.1 Type Ia Supernovae compilation, as well as recent Hubble parameter measurements. This work aims to illustrate the approach, which turns out to be a self-sufficient technique in the sense we do not have to choose anything by hand. We examine the details of the method, among them the amount of observational data needed to perform the locally weighted fit which will define the robustness of our reconstructio...

  6. Can Tauc plot extrapolation be used for direct-band-gap semiconductor nanocrystals?

    Feng, Y., E-mail: yu.feng@unsw.edu.au; Lin, S.; Huang, S.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    Despite that Tauc plot extrapolation has been widely adopted for extracting bandgap energies of semiconductors, there is a lack of theoretical support for applying it to nanocrystals. In this paper, direct-allowed optical transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals have been formulated based on a purely theoretical approach. This result reveals a size-dependant transition of the power factor used in Tauc plot, increasing from one half used in the 3D bulk case to one in the 0D case. This size-dependant intermediate value of power factor allows a better extrapolation of measured absorption data. Being a material characterization technique, the generalized Tauc extrapolation gives a more reasonable and accurate acquisition of the intrinsic bandgap, while the unjustified purpose of extrapolating any elevated bandgap caused by quantum confinement is shown to be incorrect.

  7. CONSTRAINING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS USING THE TWIN PERSPECTIVES OF STEREO

    The three-dimensional magnetic topology of a solar active region (NOAA 10956) was reconstructed using a linear force-free field extrapolation constrained using the twin perspectives of STEREO. A set of coronal field configurations was initially generated from extrapolations of the photospheric magnetic field observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager on SOHO. Using an EUV intensity-based cost function, the extrapolated field lines that were most consistent with 171 A passband images from the Extreme UltraViolet Imager on STEREO were identified. This facilitated quantitative constraints to be placed on the twist (α) of the extrapolated field lines, where ∇ x B = αB. Using the constrained values of α, the evolution in time of twist, connectivity, and magnetic energy were then studied. A flux emergence event was found to result in significant changes in the magnetic topology and total magnetic energy of the region.

  8. Design for low dose extrapolation of carcinogenicity data. Technical report No. 24

    Parameters for modelling dose-response relationships in carcinogenesis models were found to be very complicated, especially for distinguishing low dose effects. The author concluded that extrapolation always bears the danger of providing misleading information

  9. Can Tauc plot extrapolation be used for direct-band-gap semiconductor nanocrystals?

    Despite that Tauc plot extrapolation has been widely adopted for extracting bandgap energies of semiconductors, there is a lack of theoretical support for applying it to nanocrystals. In this paper, direct-allowed optical transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals have been formulated based on a purely theoretical approach. This result reveals a size-dependant transition of the power factor used in Tauc plot, increasing from one half used in the 3D bulk case to one in the 0D case. This size-dependant intermediate value of power factor allows a better extrapolation of measured absorption data. Being a material characterization technique, the generalized Tauc extrapolation gives a more reasonable and accurate acquisition of the intrinsic bandgap, while the unjustified purpose of extrapolating any elevated bandgap caused by quantum confinement is shown to be incorrect

  10. Application of a framework for extrapolating chemical effects across species in pathways controlled by estrogen receptor-

    Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity data from limited surrogate test organisms to all wildlife with potential of chemical exposure remains a key challenge in ecological risk assessment. A number of factors affect extrapolation, including the chemical exposure, pharmacokinetic...

  11. Quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation in a high-throughput environment

    High-throughput in vitro toxicity screening provides an efficient way to identify potential biological targets for environmental and industrial chemicals while conserving limited testing resources. However, reliance on the nominal chemical concentrations in these in vitro assays as an indicator of bioactivity may misrepresent potential in vivo effects of these chemicals due to differences in clearance, protein binding, bioavailability, and other pharmacokinetic factors. Development of high-throughput in vitro hepatic clearance and protein binding assays and refinement of quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) methods have provided key tools to predict xenobiotic steady state pharmacokinetics. Using a process known as reverse dosimetry, knowledge of the chemical steady state behavior can be incorporated with HTS data to determine the external in vivo oral exposure needed to achieve internal blood concentrations equivalent to those eliciting bioactivity in the assays. These daily oral doses, known as oral equivalents, can be compared to chronic human exposure estimates to assess whether in vitro bioactivity would be expected at the dose-equivalent level of human exposure. This review will describe the use of QIVIVE methods in a high-throughput environment and the promise they hold in shaping chemical testing priorities and, potentially, high-throughput risk assessment strategies

  12. Comparison of the performance of two extrapolation chambers for calibration of clinical applicators (90Sr)

    Full text: The 90Sr+90Y applicators utilized in clinical procedures are special sources for brachytherapy, during the treatments of superficial lesions. The applicators have to be periodically calibrated, and the recommended instruments for this kind of calibration are the extrapolation chambers. These instruments are special ionization chambers with possibility of variation of their sensitive volumes. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of two extrapolation chambers with different physical characteristics that were developed at IPEN for the calibration of beta radiation applicators. One of this chambers is a mini-extrapolation chamber that has a 3.0 cm outer diameter, and it is 11.3 cm in length. Furthermore, an aluminized polyester foil is used as the entrance window while the collecting electrode is made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. The other extrapolation chamber has interchangeable electrodes with body of lucite, collector electrode of 3 and 10 mm in diameter and aluminized polyethylene foils used as the entrance window. These extrapolation chambers were previously utilized as absolute radiation detectors for the calibration of a commercial clinical applicator. In the present work, both extrapolation chambers were calibrated in relation to a standard dermatological applicator calibrated at the American primary standard laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Extrapolation curves for beta radiation of 90Sr+90Y were obtained and thus the calibration factors were determined for the chambers. Short and medium term stability tests were also realized, using constant interelectrode distances. Finally, the commercial clinical applicator was calibrated using both extrapolation chambers, and the results were compared with those obtained in previous works. (author)

  13. Narrowing the error in electron correlation calculations by basis set re-hierarchization and use of the unified singlet and triplet electron-pair extrapolation scheme: Application to a test set of 106 systems

    Varandas, A. J. C., E-mail: varandas@uc.pt [Departamento de Qumica, and Centro de Qumica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Departamento de Fsica, Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo, 29075-910 Vitria (Brazil); Pansini, F. N. N. [CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Braslia-DF 70040-020 (Brazil)

    2014-12-14

    A method previously suggested to calculate the correlation energy at the complete one-electron basis set limit by reassignment of the basis hierarchical numbers and use of the unified singlet- and triplet-pair extrapolation scheme is applied to a test set of 106 systems, some with up to 48 electrons. The approach is utilized to obtain extrapolated correlation energies from raw values calculated with second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled-cluster singles and doubles excitations method, some of the latter also with the perturbative triples corrections. The calculated correlation energies have also been used to predict atomization energies within an additive scheme. Good agreement is obtained with the best available estimates even when the (d, t) pair of hierarchical numbers is utilized to perform the extrapolations. This conceivably justifies that there is no strong reason to exclude double-zeta energies in extrapolations, especially if the basis is calibrated to comply with the theoretical model.

  14. Narrowing the error in electron correlation calculations by basis set re-hierarchization and use of the unified singlet and triplet electron-pair extrapolation scheme: Application to a test set of 106 systems

    A method previously suggested to calculate the correlation energy at the complete one-electron basis set limit by reassignment of the basis hierarchical numbers and use of the unified singlet- and triplet-pair extrapolation scheme is applied to a test set of 106 systems, some with up to 48 electrons. The approach is utilized to obtain extrapolated correlation energies from raw values calculated with second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled-cluster singles and doubles excitations method, some of the latter also with the perturbative triples corrections. The calculated correlation energies have also been used to predict atomization energies within an additive scheme. Good agreement is obtained with the best available estimates even when the (d, t) pair of hierarchical numbers is utilized to perform the extrapolations. This conceivably justifies that there is no strong reason to exclude double-zeta energies in extrapolations, especially if the basis is calibrated to comply with the theoretical model

  15. Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams

    This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation

  16. Developing and utilizing the wavefield kinematics for efficient wavefield extrapolation

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-08-01

    Natural gas and oil from characteristically complex unconventional reservoirs, such as organic shale, tight gas and oil, coal-bed methane; are transforming the global energy market. These conventional reserves exist in complex geologic formations where conventional seismic techniques have been challenged to successfully image the subsurface. To acquire maximum benefits from these unconventional reserves, seismic anisotropy must be at the center of our modeling and inversion workflows. I present algorithms for fast traveltime computations in anisotropic media. Both ray-based and finite-difference solvers of the anisotropic eikonal equation are developed. The proposed algorithms present novel techniques to obtain accurate traveltime solutions for anisotropic media in a cost-efficient manner. The traveltime computation algorithms are then used to invert for anisotropy parameters. Specifically, I develop inversion techniques by using diffractions and diving waves in the seismic data. The diffraction-based inversion algorithm can be combined with an isotropic full-waveform inversion (FWI) method to obtain a high-resolution model for the anellipticity anisotropy parameter. The inversion algorithm based on diving waves is useful for building initial anisotropic models for depth-migration and FWI. I also develop the idea of \\'effective elliptic models\\' for obtaining solutions of the anisotropic two-way wave equation. The proposed technique offers a viable alternative for wavefield computations in anisotropic media using a computationally cheaper wave propagation operator. The methods developed in the thesis lead to a direct cost savings for imaging and inversion projects, in addition to a reduction in turn-around time. With an eye on the next generation inversion methods, these techniques allow us to incorporate more accurate physics into our modeling and inversion framework.

  17. Skeletal 212Pb retention following 224Ra injection: extrapolation of animal data to adult humans

    Two methods of interspecies extrapolation, one based on a correlation of skeletal 212Pb/224Ra with body weight, the other based on the mechanistic relationship between skeletal 212Pb/224Ra and reciprocal bone surface-to-volume ratio, lead to the conclusion that the retention of 212Pb in the adult human skeleton is approximately complete a few days after injection. The correlation-based method gives most probable values for 212Pb/224Ra of 1.0 and 1.1 at 2 d and 7 d after injection, compared with values of 1.05 and 1.27 expected at these same times if the retention of 212Pb were complete from the time of injection and if no 212Pb were in the injection solution. The range of values corresponding to one geometric standard error on either side of the most probable value is 0.87 to 1.21 at 2 d post-injection. With the method based on the reciprocal bone surface-to-volume ratio, the best estimate of 212Pb/224Ra at 2 d after injection is 0.88, equal to the value observed in young adult beagles. An alternative interpretation of the results of this latter method leads to the conclusion that retention is complete, with 212Pb/224Ra equal to 1.0 for a 212Pb-free injection solution and 1.1 for a solution containing 212Pb in secular equilibrium with 224Ra. This work, which uses 224Ra daughter product retention data from mice, rats and dogs following 224Ra injection, provides a scientific foundation for retention assumptions made in the calculation of mean skeletal dose for adult humans. There now appear to be few uncertainties in these latter dose values, stemming from inaccurate retention assumptions; but substantial uncertainties remain in the mean skeletal dose values for juveniles and in the endosteal tissue doses regardless of age

  18. Extrapolation of Nitrogen Fertiliser Recommendation Zones for Maize in Kisii District Using Geographical Information Systems

    A GIS database was established for fertiliser recommendation domains in Kisii District by using FURP fertiliser trial results, KSS soils data and MDBP climatic data. These are manipulated in ESRI's (Personal Computer Environmental Systems Research Institute) ARCINFO and ARCVIEW softwares. The extrapolations were only done for the long rains season (March- August) with three to four years data. GIS technology was used to cluster fertiliser recommendation domains as a geographical area expressed in terms of variation over space and not limited to the site of experiment where a certain agronomic or economic fertiliser recommendation was made. The extrapolation over space was found to be more representative for any recommendation, the result being digital maps describing each area in the geographical space. From the results of the extrapolations, approximately 38,255 ha of the district require zero Nitrogen (N) fertilisation while 94,330 ha requires 75 kg ha-1 Nitrogen fertilisation during the (March-August) long rains. The extrapolation was made difficult since no direct relationships could be established to occur between the available-N, % Carbon (C) or any of the other soil properties with the obtained yields. Decision rules were however developed based on % C which was the soil variable with values closest to the obtained yields. 3% organic carbon was found to be the boundary between 0 application and 75 kg-N application. GIS techniques made it possible to model and extrapolates the results using the available data. The extrapolations still need to be verified with more ground data from fertiliser trials. Data gaps in the soil map left some soil mapping units with no recommendations. Elevation was observed to influence yields and it should be included in future extrapolation by clustering digital elevation models with rainfall data in a spatial model at the district scale

  19. Mean field extrapolations of microscopic nuclear equations of state

    Rrapaj, Ermal; Holt, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of mean field models to approximate microscopic nuclear equations of state derived from chiral effective field theory across the densities and temperatures relevant for simulating astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae and binary neutron star mergers. We consider both relativistic mean field theory with scalar and vector meson exchange as well as energy density functionals based on Skyrme phenomenology and compare to thermodynamic equations of state derived from chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in many-body perturbation theory. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are used to determine the density regimes in which perturbation theory with chiral nuclear forces is valid. Within the theoretical uncertainties associated with the many-body methods, we find that select mean field models describe well microscopic nuclear thermodynamics. As an additional consistency requirement, we study as well the single-particle properties of ...

  20. Enhancement of low-quality reconstructed digital hologram images based on frequency extrapolation of large objects under the diffraction limit

    Liu, Ning; Li, Weiliang; Zhao, Dongxue

    2016-03-01

    During the reconstruction of a digital hologram, the reconstructed image is usually degraded by speckle noise, which makes it hard to observe the original object pattern. In this paper, a new reconstructed image enhancement method is proposed, which first reduces the speckle noise using an adaptive Gaussian filter, then calculates the high frequencies that belong to the object pattern based on a frequency extrapolation strategy. The proposed frequency extrapolation first calculates the frequency spectrum of the Fourier-filtered image, which is originally reconstructed from the +1 order of the hologram, and then gives the initial parameters for an iterative solution. The analytic iteration is implemented by continuous gradient threshold convergence to estimate the image level and vertical gradient information. The predicted spectrum is acquired through the analytical iteration of the original spectrum and gradient spectrum analysis. Finally, the reconstructed spectrum of the restoration image is acquired from the synthetic correction of the original spectrum using the predicted gradient spectrum. We conducted our experiment very close to the diffraction limit and used low-quality equipment to prove the feasibility of our method. Detailed analysis and figure demonstrations are presented in the paper.

  1. Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent and non-linear fractal extrapolation algorithm to short-term load forecasting

    Highlights: ► The maximal predictive step size is determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent. ► A proper forecasting step size is applied to load demand forecasting. ► The improved approach is validated by the actual load demand data. ► Non-linear fractal extrapolation method is compared with three forecasting models. ► Performance of the models is evaluated by three different error measures. - Abstract: Precise short-term load forecasting (STLF) plays a key role in unit commitment, maintenance and economic dispatch problems. Employing a subjective and arbitrary predictive step size is one of the most important factors causing the low forecasting accuracy. To solve this problem, the largest Lyapunov exponent is adopted to estimate the maximal predictive step size so that the step size in the forecasting is no more than this maximal one. In addition, in this paper a seldom used forecasting model, which is based on the non-linear fractal extrapolation (NLFE) algorithm, is considered to develop the accuracy of predictions. The suitability and superiority of the two solutions are illustrated through an application to real load forecasting using New South Wales electricity load data from the Australian National Electricity Market. Meanwhile, three forecasting models: the gray model, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average approach and the support vector machine method, which received high approval in STLF, are selected to compare with the NLFE algorithm. Comparison results also show that the NLFE model is outstanding, effective, practical and feasible.

  2. Extrapolation uncertainties in the importance-truncated No-Core Shell Model

    Kruse, M K G; Navrátil, P; Barrett, B R; Ormand, W E

    2013-01-01

    We report on Li-6 calculations performed with the IT-NCSM and compare them to full NCSM calculations. We employ the Entem and Machleidt chiral two-body N3LO interaction (regulated at 500 MeV/c), which has been modified to a phase-shift equivalent potential by the similarity renormalization group (SRG) procedure. We investigate the dependence of the procedure on the technique employed to extrapolate to the complete Nmax space, the harmonic oscillator energy, and investigate the dependence on the momentum-decoupling scale (\\lambda) used in the SRG. We also investigate the use of one or several reference states from which the truncated basis is constructed. We find that the uncertainties generated from various extrapolating functions used to extrapolate to the complete Nmax space increase as Nmax increases. The extrapolation uncertainties range from a few keV for the smallest Nmax spaces to about 50 keV for the largest Nmax spaces. We note that the difference between extrapolated IT-NCSM and NCSM ground-state en...

  3. Complete basis set extrapolations for low-lying triplet electronic states of acetylene and vinylidene

    Sherrill, C. David; Byrd, Edward F. C.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2000-07-01

    A recent study by Ahmed, Peterka, and Suits [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4248 (1999)] has presented the first experimentally derived estimate of the singlet-triplet gap in the simplest alkyne, acetylene. Their value, T0(3B2)=28 900 cm-1, does not agree with previous theoretical predictions using the coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method and a triple-? plus double polarization plus f-function basis set (TZ2P f ), which yields 30 5001000 cm-1. This discrepancy has prompted us to investigate possible deficiencies in this usually-accurate theoretical approach. Employing extrapolations to the complete basis set limit along with corrections for full connected triple excitations, core correlation, and even relativistic effects, we obtain a value of 30 900 cm-1 (estimated uncertainty 230 cm-1), demonstrating that the experimental value is underestimated. To assist in the interpretation of anticipated future experiments, we also present highly accurate excitation energies for the other three low-lying triplet states of acetylene, 3Bu(33 570230 cm-1), b 3Au(36 040260 cm-1), and b 3A2(38 380260 cm-1), and the three lowest-lying states of vinylidene, X 1A1(15 150230 cm-1), 3B2(31 870230 cm-1), and b 3A2(36 840350 cm-1). Finally, we assess the ability of density functional theory (DFT) and the Gaussian-3 method to match our benchmark results for adiabatic excitation energies of C2H2.

  4. Forced field extrapolation of the magnetic structure of the Halpha fibrils in solar chromosphere

    Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Du, Zhanle; He, Han

    2016-01-01

    We present a careful assess of the forced field extrapolation using Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) magnetogram. The convergence property is checked by several metrics. The extrapolated field lines below 3600km appear to be aligned with most Halpha fibrils observed by New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST). In the region where magnetic energy far larger than potential energy, field lines computed by forced field extrapolation still consistent with the patterns of Halpha fibrils while non-linear force free field (NLFFF) results show large misalignment. The horizontal average of lorentz force ratio shows the forced region where force-free assumption is failed can reach the height of $1400-1800km$. The non-force-free state of the chromosphere is also confirmed by recent radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation.

  5. Possible sharp quantization of extrapolated high temperature viscosity- theory and experiment

    Nussinov, Z; Blodgett, M; Kelton, K F

    2014-01-01

    Quantum effects in material systems are often pronounced at low energies and become insignificant at high temperatures. We find that, perhaps counterintuitively, certain quantum effects may follow the opposite route and become progressively sharper when extrapolated to the "classical" high temperature limit. In the current work, we derive basic relations, extend standard kinetic theory by taking into account a possible fundamental quantum time scale, find new general equalities connecting semi-classical dynamics and thermodynamics to Planck's constant, and compute current correlation functions. Our analysis suggests that, on average, the extrapolated high temperature viscosity of general liquids may tend to a value set by the product of the particle number density ${\\sf n}$ and Planck's constant $h$. We compare this theoretical result with experimental measurements of an ensemble of 23 metallic fluids where this seems to indeed be the case. The extrapolated high temperature viscosity of each of these liquids ...

  6. Extrapolation ionisation chamber measurements on beta-emitting sources produced for the CEGB collaborative radiobiology programme

    This report describes the structure and application of an extrapolation ionisation chamber used for measuring dose-rates from plane and point beta-emitting sources. These measurements form the basis of the dosimetry for a collaborative radiobiological study of skin to study both stochastic and non-stochastic effects. A small sample from the wide range of measurements undertaken in the programme has been selected to illustrate the procedures involved. The extrapolation chamber is currently being automated and it is intended that this report should provide a source reference to the basis of the measurements made between 1977-86. (author)

  7. Characterization of low energy X-rays beams with an extrapolation chamber

    In laboratories involving Radiological Protection practices, it is usual to use reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and to study their response in terms of energy dependence. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established four series of reference X-rays beams in the ISO- 4037 standard: the L and H series, as low and high air Kerma rates, respectively, the N series of narrow spectrum and W series of wide spectrum. The X-rays beams with tube potential below 30 kV, called 'low energy beams' are, in most cases, critical as far as the determination of their parameters for characterization purpose, such as half-value layer. Extrapolation chambers are parallel plate ionization chambers that have one mobile electrode that allows variation of the air volume in its interior. These detectors are commonly used to measure the quantity Absorbed Dose, mostly in the medium surface, based on the extrapolation of the linear ionization current as a function of the distance between the electrodes. In this work, a characterization of a model 23392 PTW extrapolation chamber was done in low energy X-rays beams of the ISO- 4037 standard, by determining the polarization voltage range through the saturation curves and the value of the true null electrode spacing. In addition, the metrological reliability of the extrapolation chamber was studied with measurements of the value of leakage current and repeatability tests; limit values were established for the proper use of the chamber. The PTW23392 extrapolation chamber was calibrated in terms of air Kerma in some of the ISO radiation series of low energy; the traceability of the chamber to the National Standard Dosimeter was established. The study of energy dependency of the extrapolation chamber and the assessment of the uncertainties related to the calibration coefficient were also done; it was shown that the energy dependence was reduced to 4% when the extrapolation technique was used. Finally, the first half-value layers were determined for the low energy ISO N series with the extrapolation chamber, in collimated and uncollimated beams and it was showed that this detector is feasible for such measurements. (author)

  8. Atmospheric effects on the performance and threshold extrapolation of multi-temporal Landsat derived dNBR for burn severity assessment

    Fang, Lei; Yang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    The Landsat derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is widely used for burn severity assessments. Studies of regional wildfire trends in response to climate change require consistency in dNBR mapping across multiple image dates, which may vary in atmospheric condition. Conversion of continuous dNBR images into categorical burn severity maps often requires extrapolation of dNBR thresholds from present fires for which field severity measurements such as Composite Burn Index (CBI) data are available, to historical fires for which CBI data are typically unavailable. Although differential atmospheric effects between image collection dates could lead to biased estimates of historical burn severity patterns, little is known concerning the influence of atmospheric effects on dNBR performance and threshold extrapolation. In this study, we compared the performance of dNBR calculated from six atmospheric correction methods using an optimality approach. The six correction methods included one partial (Top of atmosphere reflectance, TOA), two absolute, and three relative methods. We assessed how the correction methods affected the CBI-dNBR correlation and burn severity mapping in a Chinese boreal forest fire which occurred in 2010. The dNBR thresholds of the 2010 fire for each of the correction methods were then extrapolated to classify a historical fire from 2000. Classification accuracies of threshold extrapolations were assessed based on Cohen's Kappa analysis with 73 field-based validation plots. Our study found most correction methods improved mean dNBR optimality of the two fires. The relative correction methods generated 32% higher optimality than both TOA and absolute correction methods. All the correction methods yielded high CBI-dNBR correlations (mean R2 = 0.847) but distinctly different dNBR thresholds for severity classification of 2010 fire. Absolute correction methods could substantially increase optimality score, but were insufficient to provide a consistent scale of radiometric condition between multi-temporal Landsat images, which resulted in lower severity classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.53) than those relative correction methods (Kappa = 0.72) for the 2000 fire. Consistent radiometric response in remote sensing datasets proved essential for accuracy in regional burn severity trends monitoring. Extrapolation of empirical dNBR thresholds to historical conditions without relative normalization will likely lead to biased burn severity classifications.

  9. Quantitative expression of uncertainty in nowcasting heavy convective precipitation in Central Europe by extrapolation methods

    Mejsnar, Jan; Sokol, Zbyněk; Pešice, Petr

    Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling : Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, 2014. [ERAD 2014 - 8th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology. 01.09.2014-05.09.2014, Garmisch-Partenkirchen] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/erad2014/programme/ShortAbstracts/262_short.pdf

  10. The riskiness of extrapolating short term nutrient retention observations to long term trends in tidal marshes

    Birgand, F.; Etheridge, J. R.; Burchell, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal marshes are among the most dynamic aquatic systems in the world. While astronomical and wind driven tides are the major driver to displace water volumes, rainfall events and evapotranspiration move the overall balance towards water export or import, respectively. Until now, only glimpses of the associated biogeochemical functioning could be obtained, usually at one or several tidal cycles scale, because there was no obvious method to obtain long term water quality data at a high temporal frequency. We have successfully managed, using UV-Vis spectrophotometers in the field, to obtain water quality and flow data on a 15-min frequency for over 20 months in a restored brackish marsh in North Carolina. This marsh was designed to intercept water generated by subsurface drainage of adjacent agricultural land before discharge to the nearby estuary. It is particularly tempting in tidal systems where tides may look very similar from one to the next, to extrapolate results obtained possibly over several days or weeks to a ';seasonal biogeochemical functioning'. The lessons learned from high frequency data at the tidal scale are fascinating, but in the longer term, we have learned that a few and inherently rare rainfall events drove the overall nutrient balance in the marsh. Continuous water quality monitoring is thus essential for two reasons: 1) to observe the short term dynamics, as they are the key to unveil possibly misunderstood biogeochemical processes, and 2) to capture the rare yet essential events which drive the system's response. However, continuous water quality monitoring on a long term basis in harsh coastal environments is not without challenges.

  11. Measurement of the output of ISO recommended beta sources with an extrapolation chamber

    Output measurements in terms of absorbed dose rate to tissue were carried out for the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) recommended beta sources 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm using an extrapolation chamber. A holder made of anodized aluminium for the extrapolation chamber for the output measurements was designed indigenously. The measured dose rates for three beta sources were compared with the corresponding values provided in the certificate by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the National Standard Laboratory of Germany. Depending upon the source and source-to-chamber distance, the PTB certificate values have uncertainties in the range ±1.2–±1.5%. The measured dose rates have uncertainties of about ±0.3%. The deviations between the measured dose rates and the PTB certificate values compare well (maximum deviation is about 2%) considering the combined uncertainties associated with the measurements and the certificate values. The study suggests that the beta irradiation system comprising the above beta sources can be utilized for quality assurance programme related to personnel monitoring services in India. - Highlights: • Absorbed dose rates to tissue were measured for 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm ISO recommended beta sources with extrapolation chamber. • A holder made of aluminium was designed indigenously for the extrapolation chamber. • The measured dose rates agree well with the values provided in the PTB certificate. • The study suggests beta sources can be utilized for QA programme in personnel monitoring services

  12. Modeling and extrapolating mass flow characteristics of a radial turbocharger turbine

    Since the turbocharger turbine plays an important role in determining the engine performance, how to model and extrapolate mass flow characteristics of the turbocharger turbine is very important especially when only a narrow range of turbine data is provided by manufacturers. In this paper, a new mass flow model is proposed based on the physical model of a radial turbine simplified as two nozzles in series. With the ideal nozzle flow equation applied on the turbine stator, the mass flow rate through the turbine can be expressed with three fitted coefficients which have clear physical meanings. Existing empirical and partly empirical models of turbine mass flow characteristics are reviewed and compared with the deduced model in the Matlab software. The results show that considering the number of fitted coefficients and the modeling accuracy, the deduced model performs well in regression analyses conducted with experimental data tested from three radial turbines of different sizes. Also interpolating and extrapolating performances of this new model can match the turbine model in the GT-Power commercial software. Thus this new model is sufficiently robust to model and extrapolate mass flow characteristics of the radial turbocharger turbine at off design operating conditions. - Highlights: • A physical based turbine model of mass flow characteristics is proposed. • Existing turbine mass flow models are reviewed and summarized. • Comparative analyses of the deduced model and existing models are conducted. • Interpolating and extrapolating abilities of the deduced model are evaluated

  13. How to Extrapolate A String Model to Finite Temperature: Interpolations and Implications for the Hagedorn Transition

    Dienes, Keith R; Dienes, Keith R.; Lennek, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the important question of how to extrapolate a given zero-temperature string model to finite temperature. It turns out that this issue is surprisingly subtle, and we show that many of the standard results require modification. For concreteness, we focus on the case of the ten-dimensional SO(32) heterotic string, and show that the usual finite-temperature extrapolation for this string is inconsistent at the level of a proper worldsheet theory. We then derive the proper extrapolation, and in the process uncover a universal Hagedorn temperature for all tachyon-free closed string theories in ten dimensions --- both Type II and heterotic. As we discuss, these results are not in conflict with the well-known exponential growth in the degeneracies of string states in such models. This writeup is a concise summary of our recent paper hep-th/0505233, here presented using a ``bottom-up'' approach based on determining self-consistent finite-temperature extrapolations of zero-temperature string m...

  14. Improvement of the Quality of Reconstructed Holographic Images by Extrapolation of Digital Holograms

    Dyomin, V. V.; Olshukov, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The work is devoted to investigation of noise in reconstructed holographic images in the form of a system of fringes parallel to the hologram frame boundaries. Mathematical and physical interpretation is proposed together with an algorithm for reduction of this effect by extrapolation of digital holograms using bicubic splines. The efficiency of the algorithm is estimated and examples of its application are presented.

  15. Atomization Energies of SO and SO2; Basis Set Extrapolation Revisted

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The addition of tight functions to sulphur and extrapolation to the complete basis set limit are required to obtain accurate atomization energies. Six different extrapolation procedures are tried. The best atomization energies come from the series of basis sets that yield the most consistent results for all extrapolation techniques. In the variable alpha approach, alpha values larger than 4.5 or smaller than 3, appear to suggest that the extrapolation may not be reliable. It does not appear possible to determine a reliable basis set series using only the triple and quadruple zeta based sets. The scalar relativistic effects reduce the atomization of SO and SO2 by 0.34 and 0.81 kcal/mol, respectively, and clearly must be accounted for if a highly accurate atomization energy is to be computed. The magnitude of the core-valence (CV) contribution to the atomization is affected by missing diffuse valence functions. The CV contribution is much more stable if basis set superposition errors are accounted for. A similar study of SF, SF(+), and SF6 shows that the best family of basis sets varies with the nature of the S bonding.

  16. Scaling and chiral extrapolation of pion mass and decay constant with maximally twisted mass QCD

    We present an update of the results for pion mass and pion decay constant as obtained by the ETM collaboration in large scale simulations with maximally twisted mass fermions and two mass degenerate flavours of light quarks. We discuss the continuum, chiral and infinite volume extrapolation of these quantities as well as the extraction of low energy constants, and investigate possible systematic uncertainties. (orig.)

  17. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  18. Regression models in the determination of the absorbed dose with extrapolation chamber for ophthalmological applicators

    The absorbed dose for equivalent soft tissue is determined,it is imparted by ophthalmologic applicators, (90 Sr/90 Y, 1850 MBq) using an extrapolation chamber of variable electrodes; when estimating the slope of the extrapolation curve using a simple lineal regression model is observed that the dose values are underestimated from 17.7 percent up to a 20.4 percent in relation to the estimate of this dose by means of a regression model polynomial two grade, at the same time are observed an improvement in the standard error for the quadratic model until in 50%. Finally the global uncertainty of the dose is presented, taking into account the reproducibility of the experimental arrangement. As conclusion it can infers that in experimental arrangements where the source is to contact with the extrapolation chamber, it was recommended to substitute the lineal regression model by the quadratic regression model, in the determination of the slope of the extrapolation curve, for more exact and accurate measurements of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  19. Pre-operational characteristics of a mini-extrapolation chamber developed at IPEN-SP, Brazil

    A mini-extrapolation chamber was developed at IPEN for the calibration of 90 Sr + 90 Y beta radiation sources. The pre-operational characteristics (saturation curve, ion collection efficiency and polarity effects) were determined, and the results were highly satisfactory. (author)

  20. Corrosion allowances for sodium heated steam generators: evaluation of effects and extrapolation to component life time

    Steam generator tubes are subjected to two categories of corrosion; metal/sodium reactions and metal/water-steam interactions. Referring to these environmental conditions the relevant parameters are discussed. The influences of these parameters on the sodium corrosion and water/steam-reactions are evaluated. Extrapolations of corrosion values to steam generator design conditions are performed and discussed in detail. (author)

  1. Nowcasting of precipitation by an NWP model using assimilation of extrapolated radar reflectivity

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr, jr.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 665 (2012), s. 1072-1082. ISSN 0035-9009 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation forecast * radar extrapolation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/qj.970/abstract

  2. DEMO ampersand commercial fusion reactors extrapolated from the ITER and advanced physics ampersand materials data bases

    The characteristics of demonstration (DEMO) reactors that could be conservatively extrapolated from the data base that will be provided by ITER and its supporting R ampersand D and from a data base supplemented by advanced physics and advanced materials R ampersand D programs are identified

  3. New technique of azimuthal ambiguity resolution and non-linear force-free extrapolation applicable to near-limb magnetic regions

    Rudenko, George; Myshyakov, Ivan; Anfinogentov, Sergey

    A possibility for satisfactory removing of azimuthal ambiguity in the transverse field of vector magnetograms and the extrapolation of magnetic fields independently of the region position on the solar disk is shown. It is demonstrated an exact correspondence between the calculated field and the nonpotential loop structure in a near-limb region. The new technique of azimuthal ambiguity removing consists of the following parts: -translation of data in the form of artificial Stokes parameters into the working "quasi-spherical" coordinate system with subsequent smoothing to reduce noise component of the transverse field and with the inverse transformation to the vector form; -FFT extrapolation of the boundary potential field with constant direction of the oblique derivative corresponding to the observed line-of-sight component in the "quasi-spherical" coordinate system; -modification of the Metropolis's minimum energy method to spherical geometry with no need for data grid uniformity. Based on a version of the optimization method from Rudenko and Myshyakov (2009, Solar Phys. V. 257, 28), we use magnetograms corrected with modification of the Metropolis's method as boundary conditions for magnetic field extrapolation in the nonlinear force-free approximation.

  4. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Zontone, Federico; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate enhancement in resolution of a noncrystalline object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction pattern by extrapolating the measured diffraction intensities beyond the detector area. The experimental record contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. The extrapolation is done by applying an iterative routine. The optimal parameters for implementing the iterative routine, including initial padding distribution and an object support, are studied. Extrapolation results in resolution enhancement and better matching between the recovered and experimental amplitudes in the Fourier domain. The limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.

  5. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation

    Rong, Lu; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-01-01

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO2 pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hind wing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 {\\mu}m width cross veins.

  6. High order eigenvalues for the Helmholtz equation in complicated non-tensor domains through Richardson extrapolation of second order finite differences

    Amore, Paolo; Boyd, John P.; Fernández, Francisco M.; Rösler, Boris

    2016-05-01

    We apply second order finite differences to calculate the lowest eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation, for complicated non-tensor domains in the plane, using different grids which sample exactly the border of the domain. We show that the results obtained applying Richardson and Padé-Richardson extrapolations to a set of finite difference eigenvalues corresponding to different grids allow us to obtain extremely precise values. When possible we have assessed the precision of our extrapolations comparing them with the highly precise results obtained using the method of particular solutions. Our empirical findings suggest an asymptotic nature of the FD series. In all the cases studied, we are able to report numerical results which are more precise than those available in the literature.

  7. High order eigenvalues for the Helmholtz equation in complicated non-tensor domains through Richardson Extrapolation of second order finite differences

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M; Rsler, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We apply second order finite difference to calculate the lowest eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation, for complicated non-tensor domains in the plane, using different grids which sample exactly the border of the domain. We show that the results obtained applying Richardson and Pad\\'e-Richardson extrapolation to a set of finite difference eigenvalues corresponding to different grids allows to obtain extremely precise values. When possible we have assessed the precision of our extrapolations comparing them with the highly precise results obtained using the method of particular solutions. Our empirical findings suggest an asymptotic nature of the FD series. In all the cases studied, we are able to report numerical results which are more precise than those available in the literature.

  8. 131I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's 125ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the 131I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131I were considered. (author)

  9. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  10. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  11. The immunogenicity of biosimilar infliximab: can we extrapolate the data across indications?

    Ben-Horin, Shomron; Heap, Graham A; Ahmad, Tariq; Kim, HoUng; Kwon, TaekSang; Chowers, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals or 'biologics' have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases. However, some patients generate an immune response to such drugs, potentially limiting clinical efficacy and safety. Infliximab (Remicade()) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat several immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. A biosimilar of infliximab, CT-P13 (Remsima(), Inflectra()), has recently been approved in Europe for all indications in which infliximab is approved. Approval of CT-P13 was based in part on extrapolation of clinical trial data from two indications (rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) to all other indications, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review discusses the validity of extrapolating immunogenicity data across indications - a process adopted by the EMA as part of their biosimilar approval process - with a focus on CT-P13. PMID:26395532

  12. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  13. Neutron spectroscopy results of JET high-performance plasmas and extrapolations to DT performance

    In a fusion reactor with high energy gain, the fusion power will be mainly thermonuclear (THN). Measurements of the THN neutron rate are a good performance indicator of a fusion plasma, requiring neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) measurements to distinguish thermal and nonthermal contributions. We report here on recent NES results from JET high-performance plasmas with high fractions (about 65%) of THN emission. The analysis is made with a framework for analyzing NES data, taking into account THN reactions and beam-target reactions. The results are used to extrapolate to the equivalent DT rates. Finally, we discuss the applicability of using NES in the deuterium phase of ITER, both for the extrapolations to ITER's future DT performance as well as for the measurements of confined energetic ions.

  14. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q2 in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV2. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μpGEp/GMp. This quantity decreases with Q2 in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.

  15. Extrapolation of Nystrom solution for two dimensional nonlinear Fredholm integral equations

    Guoqiang, Han; Jiong, Wang

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the existence of asymptotic error expansion of the Nystrom solution for two-dimensional nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We show that the Nystrom solution admits an error expansion in powers of the step-size h and the step-size k. For a special choice of the numerical quadrature, the leading terms in the error expansion for the Nystrom solution contain only even powers of h and k, beginning with terms h2p and k2q. These expansions are useful for the application of Richardson extrapolation and for obtaining sharper error bounds. Numerical examples show that how Richardson extrapolation gives a remarkable increase of precision, in addition to faster convergence.

  16. Scaling of ITER divertor parameters - interpolation from 2D modelling and extrapolation

    Detailed modelling studies of the divertor plasma for ITER have been carried out. Using these results, scaling relationships are developed linking SOL power, density, throughput, pumping speed, peak divertor power load, and helium density for ITER conditions in order to systematise the results and to extrapolate them beyond the range presently covered by the simulations. The key parameter for the scalings is the neutral pressure in the divertor. Both peak power load and helium density vary as the square of the power at constant pressure. The inclusion of helium elastic collisions reduces the helium density and leads to a steeper reduction with increasing pressure. Variants of the input conditions, i.e. different geometry, no helium elastic collisions, carbon walls, are also discussed, the consistency of the edge modelling with conditions required in the core is treated, and extrapolation to higher power operation is carried out

  17. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner.

    Schwahofer, Andrea; Bär, Esther; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Grossmann, J Günter; Kachelrieß, Marc; Sterzing, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρ Al=2.7 g/cm(3)), titanium (ρ Ti=4.5 g/cm(3)), steel (ρ steel=7.9 g/cm(3)) and tungsten (ρ W=19.3g/cm(3)) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV(Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ=10 g/cm(3)) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the order of 10% to 20%. Thus, the improvement is not significant for radiotherapy planning. For amalgam with a density between steel and tungsten, monoenergetic data sets of a patient do not show substantial artifact reduction. The local dose uncertainties around the metal artifact determined for a static field are of the order of 5%. Although dental fillings are smaller than the phantom inserts, metal artifacts could not be reduced effectively. In conclusion, the image based monoenergetic extrapolation method does not provide efficient reduction of the consequences of CT-generated metal artifacts for radiation therapy planning, but the suitability of other MAR methods will be subsequently studied. PMID:26144602

  18. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρAl = 2.7 g/cm3), titanium (ρTi = 4.5 g/cm3), steel (ρsteel = 7.9 g/cm3) and tungsten (ρW = 19.3 g/cm3) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV (Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ = 10 g/cm3) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the order of 10% to 20%. Thus, the improvement is not significant for radiotherapy planning. For amalgam with a density between steel and tungsten, monoenergetic data sets of a patient do not show substantial artifact reduction. The local dose uncertainties around the metal artifact determined for a static field are of the order of 5%. Although dental fillings are smaller than the phantom inserts, metal artifacts could not be reduced effectively. In conclusion, the image based monoenergetic extrapolation method does not provide efficient reduction of the consequences of CT-generated metal artifacts for radiation therapy planning, but the suitability of other MAR methods will be subsequently studied.

  19. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner

    Schwahofer, Andrea [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Clinical Center Vivantes, Neukoelln (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology; Baer, Esther [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Kachelriess, Marc [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiology; Grossmann, J. Guenter [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Sterzing, Florian [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2015-07-01

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρ{sub Al} = 2.7 g/cm{sup 3}), titanium (ρ{sub Ti} = 4.5 g/cm{sup 3}), steel (ρ{sub steel} = 7.9 g/cm{sup 3}) and tungsten (ρ{sub W} = 19.3 g/cm{sup 3}) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV (Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ = 10 g/cm{sup 3}) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the order of 10% to 20%. Thus, the improvement is not significant for radiotherapy planning. For amalgam with a density between steel and tungsten, monoenergetic data sets of a patient do not show substantial artifact reduction. The local dose uncertainties around the metal artifact determined for a static field are of the order of 5%. Although dental fillings are smaller than the phantom inserts, metal artifacts could not be reduced effectively. In conclusion, the image based monoenergetic extrapolation method does not provide efficient reduction of the consequences of CT-generated metal artifacts for radiation therapy planning, but the suitability of other MAR methods will be subsequently studied.

  20. Curvature of the chiral pseudo-critical line in QCD: continuum extrapolated results

    Bonati, Claudio; Mariti, Marco; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We determine the curvature of the pseudo-critical line of strong interactions by means of numerical simulations at imaginary chemical potentials. We consider $N_f=2+1$ stout improved staggered fermions with physical quark masses and the tree level Symanzik gauge action, and explore four different sets of lattice spacings, corresponding to $N_t = 6,8,10,12$, in order to extrapolate results to the continuum limit. Our final estimate is $\\kappa = 0.0135(20)$.

  1. Coherent microscopy at resolution beyond diffraction limit using post-experimental data extrapolation

    Conventional microscopic records represent intensity distributions whereby local sample information is mapped onto local information at the detector. In coherent microscopy, the superposition principle of waves holds; field amplitudes are added, not intensities. This non-local representation is spread out in space and interference information combined with wave continuity allows extrapolation beyond the actual detected data. Established resolution criteria are thus circumvented and hidden object details can retrospectively be recovered from just a fraction of an interference pattern

  2. Coherent microscopy at resolution beyond diffraction limit using post-experimental data extrapolation

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana@physik.uzh.ch; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physik Institut der Universitt Zrich Winterthurerstrasse 190 CH-8057 Zrich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11

    Conventional microscopic records represent intensity distributions whereby local sample information is mapped onto local information at the detector. In coherent microscopy, the superposition principle of waves holds; field amplitudes are added, not intensities. This non-local representation is spread out in space and interference information combined with wave continuity allows extrapolation beyond the actual detected data. Established resolution criteria are thus circumvented and hidden object details can retrospectively be recovered from just a fraction of an interference pattern.

  3. Iterative Solution of the Ornstein-Zernike Equation with Various Closures Using Vector Extrapolation

    Homeier, Herbert H. H.; Rast, Sebastian; Krienke, Hartmut

    1995-01-01

    The solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation with various closure approximations is studied. This problem is rewritten as an integral equation that can be solved iteratively on a grid. The convergence of the fixed point iterations is relatively slow. We consider transformations of the sequence of solution vectors using non-linear sequence transformations, so-called vector extrapolation processes. An example is the vector J transformation. The transformed vector sequences turn out to converge...

  4. Iterative Solution of the Ornstein-Zernike Equation with Various Closures Using Vector Extrapolation

    Homeier, H H H; Krienke, H; Homeier, Herbert H. H.; Rast, Sebastian; Krienke, Hartmut

    1995-01-01

    The solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation with various closure approximations is studied. This problem is rewritten as an integral equation that can be solved iteratively on a grid. The convergence of the fixed point iterations is relatively slow. We consider transformations of the sequence of solution vectors using non-linear sequence transformations, so-called vector extrapolation processes. An example is the vector J transformation. The transformed vector sequences turn out to converge considerably faster than the original sequences.

  5. Limitations of force-free magnetic field extrapolations: revisiting basic assumptions

    Peter, H; Chitta, L P; Cameron, R H

    2015-01-01

    Force-free extrapolations are widely used to study the magnetic field in the solar corona based on surface measurements. The extrapolations assume that the ratio of internal energy of the plasma to magnetic energy, the plasma-beta is negligible. Despite the widespread use of this assumption observations, models, and theoretical considerations show that beta is of the order of a few percent to more than 10%, and thus not small. We investigate what consequences this has for the reliability of extrapolation results. We use basic concepts starting with the force and the energy balance to infer relations between plasma-beta and free magnetic energy, to study the direction of currents in the corona with respect to the magnetic field, and to estimate the errors in the free magnetic energy by neglecting effects of the plasma (beta<<1). A comparison with a 3D MHD model supports our basic considerations. If plasma-beta is of the order of the relative free energy (the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the total...

  6. Determination of the effective volume of an extrapolation chamber for x-ray dosimetry

    The measurement of air kerma in low energy x-rays is performed at primary calibration laboratories with free-in-air ionization chamber. Although an extrapolation chamber is designed to be used for beta radiation dosimetry it may also be feasible for low energy x-ray since its small changeable volume makes possible to comply the Bragg-Gray cavity principle. An inherent capacitance is associated with any parallel-plate ionization chamber; therefore, there should be a well-defined relationship among the capacitance, the effective collecting area and the electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber. In this work, a critical analysis of the methodology for determining the air sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber through its capacitance in standardized condition was done. Low energy filtered x-rays were used with different tube currents and potentials; the relationship between the capacitance and the effective volume of a 23392 Boehm model PTW ionization chamber was analyzed within 0.4 to 5.0 mm electrode distances. (authors)

  7. Bhm extrapolation chamber: Study of its behavior in beta radiation fields at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN

    Antonio, Patrcia L.; Xavier, Marcos; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is going to establish a Bhm extrapolation chamber as a primary standard system for the dosimetry and calibration of beta radiation sources and detectors. This chamber was already tested in beta radiation beams with an aluminized Mylar entrance window, and now, it was characterized with an original Hostaphan entrance window. A comparison between the results of the extrapolation chamber with the two entrance windows was performed. The results showed that this extrapolation chamber presents the same effectiveness in beta radiation fields as a primary standard system with both entrance windows, showing that any one of them may be utilized.

  8. J-85 jet engine noise measured in the ONERA S1 wind tunnel and extrapolated to far field

    Soderman, Paul T.; Julienne, Alain; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Noise from a J-85 turbojet with a conical, convergent nozzle was measured in simulated flight in the ONERA S1 Wind Tunnel. Data are presented for several flight speeds up to 130 m/sec and for radiation angles of 40 to 160 degrees relative to the upstream direction. The jet was operated with subsonic and sonic exhaust speeds. A moving microphone on a 2 m sideline was used to survey the radiated sound field in the acoustically treated, closed test section. The data were extrapolated to a 122 m sideline by means of a multiple-sideline source-location method, which was used to identify the acoustic source regions, directivity patterns, and near field effects. The source-location method is described along with its advantages and disadvantages. Results indicate that the effects of simulated flight on J-85 noise are significant. At the maximum forward speed of 130 m/sec, the peak overall sound levels in the aft quadrant were attentuated approximately 10 dB relative to sound levels of the engine operated statically. As expected, the simulated flight and static data tended to merge in the forward quadrant as the radiation angle approached 40 degrees. There is evidence that internal engine or shock noise was important in the forward quadrant. The data are compared with published predictions for flight effects on pure jet noise and internal engine noise. A new empirical prediction is presented that relates the variation of internally generated engine noise or broadband shock noise to forward speed. Measured near field noise extrapolated to far field agrees reasonably well with data from similar engines tested statically outdoors, in flyover, in a wind tunnel, and on the Bertin Aerotrain. Anomalies in the results for the forward quadrant and for angles above 140 degrees are discussed. The multiple-sideline method proved to be cumbersome in this application, and it did not resolve all of the uncertainties associated with measurements of jet noise close to the jet. The simulation was complicated by wind-tunnel background noise and the propagation of low frequency sound around the circuit.

  9. Two photon decay of the pseudoscalars, the extrapolation to the mass-shell

    Nasrallah, N F

    2001-01-01

    The extrapolation of the decay amplitude of the pseudoscalar mesons into two photons from the soft meson limit where it is obtained from the axial anomaly to the mass-shell involves the contribution of the 0 minus continuum. The corrections to the soft-meson limit is estimated and turns out to be very large for the eta and eta'. The results, however, remain consistent with the values of the singlet-octet mixing angle theta =-19.5 degree and the ratio f8/fpi=1.25 obtained from the chiral perturbation theory.

  10. Don't stay local - extrapolation analytics for Dupire's local volatility

    Friz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A robust implementation of a Dupire type local volatility model is an important issue for every option trading floor. Typically, this (inverse) problem is solved in a two step procedure : (i) a smooth parametrization of the implied volatility surface; (ii) computation of the local volatility based on the resulting call price surface. Point (i), and in particular how to extrapolate the implied volatility in extreme strike regimes not seen in the market, has been the subject of numerous articles, starting with Lee (Math. Finance, 2004). In the present paper we give direct analytic insights into the asymptotic behavior of local volatility at extreme strikes.

  11. Extrapolation of the Dutch 1 MW tunable free electron maser to a 5 MW ECRH source

    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) is now under construction at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz with wall plug efficiencies of 50% (Verhoeven, et al EC-9 Conference). An extrapolated version of this device is proposed which by scaling up the beam current, would produce microwave power levels of up to 5 MW CW in order to reduce the cost per watt and increase the power per module, thus providing the fusion community with a practical ECRH source

  12. Impact of new collider data on fits and extrapolations of cross sections and slopes

    Block, M.M.; Cahn, R.N.

    1985-08-01

    The latest Collider data are compared with our earlier extrapolations. Fits that include the new data are made. Those for which sigma/sub tot/ grows as log/sup 2/(s/s/sub o/) indefinitely give a significantly poorer chi/sup 2/ than those for which sigma/sub tot/ eventually levels out. For the proposed SSC energy for the former fits predict sigma/sub tot/(..sqrt..s = 40 TeV) approx. =200 mb while the latter give sigma/sub tot/(..sqrt..s = 40 TeV) approx. = 100 mb. 6 refs.

  13. Impact of new collider data on fits and extrapolations of cross sections and slopes

    The latest Collider data are compared with our earlier extrapolations. Fits that include the new data are made. Those for which sigma/sub tot/ grows as log2(s/s/sub o/) indefinitely give a significantly poorer chi2 than those for which sigma/sub tot/ eventually levels out. For the proposed SSC energy for the former fits predict sigma/sub tot/(√s = 40 TeV) approx. =200 mb while the latter give sigma/sub tot/(√s = 40 TeV) approx. = 100 mb. 6 refs

  14. Magnetic form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    We present a 2+1-flavor lattice QCD calculation of the electromagnetic Dirac and Pauli form factors of the octet baryons. The magnetic Sachs form factor is extrapolated at six fixed values of Q2 to physical pseudoscalar masses and infinite volume using a formulation based on heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization. We properly account for omitted disconnected quark contractions using a partially-quenched effective field theory formalism. The results compare well with the experimental form factors of the nucleon and the magnetic moments of the octet baryons.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE H-MODE PEDESTAL AND EXTRAPOLATION TO ITER

    A271 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE H-MODE PEDESTAL AND EXTRAPOLATION TO ITER. The peeling-ballooning mode model for edge stability along with a model for the H-mode transport barrier width is used as an approach to estimating the H-mode pedestal conditions in ITER. Scalings of the barrier width based on ion-orbit loss, neutral penetration, and turbulence suppression are examined and empirical scalings of the barrier width are presented. An empirical scaling for the pedestal β is derived based on ideas from stability and the empirical width scaling. The impact of the stability model and other factors on ELM size is discussed

  16. Challenges for In vitro to in Vivo Extrapolation of Nanomaterial Dosimetry for Human Risk Assessment

    Smith, Jordan N.

    2013-11-01

    The proliferation in types and uses of nanomaterials in consumer products has led to rapid application of conventional in vitro approaches for hazard identification. Unfortunately, assumptions pertaining to experimental design and interpretation for studies with chemicals are not generally appropriate for nanomaterials. The fate of nanomaterials in cell culture media, cellular dose to nanomaterials, cellular dose to nanomaterial byproducts, and intracellular fate of nanomaterials at the target site of toxicity all must be considered in order to accurately extrapolate in vitro results to reliable predictions of human risk.

  17. The utility of many-body decompositions for the accurate basis set extrapolation of ab initio data

    We present a powerful new technique for the extrapolation of ab initio data based on many-body decompositions. Using the new methodology and subtle modifications of the standard correlation consistent basis sets, the H+H2 barrier height is estimated at 9.603 kcal/mol with a precision of about 0.003 kcal/mol; this extremely accurate result is all the more striking as it can be obtained using basis sets no larger than aug-cc-pVQZ. The method is also used to yield highly accurate energies for the H+H2 system on a grid of points previously calculated by quantum Monte Carlo. The three-body energy, summed with exact one- and two-body energies, is observed to yield a useful approximate lower bound for the total energy. The highly accurate energies afforded by this method can also be used to assess the accuracy of previously calculated data that has been used to construct potential energy surfaces. As an example, we make a detailed comparison between the new results and the quantum Monte Carlo results for H+H2. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. Extrapolation chamber mounted on perspex for calibration of high energy photon and electron beams from a clinical linear accelerator

    Ravichandran R; Binukumar J; Sivakumar.S; Krishnamurthy K; Davis C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC) used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was use...

  19. The role of strange sea quarks in chiral extrapolations on the lattice

    Since the strange quark has a light mass of order O(?QCD), fluctuations of sea s anti s pairs may play a special role in the low-energy dynamics of QCD by inducing significantly different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in the chiral limits Nf=2 (mu=md=0, ms physical) and Nf=3 (mu=md=ms=0). This effect of vacuum fluctuations of s anti s pairs is related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector, described through the two O(p4) low-energy constants L4 and L6 of the three-flavour strong chiral lagrangian. In the case of significant vacuum fluctuations, three-flavour chiral expansions might exhibit numerical competition between leading- and next-to-leading-order terms according to the chiral counting, and chiral extrapolations should be handled with special care. We investigate the impact of the fluctuations of s anti s pairs on chiral extrapolations in the case of lattice simulations with three dynamical flavours in the isospin limit. Information on the size of the vacuum fluctuations can be obtained from the dependence of the masses and decay constants of pions and kaons on the light quark masses. Even in the case of large fluctuations, corrections due to the finite size of spatial dimensions can be kept under control for large enough boxes (L?2.5 fm). (orig.)

  20. An analytic formula for the extrapolated range of electrons in condensed materials

    A single analytic formula for the extrapolated range rex of electrons in condensed materials of atomic numbers from 4 to 92 is given. It has the form of the product of the continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) range r0 and a factor fd related to multiple scattering detours. The factor fd is expressed as a function of incident electron energy T0 and atomic number Z of medium. Values of adjustable parameters in fd have been optimized for data on the ratio rex/r0, in which the Monte Carlo evaluated values of Tabata et al. [Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 95 (1995) 289] (from 0.1 to 100 MeV) and experimental data collected from literature (from 1 keV to 0.1 MeV) for rex have been used together with NIST-database values of r0. For r0 in the extrapolated-range formula, accurate database values or an approximate analytic expression developed as a function of T0, Z, atomic weight A and mean excitation energy I of medium can be used. The maximum deviation of the resultant formula from the Monte Carlo data is about 2% for either option of r0. The determination of the expression for fd at energies below 0.1 MeV is tentative. By using an effective atomic number and atomic weight, the formula can also be applied to light compounds and mixtures. (orig.)

  1. $$ Uncertainty from Extrapolation of Cosmic Ray Air Shower Parameters

    Abbasi, R U

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements at the LHC of the p-p total cross section have reduced the uncertainty in simulations of cosmic ray air showers. In particular of the depth of shower maximum, called $X_{max}$. However, uncertainties of other important parameters, in particular the multiplicity and elasticity of high energy interactions, have not improved, and there is a remaining uncertainty due to the total cross section. Uncertainties due to extrapolations from accelerator data, at a maximum energy of $\\sim$ one TeV in the p-p center of mass, to 250 TeV ($3\\times10^{19}$ eV in a cosmic ray proton's lab frame) introduce significant uncertainties in predictions of $$. In this paper we estimate a lower limit on these uncertainties. The result is that the uncertainty in $$ is larger than the difference among the modern models being used in the field. At the full energy of the LHC, which is equivalent to $\\sim 1\\times10^{17}$ eV in the cosmic ray lab frame, the extrapolation is not as extreme, and the uncertainty is approxim...

  2. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JSC; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: CSSM and QCDSF/UKQCD Collaborations

    2014-03-15

    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q{sup 2} in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μ{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}. This quantity decreases with Q{sup 2} in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.

  3. WE-A-17A-01: Absorbed Dose Rate-To-Water at the Surface of a Beta-Emitting Planar Ophthalmic Applicator with a Planar, Windowless Extrapolation Chamber

    Riley, A [of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Soares, C [NIST (Retired), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Micka, J; Culberson, W [University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); DeWerd, L [University of WIMadison/ ADCL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently there is no primary calibration standard for determining the absorbed dose rate-to-water at the surface of ?-emitting concave ophthalmic applicators and plaques. Machining tolerances involved in the design of concave window extrapolation chambers are a limiting factor for development of such a standard. Use of a windowless extrapolation chamber avoids these window-machining tolerance issues. As a windowless extrapolation chamber has never been attempted, this work focuses on proof of principle measurements with a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber to verify the accuracy in comparison to initial calibration, which could be extended to the design of a hemispherical, windowless extrapolation chamber. Methods: The window of an extrapolation chamber defines the electrical field, aids in aligning the source parallel to the collector-guard assembly, and decreases the backscatter due to attenuation of lower electron energy. To create a uniform and parallel electric field in this research, the source was made common to the collector-guard assembly. A precise positioning protocol was designed to enhance the parallelism of the source and collector-guard assembly. Additionally, MCNP5 was used to determine a backscatter correction factor to apply to the calibration. With these issues addressed, the absorbed dose rate-to-water of a Tracerlab 90Sr planar ophthalmic applicator was determined using National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) calibration formalism, and the results of five trials with this source were compared to measurements at NIST with a traditional extrapolation chamber. Results: The absorbed dose rate-to-water of the planar applicator was determined to be 0.473 Gy/s 0.6%. Comparing these results to NIST's determination of 0.474 Gy/s yields a ?0.6% difference. Conclusion: The feasibility of a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber has been demonstrated. A similar principle will be applied to developing a primary calibration standard for concave applicators and plaques. This research is funded by the customers of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory.

  4. Data-based discharge extrapolation: estimating annual discharge for a partially gauged large river basin from its small sub-basins

    L. Gong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale hydrological models and land surface models are by far the only tools for accessing future water resources in climate change impact studies. Those models estimate discharge with large uncertainties, due to the complex interaction between climate and hydrology, the limited quality and availability of data, as well as model uncertainties. A new purely data-based scale-extrapolation method is proposed, to estimate water resources for a large basin solely from selected small sub-basins, which are typically two-orders-of-magnitude smaller than the large basin. Those small sub-basins contain sufficient information, not only on climate and land surface, but also on hydrological characteristics for the large basin In the Baltic Sea drainage basin, best discharge estimation for the gauged area was achieved with sub-basins that cover 24% of the gauged area. There exist multiple sets of sub-basins that resemble the climate and hydrology of the basin equally well. Those multiple sets estimate annual discharge for gauged area consistently well with 5% average error. The scale-extrapolation method is completely data-based; therefore it does not force any modelling error into the prediction. The multiple predictions are expected to bracket the inherent variations and uncertainties of the climate and hydrology of the basin. The method can be applied in both un-gauged basins and un-gauged periods with uncertainty estimation.

  5. Eco-label - simple environmental choice / Andres Viia, Klliki Tafel

    Viia, Andres

    2003-01-01

    Autorid selgitavad komrgistuse olemust ja vajalikkust tarbijate teavitamisel vhem keskkonda kahjustavatest toodetest ning teenustest. Lisatud niteid regionaalsetest ja rahvuslikest komrkidest EL-is, tuntumatest komrkidest vljaspool Euroopat, hoiatavatest ja informatiivsetest keskkonnamrkidest ning libakomrkidest. Vt. samas: North-East Estonia - a seat of an environment-friendly batteries' recycling

  6. Extrapolated neutron activation cross sections for dosimetry to 44 MeV

    Thirty-one neutron activation cross sections have been extrapolated to 44 MeV for dosimetry applications at high-energy, accelerator-based neutron sources. All cross sections have undergone integral testing in Be(d,n) fields at E/sub d/ = 14, 16, and 40 MeV. The integral activities for most of the reactions agree within 10% with calculations based on time-of-flight measurements of the flux spectra. Tests show that at least 25 of the cross sections can be used with the SAND II code to unfold neutron spectra with differential errors of 10 to 30% in the neutron energy range from 2 to 30 MeV

  7. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs

  8. Modeling of systematic retention of beryllium in rats. Extrapolation to humans

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and other animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with other previously published

  9. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2005-04-01

    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  10. Transient heat loads in current fusion experiments, extrapolation to ITER and consequences for its operation

    New experimental results on transient loads during ELMs and disruptions in present divertor tokamaks are described and used to carry out a extrapolation to ITER reference conditions and to draw consequences for its operation. In particular, the achievement of low energy/convective type I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER-like plasma conditions seems the only way to obtain transient loads which may be compatible with an acceptable erosion lifetime of plasma facing components (PFCs) in ITER. Power loads during disruptions, on the contrary, seem to lead in most cases to an acceptable divertor lifetime because of the relatively small plasma thermal energy remaining at the thermal quench and the large broadening of the power flux footprint during this phase. These conclusions are reinforced by calculations of the expected erosion lifetime, under these load conditions, which take into account a realistic temporal dependence of the power fluxes on PFCs during ELMs and disruptions

  11. Stationary and transient divertor heat flux profiles and extrapolation to ITER

    Herrmann, A. E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Eich, T.; Jachmich, S.; Laux, M.; Andrew, P.; Bergmann, A.; Loarte, A.; Matthews, G.; Neuhauser, J

    2003-03-01

    Experimental results on divertor heat load measurements from ASDEX Upgrade and JET are discussed. Thereby three topics are considered: (i) parameter dependence of steady state heat flux profiles, (ii) spatial distribution of the heat flux profile during type I edge localised modes (ELMs), and (iii) temporal evolution of the energy deposition during type I ELMs. No clear scaling of steady state heat flux profiles with plasma parameters is found. For different data sets a broadening of the heat flux profiles, a constant profile width, as well as a steepening with heating power is found. Extrapolation to ITER requires a review of the data. The heat flux profile is not significantly broadened during type I ELMs. Advantageous is the change of the in/out symmetry. The temporal behaviour of the energy deposition shows a strong increase of the heat flux on time scales of the ion sound speed and an exponential decay with about twice the rise time.

  12. Interpolation/extrapolation technique with application to hypervelocity impact of space debris

    Rule, William K.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique for the interpolation/extrapolation of engineering data is described. The technique easily allows for the incorporation of additional independent variables, and the most suitable data in the data base is automatically used for each prediction. The technique provides diagnostics for assessing the reliability of the prediction. Two sets of predictions made for known 5-degree-of-freedom, 15-parameter functions using the new technique produced an average coefficient of determination of 0.949. Here, the technique is applied to the prediction of damage to the Space Station from hypervelocity impact of space debris. A new set of impact data is presented for this purpose. Reasonable predictions for bumper damage were obtained, but predictions of pressure wall and multilayer insulation damage were poor.

  13. Extrapolation of lattice QCD results beyond the power-counting regime

    Leinweber, D B; Young, R D

    2005-01-01

    Resummation of the chiral expansion is necessary to make accurate contact with current lattice simulation results of full QCD. Resummation techniques including relativistic formulations of chiral effective field theory and finite-range regularization (FRR) techniques are reviewed, with an emphasis on using lattice simulation results to constrain the parameters of the chiral expansion. We illustrate how the chiral extrapolation problem has been solved and use FRR techniques to identify the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral perturbation theory. To fourth-order in the expansion at the 1% tolerance level, we find $0 \\le m_\\pi \\le 0.18$ GeV for the PCR, extending only a small distance beyond the physical pion mass.

  14. Molecular target sequence similarity as a basis for species extrapolation to assess the ecological risk of chemicals with known modes of action.

    Lalone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Burgoon, Lyle D; Russom, Christine L; Helgen, Henry W; Berninger, Jason P; Tietge, Joseph E; Severson, Megan N; Cavallin, Jenna E; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-15

    It is not feasible to conduct toxicity tests with all species that may be impacted by chemical exposures. Therefore, cross-species extrapolation is fundamental to environmental risk assessment. Recognition of the impracticality of generating empirical, whole organism, toxicity data for the extensive universe of chemicals in commerce has been an impetus driving the field of predictive toxicology. We describe a strategy that leverages expanding databases of molecular sequence information together with identification of specific molecular chemical targets whose perturbation can lead to adverse outcomes to support predictive species extrapolation. This approach can be used to predict which species may be more (or less) susceptible to effects following exposure to chemicals with known modes of action (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides). Primary amino acid sequence alignments are combined with more detailed analyses of conserved functional domains to derive the predictions. This methodology employs bioinformatic approaches to automate, collate, and calculate quantitative metrics associated with cross-species sequence similarity of key molecular initiating events (MIEs). Case examples focused on the actions of (a) 17?-ethinyl estradiol on the human (Homo sapiens) estrogen receptor; (b) permethrin on the mosquito (Aedes aegypti) voltage-gated para-like sodium channel; and (c) 17?-trenbolone on the bovine (Bos taurus) androgen receptor are presented to demonstrate the potential predictive utility of this species extrapolation strategy. The examples compare empirical toxicity data to cross-species predictions of intrinsic susceptibility based on analyses of sequence similarity relevant to the MIEs of defined adverse outcome pathways. Through further refinement, and definition of appropriate domains of applicability, we envision practical and routine utility for the molecular target similarity-based predictive method in chemical risk assessment, particularly where testing resources are limited. PMID:24177217

  15. EVIDENCE FOR SOLAR TETHER-CUTTING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION FROM CORONAL FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS

    Magnetic reconnection is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering solar eruptive events, but direct observation of this rapid process has been a challenge. In this Letter, using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation technique, we present a visualization of field line connectivity changes resulting from tether-cutting reconnection over about 30 minutes during the 2011 February 13 M6.6 flare in NOAA AR 11158. Evidence for the tether-cutting reconnection was first collected through multiwavelength observations and then by analysis of the field lines traced from positions of four conspicuous flare 1700 footpoints observed at the event onset. Right before the flare, the four footpoints are located very close to the regions of local maxima of the magnetic twist index. In particular, the field lines from the inner two footpoints form two strongly twisted flux bundles (up to ?1.2 turns), which shear past each other and reach out close to the outer two footpoints, respectively. Immediately after the flare, the twist index of regions around the footpoints diminishes greatly and the above field lines become low-lying and less twisted (?0.6 turns), overarched by loops linking the two flare ribbons formed later. About 10% of the flux (?3 1019 Mx) from the inner footpoints undergoes a footpoint exchange. This portion of flux originates from the edge regions of the inner footpoints that are brightened first. These rapid changes of magnetic field connectivity inferred from the NLFFF extrapolation are consistent with the tether-cutting magnetic reconnection model

  16. (Solid + liquid) solubility of organic compounds in organic solvents – Correlation and extrapolation

    Highlights: • A novel, robust semi-empirical model for regression of solubility is presented. • The model fulfils thermodynamic boundary conditions at the melting point. • The activity coefficient is modelled with a scaled three-parameter Weibull function. • A three-parameter regression equation is derived from the semi-empirical model. • This equation provides good accuracy and robustness compared to standard models. - Abstract: A semi-empirical model is developed for the regression of (solid + liquid) solubility data with temperature. The model fulfils the required boundary conditions, allowing for robust extrapolation to higher and lower temperatures. The model combines a representation of the solid-state activity which accommodates a temperature-dependent heat capacity difference contribution with a scaled three-parameter Weibull function representing the temperature dependence of the solution activity coefficient at equilibrium. Evaluation of the model is based on previously published experimental calorimetric and solubility data of four organic compounds, fenoxycarb, fenofibrate, risperidone and butyl paraben, in five common organic solvents, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrile, and toluene. The temperature dependence of the van’t Hoff enthalpy of solution and its components is analysed and discussed. Among the four compounds the influence of temperature on the enthalpy of fusion varies from moderate to substantial. Based on the semi-empirical model, a new equation containing three adjustable parameters is proposed for regression and extrapolation of solubility data for cases when only melting data and solubility data is available. The equation is shown to provide good accuracy and robustness when evaluated against the full semi-empirical model as well as against commonly used, more simple empirical equations. It is shown how such a model can be used to obtain an estimate of the heat capacity difference for cases where accurate solubility data is available in multiple solvents

  17. Coincidence counting of I-129; some remarks on the efficiency extrapolation technique in coincidence counting; a determination of the efficiency of a methane 4?-counter to 32 keV photons

    Several methods of coincidence counting of 129I are examined. Efficiency functions are estimated for these different methods and compared with the results of experiments leading to the indication of the most suitable conditions of measurements. It was also found that the ?-efficiency of the 4?? methane flow counter for photons near 32 keV was 0.024 +- 0.005. Finally some general remarks are made on the extrapolation technique as used for coincidence counting. (author)

  18. Böhm extrapolation chamber: Study of its behavior in beta radiation fields at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN

    The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is going to establish a Böhm extrapolation chamber as a primary standard system for the dosimetry and calibration of beta radiation sources and detectors. This chamber was already tested in beta radiation beams with an aluminized Mylar entrance window, and now, it was characterized with an original Hostaphan entrance window. A comparison between the results of the extrapolation chamber with the two entrance windows was performed. The results showed that this extrapolation chamber presents the same effectiveness in beta radiation fields as a primary standard system with both entrance windows, showing that any one of them may be utilized. - Highlights: • The Böhm extrapolation chamber response was studied in two different conditions. • The extrapolation chamber was studied with two different entrance windows. • The instrument was exposed to 90Sr+90Y beams. • Different characterization tests of the chamber were performed. • All results confirmed the adequate behavior of the chamber in both situations

  19. Monitoring corrosion and corrosion control of iron in HCl by non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series - Part II. Temperature effect, activation energies and thermodynamics of adsorption

    Amin, Mohammed A., E-mail: maaismail@yahoo.co [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, 11566 Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Arida, H.A. [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Arslan, Taner [Department of Chemistry, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Saracoglu, Murat [Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kandemirli, Fatma [Department of Chemistry, Nigde University, 41000 Nigde (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: TX-305 exhibits inhibiting properties for iron corrosion more than TX-165 and TX 100. Inhibition efficiency increases with temperature, suggesting chemical adsorption. The three tested surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitors with cathodic predominance. Validation of corrosion rates measured by Tafel extrapolation method is confirmed. - Abstract: The inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, namely TRITON-X-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on the corrosion of iron was studied in 1.0 M HCl solutions as a function of inhibitor concentration (0.005-0.075 g L{sup -1}) and solution temperature (278-338 K). Measurements were conducted based on Tafel extrapolation method. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), a non-destructive corrosion measurement technique that can directly give values of corrosion current without prior knowledge of Tafel constants, is also presented. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel extrapolation method were compared with corrosion rates obtained by the EFM technique and an independent method of chemical analysis. The chemical method of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved determination of the dissolved cation, using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). The aim was to confirm validation of corrosion rates measured by the Tafel extrapolation method. Results obtained showed that, in all cases, the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in temperature, suggesting that chemical adsorption occurs. The adsorptive behaviour of the three surfactants followed Temkin-type isotherm. The standard free energies of adsorption decreased with temperature, reflecting better inhibition performance. These findings confirm chemisorption of the tested inhibitors. Thermodynamic activation functions of the dissolution process were also calculated as a function of each inhibitor concentration. All the results obtained from the methods employed are in reasonable agreement.

  20. The scientific and regulatory rationale for indication extrapolation: a case study based on the infliximab biosimilar CT-P13.

    Reinisch, Walter; Louis, Edouard; Danese, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Extrapolation of clinical data from other indications is an important concept in the development of biosimilars. This process depends on strict comparability exercises to establish similarity to the reference medicinal product. However, the extrapolation paradigm has prompted a fierce scientific debate. CT-P13 (Remsima(), Inflectra()), an infliximab biosimilar, is a TNF antagonist used to treat immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. On the basis of totality of similarity data, the EMA approved CT-P13 for all indications held by its reference medicinal product (Remicade()) including inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of action of TNF antagonists in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and illustrates the comparable profiles of CT-P13 and reference medicinal product on which the extrapolation of indications including inflammatory bowel disease is based. PMID:26395531

  1. Extrapolated experimental critical parameters of unreflected and steel-reflected massive enriched uranium metal spherical and hemispherical assemblies

    Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments

  2. Comparison of calibration results for an extrapolation chamber obtained with different 90Sr+90Y secondary standard sources

    Two secondary standard systems of beta radiation were used to calibrate a PTW extrapolation chamber Model 23391. Three 90Sr+90Y sources of different activities were used in this calibration procedure. Medium-term stability of the response of the chamber was also studied. The calibration was performed with and without field-flattening filters. The relative standard deviation of the obtained calibration factors was 8.3% for the aluminum collecting electrode and 4.1% for the graphite collecting electrode. - Highlights: ► 90Sr+90Y standard sources were used to calibrate a PTW extrapolation chamber. ► Characterization tests of the chamber response were performed. ► Chamber response showed very good short- and medium-term stabilities. ► Linear extrapolation curves were obtained. ► Calibration factors of the chamber were acceptable.

  3. Radon in houses and lung cancer risks. Finnish patient medical research rejects linear extrapolation of mining data

    Epidemiological surveys can play an important role in answering the question whether the risk of lung cancer by radon exposure in houses can be estimated on the basis of linear extrapolation of miner data or not. Recently, some of those surveys have been evaluated. It was concluded that linear extrapolation is subject to great doubts. A reliable epidemiological survey was carried out by means of a Finnish cohort of lung cancer patients and controls, who lived in the same house for at least 18 years. For one year radon concentrations were measured in their houses. The odds ratio (comparable to relative risk) for long cancer was 1.01 per 100 Bq·m-3, which value is significantly different from the value of 1.15, calculated on the basis of linear extrapolation of miner data. 3 tabs., 18 refs

  4. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide

  5. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system\\'s potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  7. Comparison of various state equations for approximation and extrapolation of experimental hydrogen molar volumes in wide temperature and pressure intervals

    The numerical analysis of practically all existing formulae such as expansion series, Tait, logarithm, Van der Waals and virial equations for interpolation of experimental molar volumes versus high pressure was carried out. One can conclude that extrapolating dependences of molar volumes versus pressure and temperature can be valid. It was shown that virial equations can be used for fitting experimental data at relatively low pressures P<3 kbar too in distinction to other equations. Direct solving of a linear equation of the third order relatively to volume using extrapolated virial coefficients allows us to obtain good agreement between existing experimental data for high pressure and calculated values

  8. Hybrid superconducting a.c. current limiter extrapolation 63 kV-1 250 A

    Tixador, P.; Levêque, J.; Brunet, Y.; Pham, V. D.

    1994-04-01

    Following the developement of a.c. superconducting wires a.c. current superconducting limiters have emerged. These limiters limit the fault currents nearly instantaneously, without detection nor order giver and may be suitable for high voltages. They are based on the natural transition from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state by overstepping the critical current of a superconducting coil which limits or triggers the limitation. Our limiter device consists essentially of two copper windings coupled through a saturable magnetic circuit and of a non inductively wound superconducting coil with a reduced current compared to the line current. This design allows a simple superconducting cable and reduced cryogenic losses but the dielectric stresses are high during faults. A small model (150 V/50 A) has experimentally validated our design. An industrial scale current limiter is designed and the comparisons between this design and other superconducting current limiters are given. Les courants de court-circuit sur les grands réseaux électriques ne cessent d'augmenter. Dans ce contexte sont apparus les limiteurs supraconducteurs de courant suite au développement des brins supraconducteurs alternatifs. Ces limiteurs peuvent limiter les courants de défaut presque instantanément, sans détection de défaut ni donneur d'ordre et ils sont extrapolables aux hautes tensions. Ils sont fondés sur la transition naturelle de l'état supraconducteur à l'état normal très résistif par dépassement du courant critique d'un enroulement supraconducteur qui limite ou déclenche la limitation. Notre limiteur est composé de deux enroulements en cuivre couplés par un circuit magnétique saturable et d'une bobine supraconductrice à courant réduit par rapport au courant de la ligne. Cette conception permet un câble supraconducteur simple et des pertes cryogéniques réduites mais les contraintes diélectriques en régime de défaut sont importantes. Une maquette (150 V/50 A) a permis de valider expérimentalement cette conception. Nous aborderons l'extrapolation d'un limiteur de taille industrielle (63 kV/1 250 A). Les résultats seront comparés à des limiteurs supraconducteurs résistifs et de type DASC.

  9. Top-down workforce demand extrapolation based on an EC energy road-map scenario

    The EHRO-N team of JRC-IET provides the EC with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The current paper deals with an alternative approach to derive figures for the demand side information of the nuclear workforce. Complementary to the bottom-up approach, a top-down modelling approach extrapolation of an EC Energy road-map nuclear energy demand scenario is followed here in addition to the survey information. In this top-down modelling approach, the number of nuclear power plants that are in operation and under construction is derived as a function of time from 2010 up to 2050 assuming that the current reactor park will be replaced by generic third generation reactors of 1400 MWe or 1000 MWe. Depending on the size of new build reactors, the analysis shows the number of new reactors required to fulfil the demand for nuclear energy. Based on workforce models for operation and construction of nuclear power plants, the model allows an extrapolation of these respective work-forces. Using the nuclear skills pyramid, the total workforce employed at a plant is broken down in a nuclear (experts), nuclearized, and nuclear aware workforce. With retirement profiles for nuclear power plants derived from the bottom-up EHRO-N survey, the replacement of the current workforce is taken into account. The peak of the new workforce (partly replacing the retiring workforce and additionally keeping up with the growing total workforce demand) for nuclear experts and nuclearized employees is to be expected at the end of the considered period (2050). However, the peak workforce for nuclear aware employees is to be expected around 2020. When comparing to historical data for the nuclear capacity being installed at the same time in Europe, it is clear that the expected future capacity to be installed at the same time in Europe is significantly lower (factor of 2) than in the early 1980's. However, it should be realized that the skills demand might have been more relaxed in those days. Furthermore, a steep rise in construction is to be expected within 10 to 15 years. This is due to the fact that not only additional nuclear power plants need to be built to keep up with the growing nuclear energy demand, but also the current nuclear reactor park needs to be replaced. In order to deal with this steep rise, the nuclear industry may consider buying time by extending the lifetime of the current nuclear reactor park. (authors)

  10. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  11. Generation of Co3O4 microparticles by solution combustion method and its Zn–Co3O4 composite thin films for corrosion protection

    Graphical abstract: The pseudo-cubic cobalt oxide microparticles have been successfully synthesized by a solution combustion method using Co(NO3)2·6H2O (oxidizer) and dextrose (sugar; fuel). The as-synthesized Co3O4 microparticles are crystalline and Rietveld refinement of calcined samples exhibited cubic structure with space group of Fm3m (No. 227). The generated Co3O4 microparticles were used to fabricate Zn–Co3O4 composite thin films for corrosion protection. Highlights: ► Synthesis of pseudo-cubic Co3O4 microparticles by solution combustion method. ► As-prepared Co3O4 compounds are calcined and structurally characterized. ► Prepared Co3O4 are utilized for the fabrication of Zn–Co3O4 composite thin films. - Abstract: Microcrystalline cobalt oxide (Co3O4) powder was successfully synthesized by a simple, fast, economical and eco-friendly solution-combustion method. The as-synthesized powder was calcined for an hour at temperatures ranging from 100 to 900 °C. The crystallite size, morphology, and chemical state of synthesized powders were characterized by powder XRD, TG-DTA, XPS, SEM/EDAX, TEM and FT-IR spectral methods. The as-synthesized Co3O4 powder was single-crystalline and Rietveld refinement of calcined samples exhibited cubic structure with space group of Fm3m (No. 227). The effect of calcination temperature on crystallite size and morphology was assessed. Scanning electron micrographs show a uniform, randomly oriented pseudo-cubic particle with porous like morphology and EDAX measurement showed its chemical composition. Thermal behavior of as-synthesized compound was examined. The TEM result revealed that, the particles are pseudo-cubic in nature with diameter of 0.2–0.6 μm and a length of 0.9–1.2 μm. The crystallite size increased with increase of calcination temperature. The synthesized Co3O4 powder was used to fabricate Zn–Co3O4 composite thin films and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by anodic polarization, tafel extrapolation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that the Zn–Co3O4 composite thin films have potential applications to corrosion protection.

  12. Gaussian process model for extrapolation of scattering observables for complex molecules: From benzene to benzonitrile.

    Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying; Krems, Roman V

    2015-10-21

    We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A-H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A-H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A-X. We assume that the effect of the -H →-X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values which corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the He atom with the CN fragment of the molecule. The unknown parameters are then varied within physically reasonable ranges to produce a prediction uncertainty of the cross sections. The results are normalized to the cross sections for He - C6H6 collisions obtained from quantum scattering calculations in order to provide a prediction interval of the thermally averaged cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He. PMID:26493891

  13. The risk of extrapolation in neuroanatomy: the case of the Mammalian vomeronasal system.

    Salazar, Ignacio; Quinteiro, Pablo Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    The sense of smell plays a crucial role in mammalian social and sexual behaviour, identification of food, and detection of predators. Nevertheless, mammals vary in their olfactory ability. One reason for this concerns the degree of development of their pars basalis rhinencephali, an anatomical feature that has been considered in classifying this group of animals as macrosmatic, microsmatic or anosmatic. In mammals, different structures are involved in detecting odours: the main olfactory system, the vomeronasal system (VNS), and two subsystems, namely the ganglion of Grüneberg and the septal organ. Here, we review and summarise some aspects of the comparative anatomy of the VNS and its putative relationship to other olfactory structures. Even in the macrosmatic group, morphological diversity is an important characteristic of the VNS, specifically of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb. We conclude that it is a big mistake to extrapolate anatomical data of the VNS from species to species, even in the case of relatively close evolutionary proximity between them. We propose to study other mammalian VNS than those of rodents in depth as a way to clarify its exact role in olfaction. Our experience in this field leads us to hypothesise that the VNS, considered for all mammalian species, could be a system undergoing involution or regression, and could serve as one more integrated olfactory subsystem. PMID:19949452

  14. Gaussian Process Model for Extrapolation of Scattering Observables for Complex Molecules: from Benzene to Benzonitrile

    Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V

    2015-01-01

    We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A-H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A-H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A-X. We assume that the effect of the $-$H $\\rightarrow$ $-$X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values that corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C$_6$H$_5$CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the H...

  15. Gaussian process model for extrapolation of scattering observables for complex molecules: From benzene to benzonitrile

    We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A–H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A–H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A–X. We assume that the effect of the −H →−X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values which corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the He atom with the CN fragment of the molecule. The unknown parameters are then varied within physically reasonable ranges to produce a prediction uncertainty of the cross sections. The results are normalized to the cross sections for He — C6H6 collisions obtained from quantum scattering calculations in order to provide a prediction interval of the thermally averaged cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He

  16. Astronomical optics: Zonal aberration correction - Laboratory experiments and extrapolations to space- and ground-based observations

    Artzner, G.

    1987-03-01

    The author describes the results of a laboratory experiment with a 143 mm diameter Cassegrainian telescope plagued by static irregular zonal aberrations with rotational symmetry and 620 nm peak to valley amplitude wavefront error. An adapted 16 mm useful diameter intrafocal corrector plate has been surfaced using a 2 μ-thickness photoresist coating on an optical substrate, ad-hoc non-uniform exposure via a two-axis computercontrolled scanning device and subsequent development and baking. The effect of losses by diffusion and absorption due to the corrector plate is small with respect to the increase of contrast due to the wavefront correction. Three extrapolations of this experiment are discussed: (1) How to use correctors in the UV range where the size of the Airy disk becomes smaller for a given aperture. (2) Correction of aberrations with no rotational symmetry. (3) Feasible correctors and relay optics adapted to large (4-8 m diameter) instruments have a 50 mm corrected field, well matched to modern image detectors.

  17. Gaussian process model for extrapolation of scattering observables for complex molecules: From benzene to benzonitrile

    Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying; Krems, Roman V.

    2015-10-01

    We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A-H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A-H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A-X. We assume that the effect of the -H →-X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values which corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the He atom with the CN fragment of the molecule. The unknown parameters are then varied within physically reasonable ranges to produce a prediction uncertainty of the cross sections. The results are normalized to the cross sections for He — C6H6 collisions obtained from quantum scattering calculations in order to provide a prediction interval of the thermally averaged cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He.

  18. Natural basaltic glass analogue for the long-term extrapolation of nuclear waste glass aging

    Increased confidence is provided to the extrapolation of long-term waste form behavior by comparing the alteration of experimentally aged natural basaltic glass to the condition of the same glass as it has been geologically aged. The similarity between the laboratory and geologic alterations indicates that important aging variables have been identified and incorporated into the laboratory experiments. This provides credibility to the long-term predictions made for waste form borosilicate glasses using similar experimental procedures. In addition, these experiments have demonstrated that the aging processes for natural basaltic glass are relevant to the alteration of nuclear waste glasses, as both appear to react via similar processes. The alteration of a synthetic basaltic glass was measured in MCC-1 tests done at 900C, a SA/V of 0.1 cm-1 and time periods up to 182 days. Tests were also done using (1) MCC-2 procedures at 1900C, a SA/V of 0.1 cm-1 and time periods up to 91 days and (2) hydration tests in saturated water vapor at 2400C, a SA/V of approx. 106 cm-1, and time periods up to 63 days. These results are compared to alteration observed in natural basaltic glasses of great age. 6 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  19. Expectations for dihadron correlation measurements extrapolated to 5.5A TeV

    The suppression of high transverse momentum (PT) inclusive hadron spectra in heavy-ion collisions as compared to the scaled expectation of high PT hadron production in p-p collisions is the most direct manifestation of the interaction of hard partons with the soft bulk medium produced in heavy-ion collisions which is absent in p-p collisions. Yet the measured nuclear suppression factor RAA is a very averaged quantity and hence only a limited amount of information about the medium evolution and the nature of the interaction with the medium can be deduced from RAA. Measurements of hard back-to-back hadron correlations in 200A GeV Au-Au collisions at RHIC have opened a new window to study the energy loss of partons in a medium in a more differential way and for a different distribution of in-medium path lengths than in the case of RAA. In this work, we present an extrapolation of our results for back-to-back yields at RHIC energies to 5.5 TeV Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN LHC. We also discuss differences and similarities between the measurement at RHIC

  20. Hartree-Fock mass formulas and extrapolation to new mass data

    The two previously published Hartree-Fock (HF) mass formulas, HFBCS-1 and HFB-1 (HF-Bogoliubov), are shown to be in poor agreement with new Audi-Wapstra mass data. The problem lies first with the prescription adopted for the cutoff of the single-particle spectrum used with the ?-function pairing force, and second with the Wigner term. We find an optimal mass fit if the spectrum is cut off both above EF+15 MeV and below EF-15 MeV, EF being the Fermi energy of the nucleus in question. In addition to the Wigner term of the form VW exp(-?|N-Z|/A) already included in the two earlier HF mass formulas, we find that a second Wigner term linear in |N-Z| leads to a significant improvement in lighter nuclei. These two features are incorporated into our new Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model, which leads to much improved extrapolations. The 18 parameters of the model are fitted to the 2135 measured masses for N,Z?8 with an rms error of 0.674 MeV. With this parameter set a complete mass table, labeled HFB-2, has been constructed, going from one drip line to the other, up to Z=120. The new pairing-cutoff prescription favored by the new mass data leads to weaker neutron-shell gaps in neutron-rich nuclei

  1. Extrapolation of experimental data on late effects of low-dose radionuclides in man

    The situation of living of population on radionuclide contamination areas was simulated in the experimental study using white strainless rats of different ages. The significance of age for late stochastic effects of internal radionuclide contamination with low doses of 131I, 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru was studied. Some common regularities and differences in late effects formation depending on age were found. Results of the study showed that the number of tumors developed increased in groups of animals exposed at the youngest age. The younger animal at the moment of internal radionuclide contamination, the higher percentage of malignant tumors appeared. It was especially so for tumors of endocrine glands (pituitary, suprarenal,- and thyroid). Differences in late effects formation related to different type of radionuclide distribution within the body were estimated. On the base of extrapolation the conclusion was made that human organism being exposed at early postnatal or pubertal period could be the most radiosensitive (1.5-2.0 or sometimes even 3-5 times higher than adults). Data confirmed the opinion that children are the most critical part of population even in case of low dose radiation exposure. (author)

  2. Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Enhancing resolution properties of array antennas via field extrapolation: application to MIMO systems

    Reggiannini, Ruggero

    2015-12-01

    This paper is concerned with spatial properties of linear arrays of antennas spaced less than half wavelength. Possible applications are in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless links for the purpose of increasing the spatial multiplexing gain in a scattering environment, as well as in other areas such as sonar and radar. With reference to a receiving array, we show that knowledge of the received field can be extrapolated beyond the actual array size by exploiting the finiteness of the interval of real directions from which the field components impinge on the array. This property permits to increase the performance of the array in terms of angular resolution. A simple signal processing technique is proposed allowing formation of a set of beams capable to cover uniformly the entire horizon with an angular resolution better than that achievable by a classical uniform-weighing half-wavelength-spaced linear array. Results are also applicable to active arrays. As the above approach leads to arrays operating in super-directive regime, we discuss all related critical aspects, such as sensitivity to external and internal noises and to array imperfections, and bandwidth, so as to identify the basic design criteria ensuring the array feasibility.

  4. Physiological modeling and extrapolation of pharmacokinetic interactions from binary to more complex chemical mixtures.

    Krishnan, Kannan; Haddad, Sami; Béliveau, Martin; Tardif, Robert

    2002-12-01

    The available data on binary interactions are yet to be considered within the context of mixture risk assessment because of our inability to predict the effect of a third or a fourth chemical in the mixture on the interacting binary pairs. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models represent a potentially useful framework for predicting the consequences of interactions in mixtures of increasing complexity. This article highlights the conceptual basis and validity of PBPK models for extrapolating the occurrence and magnitude of interactions from binary to more complex chemical mixtures. The methodology involves the development of PBPK models for all mixture components and interconnecting them at the level of the tissue where the interaction is occurring. Once all component models are interconnected at the binary level, the PBPK framework simulates the kinetics of all mixture components, accounting for the interactions occurring at various levels in more complex mixtures. This aspect was validated by comparing the simulations of a binary interaction-based PBPK model with experimental data on the inhalation kinetics of m-xylene, toluene, ethyl benzene, dichloromethane, and benzene in mixtures of varying composition and complexity. The ability to predict the kinetics of chemicals in complex mixtures by accounting for binary interactions alone within a PBPK model is a significant step toward the development of interaction-based risk assessment for chemical mixtures. PMID:12634130

  5. Extrapolated renormalization group calculation of the surface tension in square-lattice Ising model

    By using self-dual clusters (whose sizes are characterized by the numbers b=2, 3, 4, 5) within a real space renormalization group framework, the longitudinal surface tension of the square-lattice first-neighbour 1/2-spin ferromagnetic Ising model is calculated. The exact critical temperature T sub(c) is recovered for any value of b; the exact assymptotic behaviour of the surface tension in the limit of low temperatures is analytically recovered; the approximate correlation length critical exponents monotonically tend towards the exact value ν=1 (which, at two dimensions, coincides with the surface tension critical exponent μ) for increasingly large cells; the same behaviour is remarked in what concerns the approximate values for the surface tension amplitude in the limit T→T sub(c). Four different numerical procedures are developed for extrapolating to b→infinite the renormalization group results for the surface tension, and quite satisfactory agreement is obtained with Onsager's exact expression (error varying from zero to a few percent on the whole temperature domain). Furthermore the set of RG surface tensions is compared with a set of biased surface tensions (associated to appropriate misfit seams), and find only fortuitous coincidence among them. (Author)

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN ISOTOPE EXTRAPOLATION CURVE FOR PLATINUM CATYLIZED ZEOLITE

    Staack, G.

    2010-07-07

    Experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 with protium and deuterium to demonstrate the hydrogen exchange properties of various catalyzed zeolites for tritium stripping purposes. A column was loaded with the experimental material and purged with either H{sub 2} or D{sub 2} as shown in Figure 1 and the effluent monitored with a Prisma Quadrupole. The purge gas was switched when the column outlet concentrations reached >95% of the purge isotope. Outlet concentrations were calculated as the sum of the purge isotope in the elemental form plus the purge isotope in the oxide form (the purge stream was humidified as it passed through the column) divided by the total hydrogen isotopes in the effluent. 1.5 wt.% Pt on CBV 780 zeolite, manufactured by Zeolist International, had the best exchange characteristics, high capacity and fast kinetics, of the materials tested. This memorandum describes an approach to extrapolate previously unpublished hydrogen for deuterium exchange data collected earlier on 1.5 wt.% Pt on CBV 780 to lower concentrations for potential engineering applications.

  7. Extrapolation of stress rupture data on 9 to 12% Cr steels

    In this document the stress rupture strengths at times of up to 300 000h have been evaluated. In relation to the stress rupture strength, data from four steels, namely 9Cr1Mo, 9Cr2MoNbV, 9Cr1MoVNb and 12CrMoV, were examined and in each case four different parameters (Larson-Miller, Orr-Sherby-Dorn (original), Orr-Sherby-Dorn (ORNL) and Manson-Haferd) were employed to extrapolate the data out to 300 000h. At temperatures relevant to steam generators (c. 500OC) there was found to be little difference in predicted long-term strength values using the four approaches. However, the lower 95% confidence limits have been evaluated and it was found that for some of the steels these were different to the often assumed minimum set at 80% of the average. The rupture ductility values have been statistically evaluated at specific temperatures to establish the trend in ductility with increasing rupture time

  8. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  9. Employing Measures of Heterogeneity and an Object-Based Approach to Extrapolate Tree Species Distribution Data

    Trevor G. Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Information derived from high spatial resolution remotely sensed data is critical for the effective management of forested ecosystems. However, high spatial resolution data-sets are typically costly to acquire and process and usually provide limited geographic coverage. In contrast, moderate spatial resolution remotely sensed data, while not able to provide the spectral or spatial detail required for certain types of products and applications, offer inexpensive, comprehensive landscape-level coverage. This study assessed using an object-based approach to extrapolate detailed tree species heterogeneity beyond the extent of hyperspectral/LiDAR flightlines to the broader area covered by a Landsat scene. Using image segments, regression trees established ecologically decipherable relationships between tree species heterogeneity and the spectral properties of Landsat segments. The spectral properties of Landsat bands 4 (i.e., NIR: 0.76–0.90 µm, 5 (i.e., SWIR: 1.55–1.75 µm and 7 (SWIR: 2.08–2.35 µm were consistently selected as predictor variables, explaining approximately 50% of variance in richness and diversity. Results have important ramifications for ongoing management initiatives in the study area and are applicable to wide range of applications.

  10. The risk of extrapolation in neuroanatomy: the case of the mammalian vomeronasal system

    Ignacio Salazar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell plays a crucial role in mammalian social and sexual behaviour, identification of food, and detection of predators. Nevertheless, mammals vary in their olfactory ability. One reason for this concerns the degree of development of their pars basalis rhinencephali, an anatomical feature that has has been considered in classifying this group of animals as macrosmatic, microsmatic or anosmatic. In mammals, different structures are involved in detecting odours: the main olfactory system, the vomeronasal system (VNS, and two subsystems, namely the ganglion of Grüneberg and the septal organ. Here, we review and summarise some aspects of the comparative anatomy of the VNS and its putative relationship to other olfactory structures. Even in the macrosmatic group, morphological diversity is an important characteristic of the VNS, specifically of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb. We conclude that it is a big mistake to extrapolate anatomical data of the VNS from species to species, even in the case of relatively close evolutionary proximity between them. We propose to study other mammalian VNS than those of rodents in depth as a way to clarify its exact role in olfaction. Our experience in this field leads us to hypothesise that the VNS, considered for all mammalian species, could be a system undergoing involution or regression, and could serve as one more integrated olfactory subsystem.

  11. DOSE-RESPONSE BEHAVIOR OF ANDROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC CHEMICALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW-DOSE EXTRAPOLATION AND CUMULATIVE TOXICITY

    DOSE-RESPONSE BEHAVIOR OF ANDROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC CHEMICALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW-DOSE EXTRAPOLATION AND CUMULATIVE TOXICITY. LE Gray Jr, C Wolf, J Furr, M Price, C Lambright, VS Wilson and J Ostby. USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, EB, RTD, RTP, NC, USA.Dose-response behavior of a...

  12. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2013-12-28

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nos-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics steered by effective solvation forces allows huge outer time steps up to tens of picoseconds without affecting the equilibrium and conformational properties, and thus provides a 100- to 500-fold effective speedup in comparison to conventional MD with explicit solvent. With the statistical-mechanical 3D-RISM-KH account for effective solvation forces, the method provides efficient sampling of biomolecular processes with slow and/or rare solvation events such as conformational transitions of hydrated alanine dipeptide with the mean life times ranging from 30 ps up to 10 ns for flip-flop conformations, and is particularly beneficial for biomolecular systems with exchange and localization of solvent and ions, ligand binding, and molecular recognition.

  13. Deposition of inhaled radionuclides in bronchial airways: Implications for extrapolation modeling

    The laboratory rat has frequently been used as a human surrogate to estimate potential health effects following the inhalation of radioactive aerosol particles. Interspecies differences in biological response are commonly related to interspecies differences in particle deposition efficiencies. In addition, the documented site selectivity of bronchial carcinomas suggests that localized particle deposition patterns within bronchial airway bifurcations may have important implications for inhalation risk assessments. Interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns may be related primarily to differences in airway morphometries. Thus the validity of extrapolating rat deposition data to human inhalation conditions depends on their morphometric similarities and differences. It is well known that there are significant structural differences between the human - rather symmetric - and the rat - monopodial - airway systems. In the present approach, we focus on localized deposition patterns and deposition efficiencies in selected asymmetric bronchial airway bifurcations, whose diameters, lengths and branching angles were derived from the stochastic airway models of human and rat lungs (Koblinger and Hofmann, 1985;1988), which are based on the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976). The effects of interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns are explored in this study for two asymmetric bifurcation geometries in segmental bronchi and terminal bronchioles of both the human and rat lungs at different particle sizes. In order to examine the effect of flow rate on particle deposition in the human lung, we selected two different minute volumes, i.e., 10 and 60 1 min-1 , which are representative of low and heavy physical activity breathing conditions. In the case of the rat we used a minute volume of 0.234 1 min-1 (Hofmann et al., 1993)

  14. Measurement of absorbed dose with a bone-equivalent extrapolation chamber

    A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water trade mark sign and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absorbed dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain absorbed dose in bone for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC by 0.7% to ?2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water trade mark sign PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). In conjunction with appropriate correction factors determined with Monte Carlo techniques, the uncalibrated hybrid PEEC can be used for measuring absorbed dose in bone material to within 2% for high-energy photon and electron beams

  15. Accelerated aging embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steel: Activation energy for extrapolation

    Cast duplex stainless steels, used extensively in LWR systems for primary pressure boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, valves, and pumps, are susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating or higher temperatures. Since a realistic aging embrittlement for end-of-life or life-extension conditions (i.e., 32--50 yr of aging at 280--320 degree C) cannot be produced, it is customary to simulate the metallurgical structure by accelerated aging at ∼400 degree C. Over the past several years, extensive data on accelerated aging have been reported from a number of laboratories. The most important information from these studies is the activation energy, namely, the temperature dependence of the aging kinetics between 280 and 400 degree C, which is used to extrapolate the aging characteristics to reactor operating conditions. The activation energies (in the range of 18--50 kcal/mole) are, in general, sensitive to material grade, chemical composition, and fabrication process, and a few empirical correlations, obtained as a function of bulk chemical composition, have been reported. In this paper, a mechanistic understanding of the activation energy is described on the basis of the results of microstructural characterization of various heats of CF-3, -8, and -8M grades that were used in aging studies at different laboratories. The primary mechanism of aging embrittlement at temperatures between 280 and 400 degree C is the spinodal decomposition of the ferrite phase, and M23C6 carbide precipitation on the ferrite/austenite boundaries is the secondary mechanism for high-carbon CF-8 grade. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Dosimetric adjustments for interspecies extrapolation of inhaled poorly soluble particles (PSP).

    Jarabek, Annie M; Asgharian, Bahman; Miller, Frederick J

    2005-01-01

    Direct calculation of delivered dose in the species of interest potentially affects the magnitude of an uncertainty factor needed to address extrapolation of laboratory animal data to equivalent human exposure scenarios, thereby improving the accuracy of human health risk estimates. Development of an inhalation reference concentration (RfC) typically involves extrapolation of an effect level observed in a laboratory animal exposure study to a level of exposure in humans that is not expected to result in an appreciable health risk. The default dose metric used for respiratory effects is the average deposited dose normalized by regional surface area. However, the most relevant dose metric is generally one that is most closely associated with the mode of action leading to the response. Critical factors in determining the best dose metric to characterize the dose-response relationship include the following: the nature of the biological response being examined; the magnitude, duration, and frequency of the intended exposure scenario; and the mechanisms by which the toxicants exert their effects. Dosimetry models provide mechanistic descriptions of these critical factors and can compute species-specific dose metrics. In this article, various dose metrics are postulated based on potential modes of action for poorly soluble particles (PSP). Dosimetry models are used to extrapolate the internal dose metric across species and to estimate the human equivalent concentration (HEC). Dosimetry models for the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of humans and rats are used to calculate deposition and retention using the principle of particle mass balance in the lower respiratory tract. Realistic asymmetric lung geometries using detailed morphometric measurements of the tracheobronchial (TB) airways in rats and humans are employed in model calculations. Various dose metrics are considered for the TB and pulmonary (P) regions. Because time is an explicit parameter incorporated in species-specific constants such as mucociliary clearance rates used in the models, the impact of the application of optimal model structures to refine adjustments and assumptions used in default risk assessment approaches to address exposure duration are discussed. HEC estimates were found for particles ranging in sizes that corresponded to existing toxicity studies of PSP (0.3 to 5 microm). A dose metric expressed as number of particles per biologically motivated normalization factors (e.g., number of ventilatory units, number of alveoli, and number of macrophages) was lower than the current default of mass normalized to regional surface area for either deposited or retained dose estimates. Retained dose estimates were lower than deposited dose estimates across all particle sizes evaluated. Dose metrics based on the deposited mass per unit area in small and large airways of the TB region indicate HECs of 1 to 5 times those of rats: that is, an equivalent exposure to humans which would achieve the same internal dose as in the rat would be 1 to 5 times greater. HEC estimates in the TB region increase with an increase in particle size for particles from 0.3 to 2 microm in the small airways and >3 microm in the large airways. The HEC decreases with increase in particle size in the P region across all particle sizes studied, and the decrease has a more significant slope for those particles >2 microm due to the limited inhalability of particles this size in rats relative to humans. Our modeling results elucidate a number of important issues to be considered in assessing current default approaches to dosimetry adjustment for inhaled PSP. Simulation of realistic, polydisperse particle distributions for the human exposure scenario results in reduced HEC estimates compared to estimates derived with the experimental particle distribution used in the laboratory animal study. Consideration should be given also to replacing the default dose metric of normalized deposited dose in the P region with normalized retained dose. Chronic effects are more likely due to retained dose and estimates calculated using retained versus deposited mass are shown to be lower across all particle sizes. Because dose metrics based on normalized particle number rather than normalized mass result in lower HEC estimates, use of inhaled mass as the default should also be revisited, if the pathogenesis suggests particle number determines the mode of action. Based on demonstrated age differences, future work should pursue the construction of "lifetime" estimates calculated by sequentially appending simulations for each specific age span. PMID:16020031

  17. Extrapolation of short term observations to time periods relevant to the isolation of long lived radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2000

    This report addresses safety analysis of the whole repository life-cycle that may require long term performance assessment of its components and evaluation of potential impacts of the facility on the environment. Generic consideration of procedures for the development of predictive tools are completed by detailed characterization of selected principles and methods that were applied and presented within the co-ordinated research project (CRP). The project focused on different approaches to extrapolation, considering radionuclide migration/sorption, physical, geochemical and geotechnical characteristics of engineered barriers, irradiated rock and backfill performance, and on corrosion of metallic and vitreous materials. This document contains a comprehensive discussion of the overall problem and the practical results of the individual projects preformed within the CRP. Each of the papers on the individual projects has been indexed separately

  18. Determination of genistein in rat liver and kidney by a HPLC/UV method. Possible extrapolation from animals to humans

    Tero-Vescan Amelia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A fost validat? o metod? simpl? ?i selectiv? de determinare a genisteinei (GNST din ficat ?i rinichi de ?obolan n vederea studierii efectului fitoestrogenic al GNST la ?obolani Wistar de sex feminin ovariectomiza?i. GNST a fost separat? pe o coloan? Kromasil 100-RP8, de 150 mm x 4,6 mm, 5 ?m prev?zut? cu precoloan? Kromasil RP 8. Faza mobil? a fost 55:45 (v/v acid fosforic 15 mmol n ap? : metanol la un debit de 1,3 ml/min. Ca standard intern a fost folosit? luteolina 20 ?g/ml n metanol. Timpul de reten?ie al GNST a fost tR = 13,22 min ?i tR = 11,60 min pentru standardul intern. Curbele de calibrare pe domeniul 40-400 ?g GNST/100g ficat ?i 20-200 ?g GNST/100g rinichi au prezentat coeficien?i de determinare ?0,99. Metoda a prezentat o bun? precizie ?i acurate?e la limita de cuantificare. 10 ?obolani albi Wistar de sex feminin, cu vrsta de 8 s?pt?mni au fost trata?i s.c. cu 10 mg/kg c/zi solu?ie GNST timp de 8 s?pt?mni, n timp ce un lot de 10 animale au folosit ca martor. Valorile ob?inute pentru GNST n ficat au fost 192.12 53.46 ?g/100g, iar n rinichi 74.51 12.77 ?g/100g.

  19. Determination of genistein in rat liver and kidney by a HPLC/UV method. Possible extrapolation from animals to humans

    Tero-Vescan Amelia; Vari Camil-Eugen; Muntean Daniela-Lucia; Dogaru Maria-Titica; Filip Cristina; Imre Silvia

    2014-01-01

    A fost validată o metodă simplă şi selectivă de determinare a genisteinei (GNST) din ficat şi rinichi de şobolan în vederea studierii efectului fitoestrogenic al GNST la șobolani Wistar de sex feminin ovariectomizaţi. GNST a fost separată pe o coloană Kromasil 100-RP8, de 150 mm x 4,6 mm, 5 μm prevăzută cu precoloană Kromasil RP 8. Faza mobilă a fost 55:45 (v/v) acid fosforic 15 mmol în apă : metanol la un debit de 1,3 ml/min. Ca standard intern a fost folosită luteolina 20 μg/ml în metanol. ...

  20. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms:measurements in stratified surroundings and analysis by use of an extrapolation method

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V

    1990-01-01

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects.

  1. Generation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles by solution combustion method and its Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films for corrosion protection

    Chandrappa, K.G. [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Jnana Sahyadri Campus, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577451, Karnataka (India); Venkatesha, T.V., E-mail: drtvvenkatesha@yahoo.co.uk [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Jnana Sahyadri Campus, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577451, Karnataka (India)

    2012-11-25

    Graphical abstract: The pseudo-cubic cobalt oxide microparticles have been successfully synthesized by a solution combustion method using Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (oxidizer) and dextrose (sugar; fuel). The as-synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles are crystalline and Rietveld refinement of calcined samples exhibited cubic structure with space group of Fm3m (No. 227). The generated Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles were used to fabricate Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films for corrosion protection. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of pseudo-cubic Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles by solution combustion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} compounds are calcined and structurally characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are utilized for the fabrication of Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films. - Abstract: Microcrystalline cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) powder was successfully synthesized by a simple, fast, economical and eco-friendly solution-combustion method. The as-synthesized powder was calcined for an hour at temperatures ranging from 100 to 900 Degree-Sign C. The crystallite size, morphology, and chemical state of synthesized powders were characterized by powder XRD, TG-DTA, XPS, SEM/EDAX, TEM and FT-IR spectral methods. The as-synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder was single-crystalline and Rietveld refinement of calcined samples exhibited cubic structure with space group of Fm3m (No. 227). The effect of calcination temperature on crystallite size and morphology was assessed. Scanning electron micrographs show a uniform, randomly oriented pseudo-cubic particle with porous like morphology and EDAX measurement showed its chemical composition. Thermal behavior of as-synthesized compound was examined. The TEM result revealed that, the particles are pseudo-cubic in nature with diameter of 0.2-0.6 {mu}m and a length of 0.9-1.2 {mu}m. The crystallite size increased with increase of calcination temperature. The synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder was used to fabricate Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by anodic polarization, tafel extrapolation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that the Zn-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite thin films have potential applications to corrosion protection.

  2. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations.

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-12-01

    For more than a decade, numerous pesticides have been detected in river systems of the western United States that support anadromous species of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over the same interval, several declining wild salmon populations have been listed as either threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because pesticides occur in surface waters that provide critical habitat for ESA-listed stocks, they are an ongoing concern for salmon conservation and recovery throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. Because pesticide exposures are typically sublethal, a key question is whether toxicological effects at (or below) the scale of the individual animal ultimately reduce the productivity and recovery potential of wild populations. In this study we evaluate how the sublethal impacts of pesticides on physiology and behavior can reduce the somatic growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and, by extension, subsequent size-dependent survival when animals migrate to the ocean and overwinter in their first year. Our analyses focused on the organophosphate and carbamate classes of insecticides. These neurotoxic chemicals have been widely detected in aquatic environments. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme in the salmon nervous system that regulates neurotransmitter-mediated signaling at synapses. Based on empirical data, we developed a model that explicitly links sublethal reductions in acetylcholinesterase activity to reductions in feeding behavior, food ration, growth, and size at migration. Individual size was then used to estimate size-dependent survival during migration and transition to the sea. Individual survival estimates were then integrated into a life-history population projection matrix and used to calculate population productivity and growth rate. Our results indicate that short-term (i.e., four-day) exposures that are representative of seasonal pesticide use may be sufficient to reduce the growth and size at ocean entry of juvenile chinook. The consequent reduction in individual survival over successive years reduces the intrinsic productivity (lambda) of a modeled ocean-type chinook population. Overall, we show that exposures to common pesticides may place important constraints on the recovery of ESA-listed salmon species, and that simple models can be used to extrapolate toxicological impacts across several scales of biological complexity. PMID:20014574

  3. Characterization of a extrapolation chamber in standard X-ray beam, radiodiagnosis level; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao em feixes padroes de raios X, nivel radiodiagnostico

    Silva, Eric A.B. da; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: ebrito@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The extrapolation chamber is a ionization chamber used for detection low energy radiation and can be used as an standard instrument for beta radiation beams. This type of ionization chamber have as main characteristic the variation of sensible volume. This paper performs a study of characterization of a PTW commercial extrapolation chamber, in the energy interval of the qualities of conventional radiodiagnostic

  4. Influence analysis of neutron spectrum change in fast-thermal boundary on experiment results of Venus 1# critical extrapolation

    The neutron count rate of detector in fast-thermal boundary showed quite different performance in critical extrapolation experiment on Venus 1# , which was listed as a benchmark of accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS). In order to explain the abnormal phenomenon in experiment, numerical simulations of experiment and calculations of neutron spectrum in fast-thermal boundary were performed, analyses to the abnormal neutron count rate were also represented through calculations. The results indicate that neutron spectrum change during critical extrapolation is the main contributor to the abnormal performance of detector in experiment. This research work will supply theoretical basis for neutronics study on fast-thermal coupling sub-critical systems of the future. (authors)

  5. Interpolation Method Needed for Numerical Uncertainty

    Groves, Curtis E.; Ilie, Marcel; Schallhorn, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict a flow field is an approximation to the exact problem and uncertainties exist. There is a method to approximate the errors in CFD via Richardson's Extrapolation. This method is based off of progressive grid refinement. To estimate the errors, the analyst must interpolate between at least three grids. This paper describes a study to find an appropriate interpolation scheme that can be used in Richardson's extrapolation or other uncertainty method to approximate errors.

  6. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with radiochromic films in both BSS2 showed that some of them were not geometrically aligned. (author)

  7. The social legitimacy of international organisations : Interest representation, institutional performance, and confidence extrapolation in the United Nations

    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria; Tallberg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Social legitimacy is central to the effectiveness of international organisations (IOs). Yet, so far, we have little systematic knowledge about what drives citizens to support or oppose IOs. In this article, we isolate and assess three alternative explanations of social legiti- macy in global governance, privileging interest representation, institutional performance, and confidence extrapolation. We test these theories in a multilevel analysis of citizen confidence in the United Nations (UN) u...

  8. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov-Dmoulin magnetic flux rope model

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Dmoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the hyperbolic flux tube and bald patch separatrix surface, are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.

  9. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  10. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: A Canadian regulatory perspective on the assessment of clinically relevant differences and indication extrapolation.

    Scott, Bradley J; Klein, Agnes V; Wang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become mainstays of treatment for many diseases. After more than a decade on the Canadian market, a number of authorized monoclonal antibody products are facing patent expiry. Given their success, most notably in the areas of oncology and autoimmune disease, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are eager to produce their own biosimilar versions and have begun manufacturing and testing for a variety of monoclonal antibody products. In October of 2013, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody products were approved by the European Medicines Agency (Remsima and Inflectra). These products were authorized by Health Canada shortly after; however, while the EMA allowed for extrapolation to all of the indications held by the reference product, Health Canada limited extrapolation to a subset of the indications held by the reference product, Remicade. The purpose of this review is to discuss the Canadian regulatory framework for the authorization of biosimilar mAbs with specific discussion around the clinical requirements for establishing (bio)-similarity and to present the principles that are used in the clinical assessment of New Drug Submissions for intended biosimilar monoclonal antibodies. Health Canada's current views regarding indication extrapolation, product interchangeability, and post-market surveillance are discussed as well. PMID:24965228

  11. Testing a Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Extrapolation Code with the Titov-Demoulin Magnetic Flux Rope Model

    Jiang, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    In the solar corona, magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of magnetic field from boundary data is the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information of the corona. As a result, the ability of reliable recovering coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF, Jiang & Feng 2012) is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Demoulin (1999), which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding an semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field is reconstructed with high accuracy. Especially, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rop...

  12. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov-Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.

  13. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto activated carbon fiber cloths - Modeling and extrapolation of adsorption isotherms at very low concentrations.

    Fallou, Hlne; Cimetire, Nicolas; Giraudet, Sylvain; Wolbert, Dominique; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Activated carbon fiber cloths (ACFC) have shown promising results when applied to water treatment, especially for removing organic micropollutants such as pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, further investigations are required, especially considering trace concentrations, which are found in current water treatment. Until now, most studies have been carried out at relatively high concentrations (mgL(-1)), since the experimental and analytical methodologies are more difficult and more expensive when dealing with lower concentrations (ngL(-1)). Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate an extrapolation procedure from high to low concentrations, for four compounds (Carbamazepine, Diclofenac, Caffeine and Acetaminophen). For this purpose, the reliability of the usual adsorption isotherm models, when extrapolated from high (mgL(-1)) to low concentrations (ngL(-1)), was assessed as well as the influence of numerous error functions. Some isotherm models (Freundlich, Toth) and error functions (RSS, ARE) show weaknesses to be used as an adsorption isotherms at low concentrations. However, from these results, the pairing of the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model with Marquardt's percent standard of deviation was evidenced as the best combination model, enabling the extrapolation of adsorption capacities by orders of magnitude. PMID:26606322

  14. Practicalities of extrapolating one-dimensional fault and fracture size-frequency distributions to higher-dimensional samples

    Borgos, Hilde G.; Cowie, Patience A.; Dawers, Nancye H.

    2000-12-01

    Previously published theory, which extrapolates fault and fracture population statistics observed in a one-dimensional sample to two- and three-dimensional populations, is found to be of limited value in practical applications. We demonstrate how significant the discrepancies may be and how they arise. There are two main sources for the discrepancies: (1) deviations from ideal spatial uniformity (spatial Poisson process) of a fault or fracture pattern and (2) non-power law scaling of the size frequency distributions of the population. We show that even small fluctuations in spatial density, combined with variance in the estimator of population statistics, can lead to considerable deviations from the theoretical predictions. Ambiguity about power law scaling or otherwise of the underlying population is a typical characteristic of natural data sets, and we demonstrate how this can affect the extrapolation of one-dimensional data to higher dimensions. In addition, we present new theoretical approaches to the problem of extrapolation when clustering of faults and fractures is explicitly considered. Clustering is commonly observed in the field as en echelon arrays of fault or fracture segments and we show how this property of natural patterns can be quantified and included in the theory. These results are relevant to building more realistic three-dimensional models of the physical properties of fractured rocks, such as fracture permeability and seismic anisotropy.

  15. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC50 for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC50 were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC50 dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC50 equaled rat brain levels associated with seizure. • PBPK-predicted human brain levels at seizure also equaled EC50 cell concentrations. • In vitro MEA results are predictive of lindane in vivo dose–response in rats/humans

  16. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    Croom, Edward L.; Shafer, Timothy J.; Evans, Marina V.; Mundy, William R.; Eklund, Chris R.; Johnstone, Andrew F.M.; Mack, Cina M.; Pegram, Rex A., E-mail: pegram.rex@epa.gov

    2015-02-15

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC{sub 50} for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC{sub 50} were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC{sub 50} dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC{sub 50} equaled rat brain levels associated with seizure. • PBPK-predicted human brain levels at seizure also equaled EC{sub 50} cell concentrations. • In vitro MEA results are predictive of lindane in vivo dose–response in rats/humans.

  17. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR CROSS-SPECIES MAPPING (CSM)

    Cross species extrapolation will be defined as prediction from one species to another without empirical verification. ross species mapping (CSM) is the same except empirical verification is performed. SM may be viewed as validation of methods for extrapolation. Algorithms for CSM...

  18. Assessing dose metrics in in vitro cell assays to improve in vitro in vivo dose extrapolations

    Groothuis, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    High requirements and challenges formed by legislations like REACH and the 7th amendment of cosmetics have accelerated the development of new alternative toxicology testing methods. In vitro cell systems combined with in silico methods have been deemed good alternatives for toxicology testing, aiming to reduce or even replace conventional animal toxicity experiments. Unfortunately these methods are not ready to replace animal based toxicity assays yet for several reasons. One of the issues as...

  19. Diagnostic, Explanatory, and Detection Models of Munchausen by Proxy: Extrapolations from Malingering and Deception

    Rogers, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The overriding objective is a critical examination of Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) and its closely-related alternative, factitious disorder by proxy (FDBP). Beyond issues of diagnostic validity, assessment methods and potential detection strategies are explored. Methods: A painstaking analysis was conducted of the MSBP and FDBP…

  20. Extrapolation chamber mounted on perspex for calibration of high energy photon and electron beams from a clinical linear accelerator.

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sivakumar, S S; Krishnamurthy, K; Davis, C A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC) used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water) the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor variations in dose output on different days. PMID:20126563

  1. Extrapolation chamber mounted on perspex for calibration of high energy photon and electron beams from a clinical linear accelerator

    Ravichandran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor variations in dose output on different days.

  2. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    Thorndahl, Sren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel...... radar rainfall extrapolation (nowcast) limits the lead time of the system to two hours. In this paper, the model set-up is tested on a small urban catchment for a period of 1.5 years. The 50 largest events are presented....

  3. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  4. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel...... online system, which forecasts flows and water levels in real-time with inputs from extrapolated radar rainfall data, has been developed. The fully distributed urban drainage model includes auto-calibration using online in-sewer measurements which is seen to improve forecast skills significantly. The...

  5. Estimated UV clutter levels at 10-100 meter sensor pixel resolution extrapolated from recent Polar Bear measurements

    This paper describes the methodology and the results obtained at 1304 A wavelength from an analysis of the AFGL Polar Bear experiment. The basic measurement equipment provided data of a spatial resolution of 20 km over a large portion of the earth. The instrumentation also provided sampled outputs as the footprint scanned along the measurement track. The combination of the fine scanning and large area coverage provided opportunity for a spatial power spectral analysis that in turn provided a means for extrapolation to finer spatial scale

  6. Investigation into the validity of extrapolation in setting maximum residue levels for pesticides in crops of similar morphology.

    Reynolds, S L; Fussell, R J; MacArthur, R

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were initiated to investigate if extrapolation procedures, which were adopted to limit costs of pesticide registration for minor crops, are valid. Three pairs of crops of similar morphology; carrots/swedes, cauliflower/calabrese (broccoli) and French beans/edible-podded peas; were grown in parallel at four different geographical locations within the UK. The crops were treated with both systemic and non-systemic pesticides under maximum registered use conditions, i.e. the maximum permitted application rates and the minimum harvest intervals. Once mature, the crops were harvested and analysed for residues of the applied pesticides. The limits of quantification were in the range 0.005-0.02 mg kg(-1). Analysis of variance and bootstrap estimates showed that in general, the mean residue concentrations for the individual pesticides were significantly different between crop pairs grown on each site. Similarly, the mean residue concentrations of most of the pesticides in each crop across sites were significantly different. These findings demonstrate that the extrapolations of residue levels for most of the selected pesticide/crop combinations investigated; chlorfenvinphos and iprodione from carrots to swedes; carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diflubenzuron and dimethoate from cauliflower to calabrese; and malathion, metalaxyl and pirimicarb from French beans to edible-podded peas; appear invalid. PMID:15895609

  7. Calculation of extrapolation curves in the 4?(LS)?-? coincidence technique with the Monte Carlo code Geant4.

    Bobin, C; Thiam, C; Bouchard, J

    2016-03-01

    At LNE-LNHB, a liquid scintillation (LS) detection setup designed for Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) measurements is also used in the ?-channel of a 4?(LS)?-? coincidence system. This LS counter based on 3 photomultipliers was first modeled using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 to enable the simulation of optical photons produced by scintillation and Cerenkov effects. This stochastic modeling was especially designed for the calculation of double and triple coincidences between photomultipliers in TDCR measurements. In the present paper, this TDCR-Geant4 model is extended to 4?(LS)?-? coincidence counting to enable the simulation of the efficiency-extrapolation technique by the addition of a ?-channel. This simulation tool aims at the prediction of systematic biases in activity determination due to eventual non-linearity of efficiency-extrapolation curves. First results are described in the case of the standardization (59)Fe. The variation of the ?-efficiency in the ?-channel due to the Cerenkov emission is investigated in the case of the activity measurements of (54)Mn. The problem of the non-linearity between ?-efficiencies is featured in the case of the efficiency tracing technique for the activity measurements of (14)C using (60)Co as a tracer. PMID:26699674

  8. Effects of unionised ammonia on tropical freshwater organisms: Implications on temperate-to-tropic extrapolation and water quality guidelines

    Unionised ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to freshwater organisms. Yet, most of the available toxicity data on NH3 were predominantly generated from temperate regions, while toxicity data on NH3 derived from tropical species were limited. To address this issue, we first conducted standard acute toxicity tests on NH3 using ten tropical freshwater species. Subsequently, we constructed a tropical species sensitivity distribution (SSD) using these newly generated toxicity data and available tropical toxicity data of NH3, which was then compared with the corresponding temperate SSD constructed from documented temperate acute toxicity data. Our results showed that tropical species were generally more sensitive to NH3 than their temperate counterparts. Based on the ratio between temperate and tropical hazardous concentration 10% values, we recommend an extrapolation factor of four to be applied when surrogate temperate toxicity data or temperate water quality guidelines of NH3 are used for protecting tropical freshwater ecosystems. - Highlights: • We tested acute toxicity of unionized ammonia to 10 tropical freshwater species. • Tropical species are more sensitive to NH3 than their temperate counterparts. • Molluscs are the most sensitive taxon to NH3 and suitable for toxicity testing. • A temperate-to-tropic safety extrapolation factor of 4 against NH3 is recommended. - Tropical freshwater species are more sensitive to NH3 than their temperate counterparts, and direct adoption of temperate WQGs cannot adequately protect tropical freshwater ecosystems

  9. EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS OVERLYING ARCADE BASED ON NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS

    Dynamic phenomena indicative of slipping reconnection and magnetic implosion were found in a time series of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations for the active region 11515, which underwent significant changes in the photospheric fields and produced five C-class flares and one M-class flare over five hours on 2012 July 2. NLFFF extrapolation was performed for the uninterrupted 5 hour period from the 12 minute cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. According to the time-dependent NLFFF model, there was an elongated, highly sheared magnetic flux rope structure that aligns well with an H? filament. This long filament splits sideways into two shorter segments, which further separate from each other over time at a speed of 1-4kms1, much faster than that of the footpoint motion of the magnetic field. During the separation, the magnetic arcade arching over the initial flux rope significantly decreases in height from ?4.5Mm to less than 0.5Mm. We discuss the reality of this modeled magnetic restructuring by relating it to the observations of the magnetic cancellation, flares, a filament eruption, a penumbra formation, and magnetic flows around the magnetic polarity inversion line

  10. Predictive Toxicology and In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation (AsiaTox2015)

    A significant challenge in toxicology is the too many chemicals problem. Humans and environmental species are exposed to as many as tens of thousands of chemicals, few of which have been thoroughly tested using standard in vivo test methods. This talk will discuss several appro...

  11. Electrochemical Study on Corrosion Inhibition of Copper in Hydrochloric Acid Medium and the Rotating Ring-Disc Voltammetry for Studying the Dissolution

    Reddy, A V R; Satpati, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolution characteristics of copper in hydrochloric acid medium and the effect of 4-amino 1,2,4-triazole (ATA) on the corrosion process have been studied using conventional electrochemical techniques and rotating ring-disc electrodes (RRDEs). Corrosion potential ( c o r r ) and corrosion current density ( c o r r ) were obtained by Tafel extrapolation methods. Charge transfer resistance ( c t ) and double-layer capacitance ( d l ) were obtained from the electrochemical impedance spe...

  12. MOORE´S LAW EVALUATION AND PROPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE FORECASTING MODEL BASED ON TREND EXTRAPOLATION

    Marcelo D'Emidio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study´s core objective is to validate whether the model proposed by Moore (1975 - also known as Moore’s Law – adequately describes the technological evolution of microprocessors. It further poses to verify whether this model is a feasible predictive tool and, finally, present an alternative model. To this extent, the forecasting technique method, based on historical data projections, will be applied. Statistical tests employed presented strong indications that the method proposed by Moore (1975 adequately described the evolution of processor component numbers during the 70s, 80s and 90s. As to the 2000s, however, the same cannot be affirmed and consequently the present study encountered grounding for the need to adapt the model to enable its application as a predictive tool.Key-words: Moore’s Law. Forecast. Technological evolution.  

  13. Antioxidant potential of selected supplements in vitro and the problem of its extrapolation for in vivo

    Julija Ogrin Papić; Borut Poljšak

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aq...

  14. Extrapolating soil redistribution rates estimated from 137Cs to catchment scale in a complex agroforestry landscape using GIS

    Gaspar, Leticia; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The use of fallout radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, in soil erosion investigations has been successfully used over a range of different landscapes. This technique provides mean annual values of spatially distributed soil erosion and deposition rates for the last 40-50 years. However, upscaling the data provided by fallout radionuclides to catchment level is required to understand soil redistribution processes, to support catchment management strategies, and to assess the main soil erosion factors like vegetation cover or topography. In recent years, extrapolating field scale soil erosion rates estimated from 137Cs data to catchment scale has been addressed using geostatistical interpolation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This study aims to assess soil redistribution in an agroforestry catchment characterized by abrupt topography and an intricate mosaic of land uses using 137Cs data and GIS. A new methodological approach using GIS is presented as an alternative of interpolation tools to extrapolating soil redistribution rates in complex landscapes. This approach divides the catchment into Homogeneous Physiographic Units (HPUs) based on unique land use, hydrological network and slope value. A total of 54 HPUs presenting specific land use, strahler order and slope combinations, were identified within the study area (2.5 km2) located in the north of Spain. Using 58 soil erosion and deposition rates estimated from 137Cs data, we were able to characterize the predominant redistribution processes in 16 HPUs, which represent the 78% of the study area surface. Erosion processes predominated in 6 HPUs (23%) which correspond with cultivated units in which slope and strahler order is moderate or high, and with scrubland units with high slope. Deposition was predominant in 3 HPUs (6%), mainly in riparian areas, and to a lesser extent in forest and scrubland units with low slope and low and moderate strahler order. Redistribution processes, both erosion and deposition processes, were recorded in 7 HPUs (49%). The units of forest with high slope but low strahler order showed low redistribution rates because the soil surface was well protected by vegetation, while cultivated units with moderate slope and low strahler order showed high erosion and deposition rates due to the tillage practices. This new approach provides the basis for extrapolating field-scale soil redistribution rates at catchment scale in complex landscapes. Additional 137Cs data in strategic locations would improve the results with a better characterization of some of the HPU's.

  15. Extrapolating population size from the occupancy-abundance relationship and the scaling pattern of occupancy

    Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Reyers, Belinda; Le Roux, Peter C.; Greve, Michelle; Chown, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    five tests: the first three compared the predicted community structure against well-documented macroecological patterns; the final two compared published abundance estimates for rare species and the total regional abundance estimate against predicted abundances. Approximately two billion birds were......The estimation of species abundances at regional scales requires a cost-efficient method that can be applied to existing broadscale data. We compared the performance of eight models for estimating species abundance and community structure from presence-absence maps of the southern African avifauna...

  16. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    T. Gerken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.

  17. Extrapolating ecological risks of ionizing radiation from individuals to populations to ecosystems

    Approaches for protecting ecosystems from ionizing radiation are quite different from those used for protecting ecosystems from adverse effects of toxic chemicals. The methods used for chemicals are conceptually similar to those used to assess risks of chemicals to human health in that they focus on the protection of the most sensitive or most highly exposed individuals. The assumption is that if sensitive or maximally exposed species and life stages are protected, then ecosystems will be protected. Radiological protection standards, on the other hand, are explicitly premised on the assumption that organisms, populations and ecosystems all possess compensatory capabilities to allow them to survive in the face of unpredictable natural variation in their environments. These capabilities are assumed to persist in the face of at least some exposure to ionizing radiation. The prevailing approach to radiological protection was developed more than 30 years ago, at a time when the terms risk assessment and risk management were rarely used. The expert review approach used to derive radiological protection standards is widely perceived to be inconsistent with the open, participatory approach that prevails today for the regulation of toxic chemicals. The available data for environmental radionuclides vastly exceeds that available for any chemical. Therefore, given an understanding of dose-response relationships for radiation effects and exposures for individual organisms, it should be possible to develop methods for quantifying effects of radiation on populations. A tiered assessment scheme as well as available population models that could be used for the ecological risk assessment of radionuclides is presented. (author)

  18. Extrapolating cosmic ray variations and impacts on life: Morlet wavelet analysis

    Zarrouk, N.; Bennaceur, R.

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to cosmic rays may have both a direct and indirect effect on Earth's organisms. The radiation may lead to higher rates of genetic mutations in organisms, or interfere with their ability to repair DNA damage, potentially leading to diseases such as cancer. Increased cloud cover, which may cool the planet by blocking out more of the Sun's rays, is also associated with cosmic rays. They also interact with molecules in the atmosphere to create nitrogen oxide, a gas that eats away at our planet's ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. On the ground, humans are protected from cosmic particles by the planet's atmosphere. In this paper we give estimated results of wavelet analysis from solar modulation and cosmic ray data incorporated in time-dependent cosmic ray variation. Since solar activity can be described as a non-linear chaotic dynamic system, methods such as neural networks and wavelet methods should be very suitable analytical tools. Thus we have computed our results using Morlet wavelets. Many have used wavelet techniques for studying solar activity. Here we have analysed and reconstructed cosmic ray variation, and we have better depicted periods or harmonics other than the 11-year solar modulation cycles.

  19. Extrapolation of Urn Models via Poissonization: Accurate Measurements of the Microbial Unknown

    Lladser, Manuel; Reeder, Jens; 10.1371/journal.pone.0021105

    2011-01-01

    The availability of high-throughput parallel methods for sequencing microbial communities is increasing our knowledge of the microbial world at an unprecedented rate. Though most attention has focused on determining lower-bounds on the alpha-diversity i.e. the total number of different species present in the environment, tight bounds on this quantity may be highly uncertain because a small fraction of the environment could be composed of a vast number of different species. To better assess what remains unknown, we propose instead to predict the fraction of the environment that belongs to unsampled classes. Modeling samples as draws with replacement of colored balls from an urn with an unknown composition, and under the sole assumption that there are still undiscovered species, we show that conditionally unbiased predictors and exact prediction intervals (of constant length in logarithmic scale) are possible for the fraction of the environment that belongs to unsampled classes. Our predictions are based on a P...

  20. Extrapolating population size from the occupancy-abundance relationship and the scaling pattern of occupancy

    Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Reyers, Belinda; Le Roux, Peter C.; Greve, Michelle; Chown, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    estimated as occurring in South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. SPO models outperformed the OAR models, due to OAR models assuming environmental homogeneity and yielding scale-dependent estimates. Therefore, OAR models should only be applied across small, homogenous areas. By contrast, SPO models are......The estimation of species abundances at regional scales requires a cost-efficient method that can be applied to existing broadscale data. We compared the performance of eight models for estimating species abundance and community structure from presence-absence maps of the southern African avifauna...... five tests: the first three compared the predicted community structure against well-documented macroecological patterns; the final two compared published abundance estimates for rare species and the total regional abundance estimate against predicted abundances. Approximately two billion birds were...

  1. Ionization current measurements using and extrapolation chamber for the determination of the absorbed dose from β emitters

    In order to obtain the beta response of survey instruments, the working group no.5 of the C.E.A. Radiation Offices has studied an extrapolation chamber as reference apparatus. The value of the different correcting factors which modify the number of ions pairs collected per mass of air, in other words, the absorbed dose in the air of the cavity is reported. Then, the physical constants (transmission, back-scattering...) which are necessary to pass from the absorbed dose in the air of the cavity, to the absorbed dose in the tissue for a semi-infinite medium below a thickness of 7.5mg/cm2 are given. The absorbed dose in tissue, to within an error of about 4%, can be estimated

  2. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  3. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483

  4. Antioxidant potential of selected supplements in vitro and the problem of its extrapolation for in vivo

    Julija Ogrin Papić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aqueous solution was measured. Afterwards antioxidant potential using FormPlus® after adding the preparation to human blood as a morecomplex environment with different homeostasis mechanisms was determined.Results: all the results showed expected change compared to the control but the results in aqueous solution did not match the results obtained from the human blood, as was expected.Conclusion: from the experiments it can be concluded that while the preparations did show antioxidant activity, it is very difficult and even wrong to predict the antioxidant potential of an antioxidant preparationadded to human blood, let alone in a living organism, based just on the results obtained in aqueous solution. Further possibilities for research include more extensive studies of antioxidant preparations in more complex environment and last but not least in test organisms or in human trials.

  5. A totally deflated lung's CT image construction by means of extrapolated deformable registration

    Sadeghi Naini, Ali; Patel, Rajni V.; Samani, Abbas

    2011-03-01

    A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung using breath-hold lung's preoperative CT images acquired during respiration. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in tumor targeting during tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy used for lung cancer treatment. To minimize motion within the target lung, tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders pre-operative images ineffective for tumor targeting, because those images correspond to the lung while it is partially inflated. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intra-operative Ultrasound (US) images. This is because the quality of lung US images degrades substantially as a result of the residual air inside the deflated lung, thus it is not an effective intra-operative imaging modality by itself. One possible approach for image-guided lung brachytherapy is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intra-operative US images. To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, a novel image construction technique is presented. The proposed technique was implemented using two deformable registration methods: multi-resolution B-spline and multi-resolution demons. The technique was applied to ex vivo porcine lungs where results obtained were found to be very encouraging.

  6. Extrapolating psychological insights from Facebook profiles: a study of religion and relationship status.

    Young, Sean; Dutta, Debo; Dommety, Gopal

    2009-06-01

    Online social network users may leave creative, subtle cues on their public profiles to communicate their motivations and interests to other network participants. This paper explores whether psychological predictions can be made about the motivations of social network users by identifying and analyzing these cues. Focusing on the domain of relationship seeking, we predicted that people using social networks for dating would reveal that they have a single relationship status as a method of eliciting contact from potential romantic others. Based on results from a pilot study (n = 20) supporting this hypothesis, we predicted that people attempting to attract users of the same religious background would report a religious affiliation along with a single relationship status. Using observational data from 150 Facebook profiles, results from a multivariate logistic regression suggest that people providing a religious affiliation were more likely to list themselves as single (a proxy for their interest in using the network to find romantic partners) than people who do not provide religious information. We discuss the implications for extracting psychological information from Facebook profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that information from publicly available online social networking profiles can be used to predict people's motivations for using social networks. PMID:19366321

  7. Minimising uncertainty induced by temperature extrapolations of thermodynamic data: a pragmatic view on the integration of thermodynamic databases into geochemical computer codes

    Incorporation of temperature corrections is gaining priority regarding geochemical modelling computer codes with built-in thermodynamic databases related to performance assessment in nuclear waste management. As no experimental data at elevated temperatures are available e.g. for many actinide and lanthanide species, the simplest one-term extrapolations of equilibrium constants are usually assumed in practice. Such extrapolations, if set inappropriately, may accumulate large additional uncertainty at temperatures above 100 deg C. Such errors can be avoided because one-, two- and three-term extrapolations have great predictive potential for isoelectric/iso-coulombic reactions which has to be explored and extensively used in geochemical modelling by LMA and/or GEM algorithm. This can be done efficiently and consistently via implementing a built-in 'hybrid' database combining 'kernel' thermochemical/EoS data for substances with the 'extension' reaction-defined data for other species. (author)

  8. Implementation of the histogram method for equilibrium statistical models using moments of a distribution

    Perez, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows a simple implementation of the Histogram Method for extrapolations in Monte Carlo simulations, using the moments of the operators that define the energy, instead of their histogram. This implementation is suitable for extrapolation over several operators, a type of calculation that is hindered by computer memory limitations. Examples of this approach are given for the 2-D Ising model.

  9. Characterization of low energy X-rays beams with an extrapolation chamber; Caracterizacao de feixes de raios-X de baixa energia com uma camara de extrapolacao

    Bastos, Fernanda Martins

    2015-04-01

    In laboratories involving Radiological Protection practices, it is usual to use reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and to study their response in terms of energy dependence. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established four series of reference X-rays beams in the ISO- 4037 standard: the L and H series, as low and high air Kerma rates, respectively, the N series of narrow spectrum and W series of wide spectrum. The X-rays beams with tube potential below 30 kV, called 'low energy beams' are, in most cases, critical as far as the determination of their parameters for characterization purpose, such as half-value layer. Extrapolation chambers are parallel plate ionization chambers that have one mobile electrode that allows variation of the air volume in its interior. These detectors are commonly used to measure the quantity Absorbed Dose, mostly in the medium surface, based on the extrapolation of the linear ionization current as a function of the distance between the electrodes. In this work, a characterization of a model 23392 PTW extrapolation chamber was done in low energy X-rays beams of the ISO- 4037 standard, by determining the polarization voltage range through the saturation curves and the value of the true null electrode spacing. In addition, the metrological reliability of the extrapolation chamber was studied with measurements of the value of leakage current and repeatability tests; limit values were established for the proper use of the chamber. The PTW23392 extrapolation chamber was calibrated in terms of air Kerma in some of the ISO radiation series of low energy; the traceability of the chamber to the National Standard Dosimeter was established. The study of energy dependency of the extrapolation chamber and the assessment of the uncertainties related to the calibration coefficient were also done; it was shown that the energy dependence was reduced to 4% when the extrapolation technique was used. Finally, the first half-value layers were determined for the low energy ISO N series with the extrapolation chamber, in collimated and uncollimated beams and it was showed that this detector is feasible for such measurements. (author)

  10. Time extrapolation aspects in the performance assessment of high and medium level radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay at Mol (Belgium)

    SCK-CEN is studying the disposal of high and long-lived medium level waste in the Boom Clay at Mol, Belgium. In the performance assessment for such a repository time extrapolation is an inherent problem due to the extremely long half-life of some important radionuclides. To increase the confidence in these time extrapolations SCK-CEN applies a combination of different experimental and modelling approaches including laboratory and in situ experiments, natural analogue studies, deterministic (or mechanistic) models and stochastical models. An overview is given of these approaches and some examples of applications to the different repository system components are given. (author)

  11. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and HaCaT • Systemic metabolism was modeled using hepatocyte cultures. • Toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied to estimate systemic exposure. • There was a good agreement between in vitro and in vivo data

  12. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and HaCaT • Systemic metabolism was modeled using hepatocyte cultures. • Toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied to estimate systemic exposure. • There was a good agreement between in vitro and in vivo data.

  13. Transport equation solving methods

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method

  14. CT metal artefact reduction for internal fixation of the proximal humerus: Value of mono-energetic extrapolation from dual-energy and iterative reconstructions

    Aim: To assess the value of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and an iterative frequency split-normalized metal artefact reduction (IFS-MAR) algorithm compared to filtered back projections (FBP) from single-energy CT (SECT) for artefact reduction in internally fixated humeral fractures. Materials and methods: Six internally fixated cadaveric humeri were examined using SECT and DECT. Data were reconstructed using FBP, IFS-MAR, and mono-energetic DECT extrapolations. Image analysis included radiodensity values and qualitative evaluation of artefacts, image quality, and level of confidence for localizing screw tips. Results: Radiodensity values of streak artefacts were significantly different (p < 0.05) between FBP (−104 ± 222) and IFS-MAR (73 ± 122), and between FBP and DECT (32 ± 151), without differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.553). Compared to FBP, qualitative artefacts were significantly reduced using IFS-MAR (p < 0.001) and DECT (p < 0.05), without significant differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.219). Image quality significantly (p = 0.016) improved for IFS-MAR and DECT compared to FBP, without significant differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.553). The level of confidence for screw tip localization was assessed as best for DECT in all cases. Conclusion: Both IFS-MAR in SECT and mono-energetic DECT produce improved image quality and a reduction of metal artefacts. Screw tip positions can be most confidently assessed using DECT

  15. Denitrification in sediments as a major nitrogen sink in the Baltic Sea: an extrapolation using sediment characteristics

    B. Deutsch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rates of denitrification in sediments were measured with the isotope pairing technique at different sites in the southern and central Baltic Sea. They varied between 0.5 ?mol m?2 h?1 in sands and 28.7 ?mol m?2 h?1 in muddy sediments and showed a good correlation to the organic carbon contents of the surface sediments. N-removal rates via sedimentary denitrification were estimated for the entire Baltic Sea calculating sediment specific denitrification rates and interpolating them to the whole Baltic Sea area. Another approach was carried out by using the relationship between the organic carbon content and the rate of denitrification. For the entire Baltic Sea the N-removal by denitrification in sediments varied between 426652 kt N a?1, which is around 4873% of the external N inputs delivered via rivers, coastal point sources and atmospheric deposition. Moreover, an expansion of the anoxic bottom areas was considered under the assumption of a rising oxycline from 100 to 80 m water depth. This leads to an increase of the area with anoxic conditions and an overall decrease in sedimentary denitrification by 14%. Overall we can show here that this type of data extrapolation is a powerful tool to estimate the nitrogen losses for a whole coastal sea and may be applicable to other coastal regions and enclosed seas, too.

  16. Searching for Inflationary B-modes: Can dust emission properties be extrapolated from 350 GHz to 150 GHz?

    Tassis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Recent Planck results have shown that the path to isolating an inflationary B-mode signal in microwave polarization passes through understanding and modeling the interstellar dust polarized emission foreground, even in regions of the sky with the lowest level of dust emission. One of the most commonly used ways to remove the dust foreground is to extrapolate the polarized dust emission signal from frequencies where it dominates (e.g., 350 GHz) to frequencies commonly targeted by cosmic microwave background experiments (e.g., 150 GHz). We show, using a simple 2-cloud model, that if more than one cloud is present along the line-of-sight, with even mildly different temperature and dust column density, but severely misaligned magnetic field, then the 350 GHz polarized sky map is not predictive of that at 150 GHz. This problem is intrinsic to all microwave experiments and is due to information loss due to line-of-sight integration. However, it can be alleviated through interstellar medium tomography: a reconstruct...

  17. Enhanced confinement scenarios without large edge localized modes in tokamaks: control, performance, and extrapolability issues for ITER

    Maingi, R.

    2014-11-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. Two strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R&D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and enhanced pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  18. Extrapolation of IAPWS-IF97 data: The saturation pressure of H2O in the critical region

    Ustyuzhanin, E. E.; Ochkov, V. F.; Shishakov, V. V.; Rykov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Some literature sources and web sites are analyzed in this report. These sources contain an information about thermophysical properties of H2O including the vapor pressure Ps. (Ps,T)-data have a form of the international standard tables named as “IAPWS-IF97 data”. Our analysis shows that traditional databases represent (Ps,T)-data at t > 0.002, here t = (Tc - T)/Tc is a reduced temperature. It is an interesting task to extrapolate IAPWS-IF97 data in to the critical region and to get (Ps,T)-data at t account to elaborate F(t, D, B). Adjustable coefficients (B) are determined by fitting CM to input (Ps,T)-points those belong to IAPWS-IF97 data. Application results are got with a help of CM in the critical region including values of the first and the second derivatives for Ps(T). Some models Ps(T) are compared with CM.

  19. A case study on quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation for environmental esters: Methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben.

    Campbell, Jerry L; Yoon, Miyoung; Clewell, Harvey J

    2015-06-01

    Parabens have been reported as potential endocrine disrupters and are widely used in consumer projects including cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. We report on the development of a PBPK model for methyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben. The model was parameterized through a combination of QSAR for tissue solubility and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for hydrolysis in portals of entry including intestine and skin as well as in the primary site of metabolism, the liver. Overall, the model provided very good agreement with published time-course data in blood and urine from controlled dosing studies in rat and human, and demonstrates the potential value of quantitative IVIVE in expanding the use of human biomonitoring data in safety assessment. An in vitro based cumulative margin of safety (MOS) was calculated by comparing the effective concentrations from an in vitro assay of estrogenicity to the free paraben concentrations predicted by the model to be associated with the 95th percentile urine concentrations reported in NHANES (2009-2010 collection period). The calculated MOS for adult females was 108, whereas the MOS for males was 444. PMID:25839974

  20. A case study on quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation for environmental esters: Methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben

    Parabens have been reported as potential endocrine disrupters and are widely used in consumer projects including cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. We report on the development of a PBPK model for methyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben. The model was parameterized through a combination of QSAR for tissue solubility and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for hydrolysis in portals of entry including intestine and skin as well as in the primary site of metabolism, the liver. Overall, the model provided very good agreement with published time-course data in blood and urine from controlled dosing studies in rat and human, and demonstrates the potential value of quantitative IVIVE in expanding the use of human biomonitoring data in safety assessment. An in vitro based cumulative margin of safety (MOS) was calculated by comparing the effective concentrations from an in vitro assay of estrogenicity to the free paraben concentrations predicted by the model to be associated with the 95th percentile urine concentrations reported in NHANES (2009–2010 collection period). The calculated MOS for adult females was 108, whereas the MOS for males was 444

  1. Enhanced confinement scenarios without large edge localized modes in tokamaks: control, performance, and extrapolability issues for ITER

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. Two strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R and D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and enhanced pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes. (paper)

  2. Enhanced Confinement Scenarios Without Large Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks: Control, Performance, and Extrapolability Issues for ITER

    Maingi, R [PPPL

    2014-07-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  3. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  4. Extrapolating the Acute Behavioral Effects of Toluene from 1-Hour to 24-Hour Exposures in Rats: Roles of Dose Metric, and Metabolic and Behavioral Tolerance.

    Recent research on the acute effects of volatile organic compounds (VQCs) suggests that extrapolation from short (~ 1 h) to long durations (up to 4 h) may be improved by using estimates of brain toluene concentration (Br[Tol]) instead of cumulative inhaled dose (C x t) as a metri...

  5. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. Part 7; New Composite Spectra, Comparison with Model Atmospheres, and Far-Infrared Extrapolations

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Carbon, Duane F.; Davies, John K.; Wooden, Diane H.; Bregman, Jesse D.

    1996-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra constructed as far as possible from spectral fragments observed from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer. These stars-alpha Boo, gamma Dra, alpha Cet, gamma Cru, and mu UMa-augment our six, published, absolutely calibrated spectra of K and early-M giants. All spectra have a common calibration pedigree. A revised composite for alpha Boo has been constructed from higher quality spectral fragments than our previously published one. The spectrum of gamma Dra was created in direct response to the needs of instruments aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO); this star's location near the north ecliptic pole renders it highly visible throughout the mission. We compare all our low-resolution composite spectra with Kurucz model atmospheres and find good agreement in shape, with the obvious exception of the SiO fundamental, still lacking in current grids of model atmospheres. The CO fundamental seems slightly too deep in these models, but this could reflect our use of generic models with solar metal abundances rather than models specific to the metallicities of the individual stars. Angular diameters derived from these spectra and models are in excellent agreement with the best observed diameters. The ratio of our adopted Sirius and Vega models is vindicated by spectral observations. We compare IRAS fluxes predicted from our cool stellar spectra with those observed and conclude that, at 12 and 25 microns, flux densities measured by IRAS should be revised downwards by about 4.1% and 5.7%, respectively, for consistency with our absolute calibration. We have provided extrapolated continuum versions of these spectra to 300 microns, in direct support of ISO (PHT and LWS instruments). These spectra are consistent with IRAS flux densities at 60 and 100 microns.

  6. Extrapolation of creep behavior of high-density polyethylene liner in the Catch Basin of grout vaults

    Testing was performed to determine if gravel particles will creep into and puncture the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner in the catch basin of a grout vault over a nominal 30-year period. Testing was performed to support a design without a protective geotextile cover after the geotextile was removed from the design. Recently, a protective geotextile cover over the liner was put back into the design. The data indicate that the geotextile has an insignificant effect on the creep of gravel into the liner. However, the geotextile may help to protect the liner during construction. Two types of tests were performed to evaluate the potential for creep-related puncture. In the first type of test, a very sensitive instrument measured the rate at which a probe crept into HDPE over a 20-minute period at temperatures of 176 degrees F to 212 degrees F (80 degrees C to 100 degrees C). The second type of test consisted of placing the liner between gravel and mortar at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) and 45.1 psi overburden pressure for periods up to 1 year. By combining data from the two tests, the long-term behavior of the creep was extrapolated to 30 years of service. After 30 years of service, the liner will be in a nearly steady condition and further creep will be extremely small. The results indicate that the creep of gravel into the liner will not create a puncture during service at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C). The estimated creep over 30 years is expected to be less than 25 mils out of the total initial thickness of 60 mils. The test temperature of 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) corresponds to the design basis temperature of the vault. Lower temperatures are expected at the liner, which makes the test conservative. Only the potential for failure of the liner resulting from creep of gravel is addressed in this report

  7. Comparative analysis of methods for modelling the short-term probability distribution of extreme wind turbine loads

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2016-01-01

    extrapolation techniques: the Weibull, Gumbel and Pareto distributions and a double-exponential asymptotic extreme value function based on the ACER method. For the successful implementation of a fully automated extrapolation process, we have developed a procedure for automatic identification of tail threshold...

  8. A study of the inhibition of iron corrosion in HCl solutions by some amino acids

    The performance of three selected amino acids, namely alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys) and S-methyl cysteine (S-MCys) as safe corrosion inhibitors for iron in aerated stagnant 1.0 M HCl solutions was evaluated by Tafel polarization and impedance measurements. Results indicate that Ala acts mainly as a cathodic inhibitor, while Cys and S-MCys function as mixed-type inhibitors. Cys, which contains a mercapto group in its molecular structure, was the most effective among the inhibitors tested, while Ala was less effective than S-MCys. The low inhibition efficiency recorded for S-MCys compared with that of Cys was attributed to steric effects caused by the substituent methyl on the mercapto group. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), were also applied to make accurate determination of corrosion rates. Validation of the Tafel extrapolation method for measuring corrosion rates was tested. Rates of corrosion rates (in μm y-1) obtained from Tafel extrapolation method are in good agreement with those measured using EFM and ICP methods. Some theoretical studies, including molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT), were also employed to establish the correlation between the structure (molecular and electronic) of the three tested inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency. Adsorption via hydrogen bonding was discussed here based on some theoretical studies. Experimental and theoretical results were in good agreement.

  9. Uncertainties in Modelling Glacier Melt and Mass Balances: the Role of Air Temperature Extrapolation and Type of Melt Models

    Pellicciotti, F.; Ragettli, S.; Carenzo, M.; Ayala, A.; McPhee, J. P.; Stoffel, M.

    2014-12-01

    While glacier responses to climate are understood in general terms and in their main trends, model based projections are affected by the type of model used and uncertainties in the meteorological input data, among others. Recent works have attempted at improving glacio-hydrological models by including neglected processes and investigating uncertainties in their outputs. In this work, we select two knowledge gaps in current modelling practices and illustrate their importance through modelling with a fully distributed mass balance model that includes some of the state of the art approaches for calculations of glacier ablation, accumulation and glacier geometry changes. We use an advanced mass balance model applied to glaciers in the Andes of Chile, Swiss Alps and Nepalese Himalaya to investigate two issues that seem of importance for a sound assessment of glacier changes: 1) the use of physically-based models of glacier ablation (energy balance) versus more empirical models (enhanced temperature index approaches); 2) the importance of the correct extrapolation of air temperature forcing on glaciers and the large uncertainty in model outputs associated with it. The ablation models are calibrated with a large amount of data from in-situ campaigns, and distributed observations of air temperature used to calculate lapse rates and calibrate a thermodynamic model of temperature distribution. We show that no final assessment can be made of what type of melt model is more appropriate or accurate for simulation of glacier ablation at the glacier scale, not even for relatively well studied glaciers. Both models perform in a similar manner at low elevations, but important differences are evident at high elevations, where lack of data prevents a final statement on which model better represent the actual ablation amounts. Accurate characterization of air temperature is important for correct simulations of glacier mass balance and volume changes. Substantial differences are obtained if we use the common approach of constant in time LRs (even if properly calibrated) or more sophisticated approaches accounting for the different thermal regime off and on-glacier, as distinct thermal conditions exist on and off glacier associated with the presence of the glacier boundary layer where katabatic flow is important.

  10. An integrated QSPR-PBPK modelling approach for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Kamgang, E; Peyret, T; Krishnan, K

    2008-01-01

    In vitro data on metabolism and partitioning may be integrated within physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to provide simulations of the kinetics and bioaccumulation of chemicals in intact organisms. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) modelling of available in vitro data may be performed to predict metabolism rates and partition coefficients (PCs) for developing in vivo PBPK models. The objective of the present study was to develop an integrated QSPR-PBPK modelling approach for the conduct of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. For this purpose, data on rat blood:air (P(b)) and fat:air (P(f)) PCs, as well as intrinsic metabolic clearance (CL(int)) obtained using rat liver slices for some C(5)-C(10) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compiled from the literature. Multilinear additive QSPR models for P(f), P(b) and CL(int) were developed based on the number and nature of molecular fragments in these VOCs (CH(3), CH(2), CH, C, C=C, H, benzene ring and H in benzene ring structure). The mean estimated/experimental (est/exp) ratios (+/-SD; range) were 1.0 (+/-0.04; 0.93 - 1.06) for log P(f), 1.08 (+/-0.26; 0.70 - 1.62) for log P(b), and 1.07 (+/- 0.21; 0.80 - 1.44) for CL(int). By accounting for the difference in the content of neutral lipids in fat and other tissues, the liver : air and muscle : air PCs of the compounds investigated in this study, with the excerption of n-decane, were adequately predicted from P(f). Integrating the QSPRs for P(f), P(b) and CL(int) within a rat PBPK model, simulations of inhalation pharmacokinetics of several VOCs were generated on the basis of molecular structure, for a given exposure scenario. The integrated QSPR-PBPK model developed in this study is a potentially useful tool for predicting in vivo kinetics and bioaccumulation of chemicals in rats under poor data situations. PMID:19061083

  11. Assessment of the hepatic veins in poor contrast conditions using dual energy CT. Evaluation of a novel monoenergetic extrapolation software algorithm

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel monoenergetic post-processing algorithm (MEI+) in patients with poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Materials and Methods: 25 patients were retrospectively included in this study. Late-phase imaging of the upper abdomen, which was acquired in dual-energy mode (100/140 kV), was used as a model for poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Traditional monoenergetic images (MEI), linearly weighted mixed images with different mixing ratios (MI), sole 100 and 140 kV and MEI+ images were calculated. MEI+ is a novel technique which applies frequency-based mixing of the low keV images and an image of optimal keV from a noise perspective to combine the benefits of both image stacks. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the intrahepatic vasculature (IHV) and liver parenchyma (LP) were objectively measured and depiction of IHV was subjectively rated and correlated with portal venous imaging by two readers in consensus. Results: MEI+ was able to increase the SNR of the IHV (5.7 ± 0.4 at 40 keV) and LP (4.9 ± 1.0 at 90 keV) and CNR (2.1 ± 0.6 at 40 keV) greatly compared to MEI (5.1 ± 1.1 at 80 keV, 4.7 ± 1.0 at 80 keV, 1.0 ± 0.4 at 70 keV), MI (5.2 ± 1.1 M5:5, 4.8 ± 1.0 M5:5, 1.0 ± 3.5 M9:1), sole 100 kV images (4.4 ± 1.0, 3.7 ± 0.8, 1.0 ± 0.3) and 140 kV images (2.8 ± 0.5, 3.1 ± 0.6, 0.1 ± 0.2). Subjective assessment rated MEI+ of virtual 40 keV superior to all other images. Conclusion: MEI+ is a very promising algorithm for monoenergetic extrapolation which is able to overcome noise limitations associated with traditional monoenergetic techniques at low virtual keV levels and consequently does not suffer from a decline of SNR and CNR at low keV values. This algorithm allows an improvement of IHV depiction in the presence of poor contrast. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of the hepatic veins in poor contrast conditions using dual energy CT. Evaluation of a novel monoenergetic extrapolation software algorithm

    Schabel, C.; Bongers, M.; Grosse, U.; Mangold, S.; Claussen, C.D.; Thomas, C. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sedlmair, M. [Siemens AG, Forchheim (Germany). Healthcare; Korn, A. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel monoenergetic post-processing algorithm (MEI+) in patients with poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Materials and Methods: 25 patients were retrospectively included in this study. Late-phase imaging of the upper abdomen, which was acquired in dual-energy mode (100/140 kV), was used as a model for poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Traditional monoenergetic images (MEI), linearly weighted mixed images with different mixing ratios (MI), sole 100 and 140 kV and MEI+ images were calculated. MEI+ is a novel technique which applies frequency-based mixing of the low keV images and an image of optimal keV from a noise perspective to combine the benefits of both image stacks. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the intrahepatic vasculature (IHV) and liver parenchyma (LP) were objectively measured and depiction of IHV was subjectively rated and correlated with portal venous imaging by two readers in consensus. Results: MEI+ was able to increase the SNR of the IHV (5.7 ± 0.4 at 40 keV) and LP (4.9 ± 1.0 at 90 keV) and CNR (2.1 ± 0.6 at 40 keV) greatly compared to MEI (5.1 ± 1.1 at 80 keV, 4.7 ± 1.0 at 80 keV, 1.0 ± 0.4 at 70 keV), MI (5.2 ± 1.1 M5:5, 4.8 ± 1.0 M5:5, 1.0 ± 3.5 M9:1), sole 100 kV images (4.4 ± 1.0, 3.7 ± 0.8, 1.0 ± 0.3) and 140 kV images (2.8 ± 0.5, 3.1 ± 0.6, 0.1 ± 0.2). Subjective assessment rated MEI+ of virtual 40 keV superior to all other images. Conclusion: MEI+ is a very promising algorithm for monoenergetic extrapolation which is able to overcome noise limitations associated with traditional monoenergetic techniques at low virtual keV levels and consequently does not suffer from a decline of SNR and CNR at low keV values. This algorithm allows an improvement of IHV depiction in the presence of poor contrast. (orig.)

  13. Systematic review of mental health interventions for patients with common somatic symptoms: can research evidence from secondary care be extrapolated to primary care?

    Raine, R.; HAINES, A.; Sensky, T.; Hutchings, A.; Larkin, K; Black, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the strength of evidence for the effectiveness of mental health interventions for patients with three common somatic conditions (chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic back pain). To assess whether results obtained in secondary care can be extrapolated to primary care and suggest how future trials should be designed to provide more rigorous evidence. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: Five electronic databases, key texts, referen...

  14. On the Spectroscopic Method of Measuring the Size of the Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Beloussov, I. V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Dobinda, I. I.

    2014-01-01

    The dependences of the fundamental transition on the semiconductor quantum dot size obtained experimentally at various temperatures using different measuring methods are analyzed and compared. The possibility to extrapolate the results for the case of arbitrary temperature is discussed.

  15. Thermal stability of the anion sorption on organically modified bentonite: experimental studies and long-term extrapolations

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonites possess mechanical, physical, and chemical properties that favor their application as a geotechnical barrier in deep geological repositories of the radioactive waste. Natural bentonites show high sorption capacities for dissolved cations, whereas organically modified bentonites are characterized by high sorption capacities for both cations and anions. This is of special importance for the final disposal of radioactive waste, as the aqueous speciation of some radionuclides present in long-lived waste is dominated by anions, as e. g. 36Cl (Cl-), 79Se (SeO32- and SeO42-), 99Tc (TcO4-) or 129I (I-). Retaining favorable anion sorption capacities at temperatures elevated as a result of heat produced by radioactive waste is a prerequisite for the application of organically modified bentonites as a geotechnical barrier. Indeed, temperatures in the range from 50 to 70 deg. C for vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as from 70 to 90 deg. C for spent fuel have been calculated at a distance of 1 m from the waste canister surface for times between 10 and 1000 years after backfilling the repository. The geothermal temperature of ∼40 deg. C characteristic for a depth of ∼1 km should be considered as relevant for the near field of the repository at considerably longer time scales. These large time scales render the experimental evaluation of the long-term thermal stability of organically modified bentonites seemingly impossible. Retaining anion sorption capacity by organically modified bentonites at temperatures relevant for final waste disposal (up to ∼90 deg. C) within experimentally accessible periods of time (few years) cannot be considered as a proof of the long-term stability. To overcome this major difficulty, an alternative approach utilizing the Arrhenius equation, which relates reaction rate and temperature, was applied in the present study. In this approach, structural changes leading to a decrease of anion sorption on organically modified bentonites upon thermal pretreatment were considered as a reaction of interest. Specifically, Wyoming bentonites modified with commonly used chloride salts of hexadecylpyridinium (HDPy+, C16H38C5H5N+) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA+, C16H38(CH3)3N+) were used in the study, as HDPy+- and HDTMA+-bentonites show very high iodide adsorption capacity of ∼25 mg iodide per g clay at ambient conditions. To study the reaction kinetics, samples of HDPy+- and HDTMA+-bentonites were pretreated in drying chambers at temperatures from 110 to 180 deg. C for different periods of time, and relative iodide sorption on these clay samples was determined in batch sorption experiments. A decrease of the relative iodide sorption from initial ∼100 % for untreated samples to ∼10 % (the decision limit derived from measurement uncertainties) for pretreated samples was accordingly considered as the outcome of this reaction. The values of reaction rate constants obtained from these experiments reveal that HDTMA+-bentonite is more thermally stable than HDPy+-bentonite, whereas their extrapolation predicts that the anion sorption of HDTMA+-bentonite is retained within ∼25, ∼120, ∼550, ∼2800, and ∼16500 years at temperatures of 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 deg. C, respectively. Considering that in a deep geological repository of high-level heat producing radioactive waste, these temperatures can be reached after ∼20-30, ∼600, ∼1000, ∼2000 and ∼5000 years, respectively, a conclusion can be made that HDPy+- and HDTMA+-bentonites are not suitable for final waste disposal. However, it has been suggested that oxygen, which promotes the thermal reaction in consideration, will be consumed within a few years after backfilling the repository. Additional experiments with HDPy+- and HDTMA+-bentonites thermally pretreated at 160 deg. C in an oxygen-depleted (< 200 ppm O2) N2- atmosphere revealed that their relative iodide sorption corresponds to that of HDPy+- and HDTMA+-bentonites thermally pretreated at 130- 140 deg. C in lab air. This means that the thermal effect on the stability of the studied organically modified bentonites is effectively shifted by 20-30 deg. C to higher temperatures as a result of the oxygen absence. Accordingly, the present study predicts that thermal stability of HDTMA+-bentonite suffices to withstand the above discussed time evolution of temperatures in a final repository of radioactive waste with a large safety margin, as its anion sorption is retained within estimated ∼550, ∼2800, ∼16500, ∼110000, and ∼800000 years at temperatures of 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 deg. C, respectively, in the case of oxygen absence. It is understood that additional studies should be carried out to improve the understanding of the long-term stability of organically modified bentonites and to prove their suitability for final waste disposal. For example, a pretreatment of organically modified bentonite samples in a compacted form instead of the powder one as in the present study led to further improvement of their thermal stability. Summarizing, it can be concluded that excluding a possible application of organically modified bentonites for final waste disposal cannot be considered as scientifically proven and well-grounded. (authors)

  16. Min-max Extrapolation Scheme for Fast Estimation of 3D Potts Field Partition Functions. Application to the Joint Detection-Estimation of Brain Activity in fMRI

    In this paper, we propose a fast numerical scheme to estimate Partition Functions (PF) of symmetric Potts fields. Our strategy is first validated on 2D two-color Potts fields and then on 3D two- and three-color Potts fields. It is then applied to the joint detection-estimation of brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, where the goal is to automatically recover activated, deactivated and inactivated brain regions and to estimate region dependent hemodynamic filters. For any brain region, a specific 3D Potts field indeed embodies the spatial correlation over the hidden states of the voxels by modeling whether they are activated, deactivated or inactive. To make spatial regularization adaptive, the PFs of the Potts fields over all brain regions are computed prior to the brain activity estimation. Our approach is first based upon a classical path-sampling method to approximate a small subset of reference PFs corresponding to pre-specified regions. Then, we propose an extrapolation method that allows us to approximate the PFs associated to the Potts fields defined over the remaining brain regions. In comparison with preexisting methods either based on a path sampling strategy or mean-field approximations, our contribution strongly alleviates the computational cost and makes spatially adaptive regularization of whole brain fMRI datasets feasible. It is also robust against grid inhomogeneities and efficient irrespective of the topological configurations of the brain regions. (authors)

  17. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Systems Biology as Conceptual Approaches to Support Development of 21st Century Test Methods and Extrapolation Tools

    The proposed paradigm for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century supports the development of mechanistically-based, high-throughput in vitro assays as a potential cost effective and scientifically-sound alternative to some whole animal hazard testing. To accomplish this long-term...

  18. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  19. Multi-gamma windows coincidence method

    In 4πβ-γ coincidence measurement of radioactivity, efficiency extrapolation method has been applied for a long time. According to the principle developed by P. J. Campion, usually a single gamma window is selected, and also an useful assumption is introduced that efficiency of individual β-branch are linearly related to one another, resulting in a simply linear efficiency function. Generally, the extrapolation curve is not linear so in practice an unspecified efficiency function which is usually defined simply as a polynomial in Nc/Nγ is introduced. Because of the unspecification of the efficiency function, systematic errors may arise theoretically from which the polynominal function is either inaccurate or unsuitable for extrapolation. To solve this problem, a new method, which is called multi-gamma windows coincidence method is proposed, and a new linear extrapolation equation based on average β efficiency is strictly derived from the basic coincidence equations with the least approximation. Theoretically, this method is applicable to any simple or complex decay (except pure β decay and some decay with long life metastable energy level) with minimum systematic errors

  20. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae) and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation

    Mara Victoria Casares; de Cabo, Laura I.; Rafael S. Seoane; Natale, Oscar E.; Milagros Castro Ros; Cristian Weigandt; de Iorio, Alicia F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50) to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96?h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42?mg Cu L?1. The 96?h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655?mg L?1 (0.823 ? 0.488). 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722?mg L?1. A...

  1. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  2. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    T. Gerken; W. Babel; Hoffmann, A.; Biermann, T.; M. Herzog.; Friend, A. D.; Li, M; Ma, Y.; T. Foken; Graf, H.-F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In compar...

  3. Mapeamento digital de solos com base na extrapolao de mapas entre reas fisiograficamente semelhantes / Digital soil mapping based on map extrapolation between physiographically similar areas

    Pedro, Hfig; Elvio, Giasson; Pedro Rodolfo Siqueira, Vendrame.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar metodologias de mapeamento digital de solos (MDS) e avaliar a possibilidade de extrapolao de mapas entre reas fisiograficamente semelhantes. A rea de referncia para o treinamento do modelo localizou-se no Municpio de Sentinela do Sul, RS, e a extrapolao f [...] oi feita para o Municpio Cerro Grande do Sul, RS. Desenvolveram-se pelo MDS modelos com o uso de variveis ambientais, como preditoras, e as classes de solos - obtidas de um levantamento convencional na escala 1:50.000 - como variveis dependentes. Testou-se o uso combinado de dois modelos de rvore de deciso (AD), treinados em duas paisagens com diferentes classes de drenagem. Para Sentinela do Sul, a concordncia dos mapas preditos com os produzidos pelo levantamento convencional foi avaliada por matrizes de erro. Como a importncia dos erros de mapeamento varivel, criou-se uma matriz ponderada, para atribuir diferentes importncias aos erros especficos de mapeamento entre as distintas unidades de mapeamento. A acurcia do mapa de Cerro Grande do Sul foi avaliada pela verdade de campo. A extrapolao dos mapas gera resultados satisfatrios, com acurcia maior do que 75%. O uso de modelos com duas AD separadas por paisagens homogneas gera mapas extrapolados com maior acurcia, avaliada pela verdade de campo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to test methodologies for digital soil mapping (DSM) and to evaluate the possibility of map extrapolation between physiographically similar areas. The reference area for model training was located at the municipality of Sentinela do Sul, in the state of Rio Grand do Su [...] l (RS), Brazil, and the extrapolation was done for the municipality of Cerro Grande do Sul, RS. Models were developed by DSM using environmental variables as predictors, and soil classes - obtained from a conventional soil survey at 1:50,000 scale - as dependent variables. The combined use of two decision trees (DT), trained in two landscapes with different drainage classes, was tested. For Sentinela do Sul, the agreement between the predicted maps with the ones produced by conventional survey was evaluated using error matrices. Since the importance of mapping errors is variable, a weighted error matrix was created to assign different importances to specific mapping errors between different mapping units. Map accuracy of Cerro Grande do Sul was evaluated by ground truth. Map extrapolation yields satisfactory results, with accuracy higher than 75%. The use of models with two DTs divided by homogeneous landscapes generates extrapolated maps with a greater accuracy, evaluated by ground truth.

  4. Eco-label - simple environmental choice / Andres Viia, Külliki Tafel

    Viia, Andres

    2003-01-01

    Autorid selgitavad ökomärgistuse olemust ja vajalikkust tarbijate teavitamisel vähem keskkonda kahjustavatest toodetest ning teenustest. Lisatud näiteid regionaalsetest ja rahvuslikest ökomärkidest EL-is, tuntumatest ökomärkidest väljaspool Euroopat, hoiatavatest ja informatiivsetest keskkonnamärkidest ning libaökomärkidest. Vt. samas: North-East Estonia - a seat of an environment-friendly batteries' recycling

  5. Creep-rupture-tests on thestainless steel X6 CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) in the frame of the ''Extrapolation-Program'' Pt. 2

    The austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) that is used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep tested in a temperature range of 550-650 deg under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program (''Extrapolation-Program'') lies in the knowledge of the cree-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3X10-4 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to (>=)105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out over temperature range 550 deg - 750 deg C. The present report describes the state in the running program with test-time up to 35.000 hours. Besides the cree-rupture behaviour it is possible to make a distinct quantitative statement for the creep-behaviour and ductility. Extensive metallographic examinations show the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (author)

  6. Creep-rupture-test on the stainless steel X6crni1811 (Din 1.494.8) in the frame of the Extrapolation-Program. (Part III)

    The austenitic stainless steel X6crni1811 (Din 1.4948) used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep tested in a temperature range of 550-650 degree centigree material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program (Extrapolation-Program) lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3 x 104 hours higher temperatures in order to extrapolated up to ≥105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out of 550 degree centigree - 750 degree centigree. The present report describes the state in the running program with test-times of 23.000 hours and results from tests up to 55.000 hours belonging to other parallel programs are taken into account. Besides the creep-rupture behaviour it is also made a study of ductility between 550 and 750 degree centigree. Extensive metallographic examinations have been made to study the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (Author)

  7. Creep-rupture-test on the stainless steel X6CRNI1811 (DIN 1.4948) in the frame of the ''Extrapolation-Program''. (Part III)

    The austenitic stainless steel X6CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep tested in a temperature range of 550-650 deg under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program (''Extrapolation-Program'') lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creepbehaviour up to 3 x 104 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to >=105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out of 550 deg - 750 deg C. The present report describes the state in the running program with test-times of 23.000 hours and results from tests up to 55.000 hours belonging to other parallel programs are taken into account. Besides the creep-rupture behaviour it is also made a study of ductility between 550 and 750 deg C. Extensive metallographic examinations have been made to study the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (author)

  8. Creep-rupture-tests on the stainless steel X6CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) in the frame of the 'Extrapolation-Program'. Pt. 2

    The austenitic stainless steel X6CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) that is used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep tested in a temperature range of 550-6500C under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program ('Extrapolation-Program') lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3 x 104 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to >= 105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out over temperature range of 5500C - 7500C. The present report describes the state in the running program with test-times up to 35.000 hours. Besides the creep-rupture behaviour it is possible to make a distinct quantitativ statement for the creep-behaviour and ductility. Extensive metallographic examinations show the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (orig.)

  9. Creep-rupture-tests on the stainless steel X6CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) in the frame of the Extrapolation-program. Pt. 3

    The austenitic stainless steel X6CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) that is used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep-tested in a temperature range of 550-6500C under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program ( Extrapolation Program ) lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3 x 104 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to >= 105 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out over temperature range of 550-7500C. The present report describes the state in the total running program with test-times up to 55 000 hours. Besides the creep-rupture behaviour it is possible to make a distinct quantitativ statement for the creep-behaviour and ductility. Extensive metallographic and electronmicroscopic examinations show the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (orig.)

  10. Irradiation dose assessment in persons exposed to ionizing radiation through extrapolation of data from clinic-chemical changes in irradiated laboratory animals

    An attempt is made to determine the dose within 24,48 and 72 hours of eventual exposure of healthy individuals to ionizing radiation through extrapolation of data retrieved from rats exposed to irradiation with 1, 3, 6 and 9 Gy X-rays. Seven clinic-chemical parameters are used: urea in the urine, taurine in the urine, urea in the serum, serum alkaline phosphatase, total serum lipids, sialic acid and thromboxane in the serum. A special formula is worked out and used for extrapolation of the experimental data, retrieved from irradiated rats, with due consideration to differences in the intensity of metabolic processes and species' radiosensitivity of rats and humans. The values of the aforementioned parameters that could be obtained upon eventual exposure of persons to ionizing irradiation are determined through computerization of the experimental data. It is believed that an accessible model for radiation dose assessment in the first three days after accidental exposure of human beings to ionizing irradiation is created. 5 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  11. Copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone - (64Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl - internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Thiosemicarbazones have attracted great pharmacological interest because of their biological properties, such as cytotoxic activity against multiple strains of human tumors. Due to the excellent properties of 64Cu, the copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone ( (64Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl) was developed for tumor detection by positron emission tomography. The radiopharmaceuticals were produced in the nuclear reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1 from CDTN. At the present work, (64Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for (64Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 64Cu in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  12. Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams; Estudo da dependencia energetica de uma camara de extrapolacao em feixes de raios-X de baixa energia

    Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: fernanda_mbastos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimeto da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation.

  13. New Synthesized Guanidine Derivative as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic Solutions

    K. F. Khaled

    2008-01-01

    A new safe corrosion inhibitor namely N-(5,6-diphenyl-4,5-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazin- 3-yl)-guanidine (NTG) has been synthesized and its inhibitive performance towards the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid and 0.5 M sulphuric acid has been investigated. Corrosion inhibition was studied by chemical method (weight loss) and electrochemical techniques include Tafel extrapolation method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that NTG was a very good ...

  14. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-01-01

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO2 pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector’s pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly’s hindwing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase re...

  15. Dose metric considerations in in vitro assays to improve quantitative in vitro-in vivo dose extrapolations.

    Groothuis, Floris A; Heringa, Minne B; Nicol, Beate; Hermens, Joop L M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Kramer, Nynke I

    2015-06-01

    Challenges to improve toxicological risk assessment to meet the demands of the EU chemical's legislation, REACH, and the EU 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive have accelerated the development of non-animal based methods. Unfortunately, uncertainties remain surrounding the power of alternative methods such as in vitro assays to predict in vivo dose-response relationships, which impedes their use in regulatory toxicology. One issue reviewed here, is the lack of a well-defined dose metric for use in concentration-effect relationships obtained from in vitro cell assays. Traditionally, the nominal concentration has been used to define in vitro concentration-effect relationships. However, chemicals may differentially and non-specifically bind to medium constituents, well plate plastic and cells. They may also evaporate, degrade or be metabolized over the exposure period at different rates. Studies have shown that these processes may reduce the bioavailable and biologically effective dose of test chemicals in in vitro assays to levels far below their nominal concentration. This subsequently hampers the interpretation of in vitro data to predict and compare the true toxic potency of test chemicals. Therefore, this review discusses a number of dose metrics and their dependency on in vitro assay setup. Recommendations are given on when to consider alternative dose metrics instead of nominal concentrations, in order to reduce effect concentration variability between in vitro assays and between in vitro and in vivo assays in toxicology. PMID:23978460

  16. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Estimation of carbon stocks in a beech forest (Fougères Forest - W. France): extrapolation from the plots to the whole forest

    Lecointe, Sandrine; Nys, Claude; Walter, Christian; Forgeard, Françoise; Huet, Sandrine; Recena, Paula; Follain, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Estimation du stock de carbone dans une hêtraie (forêt de Fougères, Ouest de la France) : extrapolation de la parcelle au massif. La conférence de Kyoto a révélé le besoin d'établir un inventaire précis des stocks de carbone en milieux forestiers. Les stocks de carbone ont été estimés dans une hêtraie (forêt de Fougères, France) en combinant un échantillonnage sur le terrain avec des cartes existantes du sol et de la végétation. Les stocks de carbone dans le sol, les humus et la végétation on...

  18. Precision ground state mass of 12Be and an isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) extrapolation for 2+ and 02+ states in the T=2, A=12 multiplet

    We report the mass measurement of the short-lived 12Be nuclide (T1/2=21.5 ms) performed using the Penning trap mass spectrometer TITAN at TRIUMF. Our mass excess value of 25 078.0(2.1) keV is in agreement with previous measurements, but is a factor of 7 more precise than the Atomic Mass Evaluation of 2003. To address an unresolved discussion on the spin assignment of isospin T=2 states in 12C and 12O, we reevaluate the isobaric mass multiplet equation for the lowest lying T=2 multiplet in the A=12 system and use the extracted parameters to extrapolate from the known excited 2+ and 0+ states in 12Be. Though this analysis favors the second known T=2 state in 12C to be 2+, 0+ cannot be excluded.

  19. Static pair free energy and screening masses from correlators of Polyakov loops: continuum extrapolated lattice results at the QCD physical point

    Borsnyi, Szabolcs; Fodor, Zoltn; Katz, Sndor D.; Psztor, Attila; Szab, Klmn K.; Trk, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    We study the correlators of Polyakov loops, and the corresponding gauge invariant free energy of a static quark-antiquark pair in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. Our simulations were carried out on N t = 6 , 8 , 10 , 12 , 16 lattices using a Symanzik improved gauge action and a stout improved staggered action with physical quark masses. The free energies calculated from the Polyakov loop correlators are extrapolated to the continuum limit. For the free energies we use a two step renormalization procedure that only uses data at finite temperature. We also measure correlators with definite Euclidean time reversal and charge conjugation symmetry to extract two different screening masses, one in the magnetic, and one in the electric sector, to distinguish two different correlation lengths in the full Polyakov loop correlator.

  20. Comparative studies of parameters based on the most probable versus an approximate linear extrapolation distance estimates for circular cylindrical absorbing rod

    Estimates and techniques that are valid to calculate the linear extrapolation distance for an infinitely long circular cylindrical absorbing region are reviewed. Two estimates, in particular, are put into consideration, that is the most probable and the value resulting from an approximate technique based on matching the integral transport equation inside the absorber with the diffusion approximation in the surrounding infinite scattering medium. Consequently, the effective diffusion parameters and the blackness of the cylinder are derived and subjected to comparative studies. A computer code is set up to calculate and compare the different parameters, which is useful in reactor analysis and serves to establish a beneficial estimates that are amenable to direct application to reactor design codes